The College of Direct Support On the Job Resource Guide by jolinmilioncherie

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									  The College of Direct Support
   On-the-Job Resource Guide

For use by Supervisors, Trainers and Peer Mentors


This guide is intended to be used as part of an integrated approach to applying
the knowledge and skills contained within the College of Direct Support to the
  work environment. It is made available through the DirectConnect grant.




   Institute on Disability/UNH 56 Old Suncook Road Concord NH 03031 (603) 228-2084
Copyright information

This guide was created by Scott Trudo at the Institute on Disability/University of New Hampshire. It is
intended to be used as a tool with the College of Direct Support online learning. All information contained
within this guide and within the College of Direct Support is copyright protected
                                  Table of Contents



Introduction                                          1
How to use this guide

Creating a Culture of Competence                      7
CDS tools you can use with DSPs on-the-job
CDS features you can use within your organization

Course Listing                                        8
College of Direct Support
College of Frontline Supervision and Management

OJT Skill Statements                                  9
On-the-job training list of DSP skills
(listed alphabetically by course)

Portfolio Activities                                  84
Activities and writing assignments
(listed alphabetically by course)

Additional Resources                                  163
Contacts and other resources
                                      Introduction
                                 How to Use This Guide
This resource guide has been created to help you get the most out of the College of
Direct Support (CDS) by providing you with tools to help Direct Support Professionals
(DSPs) apply the knowledge and skills on the job.

The CDS teaches DSPs how to best support people with disabilities in community
settings – the best practices of today. The courses cover a broad range of topics
including those that are disability-specific such as “Cerebral Palsy” and “Autism” to
those that are more general such as “Safety” and “Documentation”. Being able to apply
what was learned online to daily activities in the workplace will make the CDS more
effective and impact the quality of services delivered. It is this application of learning
that moves the learner from knowing to understanding and from understanding to
practicing. Skilled, competent DSPs practice what they know.

Research looking at how adults learn in the workplace finds that adult learners
remember as little as 10-30% of what they have learned in training just two weeks after
attending. That means that they forget as much as 70-90%! But there is good news –
that same research finds that if the learning incorporates active learning approaches,
giving learners the opportunity to actively apply the learning in some way, they are
shown to retain as much as 90% of the learning over the same timeframe! (Edgar Dale,
audio-visual methods in teaching).




          (State University of New York at Potsdam Department of Information and Communication Technology)


                                                                                                             1
This guide will provide you with the tools, and offer you some guidance about how to
use these tools, to develop an active learning approach using the CDS; an approach
that integrates online learning with active on-the-job activities designed to reinforce
learning. It contains examples of activities that can be used and skills that can be
demonstrated for each course. Using the online learning as a foundation, this guide will
become your toolkit to build a highly effective DSP training program within your
organization.




                                                                                       2
               Integrating Active Learning



                                   Step 2: Reinforcing
                                        learning
 • College of Direct                                       • CDS Toolkit:
   Support online                                            • OJT Skill Statements
   learning                   • Discussion groups
                              • Agency-led training          • Portfolio Activities
                              • Staff meetings and
                                informal settings
                                                                    Step 3: Applying
        Step 1: Learning
                                                                  learning on the job




      Reinforces CDS learning by applying it on-the-job


Using an integrated, active learning approach to training will allow you to build a
workforce of skilled, knowledgeable Direct Support Professionals, which can lead to
higher service quality and reduced costs associated with staff turnover and training.




                                                                                      3
                   Creating a Culture of Competence
                           On-the-Job Tools

As a supervisor, you know how difficult it can be to find time to send your staff to
training. Resources are scarce and it’s tough to find coverage for those times when
training has been scheduled. At the same time, you need to insure that your staff is
skilled, knowledgeable, and able to deliver quality support - it’s a challenge service
providers live with every day. The on-the-job tools on the following pages can help you
with this challenge.

As you use begin to plan your CDS implementation there are 3 areas that you will need
to consider; online learning, peer-to-peer discussions, and using the OJT and Portfolio
tools. The following tables contain some “Key Questions” and “Suggested Approaches”
- tools you can use as you begin your CDS implementation planning.

                                  CDS Online Learning

            Key Questions:                            Suggested Approach:

What is our staff selection process?      Train supervisors and key staff first, make them
Should we train all our DSPs?             peer mentors

Should we make this a voluntary           While there is nothing wrong with this
benefit?                                  approach, you won’t realize the full benefit to
                                          your organization without a full commitment to
                                          an integrated learning process, one that is fully
                                          supported by your organization.
Where will staff take it?                 Identify a place with high-speed Internet
                                          access. If staff take this from home, determine
                                          compensation.
When will staff take it?                  Create a plan to allow all participating staff the
                                          time required. Consider non-scheduled work
                                          times.
How much time will be allocated?          Determine this before you start so expectations
                                          are clear and can be met.
Who will act as a staff mentor?           Identify your best staff and train them to be
                                          peer mentors.
Will we need to provide coverage?         If staff takes this during work hours, you will
                                          need to consider coverage options.
How will I measure progress?              Set weekly and monthly benchmarks. Have a
                                          beginning and ending point.
How do we measure outcomes?               Online lessons have tests but additional
                                          outcomes should be measured on-the-job.


                                                                                          4
                        Peer-to-Peer Discussion Groups

            Key Questions:                               Suggested Approach:

What are the topics?                      Pick a topic that is relevant to the work your staff
                                          does. Refer to the CDS Course listing in this
                                          guide.
Are there resources we can use?           As part of DirectConnect you have access to a
                                          complete set of facilitator’s guides created
                                          specifically for you to use. The set contains
                                          lesson plans for all 27 CDS courses.
Who will facilitate these discussions?    It is recommended to have a supervisor, a
                                          trainer, or a peer mentor facilitate the discussion
                                          groups.
How much time will they take?             The lesson plans are designed to be flexible, but
                                          1hour is suggested.
Who will attend?                          Anyone who is taking the CDS and wants to
                                          receive an IOD Direct Support Professional
                                          credential is required to attend at least 6
                                          discussion groups led by a certified facilitator.
How frequently will we hold these         Discussion groups can take place as often as
discussions?                              you like for anyone wanting to use them as a
                                          tool for training. They are an important step in
                                          applying the online learning.
Will NH BDS recognize these trainings? There is a specific set of online CDS lessons
                                          which, when combined with facilitated
                                          discussion groups meet the He-M 506.5 reg.
                                          requirements for new employee “BDS Overview
                                          Trainings.”
Can these peer-to-peer discussion         If discussion groups are led by a DirectConnect
groups count toward staff’s credentialing certified facilitator, they will count toward the
process?                                  IOD Direct Support Professional credential, as
                                          well as the DOL Apprenticeship credential.
Are there additional locations staff can  DirectConnect has set up a number of locations
attend discussion groups?                 throughout the state where staff can go to
                                          participate in video-conferenced discussion
                                          groups facilitated by staff from the Institute on
                                          Disability in Concord.




                                                                                         5
                                OJT Skills and Portfolios

            Key Questions:                              Suggested Approach:

What are OJT Skill Statements?             OJT Skill Statements represent observable
                                           skills that DSPs should be able to demonstrate
                                           in their day-to-day work. Each OJT skill
                                           statement is directly connected to the content
                                           of the online CDS course.
What is a Portfolio Activity?              The Portfolio tool provides you with a set of
                                           activities and writing assignments that you can
                                           use with your staff to help them apply the
                                           learning. Portfolios are flexible; they offer a
                                           wide variety of learning opportunities that can
                                           fit into different work settings.
Which one should we use?                   To get the very most out of this program, use
                                           both the Portfolio and OJT tools.
What are the best opportunities for        Anytime they are working - with the people they
DSPs to demonstrate skills and             support, a staff meeting, peer-to-peer setting or
knowledge?                                 with a supervisor. Portfolios also provide an
                                           opportunity for DSPs to demonstrate
                                           knowledge.
Won’t DSPs feel threatened by this?        Help DSPs recognize that these activities are
                                           an important part of their professional
                                           development and a way to demonstrate their
                                           professional skills and abilities.
How can we involve the people the DSP      Whenever possible, look for opportunities to
supports in this?                          include the people you support in this process
                                           – talk about it, ask them for their thoughts and
                                           include them in activities.
How do we evaluate the DSPs portfolio      Develop evaluation criteria to measure DSPs
work?                                      portfolios. Consider creating a committee to
                                           regularly evaluate work.
Can portfolio work count as credit when    The National Alliance of Direct Support
DSPs are working toward professional       Professionals (NADSP) requires written
credentials?                               portfolio work as part of their professional
                                           credential process. www.nadsp.org


As you begin to use the tools in this guide, stay focused on your big-picture objectives.
Think about what you are hoping will result from your effort. Is it lower staff turnover,
higher quality of service, fewer incident or accident reports, the ability to attract and
retain better staff? Although difficult, these objectives are all achievable with proper
planning, teamwork and by involving all levels within your organization.




                                                                                            6
                  Creating a Culture of Competence
                         Organizational Tools


CDS contains several learning management system (LMS) features - tools to help your
organization get the most out of the program. They provide additional ways to reinforce
the learning and measure its effectiveness. These tools are available “a la carte,” which
means you can just use those that best meet your needs.

If you are interested in learning more about this, please contact Scott Trudo at the
Institute on Disability, 288-2084 or scott.trudo@unh.edu. Scott is available to provide
technical assistance on the use of these tools.


    1. Assessments – This is a great way to assess your staff’s knowledge a year
       after they have taken a course. Assessments show you areas where additional
       training or mentoring is needed.

    2. Online Discussions – This is a great way for DSPs and their supervisors to
       have online conversations about what they have learned. Supervisors post
       questions that DSPs answer to verify their understanding in a particular area.

    3. Checklists – This is a great way to keep track of DSP’s professional
       development process. You can use checklists to track completed portfolio
       assignments, OJT skill standards, and other milestones relating to a DSPs
       professional development. Checklists are also a great way to track information
       used in employee job performance reviews.

    4. Surveys – This is a great way to get formal feedback from your DSPs. You can
       design your own questions or choose from the extensive list of surveys
       available. Survey results can provide you an accurate picture of DSP’s opinions
       in areas such as training effectiveness and job satisfaction, allowing you to
       make improvements as needed.

    5. Announcements – This is a great way to share information with DSPs and
       know that it was received. When an announcement is posted it appears on the
       DSP’s personal learning page within the CDS. After reading the announcement,
       the DSP “checks-off” that he or she read it.




                                                                                          7
                                 Course Listing


College of Direct Support (CDS) Courses:

   1.    Autism
   2.    Brain Injury
   3.    Cerebral Palsy
   4.    Civil Rights and Advocacy
   5.    Community Inclusion
   6.    Cultural Competence
   7.    Depression
   8.    Diabetes
   9.    Direct Support Professionalism
   10.   Documentation
   11.   Employment Supports
   12.   Everyone Can Communicate
   13.   Functional Assessment
   14.   Home and Community Living
   15.   Individual Rights and Choice
   16.   Intro to Developmental Disabilities
   17.   Intro to Med Supports
   18.   Maltreatment of Vulnerable Adults & Children
   19.   Person Centered Planning
   20.   Personal Care
   21.   Positive Behavior Supports
   22.   Safety
   23.   Supporting Healthy Lives
   24.   Supporting Jobs and Careers in the Community
   25.   Teaching People with Disabilities
   26.   Working with Families and Support Networks
   27.   You’ve Got a Friend


College of Frontline Supervisor and Manager (CFLSM) Courses:

    1.    Preparing for the Supervisor’s Job in Human Services
    2.    Your First Few Weeks and Months as a Supervisor
    3.    Training and Orientation
    4.    Fueling High Performance
    5.    Developing and Intervention Plan
    6.    Recruitment and Selection




                                                                 8
                 Tools of the Trade: OJT Skill Statements



The following pages contain a listing, in alphabetical order by course, of the on-the-job
training (OJT) skill statements. They represent measurable, observable skills. A skilled
Direct Support Professional should be able to demonstrate these in daily work or when
asked. These skill statements give supervisors a way to ensure that when supporting a
person in the community, the DSP can actually apply the skills they learned in the online
CDS lessons. For DSPs, having the ability to apply appropriate skills is one important
measure of service quality and an important part of being considered a “professional.”

Each OJT skill statement is directly connected to the content of the online CDS course.
However, not all statements will apply to every DSP’s situation. You will want to select
those that most closely relate to the work of the DSP. One effective way to use these
statements is to create checklists of those that apply to specific DSPs. You can then
use them as a tool available for peer-to-peer and supervisor skill mentoring.

Note: OJT Skill Statements are also available online, on the first page of each course’s
introductory lessons.




Key Point to Consider….                   You will need to think about how you will use
these with your staff and within your work setting. Not all OJT skill statements will apply
to every DSP’s situation. Select those that most closely relate to the work the DSP does.




                                                                                           9
Pages 11-83 contain OJT skill statements, listed alphabetically, for each of
           the courses within the College of Direct Support.




                                                                          10
                         OJT Skill Statements: Autism



The Direct Support Professional:

      Describes Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) with specific traits that correspond
       to specific interventions. Describes ASDs as lifelong disorders that benefit from
       early intervention and ongoing specialized supports. Interacts with people who
       have this disorder in ways that are likely to support their best success.
      Accurately describes how views of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) have
       changed through the years. Educates others on myths and facts in regard to
       these disorders. Uses current views and understanding as basis of support.
       Stays educated and current on information regarding these disorders.
      Describes most common current beliefs about potential causes of Autism
       Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Is able to effectively support people with differing
       views. Can discriminate between safe and effective interventions and risky
       interventions. Seeks additional guidance and help from a trusted and
       knowledgeable source when needed.
      Recognizes the basic characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) such
       as poor eye contact, lack of awareness of social norms, odd or impaired speech
       and communication patterns, unusual or obsessive attachment to items or topics,
       and/or repetitive or rigid routines.
      Does not assume that people with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) know
       what to do in a social situation. Provides concrete instructions for social norms
       (e.g., "Stand behind the last person in line." NOT "Wait your turn."). Uses
       methods of helping a person remember and apply norms to social situations.
       Teaches social norms common of the culture.
      Offers support for people to experience opportunities for building meaningful
       social relationships with others. Recognizes the person's strengths and interests
       as a good starting point for relationships. Helps the person contribute in social
       situations.
      Assists people in using tools to plan for events that may be challenging. Visual
       tools such as cartoons or word stories are used. Stories focus on how to manage
       feelings and emotions or plan for upcoming social situation.
      Uses the most effective methods of communication for people being supported.
       Is able to use alternatives to spoken words, especially when words upset the
       person. Enhances communication by using visual cues or checklist, concrete
       communication, signs, or gestures.
      Is respectful of people's needs to engage in ritualistic behavior and understands
       this is a symptom of the disorder. Has positive strategies for encouraging
       appropriate behavior. Provides appropriate outlets as needed and teaches and
       rewards better behavioral choices.
      Accurately identifies the co-occurring conditions and issues faced by people he
       or she supports. Describes how these conditions can make the challenges of
       ASD more difficult and what interventions and supports are being used to assist
       people. Is able to help the person effectively manage these conditions.
                                                                                      11
   Uses the strengths of people he or she supports to help them be successful and
    achieve goals. Is familiar with and uses visual cues and teaching strategies for
    persons with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Uses personal interests and
    strengths as a basis for careers and hobbies when possible.
   Is familiar with services and supports across the lifespan for people with Autism
    Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Informs families of resources and options. Assists as
    possible with applications and access. Helps families and people supported
    understand their rights and what might be expected in seeking supports and
    services.
   Describes common challenges and issues for families that have a family member
    with autism. Is able to connect families to resources. Discusses with families their
    preferences and respects their knowledge of the person's needs. Is respectful of
    family privacy, strengths, and perspectives.
   Accurately states family goals and expectations and accepts family feedback.
    Regularly consults with family and provides honest, respectful feedback when
    asked. Understand all members of the family are affected. Shares successes and
    solves problems with the family when appropriate.




                                                                                     12
                       OJT Skill Statements: Brain Injury




The Direct Support Professional:

     Describes specific traits related to brain injury. Interacts with people that have
      brain injuries in ways that are likely to support success.
     Describes some of the most common causes of brain injury. Discusses ways to
      prevent brain injury. Applies this knowledge by supporting people to prevent head
      injuries.
     Identifies effective ways to prevent brain injuries. Actively helps people he or she
      supports to prevent brain injuries.
     Describes effective interventions and supports. Helps the person with brain injury
      to effectively manage these challenges.
     Identifies the steps in the recovery process for people with brain injury. Helps the
      person with brain injury through the recovery process.
     Describes common challenges for families with a family member with brain injury.
      Discusses family preferences and respects their knowledge. Displays respect for
      family privacy, strengths, and perspectives.
     Assesses and lists the needs of the individual he or she supports. Can use
      strategies that best support the needs and wishes of the person and or his or her
      family.
     Demonstrates familiarity with services and supports for people with brain injury.
      Informs families of resources and options. Assists as possible with applications
      and access.




                                                                                        13
                 On-the-Job Skill Statements: Cerebral Palsy



The Direct Support Professional:

   Describes cerebral palsy and why it is important for him or her to know about cerebral
    palsy in the role of supporting someone with cerebral palsy.
   Describes causes of cerebral palsy that occur before, during and after birth.
    Describes cerebral palsy as a brain injury. Identifies that there is no single cause of
    cerebral palsy.
   Identifies preventable causes of cerebral palsy. Describes risk factors for cerebral
    palsy.
   Accurately describes cerebral palsy as a brain disorder that impacts muscle control.
    Indicates that cerebral palsy symptoms vary greatly, and there are no standard
    characteristics.
   Identifies the four main types of cerebral palsy by movement problem (spastic,
    athetoid, ataxic, or mixed). Identifies the three main types by parts of body affected
    (hemiplegia, diplegia or quadriplegia).
   Identifies the major related conditions with cerebral palsy. This includes seizures,
    intellectual disabilities, and learning disabilities. Understands that associated
    conditions vary. Some have no associated conditions.
   Describes how cerebral palsy can impact many life areas, including walking, speech,
    swallowing, feeding, toileting, seeing, and hearing.
   Lists support needs for a person he or she supports and demonstrates how support
    is provided. Support strategies demonstrated could include medication, seizure
    protocol, personal care, therapy support, and positioning.
   Discusses how cerebral palsy is managed, including therapies, medication, and
    surgery. Describes what it means to manage rather than treat cerebral palsy.
   Discusses how support needs vary across the life span. Identifies some age-related
    health conditions associated with cerebral palsy.
   Is able to locate accurate & reliable resources that are helpful in learning more about
    cerebral palsy. Verifies accuracy & lists local resources that aid in understanding best
    support practices.




                                                                                         14
          On-the-Job Skill Statements: Civil Rights and Advocacy


The Direct Support Professional:

Lesson #1 Your Role in Effective Advocacy:

   Can describe what an advocate is and why advocacy is important in the lives of the
    people he or she supports. Can demonstrate advocacy skills as described in this
    lesson to assist someone he or she supports.
   Describes advocacy and why it is important. Explains its impact on people supported
    and includes: to improve someone's life, information's link to change, and raising
    awareness.
   Can define co-advocacy. Assists someone he or she supports, who is not able to
    speak up for his or her own rights, in advocating for something the person needs or
    wants.
   Accurately describes the differences between individual level advocacy and system
    level advocacy. Can give an example of actions she or he has taken at both levels of
    advocacy.
   Describes some of the characteristics and skills of an effective advocate. Lists why
    each skill is important and describes how these skills benefit the individual he or she
    supports.
   Demonstrates skills and attitudes that support self and consumer advocacy. This
    includes being assertive without being aggressive; knowing the facts about a
    situation; and seeing the abilities of others.
   Accurately describes the role a direct support professionals play in advocating for
    and with someone he or she supports.
   Effectively demonstrates knowledge of current laws, rules, and policies. Actively
    supports the person with a disability to participate in the advocacy process.
   Accurately identifies common issues and difficulties faced by individuals with
    disabilities. Describes how these difficulties impact the person he or she supports.
   Accurately paraphrases an issue brought up by a person he or she supports to
    assure both the person and the direct support professional have a common
    understanding of the issue.
   Can effectively apply all three of the most commonly used advocacy tactics when
    helping an individual they support in their advocacy efforts
   Can effectively explain the three stages in the advocacy process. Can accurately
    demonstrate how he or she uses these in supporting advocacy with the individuals
    he or she supports.

    Lesson #2 History of the Disability Rights Movement:

   Can explain how a person he or she supports has access to and is protected by
    human rights.
   Can accurately describe how the person he or she supports can exercise his or her
    civil rights.
   Can effectively describe how an individual he or she supports is able to exercise his
    or her political rights.
                                                                                         15
   Can effectively describe how an individual he or she supports is able to use and
    access his or her social rights.
   Can accurately describe the four main Rights Movements. Accurately describes how
    each of these movements has influenced the Disability Rights Movement.
   Can correctly identify and explain how the key historical issues that led up to the
    Disability Rights Movement.
   Can accurately and effectively explain the different stages of the disability rights
    movement.
   Accurately describes why being aware of our own biases and prejudices is important.
    Can give examples of how this affects the way he or she supports the self-advocacy
    of people with disabilities.
   Can clearly identify how he or she supports someone with a disability in his or her
    self-advocacy efforts.

    Lesson #3 Disability Rights and Legislation:

   Can accurately describe the three branches of the United States government. Can
    describe how the system of checks and balances works to protect people from
    governmental abuse of power.
   Can accurately describe how the Constitution of the United States protects the rights
    of people with disabilities.
   Can accurately describe the difference between a law and a rule or regulation.
   Can accurately explain how rules and regulations are developed based on the laws
    of the United States. Can effectively explain how rules and regulations are changed
    over time.
   Can accurately explain the process of lawmaking for the United States.
   Explains ADA and how it protects the rights of individuals with disabilities to live a full
    life in the community of their own choosing. Is able to show others how to change
    simple things to make participation possible.
   Can accurately describe what it means to make reasonable accommodations for
    someone with a disability.
   Describes the minimum standards set forth by the laws and rules governing support
    services. Demonstrates to a supervisor how he or she exceeds these standards
    when providing support.
   Attends and participates in a public comment session about a change in a rule
    affecting people with disabilities. Describes his or her experience to a supervisor.

    Lesson #4 Challenges and Strategies for Exercising Rights:

   Can correctly identify the four personal factors that affect a person's ability to
    exercise his or her rights. Can explain how these affect the individuals they support to
    exercise their rights.
   Can effectively describe the cultural factors that affect a person he or she supports to
    exercise their rights.
   Accurately identifies the individual attributes of the people they support that help or
    hinder the person in exercising his or her rights.
   Identifies the four outside factors that affect a person's ability to exercise his or her
    rights. Accurately explains how each helps or hinders an individual they support in
                                                                                             16
    exercising his or her rights.
   Can accurately describe how laws can hinder people's ability to exercise their rights.
   Can give an example of how a law might be a barrier to exercising rights.
   Can identify a law in his or her state that impacts individuals with disabilities and that
    might hinder a person's ability to exercise his or her rights.
   Can accurately explain how the social service system can hinder someone's ability to
    exercise his or her rights.
   Can share how they do or don't protect an individual they serve from exercising his or
    her rights. Can explain a strategy to support the individuals he or she supports to
    exercise his or her rights.
   Can describe at least two issues in the environment of a person they support that
    hinder that person's ability to exercise his or her rights.
   Can give an example of at least two social attitudes that present a challenge to
    someone they support when trying to exercise his or her rights.
   Explains why it is important for a direct support professional to get to know the
    person he or she supports and how this can dispel the negative attitudes of others.
   Can describe why knowing about your rights is an important strategy to support
    exercising your rights.
   Can effectively explain the four strategies that support someone with a disability to
    exercise his or her civil and legal rights. Advocacy.




                                                                                           17
                 OJT Skill Statements: Community Inclusion



Lesson 1: The DSP Role in Community Inclusion


The Direct Support Professional:

     Describes inclusion as separate from integration. Uses methods in daily practice
      that increase opportunities for inclusion including: presence, choice, competence,
      respect/valued roles, participation, and belonging.
     Assists people to use services and amenities in their communities. Chooses
      integrated settings over segregated settings. Provides regular opportunities to be
      the only person with a disability present at gatherings.
     Can describe specific benefits to people being supported in regards to inclusion.
      Ensures opportunities for people to remain bonded to family and community and
      to experience a variety of social roles.
     Ensures people opportunities to participate in a variety of social roles. Helps
      people pursue social activities and roles of interest to them. Serves as an
      educator and role model to members of the community.
     Supports people to have consistent opportunities to participate in meaningful
      ways in their social networks. Learns about the community as needed.
      Respectfully advocates for access and necessary changes.

Lesson 2: Matching Community Resources with Individual Interests

     Uses social and professional connections as appropriate to support inclusion.
      Effectively ensures that social activities are of interest and desired by people
      being supported. Avoids activities for personal convenience.
     Has a variety of methods for identifying people's interests and strengths in the
      area of inclusion. Knows the interests and preferences of the persons supported.
      Actively participates in activities to learn more.
     Helps people with limited experience try new things and get to know different
      parts of their communities. Bases attempts on what is known about the person's
      preferences and habits. Provides many opportunities.
     Is familiar with a variety of sources for finding out about community opportunities.
      Helps people seek out sources that match interests. Work with the person to
      create best possible opportunities for inclusion.
     Discriminates between activities that are likely to lead to inclusion and those that
      are not. Invests in planning and regular effort. Uses long-term strategies that are
      likely to enhance inclusion for person supported.
     Takes time to plan for and avoid likely problems when working toward inclusion.
      Knows what to do when unexpected situations come up. Works to support the
      person's comfort and success in the activity.



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Lesson 3: Community Bridge Building and Networking

     Can describe the purpose and critical components of networking and community
      bridge-building.
     Describes benefits of community connections and risks of not being connected to
      other community members. Describes current connections of person supported
      and identifies if these are likely sufficient.
     Behaves (including speech, dress, and actions) in ways that help people be
      included into communities of their choice. Supports social skill development as
      needed. Preserves people's privacy and dignity at all times.
     Uses a variety of methods including volunteering, frequenting, networking, and
      joining to assist people in making community connections. Supports inclusion on
      a daily basis by planning, preparing, and following-up.
     Identifies and follows-up with potential contacts. Assist people as necessary in
      finding and working with people who can support goals related towards inclusion
      (finding jobs, relationships, etc.). Thanks those who help.

Lesson 4: Natural Supports

     Describes natural supports and includes the concepts of interdependence,
      decreased reliance on paid supports, and increased inclusion. Can give reasons
      as to why having natural supports improves a person's life.
     Supports the person in maintaining, initiating, and changing family interactions as
      he or she desires. Is friendly and welcoming to family. Knows and respects family
      norms. Avoids interfering in family relationships.
     Provides frequent, regular opportunities for persons to participate in community
      events as individuals (not in groups). Identifies and acts on chances for
      encouraging the use of natural supports.
     Minimizes and prepares for common barriers to developing natural supports.
      Applies effective strategies in day-to-day practice. Works with others to create
      effective, long-term supports in this area.




                                                                                      19
                OJT Skill Statements: Cultural Competence



Lesson #1: What is Cultural Competence?

     The direct support professional can describe several national and global trends
      that have increased the need for cultural competence.

     The direct support professional can describe several trends in public policy and
      support services that have increased the need for cultural competence.

     The direct support professional can state at least 2 reasons why becoming more
      culturally competent is important for person's being supported.

     The direct support professional can state at least 2 reasons why becoming more
      culturally competent will enhance his or her own life.

     The direct support professional can describe the difference between a hidden
      aspect of culture and visible displays of culture.

     The direct support professional can give 3 examples of a hidden aspect of
      culture.

     The direct support professional can give 3 examples of visible displays of culture.

     The direct support professional can describe the difference between race and
      ethnicity.

     The direct support professional can describe how race can be affected by social,
      political, and cultural influences and give one example.

     The direct support professional can give examples of things that are part of a
      person's ethnicity.

     The direct support professional can describe what affiliation means and give an
      example of how it affects a person's culture.

     The direct support professionals can state a definition of the following terms:
      Affiliation; Culture; Cultural Competence; Diversity; Ethnicity; and Race.

     The direct support professional can describe the difference between race,
      ethnicity, diversity, and culture.

     The direct support professional can state 5 important abilities a person needs in
      order to be culturally competent. (five elements of cultural competence)

                                                                                         20
     The direct support professional can describe what a continuum is.

     The direct support professionals can describe the cultural continuum and state
      how it may be useful.

     The direct support professional can describe 1-2 of his or her current strengths
      and areas of need in the area of cultural competence.

Lesson #2: Understanding Your Own Culture.

     The direct support professional can describe at least two reasons why learning
      about their own culture is critical in providing culturally competent supports.

     The direct support professional can describe his or her own definition of quality of
      life.

     The direct support professional can describe the definition of quality of life for the
      people he or she supports.

     The direct support professional can describe his or her approach to decision-
      making and the cultural influences.

     The direct support professional can describe the approach to decision-making
      that is preferred by the people he or she supports, based on their cultures.

     The direct support professional can give at least one example of how language
      could influence perceptions or beliefs.

     The direct support professional can describe the influences of family, traditions,
      location(s) of upbringing, and religion on his or her perceptions of social customs,
      etiquette, status, decision-making, and gender roles.

     The direct support professional can describe the ways in which he or she
      affiliates or not, with the cultural influences of his or her upbringing.

     The direct support professional can give an example of a behavior that he or she
      considers rude that is considered "good manners" in another culture.

     The direct support professional can describe his or her view of how people
      become ill and give an example of how a person from another culture might see
      this differently.

     The direct support professional can describe what he or she considers good
      table manners and gives an example of how a person from another culture might
      see this differently.



                                                                                          21
Lesson #3: The Culture of Support Services.

      The direct support professional can describe the difference between a macro
       culture and a micro culture.

      The direct support professional can describe what the term "dominant culture"
       means.

      The direct support professional can state a definition of institutional bias.

      The direct support professional can state a definition of "cultural capital."

      The direct support professional can describe areas in which he or she has
       cultural capital.

      The direct support professional can describe areas in which he or she is lacking
       in cultural capital.

      The direct support professional can describe areas in which the person(s) he or
       she supports has(ve) cultural capital.

      The direct support professional can describe areas in which the person(s) he or
       she supports is (are) lacking in cultural capital.

      The direct support professional adapts his or her behaviors as necessary and
       possible to prevent reducing the cultural capital of the person(s) he or she
       supports.

      The direct support professional helps the person(s) he or she supports stay
       connected to communities of choice.

      The direct support professional can describe personal traits that represent the
       American ideal (age, gender, religion, etc.)

      The direct support professional can describe some values and beliefs common to
       the American macro culture.

      The direct support professional can give examples of how his or her culture is
       similar and different from the culture of the American macro culture.

      The direct support professionals can give examples of the cultures of the people
       he or she supports is similar or different from the American macro culture.

      The direct support professional can describe beliefs and values related to the
       service culture.

                                                                                         22
   The direct support professional can compare and contrast the culture of his or
    her employer with that of the service culture.

   The direct support professional can identify the biggest differences between the
    service culture and the unique cultures of each person he or she supports.

   The direct support professional can give an example in cultural differences in
    understanding and response to disability.

   The direct support professional can identify words that are jargon or labels.

   The direct support professional avoids using jargon or labels unless they are
    required by the situation.

   The direct support professional works collaboratively with people receiving
    services and/or families in developing written and verbal reports in order to
    ensure language is culturally sensitive.

    Lesson #4: The Cultural Competence Continuum

   The direct support professional can describe which of the elements of cultural
    competence apply to people who demonstrate Cultural Destructiveness.

   The direct support professional can describe which of the elements of cultural
    competence apply to people who demonstrate Cultural Incapacity.

   The direct support professional can give an example of cultural destructiveness.

   The direct support professional can give an example of cultural incapacity.

   The direct support professional reports any incidents of cultural destructiveness
    toward a person being supported to the agency, family, or other advocates, as
    required and as the person being supported desires.

   The direct support professional can describe a "hate crime" and knows how to
    report one.

   The direct support professional can describe which of the elements of cultural
    competence apply to people who demonstrate Cultural Inattention.

   The direct support professional can give an example of Cultural Inattention.

   The direct support professional can describe which of the elements of cultural
    competence apply to people who demonstrate Cultural Pre-Competence.

   The direct support professional can give an example of Cultural Pre-
    Competence.

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   The direct support professional can describe which of the elements of cultural
    competence apply to people who demonstrate Basic Cultural Competence.

   The direct support professional can give an example of Basic Cultural
    Competence.

   The direct support professional can describe which of the elements of cultural
    competence apply to people who demonstrate Advanced Cultural Competence.

   The direct support professional can give an example of Advanced Cultural
    Competence.

   When given a scenario, the direct support professional can accurately describe
    the level of cultural competence displayed.

   The direct support professional can describe where he or she falls on the cultural
    competence continuum.

   The direct support professional can describe several methods for improving
    cultural competence.

   The direct support professional can describe several methods that are likely to
    improve his or her cultural competence, based on his or her assessment using
    the cultural competence continuum.

    Lesson #5: Culturally Competent Communication

   The direct support professional can describe the purpose of communication.

   The direct support professional can describe at least two methods of
    communication that are commonly used, other than written or spoken language.

   The direct support professional can demonstrate a form of body language from
    his or her own culture and describe what the meaning is.

   The direct support professional can demonstrate a form of body language from a
    culture different than his or her own, and describe what it means.

   The direct support professional can describe at least 3 different possible barriers
    to communication.

   The direct support professionals can describe a situation where cultural
    differences can interfere with the understanding of a message.

   The direct support professional can describe a situation where cultural
    differences can create a difference in the appropriateness of a message.

   The direct support professional can describe what an idiom is and give an
                                                                                      24
    example.

   The direct support professional avoids using slang, idioms, or unnecessary
    jargon in professional communications.

   The direct support professional avoids using biased language.

   The direct support professional is knowledgeable about the slang and language
    forms used by the people he or she supports and the communities the person is
    part of. However, the DSP does not use these methods of communication unless
    it is appropriate.

   The direct support professional can adapt to the cultural norms of others while
    avoiding the tendency to adopt the norms of these cultures.

    Lesson #6: Cultural Competence in Daily Support

   The direct support professional can describe ways in which assessments can be
    adjusted to meet diverse needs.

   The direct support professional can describe methods for adjusting the planning
    and implementation process to meet diverse needs.

   When given a scenario, the direct support professional can identify biases and
    assumptions on the part of characters in the story.

   The direct support professional can describe the difference between obvious
    signs of culture and less obvious signs of culture.

   The direct support professional can describe several methods to discover the
    culture of the people he or she supports.

   When given a sample of questions from standardized forms and surveys, the
    direct support professional can identify questions or statements that contain
    cultural biases.

   When given a sample of questions from standardized forms and surveys that
    contain cultural bias, the direct support professional can suggest alternative
    questions that are culturally competent.

   The direct support professional can give examples of what types of observations
    may be helpful in understanding a person's culture.

   The direct support professional can list 2-3 sources he or she uses to find out
    about the cultures of the people he or she supports.

    Lesson #7: DSP Roles in Culturally Competent Organizations.

                                                                                      25
   The direct support professional can describe 2 or more reasons why culturally
    competent organizations are important.

   The direct support professional can list at least 3 areas where organizations
    should do a review for cultural competence.

   The direct support professional can describe ways in which an organization can
    demonstrate valuing of diversity.

   The direct support professional recommends ways to ensure that corporate-
    owned environments are welcoming to people from various cultures.

   The direct support professional recommends ways to ensure that corporate-
    owned living environments reflect the culture of the people being supported.

   The direct support professional can describe ways in which a value on diversity is
    expressed in the situations in which he or she provides direct support.

   The direct support professional can describe and give examples of how the five
    elements of cultural competence apply to organizations.

   The direct support professional can explain why valuing diversity is not enough to
    create a culturally competent organization.

   The direct support professional can describe the key components to
    organizational assessments of cultural competence.

   The direct support professional can describe why gathering information from a
    variety of sources is important in assessment.

   The direct support professional can describe the purpose of organizational
    assessments.

   The direct support professional can describe why it is important to gain the
    support of people who control organizational resources in order to achieve
    cultural competence.

   The direct support professional can describe why it is important that assessment
    be positive and strength-based.

   The direct support professional can describe at least 3 methods of gathering
    information from people.

   When given a scenario, the direct support professional can describe a
    reasonable accommodation for gathering information from people.

   The direct support professional is observed using a variety of methods to gather
    information from people that meet their needs.
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   Family members and people receiving services indicate that the DSP gathers
    necessary information from them in ways that respect their culture.

   The direct support professional provides accurate and helpful feedback regarding
    the level of cultural competence that is reflected in organizational policy, practice,
    and systems.

   The direct support professional participates in cultural competence committees.

   The direct support professional serves as a cultural guide or mentors new staff.

   The direct support professional participates in various types of organizational
    assessments.

   The direct support professional finds and shares resources helpful in developing
    cultural competence.

   The direct support professional can identify important cultural perspectives of the
    person(s) he or she supports.




                                                                                       27
                       OJT Skill Statements: Depression



The Direct Support Professional:

   Is alert to signs and symptoms of mental health distress. Records and
    communicates signs and symptoms appropriately and in a timely way. Can
    describe risks of untreated depression. Supports individual and system
    interventions that help prevent these illnesses or get people the treatment they
    need to improve.
   Recognizes there are different forms of depression and that signs and symptoms
    vary. Can list the most common symptoms of depression. Is alert to signs and
    symptoms and shares information appropriately.
   Recognizes that people express depression differently. Can describe statistical
    and individual risk factors and expression of depression symptoms in people he or
    she supports. When possible connects people to culturally appropriate support
    and services and/or peer lead services.
   Supports people in gaining accurate diagnosis and treatment. Is familiar with all
    components of a thorough diagnosis. Keep records and facilitates appointments
    as needed. Advocates as needed to ensure people are listened to and their
    needs are met. Explains process and procedures to those supported as needed.
   Completes and supports treatments for depression per job description. Keeps
    track of side effects of medicine and responses. Shares information as
    appropriate.
   Recognizes signs of suicide risk. Takes actives steps to assess risk and prevent
    suicide attempts. Engages emergency services as needed. Provides support and
    empathy to people that have survived a suicide attempt.
   Discriminates between lifestyle habits that support recovery and those that don’t.
    Encourages and supports individualized options that are part of the person’s
    recovery plan.
   Is familiar with a wide variety of resources related to depression. Researches new
    resources as needed to assist people being supported.




                                                                                   28
                          OJT Skill Statements: Diabetes


The Direct Support Professional:

   Can describe what diabetes is as well as the different forms. Can explain why it is
    important for him or her to know about diabetes when supporting someone with
    diabetes.
   Can describe the common signs and symptoms of diabetes. Can describe his or her
    role after identifying symptoms in the person he or she supports. Takes action to
    support the person in seeking medical care as appropriate
   Can accurately describe the main causes of diabetes and what can be done to
    prevent or delay onset.
   Can identify at least five of the major complications and effects related to diabetes.
    Can describe how these conditions affect the individuals he or she supports.
   Describes the various treatments available for individuals with diabetes.
    Demonstrates his or her role in teaching individuals being supported to manage
    diabetes.
   Identifies preventable causes of diabetes and the ole he or she plays in supporting
    someone with diabetes.
   Lists support needs for a person he or she supports who has diabetes and
    demonstrates how support is provided. Describes his or her role in supporting the
    person to follow a diabetic treatment plan.




                                                                                         29
           OJT Skill Statements for the course Documentation



Lesson 1: The Purpose of Documentation

     The direct support professional describes documentation as written information
      with the primary purpose of communicating important information regarding
      persons being supported.
     The direct support professional describes four important purposes for
      documentation as: 1) ensuring continuity of care; 2) tracking changes or patterns
      in the status of people being supported; 3) complying with rules, regulations, and
      agency policy; and 4) staying connected with others.
     The direct support professional documents adequate information to ensure
      consistency of care and to track changes in regards to the health status of the
      person(s) he or she supports.
     The direct support professional completes documentation in a way that helps
      track the strengths and preferences and progress in towards goals and dreams of
      person(s) he or she supports.
     The direct support professional identifies employer expectations for
      documentation and any applicable rules, regulations, or laws (e.g., medications,
      progress on meeting personal goals, appointments, group communication log)
      and follows these requirements in daily documentation practice.
     The direct support professional reads documentation as necessary to ensure he
      or she is meeting employer policy and has all information critical to providing high
      quality supports.
     The direct support professional is familiar with all standard forms and methods of
      documentation required by his or her employer and/or laws and regulations that
      guide services.
     The direct support professional uses written methods of communication (such as
      a staff communication log) as necessary as a means to stay connected and share
      important information with co-workers and supervisor.
     The direct support professional avoids the use of formal or informal
      documentation to express judgments, complaints, or conflict.

Lesson 2: Types of Documentation

     The direct support professional describes five areas in which documentation may
      be critical: 1) medical and health related information; 2) achievement of goals and
      programs; 3) information about behavior; 4) information about accidents and
      incidents; and 5) general communication with others.
     The direct support professional accurately documents any medical or health
      related information including: providing assistance with medications or treatments,
      the results of medical appointments, and general health related needs, as needed
      and required by his or her employer and the laws, rules, and regulations that
      guide services.

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     The direct support professional accurately documents progress toward individual
      goals and achievement of new skills as needed or required by his or her employer
      and the laws, rules, and regulations that guide services.
     The direct support professional tracks and documents the behaviors of person(s)
      being supported as is appropriate to the situation and as required by his or her
      employer and the laws, rules, and regulations that guide services.
     The direct support professional effectively documents the important details of any
      accident or incident as needed or required by his or her employer and the laws,
      rules, and regulations that guide services.
     The direct support professional tracks important objective information in all
      documentation including: who was involved; what happened; where the situation
      happened; when (date and time); and how it happened.
     The direct support professional effectively communicates with others as needed
      and in formats requested by his or her employer (such as a staff communication
      log) and as required by the laws, rules, and regulations that guide services.

Lesson 3: Effective Documentation

     The direct support professional follows the rules of good legal documentation in
      all formal documentation including: using black or blue pen only; correcting errors
      with a single line and initialing; providing complete and accurate information about
      time and dates; avoiding empty lines between entries; and signing all entries.
     The direct support professional uses as much detail as necessary in entries but
      avoids including extra or non-important details in documentation.
     The direct support professional includes all elements of objective writing in each
      entry: who, what, where, and when.
     The direct support professional uses objective descriptions and facts in all
      documentation and refrains from including opinions or judgments in
      documentation, unless asked for his or her opinion by the employer.
     The direct support professional recognized that answering the questions “how”
      and “why” in documentation is subjective writing and only uses them as requested
      and with understanding that these are not facts.
     The direct support professional completes documentation as soon as possible
      after a situation that requires documentation.
     The direct support professional is aware of how to complete a “late entry” and
      correctly uses the procedure.

Lesson 4: Confidentiality in Documentation

     The direct support professional defines confidentiality and describes its
      importance from both the perspective of the individual and compliance with the
      law.
     The direct support professional can describe HIPAA regulations and how
      regulations apply to his or her position.
     The direct support professional avoids making common breaches of
      confidentiality and addresses issues of confidentiality when coworkers break it.
     The direct support professional shares confidential information only when it is
      limited to the issue at hand, only as necessary, only to people who are also bound
                                                                                       31
    by confidentially and who need to know the information to provide high quality
    supports.
   The direct support professional ensures that confidential documentation is
    available only to authorized staff members by consistently taking precautions
    such as keeping all documentation locked away when not in use, keeping
    information about different individuals separate, and by marking documentation as
    CONFIDENTIAL.
   The direct support professional ensures that all individuals that he or she supports
    know their rights to confidentiality and encourages persons to advocate for these
    rights.
   The direct support professional provides individuals access to their records and
    documentation and ensures that the individuals that receive supports understand
    their right to have access to their personal documentation.
   The direct support professional identifies conditions for emergency release of
    confidential information and ensures these conditions are met before releasing
    information.
   The direct support professional identifies individuals supported who have legal
    representatives, who the legal representatives are and the areas to which the
    legal representatives have access.
   The direct support professional complies with all applicable laws, rules, and
    policies regarding sharing information with legal representative for the people they
    support.
   The direct support professional describes critical components of consent and
    ensures consent is handled appropriate in practice.




                                                                                     32
          OJT Skill Statements: Direct Support Professionalism



Lesson 1: Becoming a Direct Support Professional

     The direct support professional describes the how the supports they provide do
      and do not assist people in leading self-directed lives, in contributing to their
      community, and in developing attitudes and behaviors that enhance inclusion in
      their community.
     The direct support professional describes three ways they can demonstrate
      professionalism at their worksite.
     The direct support professional can identify two examples where professional
      support may have assisted in resolving work related conflicts with coworkers and
      individuals they support.
     The direct support professional can identify three professional areas that added
      support from coworkers and supervisors can assist them in becoming a more
      effective professional.
     The direct support professional can explain how the Community Support Skill
      Standards and the National Association of Direct Support Professional Code of
      Ethics can guide their professional work.
     The direct support professional describes the many roles they take on as a direct
      support professional. Consider the roles you take on for those you support,
      yourself, and your work.
     The direct support professional (DSP) can describe how the role of the DSP has
      changed over time.

Lesson 2: Contemporary Best Practices

     The direct support professional can describe how best practices can be used to
      assist an individual in achieving their goals.
     The direct support professional can describe what self-determination is and why it
      is a considered a best practice.
     The direct support professional can explain what community inclusion is and why
      it is considered a best practice.
     The direct support professional describes three ways his or his support is
      facilitating best practices (i.e., participant empowerment, inclusion, self-
      determination, choice-making etc.).
     The direct support professional can provide two examples where he or she
      promoted an individual's self-determination.
     The direct support professional can identify how Consumer-Directed Community
      Supports provide greater control to the individual (consider self-determination,
      community inclusion, etc.)
     The direct support professional can identify ways to integrate best practices into
      their work.
     The direct support professional identifies four ways they can increase their
      understanding and awareness of best practices.

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Lesson 3: Applying Ethics in Everyday Work

     The direct support professional can give three examples of more subtle ethical
      issues that may emerge in their practice.
     The direct support professional identifies two potential ethical dilemmas in their
      current practice.
     The direct support professional identifies other professions' code of ethics they
      may need to follow.
     The direct support professional can describe two ethical dilemmas they faced in
      their practice.
     The direct support professional can describe two common characteristics of
      ethical dilemmas
     The direct support professional can describe a time when their interests came
      before the individual's interest.
     The direct support professional can describe two instances when he or she
      resolved ethical dilemmas in the past.
     The direct support professional can describe RIGHT Decision method.
     The direct support professional describes the benefits of integrating the RIGHT
      Decision method into their practice.

Lesson 4: Practicing Confidentiality

     The direct support professional can describe three reasons why confidentiality is
      necessary as a professional.
     The direct support professional can describe reasons why practicing
      confidentiality and privacy are important in providing supports.
     The direct support professional explains what confidentiality is.
     The direct support professional explains what privacy is.
     The direct support professional can describe the differences between written and
      verbal consents.
     The direct support professional can describe what to do if an individual's
      confidential information is divulged.
     The direct support professional can describe at least three guidelines they could
      take when information is requested regarding an individual.
     The direct support professional can provide three examples of how their practices
      or activities can be enhanced to ensure an individual's privacy.

Lesson 5: Working with Your Strengths and Interests

     The direct support professional can describe three professional strengths he or
      she brings to the job.
     The direct support professional can describe three professional weaknesses she
      or he brings to the job.
     The direct support professional can describe two ways his or her strengths and
      interests can assist an individual in achieving their personal goals.
     The direct support professional can explain two reasons why it is important to
      understand her or his professional weaknesses.

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     The direct support professional can explain three ways she or he can develop
      their professional weaknesses.

Lesson 6: Health Insurance Portability and Accountability

     The direct support professional can describe the factors that led to HIPAA's
      enactment.
     The direct support professional can explain what protected health information is.
     The direct support professional can identify five pieces of protected health
      information that he or she uses.
     The direct support professional can describe the four standards that make up
      HIPAA.
     The direct support professional can describe two differences between the HIPAA
      privacy and security standards.
     The direct support professional can describe the purpose of the "minimum
      necessary rule".
     The direct support professional can explain three ways she or he can safeguard
      electronic protected health information.
     The direct support professional can describe the three ways HIPAA is enforced.
     The direct support professional describe three rights that individuals receiving
      support have under HIPAA.




                                                                                      35
                OJT Skill Statements: Employment Supports



  Lesson 1: Introduction to Employment Supports

      The direct support professional provides consistent and accurate information to
       the people he or she supports and/or coworkers or others regarding the benefits
       of paid, community-based employment.
      The direct support professional describes several reasons regarding why paid
       and/or community-based employment has benefits for all people.
      The direct support professional orients new employees regarding differences
       between sheltered workshops and community-based employment programs and
       services including: definitions of these services, histories, and the benefits and
       challenges of these services.
      The direct support professional describes at least two differences in how an
       individual gets paid when using community-based supported employment
       services versus a work enclave or mobile work crew.
      The direct support professional explains two reasons community-based
       employment is more inclusive than sheltered workshops and enclaves.
      The direct support professional identifies appropriate funding sources for
       employment supports available to persons supported and assists as needed in
       accurately completing necessary application and referral processes.
      The direct support professional identifies and works effectively with various
       stakeholders, connecting as needed with others and supporting others, to ensure
       employment supports are effective.
      The direct support professional ensures that employers use fair hiring and
       employment practices with the people he or she supports.

Lesson 2: Identifying Individual Employment Preferences, Interests, Strengths,
and Support Needs

      The direct support professional (DSP) develops individual employment supports
       plans that reflect the individual's specific needs and preferences.
      The direct support professional (DSP) inquires about at least four areas of
       preference when assisting a job seeker in finding a job.
      The direct support professional uses personal preferences for workplace culture
       as part of assisting to match a job seeker with an employer.
      The direct support professional uses a job seeker's family, friends, and others
       involved in his or her life to assist in identifying preferences, when appropriate.
      The direct support professional uses information about a job seeker's hobbies,
       skills used at home, interests in the community, and interactions with families and
       friends when assisting in a job search.
      The direct support professional (DSP) identifies personal barriers an individual
       face when seeking employment and develops strategies that constructively deal
       with these challenges.

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     The direct support professional (DSP) identifies community barriers an individual
      face when seeking employment and develops strategies that constructively deal
      with these challenges.
     The direct support professional (DSP) uses the results of vocational
      assessments to aid an individual do a job search.
     The direct support professional accurately conducts situational assessments as
      needed.

Lesson 3: Job Opportunities and Job Searching

     The direct support professional recognizes the major industries and businesses
      in his/her community and builds relationships with the ones most likely to have
      the best job or career opportunities for person(s) he or she supports.
     The direct support professional recognizes changes in local markets and
      economy and uses this information to customize job searches that are likely to be
      successful.
     The direct support professional uses a variety of resources when supporting an
      individual in identifying job leads in the community.
     The direct support professional assists individuals in developing and enhancing
      professional networks.
     The direct support professional identifies the strengths of the person seeking
      employment to potential employers when making initial contact.
     The direct support professional assists individuals to complete resumes and
      cover letters that are accurate, contain critical components, focus on strengths,
      and are effective.
     The direct support professional effectively uses tax incentives to assist
      individual(s) he or she supports to get hired for a job or to obtain needed
      accommodations for the workplace.
     The direct support professional seeks permission for the people he or she
      supports (or their legal representative) before discussing tax incentives with
      potential employers.
     The direct support professional includes people he or she supports in the job
      development and seeking process.

Lesson 4: Applying, Interviewing and Making Accommodations

     The direct support professional assists people he or she supports in accurately
      and thoroughly completing job applications.
     The direct support professional informs people he or she supports of their right
      not to answer application questions about their disability and why they have
      these rights, and prepares them for dealing with these situations in interviews.
     The direct support professional focused on the job seeker throughout any
      interview processes.
     The direct support professional prepares job seekers he or she supports for an
      interview by using a variety of approaches, adapting as needed to the situation to
      be most effective.


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   The direct support professional supports an employer by providing information,
    helping the company develop supports for the individual, and by helping to
    prevent and resolve problems.
   The direct support professional effectively addresses concerns employer's have
    about a person's capabilities as needed and as appropriate during the job
    interview, always seeking permission of the person being supported prior to
    sharing any information.
   The direct support professional keeps in contact with employers as part of on-
    going job development, even if the employer does not immediately hire a person
    being supported.
   The direct support professional discusses the Americans with Disabilities Act and
    disability disclosure with the people s/he supports and their support team
    members.




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           OJT Skill Statements: Everyone Can Communicate


The Direct Support Professional:

Lesson #1 What is Communication and Why is it Important?:

     Describes communication as one person giving to or receiving information from
      another. Includes the person's needs, desires, perceptions, knowledge, or
      feelings. Adds information about different forms of communication.
     Identifies language as the ability to understand and use symbols to express and
      receive messages. Explains that it has structure, organization, and rules for how
      words are arranged and how vocabulary is used.
     Explains that speech is the oral expression of language and that it is a formal
      system in which words and sounds are used to convey meaning.
     Identifies and explains receptive and expressive language. Includes the
      comprehension and production process of communication as these relate to the
      individuals he or she supports.
     Identifies at least seven factors that lead to communication breakdowns.
      Describes strategies to overcome these.
     Is observed using specific communication repair strategies to effectively
      communicate with the individuals he or she supports who have significant
      communication disabilities.
     Promotes increased opportunities for communication with the people she or he
      supports.
     Identifies and explains the six components of communication. Gives an example
      of each component for the individuals he or she supports.
     Describes functional communication and gives examples for the individual he or
      she supports.
     Helps to develop a functional communication “system” or process for one of the
      individuals she or he supports who has significant communication disabilities.
      Teaches this system or process to co-workers.
     Downloads the Communication Bill of Rights from the NJC Web site. Reviews
      these with those being supported, his or her co-workers, and supervisor.
      Describes how his or her support respects and values these rights.
     Ensures that the Communication Bill of Rights is understood. Uses this within his
      or her work environment. Ensures the communication rights of the people he or
      she supports are upheld.
     Describes why communication is important in everyone's life. Is able to develop
      ways of communicating with the individuals he or she supports that foster choice
      and self-determination.
     Identifies barriers to effective communication for the individuals he or she
      supports. Develops strategies to help overcome these barriers.




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Lesson #2 How People Communicate:

     The DSP can identify and use at least 5 different ways of communication with
      those he or she supports to assure that both the sender and receiver understand
      the message.
     Uses pictures and drawings as appropriate when communicating with the
      individuals he or she supports.
     Uses naturally-occurring gestures when communicating with the individuals he or
      she supports.
     Identifies and demonstrates the use of non-intentional and non-symbolic
      communication efforts made by the individuals he or she supports. Explains why it
      is important to recognize these.
     Identifies and demonstrates the intentional communication efforts of those he or
      she supports. Differentiates between those that are symbolic and those that are
      non-symbolic.
     Identifies the communicative intent of challenging behavior used by the people he
      or she supports.
     Describes why a person he or she supports may be showing challenging
      behaviors. Identifies what the person is trying to say. Supports the person in
      finding a better way to share his or her message.
     Describes at least 3 myths about communication. Describes his or her role in
      actively changing the perceptions of others s encountered on a daily basis.

Lesson #3 The Role of the Direct Support Professional as a Communication
Partner:

     Can list one or more examples when he or she has acted in the role of a
      communication partner with an individual being supported.
     Can interpret messages from those he or she supports. Can explain the context
      and object used to understand these messages.
     Can list the things he or she can do as a direct support professional to make
      spoken language understood. Can effectively use one or more strategies with
      someone being supported.
     Can use at least one or more non-directive, spoken messages in each of his or
      her interactions with individuals supported.
     Can identify at least 3 daily routines and 3 social routines he or she shares with
      the people supported. Uses these to enhance communication opportunities.
     Can effectively change routines to give his or her communication partner a reason
      to communicate.
     Regularly provides opportunities for each type of choice: who, what, where, when,
      and how with those he or she supports.
     Actively offers choices to a communication partner in an appropriate manner that
      recognizes when saying “no” is not an option.
     Regularly networks with other people who know the individual he or she supports
      to learn about likes, dislikes, and activities. Uses these to enhance opportunities
      for communication with individuals supported.


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       Develops a list of individuals in the community. Creates frequent opportunities for
        those he or she supports to communicate and connect with others.

Lesson #4 Strategies to Enhance Communication:

   Uses modeling with the individual he or she supports. Uses this when using such
    things as boards, voice output devices, signs, and gestures.
   Demonstrates the use of contingent responding. Uses this as a way to acknowledge
    and respond to the messages sent by his or her communication partners with
    communication challenges.
    Demonstrates the ability to expect and wait for a response from a communication
    partner in order to engage the person he or she supports in a longer conversation.
   Provides interesting and new objects, into the environment to increase opportunities
    and topics for communication.
   Demonstrates an increased use of verbal messages that enhance communication on
    a regular basis. Decreases the number of controlling messages used with those he or
    she supports.
   Demonstrates respect for the individuals being supported through use of verbal and
    nonverbal behavior that enhance expectations for functional communication.
   Can add language and information to his or her partner's communication turn. Uses
    modeling and gesturing; naming and labeling things and people in the environment;
    and, emphasizing key words.
   Can use a variety of questioning techniques to increase functional responses from
    the person he or she supports.
   Demonstrates the use of communication strategies that are culturally sensitive,
    especially those relating to eye gaze, gestures, and touch.
   Implements strategies that help him or her explore the cultures of those he or she
    supports. This may include visiting with family members and learning some of the
    persons language.

Lesson #5 Augmentative and Alternative Communication:

   Describes and uses the communication system used by each individual he or she
    supports.
   Actively participates in augmentative and alternative communication assessments.
   Models the use of "high tech" communication devices used by the people she or he
    supports.
   Uses an alphabet board to communicate with people he or she supports.
   Effectively uses communication word boards with the people he or she supports.
   Uses picture boards effectively with the people she or she supports.
   Can use at least 10 basic signs with a person supported. Increases the number of
    signs known by 10 each month until all of the signs used, are known. Speaks the
    words at the same time they are signed.
   Reports all malfunctions and problems with any high tech AAC device. Reports to the
    correct person immediately so that the device can be repaired promptly.
   Ensures that "high tech" AAC devices are properly charged.


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   Identifies a communication myth and challenges its validity by stating the correct
    facts about communication.
   Demonstrates proper etiquette with those individuals he or she supports who use
    AAC devices to communicate.




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                OJT Skill Statements: Positive Behavior Supports



The Direct Support Professional:

Lesson 1: Understanding Behavior and Participating in the Functional
Assessment Process

     Makes efforts to understand the purpose of challenging behaviors. Recognizes
      the person's right to meet needs. Adjusts environments and teaches new skills as
      needed to help person meet needs positively.
     Seeks an appropriate referral when challenging behaviors are persistent and
      unresponsive to interventions. Works with the behavior specialist to gather data
      and shape the functional assessment.
     Accurately defines and applies these terms: behavior, antecedent, consequence,
      reinforcement, punishment, setting events, subjective, objective, intensity,
      frequency, duration, emotional state, physical state, and comprehensive
      assessment.
     Is able to recognize potential environmental, social, or medical setting events to
      challenging behavior. Makes logical guesses about possible internal states that
      may be affecting behavior and has effective methods for testing the likelihood of
      these guesses being accurate.
     Accurately documents behaviors. Uses objective and non-judging words to
      describe behavior. Correctly identifies the frequency, intensity, and duration of
      behavior. Is flexible in approaching challenging behaviors and willing to try new
      things.

Lesson 2: Strategies for Gathering and Organizing Functional Assessment
Information

     Can define and describe the following terms as they relate to function
      assessment: functional assessment, functional analysis, data collection,
      structured observation, record reviews, interviews, person-centered approaches,
      behavior support plans, hypothesis statements.
     Can describe the outcomes of FA and how they may be achieved for people who
      have challenging behavior. Describes behavior in observable and measurable
      terms. Participates in methods to describe behavior accurately and completely.
      Can develop or test a reasonable hypothesis statement.
     Effectively performs data gathering tasks as requested as part of a functional
      assessment process. Is familiar with the strengths and drawbacks of interviews,
      record reviews, and observations. Uses forms and procedures correctly.
      Documents accurately. Observed good confidentiality.
     Has read the NADSP Code of Ethics and applies it to practice. Can describe the
      benefits and limits of laws and practices in ensuring ethical practice. Regularly
      engages self and others in discussions and efforts to improve ethics in practice
      around behavior support.
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Lesson 3: Comprehensive Assessment and the Role of the Direct Support
Professional

       Can describe how comprehensive assessment and functional assessment are
        related. Is able to identify areas that may be useful to explore in regards to
        challenging behavior. Connects the tasks and results of comprehensive
        assessment to the purpose and the needs of the person.
       Can describe the purpose, roles and process of comprehensive assessment (CA)
        activities. Identifies a variety of professionals and the types of assessments they
        can complete in CA. Recognizes that mental and physical health, information
        about the behavior, basic social history, and current daily routines are a common
        starting point for CA.
       Can identify important assessments and reports to review or complete as part of
        the comprehensive assessment process. When reviewing reports can find and
        organize the most important information. Complete checklist and assessments
        accurately and as requested.
       Gathers and communicates important information to support team and
        professionals as needed in regards to behaviors and related events such as
        possible illness, recent trauma, etc. Learns new terms or skills as needed to
        participate in assessment. Observes confidentiality.
       Can describe the benefits of person-centered planning and supports to the
        comprehensive assessment and functional assessment process. Ensures that
        people's strengths and preferences are included in all assessments and daily
        supports. Provides opportunities on a regular basis for the person to make
        choices, contribute, and participate.

Lesson 4: Using Functional Assessments and Behavior Support Plans

   Recognizes if a functional assessment is complete or not. Makes suggestions for
    additional information or clarification of items as needed. Completes tasks related to
    FA thoroughly and effectively.
   Can identify interventions that are likely to succeed based on information gathered
    during functional assessment. Works to ensure that interventions include changes in
    environment and approach, are respectful, and support self-management and choice.
   Can identify the important components of a behavior support plan. Helps the team
    develop a plan that is based on the functional assessment and uses strategies that
    are likely to be successful. Implements plan correctly. Keeps team informed about
    progress and barriers to success.




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                    OJT Skill Statements: Community Living



The Direct Support Professional:

Lesson #1 Supporting Home Living: The Direct Support Professional Role:

     Has methods of ensuring supports are focused through the lens of the person
      supported and as prescribed by law and policy. Can identify what is most
      important to the person supported and delivers customized support at home.
     Follows all laws, regulations, and policies that govern his or her actions as a DSP.
      Provides identified home and community living services from plans in culturally
      appropriate, person-centered ways.
     Reviews and applies policies and procedures through the lens of people
      supported and their unique needs. Works with employer to develop policies that
      reflect best practice and support high quality of life.
     Behaves in ways that are viewed positively by neighbors and community
      members. Works to enhance status of people supported in community and home
      living activities.

Lesson #2 Comfortable Living:

     Is familiar with the person's needs and preferences in the home environment.
      Completes duties in ways that enhance the person's choice and control. Supports
      engagement and independence of person in all activities.
     Supports each person in creating comfortable spaces that reflect his or her
      preferences and style. Helps people as needed with planning, budgeting, and
      completing decorating projects.
     Helps each person organize his or her living spaces as needed. Recognizes that
      disorganization may be a sign the person needs more assistance due to physical
      or mental illness. Is upbeat and nonjudgmental when completing this work.
     Is knowledgeable about the needs of any pets in the home. Ensures that the
      basic needs of the pet are met. Is kind and respectful to the pet and recognizes its
      importance in the home. Uses good infection control when cleaning up after the
      pet.
     Provides basic care to houseplants. Notices when plants need care and supports
      the person in completing the care. Follows defined schedules and routines.

Lesson #3 Maintaining a Clean Home:

     Uses good infection control procedures in the kitchen. Cleans up spills or crumbs
      immediately. Does not leave food out for long periods. Recognizes and discards
      spoiled food. Completes scheduled cleaning as requested.

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     Uses good infection control procedures in the bathroom. Cleans up feces, urine,
      or other bodily fluids immediately. Cleans shared surfaces (tub, shower, sinks,
      floors, toilets) in shared bathrooms daily or between use. Completes other
      scheduled cleaning as requested or when soiled.
     Helps keeps common living areas and bedrooms clean. Wipes up spills
      immediately. Uses appropriate cleansers and completes tasks as needed and
      requested. Respects privacy and personal preferences.
     The DSP uses the correct method and product to prevent damage to surfaces.
      Uses good safety measures including ventilation and protective gear as needed.
      Never mixes chemicals or uses chemicals without labels. Ensures people are not
      adversely affected by cleansers used.
     Ensures that homes with pets are cleaned and maintained properly. Works to
      reduce odors, excess hair, dirt, and other messes caused by pets.
     Completes all tasks as requested on cleaning checklists. Helps develop systems
      and checklists as needed to ensure cleaning is sufficient to meet the needs of
      people supported and employers.

Lesson #4 Home Maintenance and Upkeep:

     Takes steps to ensure that maintenance activities related to safety are taken care
      of immediately. Supports people and follows policy to ensure homes are efficient
      and well-maintained. Does not let small problems go until they cause damage.
     Knows the boundaries and expectations of the position in the areas of
      maintenance. Performs tasks safely and as requested. Seeks help as needed.
      Ensures homes are in good working order per policy, procedure, basic comfort,
      and safety.
     Avoids wasting energy by turning off lights, TVs, and other electronics when not
      using them. Makes energy conscious purchases when possible. Completes
      maintenance as asked related to energy savings.
     Assist appropriately with basic lawn, garden, or yard care. Handles tools safely
      and stores them properly
     Uses good prevention strategies for pests including cleaning up food spills
      immediately. Notices and reports signs of pests. Seeks appropriate permission
      before taking pest control actions.
     Knows local and national standards for waste management. Applies steps to
      reduce waste when possible by reusing items or purchasing low impact items.
      Correctly identifies hazardous materials and manages them properly. Organizes
      and handles trash and recycling correctly and as requested.

Lesson #5 Clothing Care and Laundry:

     Participates in clothes shopping as requested. Prepares by identifying the
      person's needs, preferences, and budget. Involves the person supported in all
      steps of shopping. Supports success in shopping by staying organized, selecting
      good stores, and keeping trips to a reasonable length.
     Assists with storing clothing as requested. Follows methods of folding and
      organizing laundry as requested by people supported and stores items where

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    requested. Uses infection control practices and maintains an organized home
    when storing dirty laundry.
   Completes all laundry tasks as requested. Uses washer and dryer correctly and
    safely. Uses products and methods preferred by people supported. Uses good
    infection control as needed when handling laundry.
   Shows attention to helping people look their best by noticing and supporting good
    maintenance of clothing. This includes stain removal, mending, ironing, and
    purging of ill-suited clothing




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             OJT Skill Statements: Individual Rights and Choice



Lesson 1: Overview of Individual Rights

     The DSP is able to locate the bill of rights displayed in the agency or by the
      employer for whom he/she works.
     The DSP is able to clearly explain these rights and takes the opportunity to do so
      as needed for the people he/she supports.
     The DSP shares information with the people s/he supports whenever a change in
      supports of treatment occurs.
     The DSP supports the people s/he works for to exercise their own rights.
     The DSP supports the individuals s/he supports to manage their own financial
      affairs to the greatest extent possible.
     The DSP takes every measure to protect both the privacy and confidentiality of
      the individuals he or she supports.
     The DSP can name the procedures within the agency in which he or she works
      that protect that privacy and confidentiality.
     The DSP refrains from asking a person s/he supports to do personal work that is
      for their benefit and personal gain.

Lesson 2: Overcoming a Past of Barriers and Restrictions

Lesson 3: Restrictions of Individual Rights

     The DSP understands and can state what the role of a guardian entails and
      respects the rights of the individuals s/he supports to make all decisions that they
      are able to make on their own.
     State the types of guardianship any person s/he supports has and what decisions
      each type allows the guardian to make on behalf of their ward
     Understands that all individuals have the right to take risks and does all that is
      necessary to ensure all individuals they support have the opportunity to take
      reasonable risks in their lives.
     Consistently and conscientiously attempts to balance a person’s right to take risks
      with the potential for harm.

Lesson 4: Your Role in Supporting Expression or Rights and Facilitating Choice-
Making

     The DSP takes advantage of "teachable moments" to explain rights to persons he
      or she supports about rights the person may not know, understand, or express.
     The DSP teaches choice-making to the people he or she supports and uses the
      choice-making process to do so (e.g. identify a situation where a choice is
      needed, gather information about the situation, identify options, identify
      consequences of each option, choose a preferred option, act on the decision, and
      evaluate the outcome).

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   The DSP finds new situations throughout the day to offer choices and facilitate
    choice-making in the lives of the people he or she supports.
   The DSP is creative in supporting people to develop new options and
    opportunities in their own lives.
   The DSP models responsible behavior in exercising their own rights and allowing
    others to exercise their rights.
   The DSP uses conflict management skills to teach individuals receiving supports
    how to act responsibly to ensure that everyone has the opportunity to exercise
    their rights.




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      OJT Skill Statements: Introduction to Developmental Disabilities


Lesson 1: A Brief History of Developmental Disability

      The DSP can describe the Moral Model and some benefits and harm to people
       with disabilities when disability is viewed through this model
      The DSP can describe the Medical Model and some benefits and harm to people
       with disabilities when disability is viewed through this model.
      The DSP can describe the Minority Model and some benefits to people with
       disabilities when disability is viewed through this model.
      The DSP can describe the primary lens (Moral, Medical, and Minority) through
       which services are being provided to the people he or she supports.
      The DSP can describe challenges to providing services and supports through the
       lens of the Minority Model.
      The DSP can describe important points in Western and United States history
       regarding the treatment of people with developmental disabilities.
      The DSP can describe the history of his or her employer and how the history has
       an impact on choices made by the employer today.
      The DSP can describe why empowerment and self-advocacy of people with
       developmental disabilities is important, based on the history of treatment.
      The DSP is observed teaching others including families, community members,
       and people being supported about the history of people with developmental
       disabilities.
      The DSP can describe the historical use and origins of the the words “idiot” and
       “moron” and other disability labels.
      The DSP is observed avoiding the use of labeling and dated terms that could be
       offensive to others.
      The DSP describes how he or she would educate a family member, a friend, or
       community member regarding the use of outdated terms and language that are
       offensive.
      The DSP is observed educating others regarding the use of outdated and
       offensive language.
      The DSP can describe some common historical themes across cultures that have
       occurred when a family member has disabilities.
      The DSP can describe the importance of working with each person and family
       individually understanding that cultural differences and personal circumstances
       can influence support needs as much as diagnosis.
      The DSP can describe how different values and perspectives can effect
       understanding of disability, and the understanding of the need for interventions,
       and acceptance of interventions.
      The DSP can describe the perspective regarding disability that the person being
       supported has toward their own disability and disability in general, for each person
       that he or she supports.
      The DSP can describe the perspective regarding disability that others who
       interact with the person being supported (neighbors, community members,


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      coworkers, peers, etc.) have toward the person’s disability and disability in
      general, for each person that he or she supports.
     The DSP is observed to seek understanding and clarification from others when
      conflict occurs.

Lesson 2: The Language and Ideas of Best Practices

     The DSP can describe what normalization means and why it is important.
     The DSP is observed encouraging rhythm and patterns of life that are similar to
      those experienced by people without disabilities, for the individuals he or she
      supports, including age-appropriate opportunities, activities, and possessions.
     The DSP can describe self-determination
     The DSP is observed offering opportunities to make choices and decisions on a
      daily basis for the people he or she supports.
     The DSP can describe how each person he or she supports expresses choice.
     The DSP is observed educating people on their choices in a method that is likely
      to be successful for the person.
     The DSP is observed to understand and respect individual choices, of the people
      he or she supports.
     The DSP can describe areas where the people he or she supports have current
      self-determination skills and areas where each person may need more
      opportunities to develop these skills.
     The DSP can describe how the concepts of self-determination and normalization
      are compatible and how to balance the principles of self-determination and
      normalization.
     The DSP ensures that opportunities are provided to enhance the person’s
      understanding of all available options when a person being supported engages in
      behavior and choices that are not normal for their age.
     The DSP can describe important things you should know about a person is you
      are providing person centered supports.
     The DSP is observed providing opportunities for the person to learn more about
      what they like or don’t like in life.
     The DSP can describe the most important people in the lives of each person he or
      she supports.
     The DSP can describe personal goals and dreams of each person he or she
      supports
     The DSP is observed assisting the people he or she supports stay connected and
      stay in touch with important people.
     The DSP can describe differences and similarities between an interdisciplinary
      team meeting and a person-centered planning meeting.
     The DSP uses terms and concepts of current best practices accurately and seeks
      further clarification or information if needed
     The DSP can define the terms community inclusion and integration.
     The DSP helps people they support engage in activities and interactions that
      increase their inclusion into the community.
     The DSP uses daily language that reflects best practices in the field and respects
      and values all people.
     The DSP educates others about the use of language and the relationships that
      are reflected in word choice.
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     The DSP avoids labeling language.
     The DSP asks questions and seeks clarification regarding language use when he
      or she is unclear about usage.

  Lesson 3: Terminology and Classification

     The DSP can describe similarities and difference between intellectual disabilities
      and developmental disabilities.
     The DSP can describe why accurate, reliable, and agreed upon definitions are
      very important to classification systems.
     The DSP can describe the important parts of the definition of a developmental
      disability.
     The DSP can describe why the term intellectual disability is preferred to the term
      mental retardation.
     The DSP uses the least stigmatizing words available when communicating with
      others.
     The DSP uses the term intellectual disabilities in place of mental retardation, but
      ensures that when communicating, people know that the terms mean the same
      thing.
     The DSP can describe the difference between an intellectual disability and a
      developmental disability.
     The DSP can describe the four levels of intellectual disability that is commonly
      used today.
     The DSP can list some risks that people with mild intellectual disabilities have that
      people with more serious disabilities may not have.
     The DSP can describe the difference in a classification system based primarily on
      IQ or on level of support.
     The DSP identifies whether classification systems used in documentation
      regarding people he or she supports are based on level of support or IQ.
     The DSPs is familiar with classification labels that are use in his or her state,
      agency, and by the types of funding through which supports are provided.
     The DSP can describe drawbacks to using classification systems as a way to
      match people to support needs.
     The DSP can describe the reasons why classification systems are used.
     The DSP is observed using classification labels accurately.
     The DSP is observed using classification labels only as needed and not in daily
      interactions.
     The DSP avoids using classification labels as a way to describe a person.

Lesson 4: Causes of Developmental Disabilities

     The DSP is knowledgeable regarding the conditions of the people he or she
      supports.
     The DSP can describe some common genetic conditions that may lead to
      developmental disabilities.
     The DSP provides an environment that keeps people safe and helps them
      achieve personal growth and competence.


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     The DSP asks the person, his or her family members, or others who may have
      knowledge of special needs, for relevant information regarding any conditions.
     The DSP is knowledgeable in a variety of methods for finding out information
      regarding conditions related to developmental disabilities.
     The DSP provides supports that reflect the best current information regarding any
      syndromes or conditions the persons he or she supports may have.
     The DSP can describe when environmental causes of developmental disability
      can occur.
     The DSP can list some of the most common environmental causes of
      developmental disabilities.
     The DSP know the causes of the developmental disabilities for the people he or
      she supports, when these causes are known.
     The DSP can describe important supports related to the conditions of the people
      he or she supports.
     The DSP can describe how an enriched environment can reduce risk of
      disabilities occurring.

Lesson 5: Services for People with Developmental Disabilities

     The DSP can describe changes in services that are happening due to the desire
      for services to be person-centered.
     The DSP is observed working with individuals he or she supports to discover and
      supports individual needs and desires.
     The DSP can describe consumer -directed supports.
     The DSP can describe the difference between a service and a support.
     The DSP assists people in developing a range of unpaid supports in their lives.
     The DSP knows the service coordinator for each person he or she supports.
     The DSP is familiar with service planning documents and goals for each person
      he or she supports.
     The DSP communicate with other DSPs and service providers across services, as
      needed to ensure the health, safety, and best possible service outcomes for the
      people He or she supports.
     The DSP participates in planning meetings for people he or she supports.
     The DSP provides critical information for service planning in alternative methods,
      when they cannot attend planning meetings.
     The DSP knocks before entering a home where the people he or she supports
      live.
     The DSP learns about and respects preferred behavior in each person’s home.
     The DSP respects the confidentiality of each person who lives in a home where
      he or she provides supports.
     The DSP can describe the range of options available for vocational supports to
      the people he or she supports.
     The DSP works to help the person find employment that has the benefits of
      inclusion and income.
     The DSP accurately assesses the strengths and training needs of people that he
      or she supports in the area of vocational support.
     The DSP uses personal contacts and effectively helps the people he or she
      supports in networking as a method for finding a desired job.

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    The DSP is knowledgeable regarding generic and specialized services available
     in the communities where the people he or she supports live.
    The DSP can describe the difference between a generic services and a
     specialized service.
    The DSP can describe why the use of generic services over specialized services
     whenever possible, is preferred.
    The DSP assists people in using generic services as a first choice.
    The DSP can describe where funds come from that pay for the services they
     provide.
    The DSP is aware of any obligations (regulations, spending limits, income limits.,
     etc.) that need to be fulfilled for the person to use these funds.
    The DSP fills out paper work and performs other tasks as necessary to ensure
     that people begin supported do not lose their funding.
    The DSP knows what the educational goals are for any school-age people they
     support.
    The DSP helps the person make progress toward educational goals.
    The DSP understands the obligations and requirements in the Individuals with
     Disabilities Act, if they provide support to school-age children.
     The DSP will advocate for appropriate services in the school when necessary.




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       OJT Skill Statements: Introduction to Medication Supports


Lesson #1: An Overview of Direct Support Roles in Medication Support

      The direct support professional includes over-the-counter medications and herbal
       treatments, as well as prescription medications in all situations that involve
       medication use.
      The direct support professional can describe at least one or more possible poor
       outcomes as a result of taking medication improperly.
      The direct support professional can describe possible problems the person(s)
       they support may experience if they do not correctly take their medications.
      The direct support professional uses a single pharmacist selected by his or her
       employer when filling prescriptions.
      The direct support professional can describe several strategies that will reduce
       the likelihood of medication errors in the setting in which he or she provides
       support.
      The direct support professional is observed routinely following strategies that will
       reduce the likelihood of medication errors in the setting in which he or she
       provides support.
      For the individual(s) he or she supports, the direct support professional can
       describe specific circumstances that may increase the likelihood of adverse
       reactions, side effects, and other poor or unexpected responses to medications.
      The direct support professional can accurately identify his or her duties in the
       area of Medication Support.
      The direct support professional can accurately describe the medication support
       needs for each person he or she supports.
      The direct support professional is aware of physical barriers to taking
       medications experienced by each person he or she supports.
      The direct support professional is aware of cognitive barriers to taking
       medications experienced by each person to whom he or she provides supports.
      The direct support professional is aware of circumstances that may cause
       persons he or she supports to be resistive to medications supports. (for example,
       cultural views, mental illness, or dementia)
      The direct support professional can accurately describe any federal laws, rules,
       or regulations that apply to his or her roles in medication support.
      The direct support professional can accurately describe any state or local laws,
       rules, or regulations that apply to his or her roles in medication support.
      The direct support professional can accurately describe any employer policies,
       procedures, and practices that apply to his or her roles in medication support.

Lesson #2: Medication Basics

      The direct support professional follows all federal, state, and local laws and the
       policies and procedures of his or her employer when working with controlled
       substances.


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   The direct support professional can list and describe the main points about any
    controlled substances used by the person(s) to whom he or she provides
    medication support.
   The direct support professional immediately reports any suspected problems
    regarding controlled substances to the appropriate person designated by the
    employer.
   The direct support professional follows any laws and employer policy and
    procedures regarding the administration of herbals, supplements, and natural
    remedies.
   The direct support professional can describe the difference among a prescription
    medication, non-prescription medication, an herbal, a natural remedy, and a
    nutritional supplement.
   The direct support professional can list and describe the key points (including at
    least the purpose and dosages) for any medications, herbal treatments, and
    natural remedies used by the person(s) whom he or she provides medication
    support.
   The direct support professional is observed supporting a healthy lifestyle for each
    person he or she supports.
   The direct support professional can describe the effect of lifestyle on the potential
    need for medication.
   The direct support professional defines a medication error and gives examples to
    indicate when a medication error has occurred.
   The direct support professional can describe the differences among the following:
    a medication side effect, sensitivity, allergy, adverse reaction, and problem
    interaction.
   The direct support professional accurately reports and documents side effects
    when experienced by the people he or she supports.
   The direct support professional effectively handles any adverse reactions to
    medications in the people he or she supports.
   The direct support professional can describe the most common signs of drug
    allergies.
   The direct support professional effectively handles drug allergies that occur in the
    people he or she support.
   The direct support professional supports and advocates as necessary for the
    best tolerated and most effective medications for the persons he or she supports.
   The direct support professional can list any drugs taken by the people he or she
    supports that have a potential to interact with other substances. He or she can
    list the substances that must be avoided.
   The direct support professional helps the person(s) he or she supports to obtain
    accurate information about potential interactions when using new medications,
    nutritional supplements, herbals or natural remedies.
   The direct support professional uses safe and effective medication practices
    when assisting a person while on trips or away from home.
   The direct support professional correctly packages and carries medications as
    required by law and employer policy and procedures.




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Lesson # 3: Working with Medications

     The direct support professional routinely checks for changes in the overall health
      and medication support needs of person(s) being supported at the start of each
      shift.
     The direct support professional uses reliable methods for assuring he or she
      correctly identifies the right person each time he or she assists with medications.
     The direct support professional observes good habits in medication support
      including storing, labeling, administering, and recording medications in ways that
      reduce the likelihood of errors.
     The direct support professional seeks guidance from others (such as an agency
      nurse or prescribing doctor) as needed, based on the need for clarification, and
      as required by laws and agency policies in the area of medication supports.
     The direct support professionals knows when a timing error has occurred.
     The direct support professional handles timing errors appropriately, safely, and in
      a timely manner.
     The direct support professional is aware of both the formal and informal policies,
      procedures, and practices of his or her employer with regard to medication
      support.
     The direct support professional can accurately identify the information on a
      prescription label that is critical to observing the five rights including: the person's
      name; the name of medication; the strength and dose of the medication; how to
      use the medication and any warning or precautions.
     The direct support professional can accurately identify the information on a
      prescription label that is NOT critical to observing the five rights, but may be
      helpful for other purposes including: The prescriber's name; the date the
      prescription was filled; the quantity or amount in the prescription; the expiration
      date; the number of refills available; the pharmacy contact information; and the
      prescription number.
     The direct support professional can accurately identify the following on an over-
      the-counter medication label: the name of the medication and its uses; the active
      ingredients; the directions for timing, route, and dosage; precautions or warnings;
      the inactive ingredients; the expiration date; and any storage requirements.
     The direct support professional is observed reading the label on an over-the-
      counter medication before assisting with administration.
     The direct support professional supports administration of over-the-counter
      medications as directed, taking into account the information on the label or insert,
      the policies and procedures of the employer, and any special directions from
      health care practitioners.
     The direct support professional watches for problem reactions to over-the-
      counter drugs and handles any problems effectively and safely.
     The direct support professional asks questions of pharmacists and prescribing
      health care practitioners to be sure that he or she fully understands the uses and
      potential problems with new medications and remedies.

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      The direct support professional is observed storing medications in a manner that
       keeps them fresh and potent and is in keeping with any special directions for the
       medication.
      The direct support professional stores medications using the guidelines in the
       support setting and suggests improvements when the system is confusing or
       disorganized.
      The direct support professional uses good hygiene and appropriate use of
       protective barriers while providing medication support.
      The direct support professional describes situations in which medications would
       need to be destroyed.
      The direct support professional ensures that unusable medications are destroyed
       in the proper way and in a timely manner.
      The direct support professional knows and practices effectively his or her
       responsibilities for medication destruction.
      The direct support professional can describe safe and effective methods for
       destroying medications available in his or her community.
      The direct support professional is observed correctly following all policies,
       procedures, rules, regulations, and laws when destroying medications.

Lesson # 4: Administration of Medications and Treatments

      The direct support professional is familiar with any systems used in the work
       setting to track the administration of medications, including written medication
       administration records.
      The direct support professional provides sufficient time and planning to ensure
       medication administration is completed without unnecessary interruptions or
       distractions.
      The direct support professional communicates with others as necessary to
       ensure medications are administered as prescribed or recommended.
      The direct support professional treats each person with respect during
       medication administration regardless of the person's perceived ability to
       understand, including: speaking directly to the person, using an appropriate tone,
       informing the person of procedures in advance, and ensuring comfort during
       procedures.
      The direct support professional ensures privacy in medication support at a level
       desired by the person receiving supports.
      The direct support professionals can describe how he or she makes decisions
       regarding the desired level of privacy during medication support, for people who
       cannot easily communicate with others.
      The direct support professional is observed accurately completing a "triple check"
       for the five rights of administration on the medication label before administering
       medications.
      The direct support professional administers medications in pill form correctly.
      The direct support professional uses approved measuring devices and measures
       correctly when administering liquid medications.
      The direct support professional correctly uses inhalers to administer medications.
      The direct support professional can correctly administrate eye drops or
       ointments.
      The direct support professional can directly administer ear drops.
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     The direct support professional can administer nasal spray and nasal drops
      correctly.
     The direct support professional can administer topical medication correctly.
     The direct support professional complies with policies, procedures, and
      regulations regarding medication refusals or misuse.
     The direct support professional supports people in learning more about their
      medications.

Lesson # 5: Follow-up, Communication, and Documentation of Medications

     The direct support professional can describe the systems for communication,
      documentation, and follow-up in the area of medication support required by his or
      her employer.
     The direct support professional effectively prioritizes communication and
      documentation needs when dealing with medications and medication related
      situations.
     The direct support professional is familiar with all standard forms used by his or
      her employer for documenting medications and medication-related events.
     The direct support professional completes all medical-related documentation as
      soon as possible after an event.
     The direct support professional makes sure s/he does not leave the support
      situation before completing all necessary medical-related documentation.
     The direct support professional knows how to complete and update a medication
      administration record as required by his or her employer.
     The direct support professional can describe the terms abuse, neglect, and
      exploitation as they are defined by his or her employer and/or state.
     The direct support professional complies with all reporting requirements and with
      ethical standards related to the reporting of potential abuse, neglect, or
      exploitation of vulnerable people.
     The direct support professional can identify potential abuse, neglect, or
      exploitation situations that are related to medication supports.

Lesson # 6: Using Medication References and Resources

     The direct support professionals can describe several possible resources useful
      for learning more about medications.
     The direct support professional can list benefits and limitations of medication
      resources he or she uses.
     The direct support professional can accurately use the references and resources
      provided by the employer.




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OJT Skill Statements: Maltreatment of Vulnerable Adults and Children



The Direct Support Professional:

Lesson 1: Defining Abuse, Neglect and Exploitation

   •   Recognizes when adults meet the definition of vulnerable per law, regulation, or
       employer policy. When uncertain regarding whether an adult meets the legal
       definition, seeks consultation until sure. Is aware of the amount of supervision
       that is appropriate for the individuals to whom she or he provides support.
   •   Recognizes actions that meet the definition of abuse per law, regulation, or
       employer policy. When uncertain regarding whether an action meets the legal
       definition, seeks consultation until sure. Is vigilant in protecting individuals to
       whom she or he provides support from abuse.
   •   Recognizes actions that meet the definition of neglect per law, regulation, or
       employer policy. When uncertain regarding whether an action meets the legal
       definition, seeks consultation until sure. Is vigilant in protecting individuals to
       whom she or he provides support from neglect.
   •   Recognizes actions that meet the definition of exploitation per law, regulation, or
       employer policy. When uncertain regarding whether an action meets the legal
       definition, seeks consultation until sure. Is vigilant in protecting individuals to
       whom she or he provides support from exploitation.
   •   In day-to-day practice notices and reports issues of concern regarding abuse,
       neglect, or exploitation of vulnerable people.

   Lesson 2: Preventing Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation

   •   The DSP takes care of him or herself and encourages co-workers to also
       participate in stress reducing activities.
   •   The DSP assists individuals he or she supports in gaining self-advocacy skills.
   •   The DSP can identify the aspects of service delivery that can contribute to the
       vulnerability of the people he or she supports.
   •   The DSP identifies particular aspects of a person’s disability that may contribute
       to the risk of abuse, neglect, or exploitation of the people to whom she or he
       provides support.
   •   The DSP consistently uses methods to reduce the risk of maltreatment for
       individuals to whom he or she provides support.
   •   The DSP encourages and assists the people he or she supports develop and
       maintain personal relationships.

   Lesson 3: Reporting Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation

   •   The DSP identifies the people to report a suspected incident of abuse and
       neglect to within his or her agency.
   •   The DSP knows whether he or she is a mandated reporter and the
       responsibilities that are required of mandated reporters in his or her state.
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•   The DSP can name the appropriate outside agencies to whom a report of
    suspected abuse, neglect, or exploitation should be made.
•   The DSP can describe the specific steps he or she would take in reporting a
    suspected incident of abuse, neglect, or neglect.
•   The DSP knows the specific policies and procedures of reporting incidents of
    abuse, neglect, and exploitation in the agency in which he or she works.

Lesson 4: Documenting Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation

•   The DSP is knows the different places where incidents of abuse, neglect, and
    exploitation are to be documented in the particular agency in which he or she
    works.
•   The DSP consistently and thoroughly documents incidents and accidents.
•   The DSP consistently uses correct documenting procedures when making
    reports of suspected abuse, neglect or exploitation.
•   The DSP is able to clearly communicate by completing factual and objective
    documentation.

    Lesson 5: Following Up on Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation

•   The DSP can identify advocacy groups in his or her area that can assist in
    obtaining information about a report that has been filed.
•   The DSP maintains frequent and open communication with individuals and family
    members pertaining to the process and outcome of a report that has been filed.




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                     OJT Skill Statements: Personal Care


The Direct Support Professional:

Lesson 1: Understanding Personal and Self Care

      Assists people with making clothing, hygiene, and grooming choices that reduce
       social stigma.
      Supports people and promotes opportunities to have frequent and regular
       opportunities to use community services such as hair dressers, manicurists, and
       other grooming services.
      Identifies all of the self-care activities of the person(s) he or she supports.
      Identifies and describe laws and regulations that affect personal care services in
       his or her state and service setting.

Lesson 2: Individualizing Personal Care

      Identify three primary factors that may affect a person's personal care support
       needs and give an example of the influence of each of the factors.
      Provides assistance with personal care tasks that meet the unique needs and
       preferences of the individual(s) he or she supports.
      Respects individual privacy and shows sensitivity by gathering only necessary
       and helpful information when learning hygiene and grooming routines.
      Effectively gathers necessary information regarding personal care support, using
       a variety of sources as needed.
      Uses existing documents appropriately when seeking information about personal
       care tasks and routines.
      Provides supports based on the beliefs, values, and needs of the person being
       supported.
      Assists a person in expressing their own preferences by offering and supporting
       choices and providing information and opportunities, in the areas of grooming,
       dressing, and hygiene.
      Shows good planning and organization skills when assisting with personal care
       activities in order to get activities completed.

Lesson 3: The Basics of Hygiene

      Uses effective infection control procedures during personal care routines.
      The direct support professional washes his or her hands (using soap and
       scrubbing for at least 20 seconds) before and after completing hygiene support.
      Properly uses disposable gloves when assisting with personal care activities.
      Demonstrates the proper and safe use of any adaptive equipment used by the
       person being supported.
      Assists people as needed in bathing or showering, following a safe and healthy
       order of cleansing; providing assistance as needed, and completing tasks
       effectively and respectfully.
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      Assists with proper cleaning of the genital area and support for menstruation or
       sexuality as needed and appropriate.
      Completes all toileting routines as requested, ensuring the health, safety,
       comfort, and privacy of the person at all times.

Lesson 4: Basics of Grooming and Dressing

      Provides support in the area of grooming and dressing based on each person's
       preferences, culture, and physical and cognitive support needs. Knows the
       expectations of the employer and can complete them effectively.
      Respects privacy during dressing routines. Is trustworthy and refrains from
       comments and behaviors that suggest judgment of the person's body, choices,
       personal space, or assistance needs during these routines.
      Ensures safety, comfort, and independence in dressing by greeting the person,
       using proper positioning, being organized, and checking for comfort during and
       after routines.
      Arranges routines and environments to best support the person in having
       maximum control and choice within the environment. Identifies and uses
       assistive devices or clothing modifications as desired by person.
      Assists the person in being fully groomed as desired before leaving the home.
       Attends to needs beyond basic dressing, including accessories, shaving, make-
       up, hair styling, and the use of deodorants or scents.
      Ensures that the person's hair is groomed and styled as part of the dressing
       routine. Styles the person's hair in the way that the person prefers. Teaches
       people how to complete these routines as needed.
      Assists in hair removal and grooming as needed to help persons supported
       maintain their appearance.

Lesson 5: Oral Care

      Uses infection control during oral care. Hand washing is observed before and
       after routines. Clean gloves are used when working in a person's mouth. Shared
       areas are cleaned. No personal items are shared.
      Identifies common indicators of problems with oral health such as swollen,
       bleeding gums; loose teeth; pain in the facial or ear area; or growing
       discoloration of teeth or gums.
      Provides respectful and effective interventions and strategies that lead to best
       possible or improved oral health for persons supported. When resistance occurs,
       works in partnership with person to overcome it.
      Provides oral care that includes four key elements of oral health: maintaining a
       balanced diet and minimizing snacks; daily brushing and flossing; and regular
       preventative dental visits.
      Supports people as needed in brushing teeth at least 2 times a day. Uses proper
       technique and tools including brushing all surfaces of the teeth with a soft bristle
       brush.
      Supports people as needed in flossing 1 time a day. Uses a floss type that works
       well for the person and proper technique to ensure gum health.

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   Uses proper techniques for daily cleansing of dentures and gums, inserting and
    removing dentures, and checking for oral health of a person who wears dentures.
   Assists with dental appointments as needed, including locating a dentist,
    scheduling appointments and communicating necessary information to the dental
    staff.




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             OJT Skill Statements: Person Centered Planning


The Direct Support Professional:

Lesson 1: Foundations of Person-Centered Planning

      Describes the core values and purposes of person-centered planning. Can
       effectively compare and contrast to system-centered planning practices.
       Describes persons supported in light of meaningful lives with opportunities.
      Assists each person supported to experience opportunities for competence,
       participation, connection to others, and choice on a daily and ongoing basis.
      Discriminates between activities meant to comply with regulations and policies
       and those that are focused on the dreams, aspirations, and preferences of the
       persons he or she supports.
      Protects the person's privacy and feeling when sharing information at planning
       meetings. Uses a respectful tone and language. Avoids talking about and around
       the person.
      Actively participates in person-centered planning as part of a person's support
       team when invited by the person.

Lesson 2: An Overview of Person-Centered Approaches

      Describes different methods of person-centered planning to families and people
       being supported as needed when people are seeking information regarding
       person-centered planning.
      Assists the people he or she supports in identifying resources and competent
       facilitators to assist in person-centered planning as requested.

Lesson 3: The Person-Centered Planning Process

      Assists others, especially the persons supported in preparing for person-centered
       planning sessions as needed. This may include organizing, dressing, or getting
       to the meeting. Comes focused and ready for meetings.
      Works to ensure that cultural needs are attended to during person-centered
       planning processes. This may include locating translators, preparing special
       food, arranging meeting times and places that work.
      Uses active listening skills (asking for clarification, checking for understanding) in
       person-centered planning sessions. Listens for deeper meaning and helps the
       person clarify to others when needed.
      Engages in positive, solutions-focused behavior during person-centered
       planning. Shares ideas, is optimistic and willing to collaborate. Accepts only
       assignments that he or she is interested in and will complete.




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Lesson 4: Bringing Person-Centered Plans to Life

    Integrates person-centered supports into daily activities. Looks for opportunities
     to help the person make choices, learn, get to know people, contribute and take
     on valued social roles.
    Completes commitments from a person-centered action plan in a timely and
     effective manner.
    Shares problems and challenges in implementing person-centered plans with the
     employer and suggests solutions and ideas to overcome these challenges.
    Seeks assistance in achieving person-centered supports as needed. Speaks up
     at sessions and gets questions answered.
    Effectively balances the needs of the system with the needs and desires of the
     individual.




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              OJT Skill Statements: Positive Behavior Support



The Direct Support Professional:

Lesson 1: Understanding Behavior

      Uses observable and measurable descriptions when communicating about
       behavior.
      Uses the person's unique culture, rights, and overall quality of life as methods for
       deciding if behaviors need to be targeted for change.
      Correctly identifies antecedents, behaviors, and consequences and the order in
       which they occur.
      Uses vocabulary and concepts related to behavior supports correctly including:
       antecedent, aversive, consequence, deprivation, positive and negative
       punishment, punisher, positive and negative reinforcement, reinforcer.
      Uses preventative and proactive methods and avoids the use of aversive or
       deprivation methods in supporting behavioral change.

Lesson 2: Functions and Causes of Behavior

      States the basic functions of purposeful behavior as obtaining or avoiding
       something.
      Uses the context and likely function of the behavior as a method for intervening.
       Does not rely only on the form of the behavior. Seeks assistance as needed.
       Advocates for formal assessment as needed.

Helps people communicate, supports daily choice, helps people experience freedom and
independence. Recognizes conditions that could be influencing behavior. Monitors for mental
and physical illness, or trauma.

      Asks for a formal functional assessment or functional analysis of a behavior
       when appropriate.
      Participates in developing and updating hypothesis statements in behavior
       support plans. PBS.2.6.a. TERMS OF FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT. Considers
       problem routines and setting events when identifying the function of behavior.
       Uses these terms correctly in discussing behavior.

Lesson 3: Understanding Positive Approaches

      Uses terms and concepts of behavior analysis in order to understand and change
       behavior when needed.
      Is current on best practice. Applies interventions supporting choice, dignity,
       inclusion, and self-management, regardless of the intellectual or physical
       capacity of the person served.
      Uses methods of support that increase people's quality of life, show respect, let
       them self-determine, and learn new skills related to choices and communication.
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     PBS.3.4.a. DSP CHARACTERISTICS: Is reflective and honest about strengths
      and weakness in behavioral situations. Seeks to improve and is enthusiastic
      about trying new strategies. Works in partnership with persons supported.
     Is familiar with current best practices, choice, and communication and how they
      apply to behavior support.

Lesson 4: Preventing Challenging Behavior

     Demonstrates planning, preparation, and proactive teaching in regards to
      challenging behavior. Uses methods for ensuring that persons have skills needed
      to make changes. Teaches skills when necessary.
     Changes expectations, environments, and consequences to behavior in an
      organized way that is likely to help persons with challenging behavior learn to
      self-manage and make durable behavioral changes.
     Has a reasonable hypothesis for why a behavior occurs (the function and context
      of behavior). Responds with prevention strategies related to reasonable
      adjustments in expectations and teach skills for long-term success.
     Changes or eliminated antecedents to decrease use of challenging behavior. Is
      aware of setting events and adjusts expectations and teaching strategies based
      on these.
     Selects and implements appropriate new behaviors to teach that flow from the
      function and context of the behavior and the person's goals.
      Uses the terms and concepts of prevention strategies such as antecedent
      manipulation, functional equivalence, and replacement behaviors correctly and
      as needed.

Lesson 5: Responding to Behavior

     Uses appropriate consequences as part of an overall plan that includes teaching
      new behaviors and preventing behaviors.
     Uses a hypothesis statement and/or the identified function of the behavior as the
      method for choosing appropriate consequences to encourage or discourage
      behaviors.
     Uses consequences that are likely to increase use of preferred behavior and
      decrease use of non-preferred behavior.
     Selects effective consequences that are easy to deliver and delivers them when
      they are most likely to be effective.
     Is able to prevent and de-escalate crisis situations effectively. Uses legal
      strategies that focus on immediate safety and rights protections, but that also
      include long-term development of preferred behaviors.
     Uses natural consequences in ways that do not cause stigma, are likely to be
      effective, and are safe.
     Uses terms and concepts of response correctly: extinction, satiation, primary &
      secondary reinforcers, reinforcement schedules, generalize, pairing, contingent,
      crisis, consequence management, and competing behaviors.

Lesson 6: Behavior Support Plans


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      Is familiar with the behavior support plans of each person he or she supports and
       works to ensure plans effectively meets persons' needs.
      Recognizes when critical components of a behavior support plan are missing,
       such as proper approval or objective and measurable descriptions of behavior,
       and works with team to revise as needed.
      Describes behavior in objective and measurable terms. Asks others to use
       objective terms when necessary.
      Takes an active role in assuring that behavior support plans are effective and
       lead to better lives and good outcomes for people.
      Effectively implements behavior support plans as written. Seeks support and help
       as needed.
      Completes all requested documentation tasks described in the behavior support
       plan, accurately and completely.

Lesson 7: Rules, Regulations, Policies, and Rights

      Treats people fairly, is aware of their rights and encourages the expression of
       rights and development of self-management skills.
      Applies rights restrictions in behavior support plans only when they are ethical,
       safe, and likely to be effective. Discourages restrictive practices and works to find
       methods of teaching self-management.
      Is familiar with common restrictions (locks, buzzers, helmets, straps, access to
       personal items and choices, time out procedures). Ensures the restriction is
       needed. Supports the person to reinstate rights.
      Has reliable methods for identifying if interventions are restrictive or not.
      Is aware of the risks and benefits of behavioral interventions used with people
       supported. Educates persons and families as needed on these. Takes steps to
       reduce risks whenever possible.
      Follows all state, federal and local laws and regulations related to behavioral
       interventions. Ensures coworkers follow laws and regulations and reports when
       necessary.
      Ensures correct committees and legal representatives are involved in
       development and review of behavior support plans.
      Has a good ability to engage positive behavior supports and avoid unnecessary
       restrictions. Is an advocate for the persons served and their rights.




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       OJT Skill Statements: Safety at Home and in the Community



Lesson #1 Risks, Choice, and Common Sense

      DSP accurately assesses and promotes safety in all environments and situations
       for the people s/he supports.
      DSP can suggest modifications to the day's activities for the people s/he supports
       that result in increased safety and access to preferred events for people being
       supported.
      DSP takes personal responsibility for improving the safety of all environments
       and situations for the people s/he supports.
      DSP ensures that the people s/he supports enjoy maximum personal freedom in
       all environments.
      DSP accurately identifies current and potential risks for the individuals s/he
       supports both within and outside of the primary support environment.
      DSP teaches and models safe behaviors in all environments to the people s/he
       supports.

Lesson #2 Safety at Home

      DSP uses universal home safety standards.
      DSP balances the importance of universal standards, while respecting the
       personal space and the rights of the individual who receives supports.
      DSP identifies and ensures resolution of safety issues in the home.
      DSP completes assessments of potential safety hazards in the home
       environment based on the needs of the individuals who live there.
      DSP finds resolutions to safety issues in shared space of the home and ensures
       that the safety needs of all the individuals who live are met.

Lesson #3 Fire Safety

      DSP knows where to find and how to use the fire safety plan where s/he works.
      DSP identifies and rectifies any potential fire hazards where s/he works.
      DSP periodically practices fire drills with individuals in the home/work setting.
      DSP uses planned fire escape routes when conducting drills.
      When given a specific fire scenario within the home/work environment, the DSP
       can accurately plan a safe escape route.
      DSP uses fire safety standards.
      DSP understands and follows the state and agency fire safety standards.
      DSP can describe the specific action s/he would take in the event of a fire at the
       place in which s/he works. This action would include specific detail about how to
       adequately protect the people who receive supports in this setting.

Lesson #4 Responding to Emergencies
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      DSP can demonstrate where necessary emergency response information,
       equipment, and supplies are kept.
      DSP can state which types of emergencies are most likely to occur in the primary
       support setting and can identify the important components of agency policy and
       procedure for these types of emergencies.
      DSP can state that the first priority in an emergency is the safety of all.
      DSP can state how to access assistance in an emergency.
      DSP can define stress during traumatic events.
      DSP can describe their role in dealing with emergencies.

Lesson #5 Safety for All Occasions

      DSP promotes safety in the community for the people s/he supports.
      DSP accurately assesses the day’s activities for the people s/he supports with
       regard to community safety precautions that need to be taken.
      DSP ensures that the people they serve to enjoy personal freedom in their
       community environment.
      DSP accurately identifies current and potential risks for the individuals s/he
       supports in the community.
      DSP teaches and models safe behaviors in the community to the people s/he
       supports.

Lesson #6 Motor Vehicle Safety

      DSP reports problems and needs regarding company vehicles or an individual's
       transportation needs in a timely manner and according to agency policy.
      DSP demonstrates defensive driving skills whenever transporting others or using
       a company vehicle.
      DSP can describe and demonstrate how to check a vehicle for safety prior to
       departing.
      DSP can state what steps are necessary to effectively plan for a trip, including
       any supplies that are necessary.
      DSP can state the individual needs of those he or she supports regarding
       transportation and demonstrates effectively implementing any needed
       interventions or processes that ensure safety.
      DSP identifies when he or she should not be driving and refrains from doing so,
       (i.e., too tired, under the influence of medications or alcohol, unfamiliar with the
       vehicle or terrain, etc.).
      DSP is aware of and follows all agency policies and procedures regarding motor
       vehicles, including maintenance.

Lesson #7 Universal Precautions and Infection Control

      DSP washes hands while working.
      DSP uses universal precautions as appropriate when in contact with bodily fluids.
      The DSP correctly cleans and disinfects contaminated surfaces while working.
      DSP appropriately cleans and disinfects food contact surfaces while working.
      DSP appropriately handles contaminated laundry as needed.

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     DSP uses appropriate steps when exposed to blood or body fluids.
     DSP defines blood borne pathogens and infectious disease.
     DSP can identify the infectious disease cycle.
     DSP differentiates between bodily fluids and if universal precautions apply.

Lesson #8 Accident and Incident Reporting

     DSP completes incident/accident forms as needed and accurately.
     DSP can state what types of accidents and incidents are reportable based on
      agency policy and state or federal law and where and when to report.
     DSP verbally reports in a timely manner to appropriate people and agencies as
      needed.




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              OJT Skill Statements: Supporting Healthy Lives



Lesson 1: Living Healthy Lives

      The direct support professional demonstrates how to plan a nutritious menu for
       two weeks using the guidelines provided in the food pyramid.
      The direct support professional demonstrates how to encourage and support a
       person to participate in fun and relaxing activities that will lead to a healthy life.
      The Direct Support Professional demonstrates how to support individuals to find
       and participate in regular physical activities and exercise along with making it fun.
      The direct support professional demonstrates how to support an individual to
       participate in regular routine health care check-ups, screenings and
       immunizations.
      The DSP demonstrates role modeling of healthy habits when supporting
       individuals to lead a healthy life.

Lesson 2: Health Across the Lifespan

      The direct support professional can state seven areas of health where needs can
       vary due to a person's age.
      The direct support professional can identify the age of each person he or she
       supports.
      The direct support professional describes how he or she works with health care
       providers to ensure that age-appropriate screening, immunizations, and general
       care is provided to each person he or she supports.
      The direct support professional can describe the age-based nutritional needs of
       each person that he or she supports.
      The direct support professional is observed teaching and sharing information
       regarding age-based health needs with the people he or she supports, their
       families, coworkers and others, when appropriate.
      The direct support professional is observed assisting people to understand and
       make choices regarding their personal health that includes an awareness of the
       long-term effect of those choices on their health.
      The direct support professional is enthusiastic, positive, and creative in finding
       methods for supporting people in developing good health habits and in caring for
       themselves as is appropriate for their life stage.

Lesson 3: Individual Health Needs

      The Direct Support Professional identifies risk factors related to health for each
       person he or she supports.
      Direct Support Professional knows critical aspects of the family medical and
       health histories of the person(s) s/he supports.
      The Direct Support Professional is demonstrates sensitivity to differences in
       approaches to healthcare for the people he or she supports.

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     The Direct Support Professional supports people to understand the advantages
      and disadvantages to various lifestyle choices and allows people to make
      personal choices.
     The Direct Support Professionals identifies the health risks associated with work
      and community environments for the person s/he supports and describes
      strategies to deal effectively with these needs.

Lesson 4: Signs and Symptoms of Illness

     The DSP can give a good description in observable measurable terms of what
      the individual is like when they are healthy. They can communicate this
      information effectively with other team members who support the individual.
     The DSP demonstrates how they can use their senses to recognize signs and
      symptoms of illness.
     The DSP demonstrates how to take someone's temperature and identifies what
      normal body temperature usually is for the person he or she supports.
     The DSP demonstrates where she or he finds information on side effects of the
      medications that are taken by the individuals she or he supports.
     The DSP demonstrates accurate documentation of how he or she provided
      treatments for the individuals who were not feeling well.

Lesson 5: Care of Common Health Conditions

     Identifies and provides specific care for a person with an acute, chronic, or acute-
      on-chronic health condition.
     Identifies resources and uses them to provide adequate care for people s/he
      supports who have diabetes.
     Identifies resources for use in and providing adequate support for the people s/he
      supports who have high blood pressure.
     Identifies resources for providing adequate support for people s/he supports who
      have coronary disease.
     The DSP identifies and uses resources for providing adequate care to the people
      s/he supports who have cancer.
     DSP identifies and uses resources for providing appropriate support to people
      s/he supports who have arthritis.
     DSP identifies and use resources for providing appropriate support to people
      s/he supports who have asthma.
     The direct support professional demonstrates they are knowledgeable about
      health conditions for the individuals they support. They are willing to share this
      knowledge with the individual they support and their coworkers so she or he can
      provide the best possible support.
     The direct support professional demonstrates they are knowledgeable about
      common health conditions. They can recognize the symptoms early and provide
      recommended treatments. They are also able to help the individual they support
      understand what is making them feel sick.
     The DSP identifies, discusses, and evaluates the characteristics, strengths and
      challenges of person s/he supports or knows who is diagnosed with autism.


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      The direct support professional is willing to learn more about the particular
       syndromes for the individuals they support. They demonstrate a basic knowledge
       of the traits and characteristics gained through research and education and are
       willing to share this information with other to better support the individual

Lesson 6: Working with Health Care Professionals

      The DSP has collected accurate health care information on the individuals they
       support.
      The DSP is knowledgeable about the individual's rights to privacy and
       demonstrates ways of protecting the individual's rights. This includes knowing
       who has access to medical information and how the individual, their family and or
       legal representative can get copies of medical information kept by health care
       providers.
      The DSP is able to explain health care reimbursement benefits to the individual
       and family in a way that is easy to understand.
      The individual, their family or legal representative expresses satisfaction with the
       support they receive from the Direct Support Professional when working with
       health care providers.
      The individual, their family or legal representative expresses satisfaction with the
       support they receive from the Direct Support Professional in understanding
       recommendations made by the health care provider so they can make informed
       decision about their health care.
      Attends health care appointment with the individual. The individual (or family
       member) reports that the Direct Support Professional has discussed the health
       care professional's recommendations with them in an understandable and
       respectful manner.
      The Direct Support Professional supports the individual and family to make
       informed decisions about health care choices.
      The Direct Support Professional demonstrates they are knowledgeable about the
       health care needs of the individual and works in partnership with the health care
       provider, the individual, their family and legal representative.
      Direct Support Professional demonstrates that they are knowledgeable about
       health care options and has successfully supported an individual to find a health
       care provider that meets the individual's health care needs.
      The Direct Support Professional assures the mental health professional has
       accurate information about the individual they support including any symptoms
       and effectiveness of therapies.




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 OJT Skill Statements: Supporting Jobs & Careers in the Community


Lesson #1 Successful Community Employment and Retention:

     The direct support professional can describe at least two work factors that affect
      the work of someone he or she supports.
     The direct support professional can describe two personal factors that affect a
      person's work.
     The direct support professional has a plan for timely completion of tasks and skill
      development. Uses calendars, reminder lists, and daily or weekly checklists as
      needed. Rewards self for achievements.
     The direct support professional can explain two different types of work
      accommodations or modifications that can be made to improve work
      performance.
     The direct support professional can describe two benefits of a supportive work
      environment.
     The direct support professional can explain two ways to assess the supportive
      nature of a workplace.
     The direct support professional can describe two ways he or she can facilitate a
      supportive workplace.
     The direct support professional can describe two differences between
      professional and personal relationships.
     The direct support professional can describe two ways that he or she can
      facilitate building positive workplace relationships.

Lesson #2 Employment Supports and Volunteering:

     The direct support professional can explain three social, attitudinal, or
      professional reasons why people volunteer.
     The direct support professional describes how volunteer positions can lead to
      paid employment opportunities.
     The direct support professional can identify two volunteer resources in their
      community.
     The direct support professional can access volunteer clearinghouses to identify
      volunteer positions in their community.
     The direct support professional can name two seasonal volunteer possibilities in
      their community.
     The direct support professional can identify one local governmental or civic
      agency in their community that may provide volunteer opportunities.
     The direct support professional can describe the importance of person-centered
      planning in identifying a volunteer's interest.
     The direct support professional can describe two roles they play in supporting
      volunteer employers.
     The direct support professional can describe three roles he or she might have in
      supporting the volunteer on and off the job.

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Lesson #3 Introduction to Government Benefit Programs:

     The direct support professional can identify the two major government cash
      benefit programs.
     The direct support professional can identify the two major government medical
      benefit programs.
     The direct support professional can identify the type of government benefits used
      by those they support.
     The direct support professional can describe what substantial gainful activity
      (SGA) is and how it affects government benefits.
     The direct support professional can describe the difference between Social
      Security Disability Insurance and Supplemental Security Income benefits.
     The direct support professional can describe three eligibility criteria for Social
      Security Disability Insurance and Medicare.
     The direct support professional can describe three eligibility criteria for
      Supplemental Security Income and Medicaid.
     The direct support professional can identify how much Supplemental Security
      Income can be obtained by people in their state.
     The direct support professional can identify five groups or people that they could
      consult with regarding government benefits.
     The direct support professional can identify national and local organizations that
      they can consult with regarding government benefits.

Lesson #4 Government Benefit Programs and Employment:

     The direct support professional can describe what type of income is considered
      earned income.
     The direct support professional can describe three types of unearned income.
     The direct support professional can describe two expenses that may be
      considered Impairment Related Work Expenses (IRWEs).
     The direct support professional can describe two incentives that could reduce
      earned income for people on either Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) or
      Supplemental Security Income (SSI).
     The direct support professional can describe two personal factors that a person
      should consider before leaving benefits.
     The direct support professional can describe government tools that can assist a
      person that wants to leave benefits.
     The direct support professional can identify two organizations he or she can
      consult with to assist people that want to stop using benefits.




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        OJT Skill Statements: Teaching People with Disabilities


Lesson 1: Understanding Teaching

     The DSP can describe why teaching new skills is important to the people he or
      she supports.
     The DSP can describe how the concepts of "lifelong learning" and "self-directed
      learning" apply to the people he or she supports.
     The DSP can describe why teaching new skills and providing opportunities for
      people to use existing skills are a central part of the direct support profession.
     The DSP is able to describe the skills that are being taught and why, for each
      person he or she supports.
     The DSP is observed interacting in a friendly and supportive manner while
      teaching new skills.
     The DSP is observed engaging in collaborative teaching with the people he or
      she supports.
     The DSP is observed teaching choice, decision-making, self-management, and
      other self-determination skills in daily interactions with people being supported.
     The DSP can describe how the services he or she provides are funded and the
      goal setting and services requirements of the funding source.
     The DSP can describe the purpose of formal and informal assessment in
      selecting and implementing teaching goals.
     The DSP is observed using age appropriate intervention and strategies to teach
      people important skills.
     The DSP can describe the goal setting process.
     The DSP describes culturally based goals for the person being supported.
     The DSP is observed using spontaneous opportunities to teach people important
      skills.

Lesson 2: Preparing to Teach

     The DSP can describe why teaching new skills is important.
     The DSP identifies which tasks, activities, or behaviors, could use a task analysis
      for the people he or she supports.
     The DSP can develop a task analysis for a necessary task.
     The DSP makes recommendations for revisions of task analysis as needed,
      based on the needs of the people he or she supports.
     The DSP is familiar with the environments in which they plan to teach new skills,
      including accessibility issues, the necessary tools or resources, and additional
      skills needed to effectively use the environment.
     The DSP competently supports the use of any assistive technology device used
      by the people he or she supports.
     DSP helps the people he or she supports to obtain needed assistive technology.
     When possible, the DSP obtains new materials, as needed and possible, to
      make learning and participating in tasks more convenient for the people being
      supported.

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      The DSP can describe the ways they adapt the environment or tasks to make
       learning and working more enjoyable for the people he or she supports.
      The DSP is observed interacting respectfully and in a manner that presumes
       competence of the person being supported, in all interactions.
      The DSP refrains from discussing the person's life and habits in front of others.
      The DSP is observed including the people being supported in discussions and
       daily interactions, and support other's in doing so.
      The DSP observe privacy in any personal cares by minimizing attention to the
       needs, going to private areas to provide cares, and providing for as much
       modesty as possible in the interaction.
      The DSP is considerate and appropriate in all interactions, including touch
       (handshakes, gentleness in personal cares, etc.).
      The DSP is aware of any special needs or diagnoses, such as hearing loss,
       visual impairments or ADHD, that may have an effect on teaching strategies for
       the people he or she supports.
      The DSP can identify the long term goals and current learning objectives of the
       people he or she supports.
      The DSP is prepared for formal teaching opportunities.
      The DSP provides information to the team regarding possible adaptations to
       teaching routines, materials, and environments, that lead to successful teaching
       outcomes for a person being supported.
      The DSP can describe what is important to each person that he or she supports.

Lesson 3: Teaching Strategies

      The DSP can describe the purpose of teaching activities in terms of the effect on
       the quality of life for people he or she support.
      The DSP is observed interacting in meaningful teaching activities with the people
       he or she supports.
      The DSP is observed during teaching interactions using simple, direct, and clear
       verbal prompts that are appropriate to the person with whom the DSP is
       interacting with.
      The DSP is observed adapting teaching strategies, level of prompting, and
       reinforcement strategies to effectively meet the needs of each situation.
      The DSP can describe the best methods for teaching skills to the people he or
       she provides support.
      The DSP can accurately describe what types of activities, events, objects, or
       interactions are positively reinforcing to the individual he or she supports.
      The DSP can describe effective methods for teaching self-reinforcement that
       meet the needs of the people he or she supports.

Lesson 4: Organizing and Applying Teaching Strategies

      The DSP incorporates important goals and strategies into daily interactions with
       people.
      The DSP can describe when and how often he or she provides learning
       opportunities for each individual he or she supports.
      The DSP can describe why charting and documentation of goals are important.

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   The DSP can describe various methods of charting and the situations to which
    they are best suited.
   The DSP completes all required charting regarding goal progress as specified
    and in a timely manner.
   The DSP can describe the recent progress for each goal for each person he or
    she supports.
   The DSP can describe the goals for each person he or she supports and how the
    goals were developed.
   The DSP suggests and brings ideas regarding new goals and objectives, to the
    person and his or her team, that are based on the strengths, values, and
    interests of the person being supported.
   The DSP is observed including people he or she supports in participating in
    directing and guiding the development and implementation of teaching plans.
   The DSP can describe ways to include people with different abilities in
    developing and implementing teaching plans.
   The DSP lets people being supported direct the focus of informal teaching
    opportunities.
   The DSP participates on public and agency committees regarding disabilities and
    diversity awareness.
   The DSP is a good role-model to new DSPs and to the community regarding
    respectful interactions with people who have developmental disabilities.




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 OJT Skill Statements: Working with Families and Support Networks


Lesson 1: Understanding Support Networks

     The direct support professional knows the members of the support networks for
      the people with disabilities to whom she or he provides support.
     Provides information to potential support network members about the benefits of
      being a part of a support network for a person with a disability.
     The direct support professional assists in designing and supporting the activities
      of the support network.
     The direct support professional actively provide encouragement (mentoring,
      sharing resources, greetings, celebrating successes, recognizing excellence, etc.)
      to the members of the support networks on which she or he is a member.

Lesson 2: Family Networks

   The direct support professional seeks to understand how each person with whom
    she or he works (coworkers and people with disabilities) defines their own personal
    family.
   The direct support professional knows and interacts with the family members of the
    people he or she supports.
   The direct support professional finds out how the person's family support network
    defines quality of life for the individuals he or she support.
   The direct support professional asks questions, learns and reflects on the dreams
    and expectations families have for their son or daughter.

Lesson 3: Creating Partnerships With Support Network Members

     The direct support professional interacts with family support network members in a
      respectful manner.
     The direct support professional can explain each of the five fundamental
      foundation skills for building working relationships and partnerships with family
      support networks.
     The direct support professional is able to demonstrate respectful behaviors
      towards not only the individuals he or she supports but also their family.
     The direct support professional takes the necessary steps to develop trusting
      relationships with the family support network members.
     The direct support professional demonstrates better understanding of the members
      of the family support network by using behaviors that build the necessary
      understanding.
     The direct support professional is able to use effective communication strategies
      with members of the family support network.




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Lesson 4: Problem Solving Within Support Networks

   The direct support professional is an effective member of support networks by
    showing she or he is able to communicate well, get along with and respect the
    team, complete tasks, and is culturally sensitive.
   The direct support professional identifies the gifts and talents of each member on
    the support network for which the direct support professional is also a member.
    The direct support professional identifies areas of potential conflict among support
    network members.
   The direct support professional identifies areas of potential conflict among support
    network members.
    The direct support professional uses effective strategies to solve problems and
    resolve conflicts within support networks.




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                  OJT Skill Statements: You’ve got a Friend


Lesson 1: The Importance of Relationships

      The learner states why relationships are important for all people.
      The learner completes a relationship map for 1 person s/he supports,
       distinguishing intimate and distant relationships.
      In planning or other support meetings, the learner contributes observations about
       the extent and depth of the focus person's social network.
      The DSP states why relationships are important for all people and gives several
       examples of the benefits of having an active social network.
      The DSP describes possible ethical dilemmas when DSPs and people being
       supported become friends, and methods for effectively handling these dilemmas.
      The DSP is observed respecting personal and professional boundaries with all
       people being supported regardless of individual relationships the DSP has with
       the individuals.
      The DSP identifies the most important relationships in the lives of those being
       supported.
      The DSP contributes to planning and support opportunities by contributing
       professional observations about the extent and depth of the focus person's social
       network.

Lesson 2: Barriers, Challenges, and Opportunities to Making Friends

      The DSP can identify barriers to intimacy for the people he or she supports. (e.g.,
       lack of privacy, low frequency of interactions, etc.)
      The DSP can identify personal strengths, positive attributes and goals that
       people he or she supports would bring to a relationship.
      The DSP identifies barriers to relationships for people being supported and
       develops solutions and strategies for overcoming those barriers.
      The DSP understands that privacy is important for intimacy and provides regular
       opportunities for privacy for the person and his or her friends.
      The DSP identifies and supports opportunities for the people he or she supports
       to experience valued roles, increased dignity, and reduced stigma.
      The DSP can identify barriers to closeness for the people he or she supports.
       (e.g., lack of privacy, low frequency of interactions, etc.)

Lesson 3: Strategies for Building and Maintaining Relationships

      The DSP is aware that his or her behavior and choice of dress during periods
       when they are providing supports reflects on the perceptions that others have of
       the individuals being supported and dresses and behaves appropriately for the
       situation.
      Describes his/her role and responsibility to foster and sustain positive
       relationships on a daily basis
      Can describe the strengths, interests, positive attributes of the people he or she
       supports as they relate to developing and sustaining relationships.
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     Is a positive presence in the neighborhoods and settings where supports are
      provided, by dressing and grooming appropriately to the situation, interacting
      respectfully with members of the community and others with whom the people he
      or she supports have contact.
     Identifies and defines the characteristics of positive social relationships: (mutual
      interest or desire, valued roles, reciprocity, intimacy, frequency, integration,
      inclusion, proximity).
     Identifies at least one work performance goal for the 6-month period to assist an
      individual he or she supports to foster, maintain or grow his/her social network.
     Participates in a strengths based planning effort and identifies opportunities to
      develop friendships with at least one person he or she supports.
     Provides direct and instrumental support to at least one person to assume a
      valued role in his/her community.
     Fosters and sustains positive relationships on a daily basis.

Lesson 4: Supporting Family Networks

     The DSP identifies stressors to family involvement and can identify strategies
      and resources that may relieve those stresses (e.g. connects family with respite
      services).
     The DSP helps people being supported maintain contact with family members as
      desired and through a variety of means. (i.e., phone calls, letters, visits, etc.)
     The DSP can identify the important aspects of the personal culture and identity of
      the people being supported, including favorite foods, preferences in worship, and
      roles and activities that are part of the family identity.
     The DSP can identify the family members that are important to the person being
      supported.
     When family and the person being supported are in conflict, the DSP assists an
      adult s/he supports to negotiate and advocate for him or herself with parents,
      guardians, or other family.
     The DSP greets and interacts with family members appropriately and responds
      to their questions or concerns professionally with compassion and
      understanding.
     The DSP uses person centered and family centered approaches to identify
      opportunities to support an individual and his/her family relationships.
     The DSP participates in agency review of practices and makes recommendations
      to change practices, which interfere with family relationships (e.g. advocates to
      eliminate a "call before visiting" policy; provides transportation to family members
      to visit, etc.)




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                Portfolio Activities: Tools of the Trade


The Portfolio tool provides you with a set of activities and writing assignments that you
can use with your staff to help them apply the learning. Portfolios are flexible; they offer
a wide variety of learning opportunities that can fit into different work settings. As the
word “portfolio” suggests, these activity examples are designed to provide DSPs with a
way to demonstrate and document their professional work. It is recommended that
DSPs maintain their own professional portfolio. This work will also be required if a DSP
chooses to pursue a national credential such as the US Department of Labor
Apprenticeship or National Alliance of Direct Support Professionals (NADSP) credential.

The following pages contain a sample list of activities a DSP could do and place in his
or her portfolio. This work demonstrates the knowledge, skills, and attitudes reviewed in
this course. These activities show an advanced level of competence. They may take
several weeks or months to complete. They are included as a resource for trainers,
supervisors, DSPs and families. All activities are directly linked to the online CDS
course content. However, not all examples provided will apply to every DSP's situation.
DSPs do not have to complete all of these activities. One of these could be selected as
a method of demonstrating competence. They are also intended to be used as a part of
an active learning, integrated approach to using the CDS within your organization.

In many cases, portfolios include samples of actual work the DSP has accomplished.
The confidentiality of the individuals being supported must be respected. This means
that DSPs should seek permission from persons being supported to use the materials.
Any legal representatives must also give permission. DSPs should remove any names
and identifying information from original documents (outside of their own names).




Think about how you will use              portfolios with your staff. They are flexible,
designed to fit into different work environments. Some DSPs will want to maintain their
own professional portfolio as part of earning a national credential.




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Pages 86-162 contain portfolio activity examples, listed alphabetically, for
       each of the courses within the College of Direct Support.




                                                                           86
                         Portfolio Activities: Autism



   The learner will research at least one of the potential causes of autism. The
    learner will write a 2 to 3 page summary of the research that includes current
    evidence for and against the potential cause(s) of autism. The learner should
    also discuss treatment implications and interventions based on this proposed
    cause of autism. The learner includes an editorial or reflective summary of his or
    her thoughts on what the most likely cause or causes of autism are and the best
    possible interventions based on this belief. An APA formatted list of at least 4
    references used for the paper is included.
   The learner will gather information about a person with Autism Spectrum
    Disorder (ASD) that he or she supports. The information should list examples of
    behaviors the person exhibits on the Triad of Challenges categories as described
    in this lesson. With help from the person with ASD, the learner should prioritize
    the top 2-3 challenges that have the greatest impact on the person's ability to be
    successful in specific areas of his or her life. The learner should then address
    each of the top challenges through identification of proposed support strategies.
    Strategies should be applied and reviewed. The summary statement should
    highlight the link between each behavior or challenge, the strategy, and its
    effectiveness. Video, photo, or other methods of demonstration of how the
    person was supported are encouraged.
   The learner will provide workplace evidence of teaching social norms to a person
    with autism spectrum disorders. A summary statement that describes why the
    skill was chosen, how it was taught, how long it took to see an outcome, and
    what the learner learned from the experience should be developed and included.
    Evidence of working within the person's culture as a reference for teaching is
    included.
   The learner will show evidence of supporting an individual with autism through
    identification of strengths and interests. Evidence could include strengths and
    interests inventories, series of logs, a video essay or other ways of showing the
    full process. A summary statement that helps the reviewer understand the ways
    that strengths were identified and used in the process is included. The summary
    also reflects what worked well and what could be done differently the next time
    from the perspective of the learner.
   The learner will write an essay reflecting on his or her own experience in working
    with people with autism. From this reflection, he or she should develop a top ten,
    best practices list. This information should be used to develop a Power Point
    presentation focused on the learner's top ten best practices. The learner should
    share this presentation with other staff through a presentation and facilitate a
    discussion with other learners around personal best practices in working with
    people with autism. The learner should also provide real-life examples of how
    these strategies are integrated into their daily work life. Actual evaluations from
    participants of the presentation, a self-evaluation, and the Power Point slides with
    notes are included.


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   The learner interviews 2-3 families of people diagnosed with Autism Spectrum
    Disorders (ASDs). The learner asks questions about both the positive
    experiences and challenges of supporting an individual with autism. The learner
    finds out what is most important to the family with regard to effective support
    staff. Authentic notes, digital taping or other records of interviews are included.
    The learner will write a reflective summary about the interviews that compare and
    contrast the experiences. A reflection of how he or she will apply what they've
    learned in practice is included.




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                      Portfolio Activities: Brain Injury



   The learner interviews 2-3 families of people diagnosed with brain injury. The
    learner asks questions about both the positive experiences and challenges of
    supporting an individual with brain injury. The learner finds out what is most
    important to the family with regard to effective support staff. Authentic notes,
    digital taping, or other records of interviews are included. The learner will write a
    reflective summary about the interviews. This should compare and contrast the
    experiences. A reflection of how he or she will apply what they’ve learned in
    practice is included.

   The learner will provide workplace evidence of teaching a planning and
    organizational skill strategy to a person with a brain injury. A summary statement
    that describes why the skill was chosen, how it was taught, how long it took to
    see an outcome, and what he or she learned from the experience should be
    developed and included.

   The learner will gather information about a person with brain injury that he or she
    supports. The information should list examples of behaviors the person exhibits.
    With help from the person with BI, the learner should prioritize the top 2-3
    challenges that have the greatest impact on the person’s ability to be successful
    in specific areas of his or her life. The learner should then address each of the
    top challenges through identification of proposed support strategies. Strategies
    should be applied and reviewed. The summary statement should highlight the
    link between each behavior or challenge, the strategy, and its effectiveness.
    Video, photo, or other methods of demonstration of how the person was
    supported are encouraged.

 The learner will write an essay that reflects on his or her own experience in
    working with people with brain injuries. From this reflection, he or she should
    develop a top ten, best practices list. This information should be used to develop
    a Power Point presentation focused on the learner’s top ten best practices. The
    learner should share this with other staff through a presentation and facilitate a
    discussion with other learners around personal best practices in working with
    people with brain injury. The learner should also provide real-life examples of
    how these strategies are integrated into his or her daily work life. Actual
    evaluations from participants of the presentation, a self-evaluation, and the
    Power Point slides with notes are included.




                                                                                        89
                    Portfolio Activities: Cerebral Palsy




   The direct support professional will create a portfolio entry that describes
    cerebral palsy. The entry will include information about the causes of the
    disability and how best to prevent cerebral palsy. In addition, the portfolio entry
    will describe related conditions associated with cerebral palsy. The entry will
    include a summary statement outlining why it is important for a direct support
    professional to understand the nature of disabilities caused by cerebral palsy.
   The direct support professional will consider a person they support and create a
    list of support needs. For each of the support needs listed, the direct support
    professional will write a 2 -3 paragraph summary for different strategies used to
    support the person with cerebral palsy. The entry will include a summary
    statement regarding the role he or she plays in supporting the person in living a
    more inclusive and independent life.
   The direct support professional will research and create a list of local agencies,
    organizations, and other support programs available to individuals with cerebral
    palsy and their families. Each entry will list who and how to contact the group, a
    description of the services and supports provided, and any required
    qualifications. The portfolio should include resources for both adults and children.
    The portfolio entry will include a summary statement about how the direct support
    professional went about exploring local resources for families of individuals with
    cerebral palsy.




                                                                                     90
                Portfolio Activities: Civil Rights & Advocacy



Lesson 1: Your Role in Effective Advocacy

            The learner will create a work sample with evidence of the steps taken to
             support co-advocacy with someone he or she supports who is not able to
             speak up for his or her own rights. The learner should include steps taken
             and the results of the efforts. This should include: what was done, how it
             was done, and why it was done. The learner will include a summary
             statement that describes his or her role in the advocacy process and why
             this issue was important to the person being supported.
            The learner will create a work sample with evidence of the steps taken to
             support a person with a disability in self-advocacy. The work sample will
             clearly identify the issue, what steps the learner took to develop an
             advocacy plan with the person being supported. The work sample will also,
             include how barriers or challenges were identified and how they were
             overcome. Finally, the work sample must include an informed consent
             document from the person being supported. The learner will write a
             summary statement, which includes a description of the issue, how he or
             she was able to identify this issue with the person, what skills (if any) the
             person needed practice in, how these skills were acquired (i.e. the person
             join a self-advocacy group or peer mentor group.) and a summary of the
             result or experience in carrying out this advocacy plan.
            The learner will create an entry in his or her portfolio that supports and
             documents the steps taken when using one or more of the advocacy
             tactics described in this lesson to address an issue with someone he or
             she supports. The learner should include a summary statement that
             explains why he or she chose to use this particular tactic(s) and describe
             the results.
            Using all of the information in this lesson, the learner will create a portfolio
             entry that demonstrates how he or she is supporting the advocacy efforts
             of a person supported. The entry will include information about what was
             done, how it was done, define challenges and how these were overcome,
             and summarize the results. Copies of all documentation including informed
             consent should be included.
Lesson 2: History of the Disability Rights Movement

      The learner will conduct additional research on the four main Rights movements.

      The learner will a develop a portfolio entry that shows how these rights
       movements influenced the modern day Disability Rights Movement. He or she
       will include information about the history of the Disability Rights Movement.
      The learner will include a summary statement in the portfolio entry that shows
       what he or she will do differently because of the new knowledge they have
       gained during this research.
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      The learner will keep track of his or her duties and support tasks with the people
       he or she supports for seven to ten days. He or she will then categorize each
       duty as being part of the Medical Model or Independent Living Model.
      The learner will enter it into a log. He or she will then meet with his or her
       supervisor to discuss this log. They will discuss how these duties support
       individuals with disabilities to live the life they choose.
      The learner will enter a summary of this discussion and note any changes in how
       supports are provided as a result of this conversation.
      The learner will write a summary statement about what they learned and what
       they will do differently to support the rights of people with disability. The log and
       summary statement will be entered into the learner's portfolio.
      The learner will create a work sample with evidence of the steps taken to support
       self-advocacy of someone he or she supports.
      The learner will include a summary statement that describes his or her role in this
       advocacy process.
      The learner will address why this issue was important to the person being
       supported.
      The learner will include a summary statement with the results of the advocacy
       effort. This should include: what was done, how it was done, and why it was
       done.
Lesson 3: Disability Rights and Legislation

      The learner will conduct additional research based on one of the resources
       provided in this lesson. This is in order to learn more detailed, in-depth
       information about a law that is of interest to him or her. She or he will write a
       summary paper about what it means for him or her in providing supports. He or
       she will include how the supports provided will change due to this new found
       knowledge. The learner will also describe how he or she will support an individual
       with disabilities in exercising their rights.
      The learner should take the public transportation system with an individual to
       whom he or she provides support. The learner should bring a notebook and
       make a record of any barrier encountered that might be a violation of the ADA.
       The learner should then research what he or she has found by reading about the
       ADA and what it covers. The learner should try to determine whether what was
       found was a violation of the ADA. The learner should include a summary of what
       he or she found out and how a final decision was made about whether what was
       seen was a real violation of the ADA.
      The learner will run an errand or go on an outing. The learner should be
       blindfolded, in a wheelchair, or use earplugs without explaining to others in the
       community what he or she is doing. Another individual should also go on this
       outing to take notes, pictures, video, or to make recordings about the various
       barriers encountered. The learner should develop a portfolio about this
       experience using the documentation collected. He or she should include a
       summary statement about the importance of reasonable accommodations for
       individuals with disabilities in the community. The summary statement should
       include the following areas:
          o Employment
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           o Public services and transportation
           o Public places, activities, programs and private businesses operated for the
             general public (referred to as "public accommodations")
           o Telecommunications
      The learner should also summarize how this experience will change how he or
       she supports individuals with disabilities.
Lesson 4: Challenges and Strategies for Exercising Rights

      The learner will identify at least two places in his or her community where other
       people are working on building self-advocacy skills. If none come to mind, the
       learner should talk the local Arc, or go online and search for disability and
       advocacy resources in his or her area. The learner should create a portfolio entry
       explaining the steps taken, what was learned, and how this new found knowledge
       about supporting self-advocacy skills will be applied in real life.
      The learner will create a portfolio entry about teaching someone he or she
       supports about his or her rights. The learner should explain what was done and
       how the person was taught about his or her rights. The learner should explain the
       results and give an example of how the person now speaks up for her or his
       rights. The learner should include a summary statement about what was learned
       or how he or she would teach another direct support professional about the rights
       of the people being supported.
      The learner will create a portfolio entry that shows how he or she supported a
       person with disabilities to become involved in the political process. Include
       information about the challenges that were encountered and how these were
       overcome. Include a summary statement that explains the outcomes of this
       experience.




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                 Portfolio Activities: Community Inclusion


Lesson 1: The DSP Role in Community Inclusion

     The direct support professional (DSP) looks at a sample of community inclusion
      opportunities a person he or she supports has during a week or a month and
      notes which of the six components of inclusion are part of the experience
      (presence, choice, competence, respect/valued roles, participation, belonging).
      The DSP takes one of the activities and describes how it could be adjusted to
      include all six components in a way that makes sense for the person.
     The direct support professional (DSP) gathers information regarding a person he
      or she supports and how much time the person spends in environments where
      they are the ONLY person with disabilities present. The DSP writes a reflective
      summary on the amount of integration the person experiences based on the
      percentage of time spent in the company of peers and community member
      without disabilities.
     The direct support professional (DSP) gathers information about social roles a
      person he or she supports experiences and the social roles of another person
      who does not have disabilities but is of the same age, gender, and marital status
      of the person he or she supports. The DSP writes a compare and contrast
      reflective statement in regards to the variety of social roles, the status of the
      social roles, and the satisfaction each person has with the social roles. The DSP
      includes in the essay reflection on the influence of the service system for better
      or worse on social roles.

Lesson 2: Matching Community Resources with Individual Interests

     The direct support professional (DSP) finds a shared interest with someone he or
      she supports, and uses his or her connections and knowledge to assist the
      person in becoming part of a group of people who share the same interest. A
      summary statement is included that describes how the interest was discovered,
      the process of supporting the person in participating in the group, and the
      outcome of the process (what happened) and how it relates to community
      inclusion. A work sample that illustrates the process is included (For example,
      photo essay, tickets to events, a series of narrative logs describing the situation,
      etc.).
     The direct support professional (DSP) includes a copy of a formal assessment
      related to community inclusion that the DSP completed for a person to whom he
      or she provides supports. Evidence in included in regards to how the results were
      used to help the person make community connections. A summary statement
      regarding the process of completing the assessment and how the assessment
      results have been used, including actual outcomes for the person is included.
     The direct support professional (DSP) reviews and completes a variety of
      assessments that are designed to help people identify recreational, vocational,
      and other personal interests. He or she completes a reflective essay regarding
      how assessments like these could be useful in identifying inclusion opportunities

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      as well as the limitations of these assessments. Information regarding how the
      DSP plans to use these types of assessments (if at all) in his or her intended field
      of practice, and why or why not, is included in the essay.
     The direct support professional (DSP) provides a work sample that shows how
      he or she has supported a person in identifying their interests through exposure
      to a variety of activities and through repeated visits to activities and opportunities.
      A summary statement describes the process is included. It describes how the
      person got connected to a community resource that has led to inclusion.
     The direct support professional (DSP) shows evidence of helping someone
      become more connected and included in a community. The example shows
      preplanning for problems and barriers and the actual attempt. Additional barriers
      and how they were handled, as well as inclusion outcomes for the person are
      clarified in a summary statement attached to the work evidence.

Lesson 3: Community Bridge-Building and Networking

     The direct support professional (DSP) organizes a work sample that
      demonstrates using strategies of community bridge building. The sample must
      show how the strengths and interests of a person being supported were used to
      identify potential community connections. The sample then shows evidence of
      DSP efforts to educate community members, identify allies in the community, or
      otherwise increase community capacity to value all citizens, while meeting the
      needs of the individual. A summary statement that briefly describes the goals,
      methods, outcomes, and lessons learned from this process is included.
     The direct support professional (DSP) provides evidence of using networking to
      assist an individual in achieving personal goal related to inclusion. A summary
      that describes why networking was chosen and a description of the process
      (what was done, what happened, what was unexpected, what worked, what
      didn't, what changes were made in response to things that happened, etc.).
     The direct support professional (DSP) uses networking to meet a personal goal
      related to employment, relationships, or related to community connections.
      Evidence to validate the authenticity of the experience is included. A summary
      reflection on the experience accompanies the evidence. The summary essay
      includes: the initial goal, why networking was seen as a good option for achieving
      this goal, things that worked and didn't work in the networking experience. A
      reflection on how the DSP plans to apply these strategies in his or her areas of
      practice is included in the summary.

Lesson 4: Natural Supports

     The direct support professional (DSP) develops a list of natural supports that are
      used in one week in his or her own personal life and in the life of someone he or
      she supports. The lists will include friends and family that help out with daily
      tasks (such as cooking dinner, doing laundry, providing a ride to the store, etc.).
      It will also include community resources that are used by each person, such as
      public transportation or community education classes, etc.) The DSP writes a
      reflective essay comparing and contrasting the similarities and differences in
      natural supports that are used, the circumstances surrounding their use, and the
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    benefits. The concepts of independence and interdependence and how they
    apply in each person’s life are discussed in the essay.
   The direct support professional (DSP) supports a person in reconnecting or
    reinvigorating a connection to his or her family. Work samples such as a series of
    communications, logs, photos, etc. that help demonstrate the person's desire to
    reconnect or improve the relationship with his or her family are included. A
    summary statement is included with the sample that has information on the
    following items. How the DSP knew the person was seeking more contact or a
    change in family interactions. What goals the person set for him or herself (for
    example, finding a long lost cousin, participating more actively on family holidays,
    etc.). The process used to work toward the goal. The outcome achieved and any
    lessons learned in the process.
   The direct support professional (DSP) researches the use of natural supports.
    Using at least 4 different documented sources materials (articles, book chapters,
    web sites, training materials, etc.) the person writes an essay that includes a
    description, history, and purpose behind the focus on natural supports. The
    essay includes a reflection on how he or she anticipates natural supports will be
    used in his or her practice and how much of an emphasis he or she thinks will be
    placed on this.

   The direct support professional (DSP) develop and organizes a work sample that
    reflects his or her ability to support the use of natural supports in a person's life.
    The sample must document a series of events or interactions that show a
    purposeful attempt on the part of the DSP to enhance, support, or get out of the
    way of natural supports in the life of a person he or she supports. A summary
    statement that includes how the DSP recognized that this support was needed or
    available to the person is included. In the summary statement the DSP describes
    what steps he or she took, the results, and any barriers and how they were
    overcome.




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                  Portfolio Activities: Cultural Competency


Lesson #1: What is Cultural Competence?

     The direct support professional reviews his or her training plan. The DSP and his
      or her supervisor select 1 or 2 professional development activities for improving
      cultural competence. The DSP participates in these options. A summary
      statement accompanies the training plan. The summary explains why the DSP
      selected these activities and describes their effectiveness. (That is, how these
      activities improved the DSP's ability to provide supports, work with families, the
      community, or co-workers in a culturally competent way.)

     The direct support professional gathers information regarding diversity in his or
      her employing organization and/or community (employment data, labor statistics,
      and immigration statistics). The DSP writes (or represents in some other method-
      photo essay, artwork, audio tape statement) a reflective statement regarding
      diversity and changes reflected in this information. The reflection needs to
      discuss changes in the communities, the pool of people he or she supports, or
      the organization or family employer for which he or she works in terms of
      diversity. The DSP needs to reflect on his or her feelings about these changes
      and how these changes will affect him or her professionally or personally.

     The direct support professional develops a "life book" with a person he or she
      supports. The "book" is a personal history and memory book that documents the
      big events in the person's life. If the person is a child or if otherwise appropriate,
      the DSP can work with family to help in developing the project. (Please note this
      could be developed in other formats such as video, multimedia, etc.) Attention to
      culture is evident in the project. The direct support professional writes a summary
      regarding the process of working with the person and/or family to develop the
      book. The summary contains reflections on what the DSP learned about the
      person's culture. It would also contain information regarding any changes in
      support that came about due to this new understanding.

     The direct support professional participates in the development of a support plan
      for a person served. In a summary statement, the DSP highlights the methods in
      which the 5 elements of cultural competence are included in the development
      and implementation of the plan. The DSP notes where more attention to the five
      elements could have been or will be made and how.

     The direct support professional uses a series of narrative logs or other methods
      as evidence of incorporating the five elements of cultural competence into daily
      supports for a person served. A summary statement regarding challenges and
      benefits of this approach is included.

Lesson #2: Understanding Your Own Culture.


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      The direct support professional develops a journal or record of reflections
       regarding his or her cultural background. A summary statement that includes the
       most important or surprising aspects of developing the journal accompanies the
       journal.

      The direct support professional compares and contrasts his or her own cultural
       background with that of someone he or she supports. The DSP includes work
       samples (for example related documentation or a photo essay of a support
       situation) that demonstrates some aspects of culture. The DSP includes a
       discussion of whose culture is more reflected in the daily support.

      The direct support professional completes an inventory regarding cultural
       aspects of decision-making, quality of life, stealing, or privacy. (Such as those
       found in the book: Your Values, My Values by Lilah Morton Pengra). The direct
       support professional asks a person he or she supports to complete the same
       inventory. The two examples are included with a summary statement that
       compares and contrasts the two. The summary notes how the direct support
       professional will change or maintain an approach to supports, based on the
       comparison of the inventories.

Lesson #3: The Culture of Support Services.

      The direct support professional works with a person being supported to identify
       areas where the person has cultural capital and areas where the person lacks
       cultural capital. In conjunction with the person and his or her family and friends
       (as desired or appropriate), the DSP reviews the support plan with the following
       in mind: 1) In what ways would the person like to increase his or her cultural
       capital? (fit in better with the Macro Culture.) How can this be achieved? 2) In
       what ways does the person want to take a different path than the Macro culture?
       What are the consequences of going against the Macro Culture? What are
       alternative cultural groups that fit the person's individual culture better? How can
       the person get involved? 3) In what ways does the person have an interest in
       advocating for change of the Macro Culture to be more inclusive? What are the
       consequences and responsibilities of this? What are the benefits? What
       resources are available? How can this be achieved? Documentation of this
       process will be included. A summary statement of how this process was
       achieved and outcomes to date will be included.

      The direct support professional writes a reflection on an experience with a
       person-centered planning process and cultural competence. The DSP will
       describe ways in which the culture of the individual and the most important
       people in the person's life were or were not integrated into the person centered
       planning process. The DSP can suggest meaningful improvements that could be
       brought to this process. An authentic work sample illustrating the PCP process is
       included.

      The direct support professional writes a reflection on the ways in which the
       culture of social services affects daily life for people he or she provides services
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      to. The DSP will reflect on how the service culture is like and unlike the culture of
      the person being supported. The DSP will describe how the person has adapted
      to the service culture. The DSP can describe ways that the service culture has
      adapted to the culture of the person being supported. Work samples are provided
      to illustrate.

     The direct support professional writes a reflective essay on how his or her own
      culture is like and unlike the culture of services or the American macro culture.
      Authentic work samples are included for illustration.

Lesson #4: The Cultural Competence Continuum

     The direct support professional gathers information about hate crimes in his or
      her community. A summary statement that describes the affect these types of
      crimes and attitudes have toward the people the DSP supports is written. The
      DSP reflects on practices that need to be implemented to keep people safe from
      hate crimes and how to advocate for a more inclusive community.

     The direct support professional gathers work samples that reflect his or her
      current level of cultural competence. Using the work samples as a basis, the
      DSP completes a reflective essay that contains an assessment of where he or
      she is on the cultural competence continuum used in this course.

     The direct support professional gathers media examples and places them on a
      visual graphic of the cultural continuum. Samples of popular songs, quotes, news
      items etc., are placed in a visually pleasing way on a poster board or other study
      material in the correct place on the cultural continuum. The direct support
      professional includes a short summary next to the item of why he or she placed
      the item there and includes which if any of the five elements of cultural
      competence are present in the example. The display contains at least one
      example of each level.

Lesson #5: Culturally Competent Communication

     The direct support professional shows evidence of understanding the
      communication patterns and methods of the person he or she supports. In
      conjunction with work samples, the DSP compares and contrast his or her own
      methods and patterns of communications with those of the person being
      supported. He or she can describe methods used to identify gaps in
      understanding and bridge these gaps.

     The direct support professional begins to learn a new language. The portfolio
      contains documentation of the DSPs work in this area and/or the DSP can
      demonstrate skills. A statement of why the language was chosen, the process of
      learning the language and reflections on the DSPs perception of English
      language learners before and after beginning the process of learning is included.

     The direct support professional keeps track of the idioms that are used by him or
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       herself and people that he or she interacts with for one week, some samples
       from work day are included. The DSP also reviews documentation and
       communication from his or her employer (such as a newsletter, etc.), to find
       idioms. The DSP lists all the idioms and writes a culturally competent description
       of what the idiom actually means.

      The direct support professional researches the communication patterns of a
       cultural different than his or her own. The DSP displays similarities and
       differences regarding the two cultures. The DSP includes a comparison of
       language including idioms and slang, and the form of the language. The DSP
       also compares non-language methods of communication. A reflection on the
       level of context that is used in the communication patterns of the two cultures is
       included. A short summary statement regarding what the DSP has learned and
       how he or she will change daily practice in direct support is included.

Lesson #6: Cultural Competence in Daily Support.

      The direct support professional completes an assessment process. The
       assessment is included along with a summary statement. The summary
       describes why or why not adaptations to the assessment were needed to in order
       to meet the individual's cultural needs.

      The direct support professional includes examples of methods used in the
       planning and implementation of supports in which supports are adapted to meet
       the cultural needs of a person being supported. The DSP includes a short
       summary explaining the adaptation and its effectiveness.

      The direct support professional develops a comprehensive list of resources for
       understanding the cultural norms of a person being supported. The direct support
       professional includes the resources list and a sample of the resources. He or she
       includes a summary statement describing 1) how the resources were put
       together 2) which resources have been the most valuable and why 3) what
       additional sources the DSP would like to have.

      The direct support professional uses his or her self-assessment of cultural
       competence as a basis for a training and development plan. The DSP identifies
       areas of strengths and needs. He or she lists specific steps that he or she will
       take towards developing cultural competence.

Lesson #7: DSP Roles in Culturally Competent Organizations.

      The direct support professional participates in an organizational assessment of
       cultural competence. The work sample includes outcomes and priorities set by
       the organization in response to the assessment. The DSP includes a summary
       statement that describes the methods of assessment; the actions and roles the
       DSP took as part of the assessment; and a reflection on the DSPs beliefs about
       the effect of the assessment on the organization.

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   The direct support professional reviews and gathers information regarding the
    cultural competence displayed by the organization in a defined activity (examples
    could include: outreach to potential new customers; a type of service provided;
    planning methods; support to one individual; etc.). The DSP describes the
    current level of cultural competence in this situation. The DSP uses the five
    elements of cultural competence to place examples of activities on the cultural
    competence continuum. The DSP provides recommendations for further growth if
    Advanced Cultural Competence is not already displayed in this activity.

   The direct support professional participates as a cultural guide for someone in
    the organization. The DSP gathers work samples that validate his or her role. A
    summary statement that describes the challenges and benefits in working as a
    cultural guide is included.

   The direct support professional participates on a committee that focuses on
    cultural competence or diversity. The direct support professional includes
    summaries from the meeting and/or attendance list as an authentic work sample.
    A summary statement is included describing the work the DSP has completed as
    part of the committee and what her or she has learned as a result.




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                      Portfolio Activities: Depression


   The learner includes authentic work samples that reflect how he or she supported
    a person with depression. Samples and a summary statement must make it clear
    which issues the person faced with the depression and how the learner supported
    the person. Supports could be related to recognizing signs and symptoms and
    taking steps to appropriately communicate these. It should include supporting the
    person in getting an accurate diagnosis. Treatment examples must include active
    work the learner did over time to ensure treatments were effective and to support
    the person’s recovery goals. (Not simply following treatment plans as written).
   The learner develops a resource guide that contains helpful resources for people
    experiencing depression. This guide is specifically organized for the needs of the
    populations served by the learner’s employer For example, elderly, people with
    intellectual disabilities. Things that might appear in this guide include free or
    reduced cost counseling services. Therapists and professionals that specialize in
    the needs of this population for assessment and treatment. The process of
    developing the guide and how it is used is described in a summary statement.
    The resources guide or samples from this are included in the sample.
   The learner includes an authentic work sample and summary statement regarding
    work with a person that has serious depression with psychotic symptoms and/or
    suicidal symptoms. The learner describes how he or she approached this through
    prevention and response activities. Descriptions of working with emergency
    services and preventing or handling crisis are included.




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                        Portfolio Activities: Diabetes


   The direct support professional will create a portfolio entry that describes
    diabetes. The entry will include information about the causes of the causes of this
    condition and how best to prevent it. In addition, the portfolio entry will describe
    related complications associated with diabetes. The entry will include a summary
    statement outlining why it is important for a direct support professional to
    understand the nature of disabilities caused by diabetes.
   The direct support professional will research and create a list of local agencies,
    organizations, and other support programs available to individuals with diabetes
    and their families. Each entry will list who and how to contact, a description of the
    services and supports provided, and any required qualifications for services. The
    portfolio should include resources for both adults and children. The portfolio entry
    will include a summary statement about how the direct support professional went
    about exploring local resources for individuals with disabilities and their families.
   The direct support professional will consider a person she or he supports that has
    diabetes and create a list of support needs related to diabetes. For each of the
    support needs listed, the direct support professional will write a 2 -3 paragraph
    summary describing different strategies used to support the person with diabetes.
    The sample will include a summary statement regarding the role he or she plays
    in supporting the person in living a more healthful and independent life.




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                      Portfolio Activities: Documentation


Lesson 1: The Purpose of Documentation

     The direct support professional (DSP) reviews all the documentation kept in
      regards to one person for a period of 4-6 weeks. The DSP tracks patterns that he
      or she notices in regards to quality of care, behavior and response, health and
      well-being, and other critical patterns. The DSP tracks questions that he or she
      has when reviewing the documentation. The DSP pulls together 3-5 examples of
      the writing that illustrate the following: samples that are helpful in recognizing
      patterns, changes, achievement of goals, strengths, and other critical information.
      The work samples also contain 3-5 examples that are not helpful for these
      purposes. A summary of the portfolio sample (written, recorded, or videotaped) is
      included that clearly identifies the good and poor examples of documentation and
      why the DSP feels these samples fall into this category is included. The DSP
      includes what he or she learned in regards to the benefits to good documentation
      through reviewing these samples.
     The direct support professional completes a reflective essay on how he or she
      could use documentation to improve the quality of supports a person receives.
      Employed DSPs can use their current work settings as the context for writing this
      essay. DSPs in educational programs or pre-service programs can use their
      preferred or anticipated services population and setting as the context for writing
      this essay.
     The direct support professional reviews and summarized the local, national, and
      employer requirements regarding documentation (i.e., any formal or informal
      employer policies, any regional, state, or federal rules, regulations, and laws that
      specify how and what to document). He or she includes copies of the relevant
      pages of these policies, rules, regulations, and laws to accompany the summary
      of the core components in regards to documentation. For currently employed
      DSPs, they should include 3-4 examples of their actual work that reflects
      knowledge of and compliance with these expectations. For a pre-service DSP, he
      or she will write 2-3 examples of documentation that demonstrate the DSPs ability
      to comply with these requirements.

Lesson 2: Types of Documentation

     The direct support professional (DSP) completes a summary statement about
      documentation in a current or previous DSP position. The statement that includes
      a paragraph that described the setting including: how is it funded; what
      regulations, rules, and laws apply; how many people are being supported in the
      setting, is it an agency-run setting on one in which a family or person with
      disabilities is the direct employer; how many other paid or unpaid DSPs and
      family support people are there? The statement also includes a bulleted list of
      written communication and documentation the DSP is responsible for in this
      setting. The DSP includes an actual work sample of each type of documentation
      that demonstrated his or her best work.

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     The direct support professional (DSP) is given a scenario by a trainer or
      instructor. He or she completes all forms of documentation as described in the
      lesson on Types of Documentation as applicable to the scenario. The DSP writes
      a summary statement regarding what he or she learned through completing this
      sample. The original scenario is kept with the demonstration of the DSPs work.

Lesson 3: Effective Documentation

     The direct support professional (DSP) pulls several examples of his or her own
      narrative documentation that reflects the effective documentation practices,
      including using clear and concise language; following formats for legal
      documentation; and elements of objective writing. The DSP includes a summary
      statement in regards to how he or she ensures all the elements of effective writing
      for documentation are included.
     The direct support professional (DSP) pulls 3-5 examples of documentation from
      a place he or she provides direct support that represents examples of both
      objective writing and subjective writing. The DSP identifies components that are
      examples of objective writing and of subjective writing (for example, using
      highlighter pens of different colors to indicate examples). The DSP compares and
      contrast the difference between the two methods of writing and the value of or
      problems with each type of writing in these samples.
     The direct support professional (DSP) obtains a list of acceptable and commonly
      used abbreviations at from his or her employer. Using examples of documentation
      he or she describes the benefits and drawbacks to using abbreviations in this
      form. The DSP investigates to find out if errors have ever been made in the
      setting due to misunderstanding an abbreviation. This information is including in a
      descriptive summary.

Lesson 4: Confidentiality in Documentation

     The direct support professional (DSP) writes an essay in which he or she
      describes a breach of confidentiality that was witnessed while providing supports.
      If possible, samples of documentation relating to the incident should be included.
      The DSP described what happened and what he or she did to handle the
      situation. He or she should reflect on what if anything he or she would do
      differently now.
     The direct support professional (DSP) writes a reflective journal entry of a
      situation where his or her own privacy was violated. The DSP describes who
      shared the information and how that situation made him or her feel.
     The direct support professional (DSP) puts together a video or photo essay of
      how he or she reviews confidentiality and consent rights with person's being
      served. The video or photo sample is accompanied with a summary (either written
      or in the video) that described how the DSP ensured the person and his or her
      legal representative understood the information, including any accommodations
      the DSP made in this process.
     The direct support professional (DSP) reviews HIPAA and develops a short
      training for fellow DSPs regarding how HIPAA applies to the setting and position
      in which they work. The training materials are included in the portfolio, along with

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evaluations of the training. If the training is meant to be delivered in person (as
opposed to a self-pace module), the DSP includes a videotape of portions of the
materials being delivered. If it is not clear from the materials the DSP must also
include a summary of the critical things that he or she DSPs should know about
HIPAA and a description of the settings in which the DSP receiving this training
work (i.e., residential group home or in a person's home, at school, or at work,
etc.).




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            Portfolio Activities: Direct Support Professionalism


Lesson 1: Becoming a Direct Support Professional

     The direct support professional creates a Professional Development Plan
      addressing their professionalism. This plan should include their strengths as well
      as weaknesses. How will the direct support professional continue their
      professionalism? How will they try to improve their weaknesses?
     The direct support professional (DSP) writes a journal entry reflecting on how
      changes in human service have changed the DSP role. Include changes on how
      supports and services have changed.
     The direct support professional writes a critical reflection of their own professional
      work. Describe examples when professionalism demonstrated well. What did that
      look like and what did you do? Include examples when professionalism could
      have been improved. What did that look like and what did you do? Finally, the
      direct support professional should write about how they intend to ensure their
      professionalism in the future.

Lesson 2: Contemporary Best Practices

     The direct support professional develops a photo essay demonstrating consumer
      outcomes that are consistent with best practices (for example, with the individual's
      permission, the DSP includes a photo of the individual she or he supports
      participating and included in community life and a narrative explaining how s/he
      assisted the person in this process).
     The direct support professional writes a list of ideas on how to promote choice
      making for an individual she or he supports. The DSP includes a description
      about how these ideas can be implemented to provide the best service and
      support.
     The direct support professional (DSP) researches various advocacy organizations
      (via Internet, telephone, literature, etc.) to understand their positions on self-
      determination and community inclusion. The DSP gathers the information,
      summarizes it into an outline, types it out, and then presents the summary orally
      and in written form to their supervisor. In the presentation, the DSP comments on
      how the research findings were similar and different from the work being done at
      their agency or in-home support work site.

Lesson 3: Applying Ethics in Everyday Work

     The direct support professional reviews the National Alliance for Direct Support
      Professionals (NADSP) Code of Ethics. Then, he or she writes a reflection
      regarding what personal ethics may be inconsistent with the NADSP Code of
      Ethics. This reflection includes how this inconsistency may affect his or her work
      and how inconsistencies generally will be reconciled.
     The direct support professional reviews the National Alliance for Direct Support
      Professionals' (NADSP) Code of Ethics and other professional code of ethics she
      or he and other coworkers may need to follow (i.e., social work, psychiatry,
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      nursing, etc.). The DSP develops a staff training session on ethics. This training
      focuses on ways the similarities and differences between the NADSP and the
      other profession's code of ethics. It also addresses ways staff can deal with
      inconsistencies among the different ethics codes.
     The direct support professional (DSP) will write a reflection on a past ethical
      dilemma. He or she will include how they resolved this dilemma, what they
      learned from the experience, and what they could do to improve their ethical
      dilemma strategies and problem solving skills. The DSP will also include how the
      NADSP Code of Ethics could have aided them in resolving this issue.

Lesson 4: Practicing Confidentiality

     The direct support professional describes examples of confidential information
      that they have handled. The DSP includes the methods used to ensure privacy
      and confidentiality. Also, he or she provides an explanation about how
      confidentiality can be improved and why this is necessary.
     The direct support professional writes a description of support activities that
      proactively assist an individual in obtaining the privacy she or he desires. Explain
      the steps taken to make this happen.
     The direct support professional participates in a discussion with their supervisor
      about confidentiality at their agency. The discussion would include the agency's
      procedures and policies with respect to confidentiality.

Lesson 5: Working with Your Strengths and Interests

     The direct support professional writes a comparison of his or her personal and
      professional interests and strengths to that of a person she or he supports. What
      strengths and interests are similar? Which are different? How might these
      similarities and differences influence the support given to that person?
     The direct support professional (DSP) designs and completes a self-survey of her
      or his personal and professional interests and strengths. The DSP includes a
      description about how these interests and strengths could be useful when
      providing support to a specific individual.
     The direct support professional (DSP) writes a reflection of their professional
      weaknesses. He or she includes a description about how these weaknesses may
      influence their work as a DSP. In addition, the DSP works with a supervisor or
      mentor to develop a plan to address these weaknesses. The plan includes further
      training and support in areas deemed appropriate.

Lesson 6: Health Insurance Portability and Accountability

     The direct support professional (DSP) develops an in-service training for
      coworkers regarding HIPAA and the organization’s policies, procedures, and
      safeguards. The training would address four primary areas. First, the reasons that
      HIPAA was enacted. Second, an in depth presentation of the four standards.
      Third, ways DSPs can safeguard information. Finally, the rights individuals
      receiving support have under the law.


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   The direct support professional (DSP) reviews the organization’s HIPAA policies,
    procedures, and safeguards. Next, the DSP identifies and discusses, with their
    supervisor or mentor, the organization’s strengths and weaknesses related to
    HIPAA. Finally, the DSP presents recommendations about how the organization
    could address any identified weaknesses.
   The direct support professional (DSP) develops a plan to educate the individuals
    he or she supports about their HIPAA rights. The plan would include how the
    rights will be presented, a timeframe for the be presentation, and how frequently
    presentations would be made. It would also address ways the DSP can support
    individuals throughout the education process.




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                 Portfolio Activities: Employment Supports


Lesson 1: Introduction to Employment Supports

     The direct support professional (DSP) writes a reflective statement about why he
      or she works and what work means to him or her. In this statement, the direct
      support professional includes a comprehensive analysis of the economic, social,
      psychological, and emotional reasons why work is an important part of his or her
      life. He or she includes work samples as evidence of the type of support that he or
      she provides to an individual. He or she compares how these core needs are met
      or not met for the person within the context of the support setting. (For example:
      Does the work provide reasonable pay? Does it provide recognition and is it a
      source of pride for the person?) Based on the comparison the DSP includes a
      statement regarding things he or she would change, if any, regarding the
      employment supports provided to this person to change or increase these
      benefits of work.
     The direct support professional (DSP) includes samples of overheads, handouts,
      video tape of a presentation, and/or other materials that are evidence of his or her
      ability to present and explain the differences and similarities of work enclaves and
      sheltered workshops to community members (such as members of the city's
      chamber of commerce), coworkers, or others. The DSP includes a summary of
      the experience of presenting these ideas and the outcomes that were achieved
      through this process (for example, new contacts and opportunities for the people
      being supported.)
     The direct support professional (DSP) reflects on his or her feelings about
      sheltered workshops, enclaves, and community employment supports. The DSP
      writes a reflective statement that illustrates his or her beliefs and feelings about
      inclusion, community integration, and normalization with respect to the
      employment of people with disabilities. In addition, this reflection statement
      includes how these beliefs and feelings may influence the support he or she
      provides individuals with disabilities.
     The direct support professional (DSP) accesses the Vocational Rehabilitation
      Services website in his or her state. He or she reviews the process an individual
      may be required to go through in order to access vocational support services. The
      DSP prints out the pages from this web site that have relevant information
      regarding services to people with disabilities. He or she writes a summary as to
      how the DSP would assist an individual through this process. The summary must
      include the benefits and pitfalls of receiving vocational rehabilitation services,
      barriers an individual may face, and ways the DSP can assist the person in
      overcoming these barriers.
     The direct support professional (DSP) provides evidence of working with various
      stakeholders and members of a person's support system. The DSP includes a
      summary statement that describes in detail why stakeholders and support
      systems are influential to the success of an individual who is working in the
      community. In addition, the DSP describes in this specific situation, how he or she


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      has asked or encouraged these stakeholders and other people in the support
      systems to help the individual who he supports be successful on the job.

Lesson 2: Identifying Individual Employment Preferences, Interests, Strengths,
and Support Needs

     The direct support professional (DSP) provides a detailed case example of
      obtaining information regarding job preferences from an individual that he or she
      supports. This should include completed assessment, observation notes, etc. The
      sample include a summary regarding how the information was used in an
      employment supports plan, and the results. The DSP reflects in the statement
      regarding why it is necessary to consider a job seeker's preferences with respect
      to supports and the type of job they want.
     The direct support professional (DSP) writes a reflective essay describing the
      workplace culture at his or her own job (current or previous). Included is the type
      and pace of work, values about persons with disabilities, attitudes about the work
      and how these factors could influenced the DSP's preparation for job attainment,
      problem-solving issues, and the ongoing retention strategies for a person he or
      she supports. Or, the DSP describes in a reflective essay the importance of
      understanding a company's workplace culture for an individual looking for work.
      The DSP's description would include a specific company's workplace culture, a
      list of some key factors about this culture, and how these factors might influence
      the hiring process, how decisions get made, and their support for persons with
      disabilities.
     The direct support professional (DSP) writes a personal statement about how an
      individual's family and friends and interested others can support them in
      determining job preference and strengths. The DSP then describes how this
      information would be or has been used with a person he or she supports.
     The direct support professional (DSP) includes a work sample (such as a photo
      essay, or a series of narrative logs) that reflect how personal and community
      barriers interfered with a person he or she supports from entering the workforce.
      The sample should also make clear which and in what way the barriers were
      overcome and the outcomes for the individual and the DSP. The DSP includes a
      summary statement have describes the process of supporting the individual, the
      lessons learned in the process, and what plans were developed to be more
      effective with barriers to an individual's employment in the future.
     The direct support professional (DSP) provides a sample of actual work that
      illustrated how he or she has used vocational assessments to assist a job seeker
      in identifying work preferences and strengths. A summary statement is included
      on the DSP's views about vocational assessments. This statement includes the
      thoughts, feelings, and attitudes about how effective this assessment was in
      determining the personal preferences and strengths of the individual, how the
      assessment information was used, the benefits and challenges of the
      assessment, the intended and real outcomes for the individual and their employer,
      and the lessons learned and new behaviors planned by the DSP. (An alternative
      is that the DSP writing a personal statement on his or her views about vocational
      assessments. This statement includes the thoughts, feelings, and attitudes about
      how effective they are or could be in determining personal preferences and
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      strengths of individuals, how the assessment information was or could be used,
      the benefits and challenges of vocational assessments, the intended and real
      outcomes for the individual and their employer, and the lessons learned and new
      behaviors planned by the DSP).

Lesson 3: Job Opportunities and Job Searching

     The direct support professional views the U.S. Department of Labor website and
      reviews the many industry types. The direct support professional then writes a
      summary of three industries in their community. The industry summaries should
      include what type of businesses are present and what type of jobs these
      businesses typically have. In addition, the DSP would describe how s/he would or
      has already used the information to assist an individual find, select, and keep a
      job.
     The direct support professional (DSP) demonstrates through work samples and
      other methods (such as articles clipped from local newspapers, or copies of
      radios transcripts) that he or she maintains informed regarding the labor market
      and economy in the communities where he or she supports people in seeking
      employment. Evidence of ways in which the DSP has adapted job searches to
      changing labor markets to better serve people supported is included. (For
      example, resumes or cover letters customized to markets, letters and email or
      logs documenting job searches in these sectors.) The DSP includes a summary
      statement that describes the changes made in job searches based on these
      situations and the outcomes this has had on the lives and livelihoods of the
      people being supported.
     The direct support professional writes a reflective essay about how their personal
      and professional networks have aided them in their job searches. This essay
      includes barriers faced, assistance given, effectiveness of the assistance, and
      what they would change in the future. An alternative sample is that the DSP
      gathers work -based evidence of having assisted a person being supported in
      developing or enhancing his or her personal and/or professional networks in an
      effort to increase employment opportunities. (For example, letters, emails, logs of
      activities.) The DSP includes a summary statement that explains several reasons
      why personal and professional networks are important and the potential results of
      using them when seeking employment. He or she describes steps taken, barriers
      faced and overcome, and outcomes for the person. The DSP includes information
      on new things he or she would like to try and why.
     The direct support professional writes two different scripts to use when marketing
      an individual to employers. A summary statement is written to explain the
      strengths and limitations of each script. Then, he or she uses the best script to
      practice with an individual and to make a presentation to a company
      representative for an initial contact. He or she writes a reflective statement about
      how effective the script was in interesting the company representative to proceed
      further with the selection and hiring process. Another script is included that
      reflects changes based on the success and weaknesses of the script that was
      used.
     The direct support professional assists a person in writing a resume that is
      appropriate for a person seeking employment who has little work history. A
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      summary statement is provided that describes the process used, the decisions
      made regarding what skills were selected and achievements were emphasized,
      and what the outcomes were for the individual and the lessons learned by the
      direct support staff.
     The direct support professional (DSP) researches the federal tax incentives
      programs offered to employers. The DSP writes a summary comparing and
      contrasting how an employer qualifies and applies for these incentives. The DSP
      includes an explanation of how he or she can support employers in accessing
      these incentives.
     The direct support professional (DSP) works with a person being supported to
      identify ways in which they can increase their participation in their own job search.
      During this process, the DSP journals about the barriers and challenges they face
      and how they overcame these. The DSP includes a summary the
      accomplishments and outcomes of this process.

Lesson 4: Applying, Interviewing and Making Accommodations

     The direct support professional (DSP) includes several copies of work samples
      that illustrate the different approaches that companies had for the job application
      process for the individuals the he or she supported. The DSP includes a summary
      statement that described the results of these different approaches, the lessons
      learned, and plans for improving his/her methods.
     The direct support professional writes a reflective statement about how supported
      employment could benefit an employer in such areas as providing employees
      training, consulting, and accommodations. The statement includes personal
      examples of the direct support staff providing supports to the employer and the
      results gained from these supports. Actual work samples demonstrating the DSPs
      skill are included.
     The direct support professional develops, implements, and evaluates the results
      of a plan that addresses concerns an employer may have about hiring a person
      with a disability. Include in the plan how you would work or have worked with the
      job seeker in developing and implementing ways to address these concerns.
     The direct support professional (DSP) shows evidence through work samples
      where he or she stayed in contact with employers who did not hire a job seeker
      on first contact. The DSP describes in a summary statement the rationale for an
      ongoing relationship, the results of specific situations, and the benefits of and the
      lessons learned through these ongoing relationships.
     The direct support professional goes to the ADA website, at www.ada.gov, and
      reviews details about the ADA with respect to employment. The direct support
      professional then writes a brief summary about what they read and presents it to
      their supervisor a group of coworkers or employers. Documentation of the event
      including evaluations are included. The DSP writes a summary of what was
      learned and the outcomes of the presentation.




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             Portfolio Activities: Everyone Can Communicate


Lesson 1: What is Communication and is it important?

     During one day this week, record the names of all of your communication
      partners. Compare your list to the list of communication partners of one of the
      people you support. Describe how the “who” of communication is the same or
      different. Create a summary statement that outlines what you might do to improve
      the communication opportunities of the person you identified. Base this on your
      comparison.
     Think about an individual you support. Use your journal to list five locations where
      he or she communicated today. In which location did he or she communicate the
      most? List five locations where you communicated today. In which location did
      you communicate the most? Why? Compare this list to the “where” list of your
      communication partner with a disability. Create a summary statement that
      explains how you might better support this person, based on what you have
      learned by doing this exercise.
     Develop a portfolio sample that identifies barriers to communication for one of the
      individuals you support. Based on the information in this lesson, identify each
      communication component and how each helps or hinders the individual. Working
      with the individual and his or her support team, develop a plan to overcome these
      barriers. Create a summary statement that describes what you learned and what
      role you played as a facilitator of communication.

  Lesson 2: How People Communicate

     One of the ways a person with a significant communication disability may learn to
      communicate is through pointing to pictures or drawings. It can be difficult to
      identify visual symbols that are easy to learn and easy to guess. Think of how you
      might picture the following words: apple, run, happy, brave, and mine. Draw them
      or provide a symbol for each. Which ones were easy? Which words might be
      difficult to find a symbol that can be understood by both the sender and the
      receiver? Reflect on why some words or concepts are easy to picture, and some
      are hard. Write a reflection in your journal.

     For five working days in a row, pick two different naturally-occurring gestures that
      you will try to use each day. Don't forget to also use facial expressions. Use the
      gesture in addition to your spoken messages as you interact with the people you
      support. Prepare a list of gestures you use, day by day. Jot down about how
      many times you were able to use each gesture on the job. Reflect on how easy or
      how hard it was to remember to use them. Note if it made any difference in your
      communication partner's ability to understand your message.




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  Here's an example of what you might want to record and share with your supervisor:

  Date:
  Gesture:
  # of times:
  Comments:

  June 6
  Come here
  3
  I usually use this one.

  June 7
  Good
  4
  Ricky actually tried to imitate me, and said "mmmm."

  June 8
  Hi
  7
  I do this already so it was easy.

     Identify an individual you work with who exhibits challenging behaviors. Think of
      two instances where he or she has used a challenging behavior. Write a reflective
      journal entry describing what happened. What was the communication message?
      How do you know? How else could the person have communicated that
      message? What could you do to teach the person a better way of
      communicating?

Lesson 3: The Role of the Direct Support Professional as a Communication
Partner

     Observe another direct support professional (DSP) as he or she interacts with one
      of the people you support. During a 15-minute period, note how many times the
      DSP plays each of these roles: helper, mover or fixer, director, or responsive
      partner. Every three minutes, note the role that was played most often during that
      time frame. You can use the format shown or you can make up your own. When
      you are done, decide what role the DSP uses the most.

     Instead of observing a colleague, you can have your supervisor or a co-worker
      video tape your own interactions. View the tape privately. Take notes on the roles
      YOU played. Are you surprised by what you found, or is your primary role just
      what you expected?

  Suggested format:


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  Interaction (briefly describe): Role direct support professional uses (circle one):

1. Helper
   Mover
   Director
   Responsive
   Partner
2. Helper
   Mover
   Director
   Responsive
   Partner
3. Helper
   Mover
   Director
   Responsive
   Partner
4. Helper
   Mover
   Director
   Responsive
   Partner
5. Helper
   Mover
   Director
   Responsive
   Partner

  Which role was played most often?

  Think about the interactions you observed in this exercise. Reflect on why the direct
  support professional might have taken a particular communication role during a
  particular interaction. How did the communication role played by the direct support
  professional affect the interaction? Write down your thoughts, or discuss with the
  person you observed.

     Recall a recent team meeting when you were a participant. Were you able to
      share information about the way the person you support communicates? Were
      you comfortable doing that? If not, why not? Name one thing you will do differently
      in a team meeting, as a result of Lesson 3 in the College of Direct Support,
      Everyone Can Communicate. Write your answers in your journal, and share your
      thoughts with your supervisor.

     Review the list of things you, as a direct support professional, can do to make
      your spoken language more understood.

  For each one, rate your use of that strategy using the following scale:
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5. I use this strategy all of the time.

4. I use this strategy most of the time.

3. I sometimes use this strategy.

2. I rarely use this strategy.

1. I never use this strategy.

   With your supervisor, select one or more of the strategies with the lowest scores and
   discuss how to improve your skills in this area.

   Provide a summary of this exercise and what you have learned. Explain how you will
   use this information to improve the supports you provide to individuals with
   disabilities.

      Record (written or verbal) a communication interaction between yourself and a
       person you support. Identify the communication interaction in this example.
       Include both the directive and non-directive spoken messages. Reflect on these
       and how you think they enhanced the communication interaction. Based on the
       information in this course, what would you do differently? Write a summary of your
       plan.
      Identify three routines where you assist a person with a disability. For example,
       getting dressed, grooming, or mealtimes. For each routine, indicate what
       communication partners are available to the person you are assisting. Partners
       can include yourself, house mates, co-workers, family members, other direct
       support professionals, and others. Note how often the opportunity happens using
       this scale:
       (F) Frequently - one or more times per week.
       (O) Occasionally - every other week or once a month.
       (P) Potential - could become occasional or frequent.

   For each routine, write down one comment, one question, and one directive you
   might use with your communication partner during that routine.

   The next time you and your communication partner engage in these routines, try to
   use the three kinds of messages you wrote down. Reflect on the effectiveness of this
   communication.

      Pick a routine that you do every day with one of the people you support. Identify
       one thing you can change in the routine to give your communication partner a
       reason to comment or request assistance. Try it out. Reflect on the effect of the
       change you made. Discuss with your supervisor the effect that it had on your
       partner's communication. Write a summary of the exercise and discussion. Also
       write down what will change for those you support because of doing this exercise.



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   Identify three routines that you do every day with one of the individuals you
    support. For each routine, identify at least one or more opportunity for each type
    of choice:

who
what
where
when
how

Describe these opportunities in your work sample. Implement these new
opportunities for one month and record the results in a daily journal. Explain the
opportunity, your role, and the outcomes over time.

   Reflect on the statement, "You cannot learn responsible choice making without
    the opportunity to make choices." Is that true for people without disabilities? For
    people with disabilities?
   Write a reflective journal entry based on your experience and opinions.
   For one of the individuals you support, make a list of all of his or her key
    communication partners. Using the relationships diagram in this lesson, place
    each partner in the appropriate circle. Describe what this means to you and the
    person you support. Share this diagram and meaning with your supervisor.
    Discuss how you as a direct support professional can add more communication
    partners. Discuss how you might accomplish this and create an action plan.
    Summarize your discussion and outline your plan. Implement the plan and record
    your results by creating a new relationship diagram and comparing it to the first
    one after 6 months.
   Think about the individuals you support. Identify one person and what you know
    this person does during the weekday.

Think about the following questions about this person:

Is there more information you want to know?
Who could you ask and what "circle" in the social network is this person in?
What information would YOU share with this person to help him or her learn more
about the person you support?

Draw a communication social network circle for the person. Identify how and why he
or she might be a useful collaborator in enhancing communication opportunities for
the person you support. Write down your thoughts and answers to these questions in
your journal.

   Make a list of the individuals in the community that the person you support can,
    does, or SHOULD communicate with on a regular basis. Is this a long list or a
    short list? What do you think it means if the list has only one or two names on it?
    Write down your answers and share it with another direct support professional
    who works with the person. Does your colleague have additions to the list? Write

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      a summary statement about what you have learned and what you will do
      differently because of this information.

Lesson 4: Strategies to Enhance Communication

     If you support individuals with complex communication needs, think about your
      interactions with them. Are you a contingent responder? In your journal, write
      down an instance where you think you did respond contingently. You could also
      give an example of when you did NOT respond contingently. Describe what you
      could have done differently.
     Think about the objects in the locations where the person you support spends
      most of his or her time. Are there any interesting objects in that location? Are
      there objects that the person communicates about now? Things such as he or she
      likes to sit with you and look at a photograph of family members? Have any new
      objects been added in the past week? In the past month? In your journal, reflect
      on the degree to which the CURRENT environment has interesting objects that
      lead to communication. If you were to introduce a new object, what would it be?
      Why would you choose that one? Share your answers with your supervisor or
      colleague. Write a summary statement that includes an active plan to structure
      the environment to enhance communication for someone you support.
     Think about your everyday life with your friends or family. Describe an example of
      a "natural" opportunity where you or someone else has asked for help. How often
      (Once a day? Once a week?) could that opportunity occur? In your journal, write a
      description of how you would structure the environment. What other strategies
      would you use? Create a work sample that shows how you “engineered”
      opportunities for one of the individuals you support to communicate to you that
      she or he needs help. Write a summary statement about the results of your
      efforts.
     Select a familiar routine or activity that you do with the person you support. List 3
      opportunities you could structure to enhance communication. Write them down in
      your journal, selecting opportunities to create that will result in different kinds of
      responses. This could be a request for item, request for help, comment, rather
      than all "requests for help". Implement at least one of these the next time you and
      the person you support engage in the routine. Write a summary statement
      explaining the results of implementing this simple strategy.
     Think about your culture and background. How do they influence the use of
      communication strategies? These strategies involve eye gaze and eye contact,
      gestures, touch, and how you stand with your communication partner. Describe
      your culture's use of these strategies in your journal. Share your writing with your
      supervisor of a colleague.
     Think about someone you know who is from another culture - a friend, colleague,
      or a person with a disability you support. In your journal, list an example of how
      your different cultures would picture a particular word or concept. List some words
      that would be important to your culture but not to the other person's culture. In
      your journal, reflect on attitudes toward technology and whether there are
      differences in the two cultures.

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Lesson 5: Augmentative and Alternative Communication

     Become familiar with the Web site http://ioddev.org/search inventoryj.php Learn
      how to search for different AAC devices. Search for a "high tech" device that may
      be good for an individual you support. Get information about the device and share
      it with either your supervisor or with a speech therapist at work. Discuss the
      various features of the device and why you think it might be a good fit for
      someone you support. Then go to www.resna.org and find your state's "Assistive
      Technology Act" program and share this resource with staff and families. Write a
      summary of your findings.
     Design a vocabulary selection for an AAC user you support. This selection
      includes the phrases you would suggest for initiating, maintaining, and ending
      conversations. If symbols will be used, they are provided. If words will be used,
      they are provided. Create a summary statement describing why these words and
      phrases were selected and why they are important to the person being supported.
     Create a temporary picture board for a person you support. Select a setting or
      activity that is of high interest to a person you support. The activity should also be
      one that occurs frequently, such as a snack time, mealtime, after work, or a day of
      having company over. Write a typical script such as:
      "Do you want coffee?"
      "Do you want milk and sugar in your coffee?"
      "What do you want to eat with your coffee? Pretzels? A piece of cake? Some
      cookies?
      Once you have developed a typical conversational script about the activity, go to
      the Google website - www.google.com and click on the "images" link. Once there,
      type in the word you want (each word in your script that is underlined). You will
      find a wide range of images for that word. Find the image that you think is most
      understandable to the person you support. Then copy and paste it onto a blank
      document. You might have to resize it depending on how large you want it and
      how many pictures will be on the picture board that you are developing. Repeat
      this process for each word that you want pictured on your snack time
      communication board. Finally organize the pictures in a scheme that makes
      sense. For example, you might want to place all the coffee related images
      together and the different snacks together. Create a summary statement that
      describes how you are using this picture board with the individuals you support.




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                 Portfolio Activities: Functional Assessment


Lesson 1: Understanding Behavior and Participating in the Functional
Assessment Process

     The direct support professional gathers work samples together that reflect his or
      her ability to provide positive behavioral supports. Examples could include a photo
      or video essay, a "diary" of the DSPs interactions and practices, or a series of
      documents. These samples should reflect the person's desire or need to learn
      new behaviors and the DSPs role in supporting the person. A summary in regards
      to how these interventions meet the definition of "positive behavior support" and
      the outcome for the person being supported is included. DSPs may also include
      lessons learned and things they would do differently based on this experience
      and outcome.
     The direct support professional (DSP) pulls together several actual work samples
      in which he or she has documented challenging behavior. These may include
      documents related to behavior support plans, behavioral or accident/incident
      records, medical logs, other types of records, or logs of contact with other in
      regards to the behavior. The DSP highlights examples of behavior, challenging
      behavior, antecedent, consequence, setting events, and reinforcement in the
      work samples. The DSP includes a summary and reflection on how well and
      accurately he or she organized and completed the information if it was going to be
      used as part of a functional assessment. A description of what he or she would do
      differently next time, if anything, and examples of better more accurate ways to
      document are included in the statement.
     The direct support professional (DSP) researches the effect of sensitivities or
      sensory disabilities. He or she reviews books, journal articles, and websites in
      regards to people who are more sensitive to sounds, smells, noise, textures,
      tastes, etc. He or she also researches people who are less sensitive to this
      information or who have sensory disabilities or disorders. The learner will cite all
      sources in APA style. He or she will present a well organized research project on
      the topic. A summary or cover sheet with a reflection of how the learner will
      expect to apply this information in practice and particularly when faced with
      challenging behavior is included.
     The direct support professional (DSP) includes several samples of his or her
      ability to document and track behaviors from actual support settings. Included in
      the samples are highlighted sections in which the learner has reviewed the
      documentation for strengths and weaknesses. Examples will include highlighting
      places where the learner used objective, subjective, or judging descriptions. A
      summary statement is included that provides the learners overall assessment of
      how helpful the documentation would be to a functional assessment process in
      terms of accuracy, completeness, objectivity and insightfulness. The statement
      includes strategies the learner used to complete the accurate and helpful parts of
      the documentation. The statement also includes information on reasons the
      learner struggled with any aspect of objectivity, accuracy, or completeness and
      how he or she might overcome these weaknesses in the future.
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Lesson 2: Strategies for Gathering and Organizing Functional Assessment
Information

     The direct support professional (DSP) gathers work samples that demonstrate the
      DSP's capacity to use a "person-centered" approach to behavior support. The
      DSP uses a summary statement to describe how a person's strengths, goals, and
      a focus on positive social roles were incorporated into behavioral supports. The
      DSP reflects on whether this increased or decreased the effectiveness of
      behavioral interventions including any ethical considerations in regards to these
      issues.
     The direct support professional provides evidence of actual work in which he or
      she participated or led a functional assessment process. A summary statement in
      regards to challenges and successes in achieving the outcomes of a functional
      assessment is included. (These outcomes being: A clear description of a person's
      behavior. The times, events and situations where the behavior may occur. The
      consequences that maintain the behavior. The summary or hypothesis statement
      about the behavior. ) Information on how data was collected and how the
      hypothesis was tested are included. The DSP includes information in the
      summary about what he or she learned through this process.
     The direct support professional (DSP) gathers multiple work samples that indicate
      his or her competence in using various methods of data collection to assist with or
      complete a functional assessment. These can include completed structured
      observation forms, notes from interviews-as participant or as an interviewer, or
      summaries or evidence of record reviews. The DSP includes a summary
      statement in regards to how this information was used in the functional
      assessment. The statement includes information on strengths and weakness of
      the DSPs participation and what he or she would do differently next time if
      anything.
     The direct support professional (DSP) does a research project on the ethics of
      functional assessment and behavioral interventions. The DSP gathers information
      from books, records, interviews, and other methods to gain an understanding of
      how behavioral interventions have been used in the past as compared with today.
      He or she looks specifically for information on rights, respect, and other ethical
      considerations when trying to help someone change his or her behavior. The final
      report can be done in any medium (paper, video, scrapbook, multimedia
      presentation, training module). Information sources should be well-documented.
      The DSPs views on the ethics of behavioral interventions and how to conduct
      functional assessment in ethical ways should be clear.

Lesson 3: Comprehensive Assessment and the Role of the Direct Support
Professional

     The direct support professional (DSP) gathers work samples that reflect his or her
      ability to participate in a comprehensive assessment (CA) for the purpose of
      understanding challenging behavior. The DSP includes actual work samples that
      he or she participated in such as structured observations, completing behavioral
      inventories, participating as part of a support team, or other related activities. A
      summary statement is included that demonstrates the DSPs understanding of the
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      purpose and process of CA. The DSP includes a reflection on things that could
      have been improved in the actual process as well as things that went well. He or
      she reflects on what was learned and what he or she would do differently if
      anything in future CA duties.
     The direct support professional (DSP) gathers a variety of assessments. The DSP
      reviews these assessments and analyses them for their strengths and weakness
      in terms of completing a comprehensive assessment (CA). The DSP provides a
      short summary on each assessment that describes situations in which it may be
      helpful and what might be learned. Limitations of the assessment are included as
      well. A summary statement in regards to how standard assessments will be
      helpful or limiting in the DSPs planned area of practice is included.
     The direct support professional (DSP) does a compare and contrast between
      information gained through formal assessment and a person-centered planning
      process. The DSP provides summaries and examples of these types of
      assessments for someone he or she supports that has also participated in a
      formal person-centered planning process. A summary comparing and contrasting
      the differences with an emphasis on how the two compliment each other or not in
      actual practice. In addition the summary will describe the DSP perspective in
      regards to whether PCP is helpful in creating a meaningful life for someone who
      uses challenging behaviors.

Lesson 4: Using Functional Assessments and Behavior Support Plans

     The direct support professional (DSP) includes a work sample in which he or she
      provides (or is given) a "completed" functional assessment. The DSP analyses
      the functional assessment for completeness. The analysis includes a review of
      the description of the behavior; the methods of gathering information; the
      accuracy and thoroughness of information; inclusion of critical aspects of
      comprehensive assessment; and the accuracy and completeness of the
      hypothesis statement. The DSP includes suggestions for improvement to each of
      these aspects that he or she finds lacking. A reflection on how this information
      and analysis will influence the DSP in practice is included.
     The direct support professional (DSP) provides work based evidence of having
      helped a team improve a plan by providing meaningful feedback in regards to the
      plan. A summary that describes the methods and reasons that the DSP offered
      this feedback. Information about the outcome of this request is included. The DSP
      reflects on anything he or she would do differently if anything when in this
      situation in the future.
     The direct support professional (DSP) includes a sample of a behavior support
      plan and his or her ability to document correctly to support the plan. Actual
      documentation samples are included. The DSP includes and analysis of his or her
      documentation and the documentation expectations of the plan in general. For
      example, was too much or too little documentation requested? Were directions
      clear? Was the documentation clearly connected to the important outcomes for
      the person or not?
     The direct support professional (DSP) includes a work sample of a behavior
      support plan. He or she includes a summary in regards to his or her roles in
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developing and implementing this plan. The process of functional assessment and
how it informed the plan is included. Information in regards to how successful the
plan was for the person is included. A reflection in regards to what the DSP would
change or do differently, if anything is included.




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             Portfolio Activities: Home and Community Living


Lesson #1 Supporting Home Living: The Direct Support Professional Role:

     The learner researches the local ordinances in the community of a person he or
      she supports. These ordinances may be related to tasks of direct support. The
      learner contacts the appropriate local entity. This may be at a city, county, or state
      level. The learner must determine the exact ordinance or rule as needed and
      gather the necessary documentation. A log of activities related to this search is
      kept and presented with the sample. A summary statement is included with the
      documentation. This should include what the learner learned about direct support
      in this area and implications for practice in the field.
     The learner demonstrates knowledge of how policies, laws, and regulations affect
      his or her role in home living and home maintenance. A portfolio of actual work
      samples should be developed. These should demonstrate the person's ability to
      follow and apply these rules and laws in a direct support setting. A statement
      should be included with the samples. This statement describes the DSP position
      and the sum of methods by which the learner understands his or her roles and
      boundaries in this area. A reflection on the impact on services and the benefits
      and drawbacks of these boundaries is part of the statement.
     The learner shows actual work samples that validate and support his or her efforts
      to ensure employer policies are culturally appropriate. Work samples should also
      demonstrate how the DSP supports individual choice and control in the home
      environment. A summary statement that organizes the sample and helps the
      reviewer understand the learners role and outcomes is included.

Lesson #2 Comfortable Living:

     The learner prepares a portfolio of actual work that reflects his or her capacity to
      provide person-centered home and community living supports. The sample, along
      with a written summary clearly shows the following: a) how the DSP identified
      what is important to the person and incorporated it into maintaining the home, b)
      exactly what the DSP did to assist in maintaining the home, and c) if there were
      other people to consider when assisting a person to maintain the home and how
      this was handled.
     The learner demonstrates assistance in helping a person organize and maintain
      his or her home. Documentation such as before and after photos and purchasing
      receipts are included in a portfolio of actual work samples. A summary statement
      that organizes the portfolio sample and helps the reviewer understand: A) why
      the DSP took this role, 2) the general needs and barriers the person faced in
      achieving this task without assistance, 3) the person-centered approach the
      leaner took to complete the task, and 4) the outcome and reflection on the task.
      This should include what went well and what the learner would change.
     The learner creates a portfolio example around the power of plants or animals to
      a person's well being. Use either real work samples or research the effects, as
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      they are known today. The learner should prepare a well-thought out essay of
      why pets and plants can be a key component to quality of life for all people and
      especially people with disabilities. The essay should include how these
      perspectives have influenced the learner's practice or how the learner anticipates
      putting these concepts into action.
     The learner prepares a brief video or collage of photos that represent how he or
      she assisted a person to be comfortable in his or her own home. This will include
      anything the learner did to assist with decorating, organizing the space,
      supporting a person to chose or care for plants or animals, and how the learner
      involved the person in these activities. The video or photo collage should include
      a verbal or written description of what is illustrated and why it is important.

Lesson #3 Maintaining a Clean Home:

     The learner uses actual work samples in a method that conveys how he or she
      helped a person improve their capacity and quality of life. The examples may
      reflect how the learner completed those tasks for the person and the resulting
      positive outcome. Or they may be examples of how the learner engaged the
      person in cleaning tasks and/or was able to teach the person how to complete a
      task. A summary statement that tells the story and how this enhanced the
      person's life is included.
     The learner develops a pre-practice portfolio of reflections and skills related to the
      cleaning tasks and their level of importance in direct support work. The learner
      provides examples of how he or she is competent at cleaning, but also has skills
      at assessing the needs of people and engaging people appropriately based on
      their needs and preferences. A reflection on who the leaner thinks he or she will
      gain this knowledge of preferences and apply these skills in practice is included.
     The learner uses work samples to describe cleaning tasks that he or she has
      completed as a direct support professional. A summary statement that describes
      the following is included: 1) how the learner knows which cleaning tasks to do and
      when; 2) how the learner selected products and methods; 3) how the learner
      incorporates person-centered practices into cleaning such as respect for privacy
      and preferences; and 4) things that learner would do differently now or change in
      practices if anything.

Lesson #4 Home Maintenance and Upkeep:

     The learner investigates community education opportunities related to home
      repair, maintenance, and upkeep. The learner chooses a class that interests him
      or her and that they think could be useful on the job. After attending the
      educational event, a portfolio sample is organized with a certificate of completion
      and that includes evidence the learner can apply the skills. A summary statement
      is included. It describes how the learner plans to apply these skills on the job in a
      way that improves his or her capacity to support people effectively in the area in
      which he or she intends to practice.
     The learner develops a portfolio example in which he or she helps a person
      supported learn or participate more actively in home maintenance or upkeep. The
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      sample includes an explanation of how the learner knew this was something the
      person wanted to be involved in. It describes what the goals were and how the
      learner helped the person progress toward those goals. It includes, as needed,
      information about which products and tools were used safely in this process.
      Records (photos, documents, video, etc.) of actual activities and outcomes are
      included to validate the actual experience. A statement of the process describing
      the plan, barriers and challenges, how they were overcome, and what the learner
      would do differently next time is included.
     The learner develops a list of the types of home maintenance and upkeep duties
      he or she has performed for the people supported since beginning his or her
      practice of direct support. A resume and some authentic work samples are
      included to validate that person's work history and actual participation in these
      activities. A reflection and summary statement is included in which the learner
      describes the following: 1) How he or she knows what to do in these areas and 2)
      In what ways these activities have supported the safety, comfort, and quality of
      life for the persons supported.
     The learner uses actual documentation from a work setting to describe a
      maintenance emergency that happened during his or her work time. This may
      include work logs, receipts for work completed, or policies and procedures. A
      summary statement is included. It should include what happened, what things
      were in place to help the DSP with decision-making regarding his or her actions,
      the outcomes of the situation, and what the learner would do differently or learned
      from this experience.

Lesson #5 Clothing Care and Laundry:

     The learner develops a portfolio of laundry duties he or she has performed. This
      portfolio illustrated the types of duties the learner performed and how the learner
      applied these skills in a way that was based on the expectations and needs of the
      person supported. Methods and choices of products, laundry storage, washing,
      and drying are included. How these methods and choices were defined by people
      supported is included.
     The learner includes actual work samples that reflect his or her commitment to
      supporting people to look their best. Evidence of support in shopping, laundering,
      and maintenance tasks are included. Evidence that the activities were person-
      centered and driven by real choices of people supported is included. A summary
      statement that organizes the sample is included, describing what the learner did,
      why he or she did it (i.e., how it supported the person in living a life they prefer),
      what the outcome was, and what, if anything the learner would improve or do
      differently next time.




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             Portfolio Activities: Individual Rights and Choice


Lesson 1: Overview of Individual Rights

     Completes a reflective essay on the rights that they see as most important in the
      lives of people whom they support and the rights most important to them
      personally. Explains what are the differences in responses to the first two
      questions are and why these differences exist.
     Copy of the agency’s Bill of Rights along with a written interpretation of these
      rights in the simplest terms possible or in a way that you would explain it to the
      individuals your support.
     Develop a document that includes a list of rights that you believe should be
      included in a Bill of Rights for your agency that presently is not included. Describe
      why you think it should be added or included.
     Identifies several state laws that affect the rights of the individuals he or she
      supports.
     Completes a personal journal entry of how these laws regarding individual rights
      and protections personally affect the lives of the individuals he or she supports.

Lesson 2: Overcoming a Past of Barriers and Restrictions

Lesson 3: Restrictions of Individual Rights

     Finds and includes a copy of both the federal and state laws concerning
      guardianship.
     Provides examples of ways in which s/he has encouraged people who have
      guardians to make decisions.
     Provides evidence that s/he has talked with a person s/he supports and their
      support network to determine the history, reason and process that was used to
      determine whether or not the person was or should be appointed a legal
      representative.
     A list of all individuals that the DSP supports and the names and contact
      information for any person involved in guardianship, conservatorship, power of
      attorney, along with the specific decisions this person has the legal authority to
      make.
     A personal reflection on a time where it was necessary to intervene in order to
      protect an individual from serious harm as well as a time when individuals whom
      he or she supports took reasonable risks in their lives and their personal reaction
      to both situations.

Lesson 4: Your Role in Supporting Expression or Rights and Facilitating Choice-
Making

     A description of an activity that the DSP has developed or has found that could be
      used in a workshop teaching about rights.
     A reflection or an experience the DSP had in teaching someone about their rights.

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   Compiles a list of names and descriptions of Self Advocacy groups and
    organizations both nationally and in their local area along with contact information
    for these groups.




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       Portfolio Activities: Introduction to Developmental Disabilities



Lesson 1: A Brief History of Developmental Disability

       The DSP gathers and reviews the current state, local, and federal regulations
        that govern the services through which he or she provides supports. The DSP
        reviews these regulations and highlights and identifies areas that appear to
        reflect the three models of support (Moral, Medical, Minority) and other historical
        events (such as poor care in the institutions) seeking clarification from accurate
        resources when needed. The DSP develops a summary (written, video, audio
        presentation, etc.) that describes the regulations on the paid services he or she
        provides, the benefits and challenges to providing services that are responsive to
        the regulations and to the individual.
       The DSP obtains a historic document or other form of media (video, etc.)
        regarding people with developmental disabilities. The source is accompanied by
        a summary of differences and similarities between social perceptions and
        opportunities for people with developmental disabilities then and now.
       The DSP develops a history of his or her current employer through interviews,
        photos, articles, newsletters, old employee manuals, old services records, etc.
        After pulling together the story of the employer, the DSP creates a summary
        (written, video, presentation, posters, etc.) that describes which view of
        disabilities (Moral, Medical, or Minority) was the primary view through which
        services were initiated, and how these different models and other perspectives
        have been part of the service paradigm of this employer and the primary
        perspective of the employer today. The DSP reflects on the potential benefits and
        harm to people being supported and what impact that these choices and views
        have had.
       The DSP researches and pulls together a timeline that documents the treatment
        of people with developmental disabilities in his or her current community for the
        last 100 years. The timeline can include media articles or videos and photos,
        transcription or recordings of interviews with others, and individual records of
        treatment. The DSP obtains permission and respects the confidentiality of all
        informants. The DSP includes a summary essay (written, verbally recorded, or
        video), that describes the big events in the timeline, and what aspects of the
        past, still influence services and perceptions today.
       The DSP researches the history of disability in a nonwestern culture that is the
        culture of origin for someone he or she supports. The work sample contains a
        summary of the information in the form of a multimedia presentation, photo
        essay, written essay or other method as chosen by the DSP. The sample is
        accompanied by a short essay (1-2 pages) describing the similarities and
        differences between this culture and Western culture in viewing and
        understanding of disability.

Lesson 2: The Language and Ideas of Best Practices


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      The DSP participates in a formal person-centered planning process for someone
       he or she supports. A work sample is included that illustrates the process and
       outcome of the planning session. The DSP includes a summary that describes
       how the person-centered planning process was similar and different to other
       types of planning he or she has participated in, including who was involved, how
       goals were chosen, and what areas were focused on during the process.
      The DSP contacts a public media source that has used language that is not
       “people-first” and educates them on people first language, or helps someone he
       or she supports to contact the media source. The DSP provides documentation
       of the contact (a series of letters, phone calls recorded with permission, etc.), as
       well as the original source that was not “people first.” The DSP writes a summary
       that shares the process of deciding how best to “educate” the media source, and
       the outcome of the interaction, including lessons learned.
      The DSP gathers various samples of language used to describe or talk about
       people with developmental disabilities. Included may be samples of public media
       (newspapers, TV, radio), materials aimed at professionals from different
       disciplines such as medical professions, social work, etc. (journal articles,
       newsletters, training materials), disability websites, materials aimed at people
       with developmental disabilities, materials from support agencies or state services
       for people with disabilities, or other sources. Using a variety of samples, the DSP
       develops a visual or audio presentation that summarizes the messages that are
       shared regarding people with developmental disabilities through the use of
       different forms of language.
      The DSP takes one or more of the best practices described in this lesson (circle
       of support; consumer-directed supports deinstitutionalization; dignity of risk;
       direct support professional; inclusion; integration; natural supports; normalization;
       person-centered; people first language; self-advocate; self-determination;
       support coordination; or support teams), and reviews the current experiences of
       someone he or she supports as compared to the description of the best practice.
       The DSP gathers information regarding the best practice and the person’s
       experiences. A summary statement that defines the best practice chosen,
       describes the person’s current experiences in relationship to the practice, any
       barriers to experiencing a life that is built on the principle of this best practice,
       and suggested changes and improvements in support that could be started to
       help the person achieve the goals of the practice as desired in his or her life.

Lesson 3: Terminology and Classification

      The DSP assists and attends a psychological exam with a person he or she
       supports, as desired by the person. The DSP writes a reflective essay the
       process describing how it was done, why it was done, and what the outcome
       was. The DSP reflects on what the resulting diagnosis or classification was and
       how accurately the result reflect the whole person.
      The DSP includes a work sample where knowing the person’s diagnosis or
       classification label was important (for example, applying for services). The DSP
       includes a copy of the work sample and describes the process and why it was
       important. The DSP reflects on the experiences from the perspective of labeling
       versus person-centered.

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Lesson 4: Causes of Developmental Disabilities

      The DSP gathers documentation of specific support he or she has given a
       person related to a specific condition. The DSP creates a summary that
       describes how he or she learns about the condition and the over all implications
       to the person being supported. The DSP should discuss reasons that it is
       important to know about the condition as well as the ways it does not affect
       supports.

      The DSP identifies a cause of a developmental disability for a person he or she
       supports, or a general cause of developmental disability. The DSP researches
       the disability and identifies methods of support that may be important to the
       helping the (a) person experience a high quality of life, based on the information
       gathered.

Lesson 5: Services for People with Developmental Disabilities

      The DSP includes a work sample that demonstrates their knowledge of funding
       sources and the commitments to the source. (Applications, regulations, reports,
       etc. ) The DSP reflects on the experience of meeting the needs of the person and
       the needs of the funding source. Are there conflicts between the two? In what
       ways are they compatible?
      The DSP takes an active role in developing all or part of a planning document,
       with assistance as needed from others. The DSP explains the process for
       developing the planning document and their contribution. (A work sample that
       demonstrates the DSP skill is attached.) The DSP reflects on whether the
       planning document meets or does not meet the most critical needs of the person.
       Why or why not?
      The DSP actively helps a person being supported find vocational services that
       meet his or her needs, based on the person’s skills, strengths, and interests. The
       DSP includes a work sample that shows their level of involvement. The DSP
       reflects on the process of matching vocational supports to the person’s individual
       needs including how the need for income, and inclusion were dealt with.
      The DSP keeps a journal of the time he or she spends with a person he or she
       supports for a period of several days. During this time the DSP keeps track of
       times when the person uses a specialized service, a generic service, and unpaid
       supports. Work samples are included. The DSP prepares an essay or
       presentation regarding the types of supports and services the person uses and
       why. The DSP reflects on whether the balance of supports and services is ideal.
       He or she reflects on whether the person uses specialized services when generic
       services are available. Or why the person uses a paid support instead of a
       natural support.



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         Portfolio Activities: Introduction to Medication Supports


Lesson # 1: An Overview of Direct Support Roles in Medication Support

      The direct support professional (DSP) researches a commonly used medication
       that has been found to cause problems when taken incorrectly. He or she writes
       a short summary describing the medication and the outcomes of misuse. The
       summary includes reflection on how the population the DSP supports or homes
       to support would be affected. (For example, is this population more likely or less
       likely than the general population to experience these problems? Why? What
       could be done to reduce the risk if there is one? etc.)
      The direct support professional (DSP) writes a reflective essay regarding habits
       that support reduction in medications errors. The essay clearly describes the
       support setting the direct support professional currently works in or hopes to work
       in. The needs of the person(s) being supported and other key stakeholders (e.g.,
       other DSPs, family members, or professionals in the setting) are taken into
       consideration in the essay. The reasons for practicing the habits or using the
       strategies are clearly described. Specifically the DSP explains why certain habits
       and specific strategies will reduce medication errors.
      The direct support professional gathers evidence that demonstrates how s/he
       has worked effectively with an individual by using specific strategies that have
       reduced unnecessary side effects for the person and by using routine medication
       practices have used the proper dosage and prescription of necessary
       medications without error. Using documentation from the work setting or medical
       records (with permission) to demonstrate the changes and progress, the direct
       support professional writes a summary statement that describes the process and
       what was learned.
      The direct support professional writes a reflective essay on personal use of
       medications. The essay would describe a choice about medications that the
       person has made. For example, a time when he or she chose not to take a
       medication as prescribed by a doctor or a choice to take an over the counter
       medication differently than recommended on the label or a choice to use herbals
       or non-medication treatments instead of or along with another medication. The
       essay also describes why he or she made this choice and the outcome of the
       choice. The essay includes a discussion on what the implication would be in a
       support setting for both the DSP and the person being supported. (Would this
       choice be honored? Why or why not? If negative outcomes were experienced
       what might happen? How does that affect the situation?)
      The direct support professional collects a group of work samples that reflect
       different roles and responsibilities he or she has had in medication support. A
       summary statement describing the roles and responsibilities in medication
       support connected with work samples is included. The statement describes how
       individual needs and characteristics of persons being supported along with the
       setting in which support were provided affected these roles and responsibilities.




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Lesson # 2: Medication Basics

      The direct support professional (DSP) obtains a health and medication history of
       a person he or she supports (with permission). The DSP reviews the history and
       types of conditions for which the person takes medications. The DSP researches
       the effect of lifestyle choices (sleep schedule, diet, regular physical activity and
       exercise, practicing infection control measures, smoking, use of alcohol
       meditation, etc.) on the person's health condition. The DSP attaches a reflective
       statement that describes the likely effect of lifestyle changes on overall health
       and need for medication. The DSP describes how this information will be shared
       with the person and possible changes in the support setting that can help
       improve the person's overall health.
      The direct support professional (DSP) shows evidence of handling, preventing,
       and managing problem reactions to medications effectively. Using examples of
       documentation or other actual work, the DSP demonstrates the ability to gather
       information about potential problems at the point in which a person being
       supported is given a recommendation for a medication OR the DSP shows
       evidence of effectively handling a situation in which there are problems. A
       reflective summary is attached to the work sample that describes what
       happened, what steps the DSP took, and what the outcomes were, and what, if
       anything the DSP would do differently based on the results.
      The direct support professional (DSP) compares the health and medication
       history form from this lesson to the information in one person's health and
       medication history (with permission). He or she includes copies of the current
       information and responses to the following questions: Is anything missing from
       the completed history that could be included? Is the missing information critical?
       Why or why not? Is the information easy to find and carry to health care visits? If
       not, what could be improved?
      The direct support professional (DSP) shows work samples that demonstrate his
       or her ability to effectively package medication when a person needs medication
       away from home. A summary describing the biggest challenges in providing
       medication support when away from home and how he or she dealt with those
       challenges is included. This summary includes plans for dealing proactively with
       challenges in the future.

Lesson # 3: Working with Medications

      The direct support professional includes documentation of a medication error he
       or she has made. A summary statement is included that describes 1) what the
       error was, including which of the five rights were not observed; 2) Why the error
       was made; 3) What the learner did in response to the error including finding out
       the outcome for the person he or she was assisting; 4) What changes the DSP
       made in order to prevent similar errors from happening again.
      The direct support professional (DSP) gathers a list of all the over-the-counter
       (OTCs) medications that a person he or she supports uses. Using product labels
       and inserts, the DSP identifies medications that: 1) Have a similar effect or are
       for the same purposes; 2) Should not be used together; 3) Should not be used

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       with certain prescriptions drugs; 4) may cause harm to people with special
       needs. A summary statement regarding the OTCs should include
       recommendations regarding how their use can be made safer. For example,
       eliminating medications that should not be used together or using single
       ingredient rather than multi-ingredient medications when possible.
      The DSP also writes up the results of consultation contacts she or he has with
       pharmacists or other medical professionals. Through these contacts, the DSP
       asks focused questions about specific OTC medications and their uses.
      The direct support professional (DSP) provides documentation for an existing
       medication storage system that is used in the setting he or she provides
       supports. This documentation may include photographs of the original system
       combined with brief descriptive narration (written or recorded). An alternative
       approach is to create a brief video of the system with verbal commentary. The
       narration or commentary describes the current system and its strengths and
       weakness.
      The DSP makes suggested revisions to the storage system based on what he or
       she has learned in this course and elsewhere. He or she presents a proposal for
       improving the plan and implements the changes after approval has been
       obtained. A summary statement (written or verbal/video format) with the sample
       that describes the changes and the positive outcomes is included. If the DSP is
       not actually allowed to change the system, the statement could highlight
       perceived positive outcomes if the changes were made.

Lesson # 4: Administration of Medications and Treatments

      The direct support professional (DSP) writes a reflective essay on the various
       parts of medication administration and how they are experienced at the support
       setting in which the DSP works. The following items need to be described as they
       are experienced in the setting: observing the privacy and comfort of the
       individual; maintaining a focus on the individual and avoiding interruptions during
       procedures; completing procedures in a hygienic way; following procedures such
       as the triple check of the label prior to administering medications. The DSP
       describes any challenges experienced in the setting in regards to these parts of
       medication administration. The DSP includes ideas for improvement of situations
       that prove challenging.
      The direct support professional (DSP) gathers evidence of actual work in
       teaching people more about their medications in a support setting. The evidence
       might be a video of the DSP working with a person or a series of written
       narratives in conjunction with goals sheets and medication administration
       records. The DSP includes a summary statement that describes how the goals
       and strategies were developed, his or her role in development and
       implementation and successes and challenges of the strategies. The summary
       should include the DSP ideas for improvements and next steps.

Lesson # 5: Follow-up, Communication, and Documentation of Medications

      The direct support professional (DSP) gathers samples of all the types of
       medically related documentation that he or she completes in his or her role as a

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      direct support professional. A summary statement is included. This statement
      describes the samples and the situations in which they are used. The direct
      support professional describes which samples show effective documentation and
      which samples could be improved and how. The statement also includes the
      direct support professional's methods for insuring documentation is completed
      and how the DSP personally balanced these responsibilities with the other
      responsibilities of direct support.
     The direct support professional prepares work samples regarding a medication
      related situation in which the DSP must communicate with a variety of people
      and in a variety of ways. (Included could be incident reports, samples pages from
      an individual health record, phone log records, doctor's referral forms, etc.) The
      work sample includes a summary of what happened; who the DSP contacted as
      well as when and how; and how the direct support professional prioritized the
      communication. The DSP also includes a review of what s/he learned in the
      process, and what, if anything he or she would do differently in the future based
      on what was learned through the entire experience.
     The direct support professional includes a sample of a medication administration
      record that he or she has completed for a person that he or she supports. A
      summary statement includes a description of how the MAR is used, what type of
      shorthand is used on the MAR, and for what situations additional documentation
      is needed.
     The direct support professional provides documentation of a situation where he
      or she reported a potential medical-related abuse, neglect, or exploitation of a
      person to whom he or she provided support. The work sample includes a variety
      of documentation that was completed. The DSP provides a summary statement
      regarding the situation and why he or she chose to report it. The statement
      describes to whom the DSP communicated, what was communicated, and how
      s/he made this report. In addition, the DSP specifies what s/he did to determine
      the outcome of the Maltreatment report and to whom s/he shared the report. A
      reflection on whether the DSP would do anything differently now and why or why
      not is included.

Lesson # 6: Using Medication References and Resources

     The direct support professional (DSP) uses a references or resource to assist a
      person he or she supports learn more about a medication. The portfolio example
      includes actual work samples that help illustrate the problem or concern. For
      example, narratives regarding side effects experienced are included or copies of
      medical referrals suggesting a change in medications. The DSP provides a
      summary statement that describes the problem or concern about the medication.
      The summary includes the type of resources used and what happened as a
      result of the investigation.




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 Portfolio Activities: Maltreatment of Vulnerable Adults and Children



Lesson 1: Defining Abuse, Neglect and Exploitation

      The learner writes out personal definitions of the terms “abuse”, “neglect”, and
       “exploitation.” The learner then obtains legal definitions and policy definitions that
       are part of the types of services and state that he or she practices in or intends to
       practice in. The learner writes a reflective statement on how these definitions are
       alike or different. The statement includes a reflection on how the learner may
       have to act in practice to ensure the laws or policies are followed.
      The learner includes actual documentation of a maltreatment investigation he or
       she was involved in. The learner describes his or her role in the investigation and
       includes a reflection on the situation including his or her views on whether the
       incident met legal or ethical criteria of abuse, and the learner’s perspective on the
       outcome.
      The learner develops a quick reference sheet or other method of supporting for
       new employees that assists them in quickly understanding the types and
       differences between abuse, neglect and exploitation. A summary statement in
       regards to how this is used and the effect the learner was hoping it would have is
       included. The summary or sample should include any real impact that is noticed
       in terms of other’s ability to recognize and report these situations.

Lesson 2: Preventing Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation

      Personal Reflection about activities the DSP engages in or could engage in to
       reduce stress.
      Personal profiles of the individuals that he or she supports that include the risk
       factors of their particular disabilities that may increase the vulnerability of
       becoming victims of abuse, neglect, or exploitation.
      Personal profiles of the individuals that he or she supports and strategies for
       addressing these risks to reduce the likelihood of abuse, neglect, and exploitation
       from occurring.
      An evaluation of the particular risks from the environment in which persons
       receive supports or the nature of the supports that people receive in his or her
       particular agency that may increase the likelihood of abuse, neglect, or
       exploitation will occur.

Lesson 3: Reporting Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation

      A list of external agencies that are responsible for taking reports of abuse,
       neglect, and exploitation in his or her area.
      A copy of the agency’s policies and procedures for reporting suspected cases of
       abuse, neglect, and exploitation.
      Reflective journal entry about a situation where suspected abuse was reported
       and possible ways the report could have been completed more successfully.

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Lesson 4: Documenting Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation

      Reflective journal entry about a time where documentation was not completed
       which led to miscommunication or other problems.
      A copy or sample of an incident or accident form completed by the DSP.
      A copy of the documenting policies and procedures of the agency in which the
       DSP works.

Lesson 5: Following Up on Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation

      Reflective Journal about ways that the DSP has or would ensure emotional or
       psychological care for a person that she or he supports after an incident of
       abuse, neglect, and exploitation.




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                 Portfolio Activities: Personal and Self Care



Lesson 1: Understanding Personal and Self Care

      The direct support professional can document specific examples of providing
       hygiene and or grooming support that minimize the potential for stigma and
       respects the individual's preferences.
      The direct support professional (DSPs) gathers evidence of his or her role in
       personal care. The DSP includes examples of the personal care support provide
       to one person. Examples may include a series of documentation or a video,
       photo, or voice record of duties. Each task is identified as times when the DSPs
       has assisted, performed, or taught the personal care task. A summary statement
       with a reflection on these duties is included. This summary statement includes
       whether the DSP feels the roles were correct or should be different. If the DSP
       feels something should be different, he or she describes why and how.
      The direct support professional is observed following regulations and laws
       related to personal care and self-care in daily practice.

Lesson 2: Individualizing Personal Care

      The direct support professional (DSP) completes a comparison of the
       preferences and routines of three or more people that includes him or herself, a
       sibling or friend, and/or a person receiving supports. The DSP lists and compares
       at least 10 different areas of personal preferences or routines for each person
       (for example, when and how often persons shower, what type of clothing they
       wear, preferences for grooming and hygiene products, etc.) The DSP includes a
       summary statement that compares and contrast the different sets of preferences,
       for example, what would happen if he or she had to switch routines and
       preferences to those of another person listed? In the summary, the DSP reflects
       on the importance of these choices to a person's overall comfort, quality of life,
       and feelings of personal satisfaction. He or she describes how this information
       will influence his or her decisions and actions while providing direct supports.
      The direct support professional (DSP) uses the Personal Care Support Guide
       form provided in this lesson to organize information about a person he or she
       supports. The DSP provides a summary statement about the process that
       includes the following: Which sources (people, documents) were used to gather
       information and the usefulness and accuracy of the various sources. The DSP
       must demonstrate in the sample or summary methods of gathering information
       directly from the person being supported and reflect on the challenges and
       benefits of doing so. In addition information regarding the usefulness of the tool,
       what was learned in the process, and anything that the DSP would do differently
       the next time is included in the summary.
      The direct support professional (DSP) provides documentation of supporting a
       person to learn more about his or her own personal style. The documentation of
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      work can include a series of narrative and activity logs; a photo record, or video
      essay developed during the process; or some other method that shows authentic
      work. The DSP must demonstrate why he or she felt that the person wanted
      more support in this area; how the person was helped to identify his or her style
      preferences; how the DSP balanced these activities with other job expectations,
      and what changes came about because of the person's choices and lifestyle. A
      summary statement that helps the reviewer understand the intervention, the
      outcomes for the person being supported, and what the DSP learned through this
      process is included.

Lesson 3: The Basics of Hygiene

     The direct support professional shows evidence of having provided personal care
      for hygiene tasks for one or more people (for example, letters confirming and
      describing this work from people being supported or family members; or a series
      of narrative logs describing the processes) A summary statement is included that
      describes how the different components of the lesson were integrated into these
      routines, emphasizing the use of techniques for completing these tasks that
      ensure the health, safety, comfort, and respect of the person being supported
      during these routines.
     The direct support professional provides evidence of successfully working with a
      person who exhibited challenging behavior during personal care routines. The
      sample must provide sufficient information to make clear the types of behavior
      the person exhibited and the direct support professionals response. A summary
      statement regarding why the direct support professional used these techniques;
      which were most successful and the direct support professional's opinion as to
      why; and what lessons were learned or what the DSP would do differently in a
      similar situation.

Lesson 4: Basics of Grooming and Dressing

     The direct support professional demonstrates proficiency in teaching or assisting
      a person in dressing through environmental modifications, use of assistive
      technology, or assistance with clothing choices. The actual work sample may
      include a series of documentation, a video or photo essay, or other sample that
      clearly outlines the adaptations. A summary statement should be included with
      the sample that helps the reviewer understand why the modifications were made,
      how well they worked, any changes that were made in the process and the final
      outcome for the person. (i.e.. greater independence in the environment,
      increased options and choice, less time spent dressing, etc.).
     The direct support professional (DSP) demonstrates how he or she supports a
      person in self-expression through grooming and dressing tasks. Using actual
      work samples, the DSP describes how he or she ensures that the person
      expresses his or her self authentically. A summary statement regarding how
      these choices affect the person in the areas of choice, inclusion, and valued
      social roles is included.


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Lesson 5: Oral Care

      The direct support professional (DSP) demonstrates competence in the area of
       oral health. The DSP pulls together a work sample (series of logs, dental or
       health records, etc.) that shows how the four elements of oral health (diet,
       cleaning of teeth and gums, and regular visits to a dental professional) are
       incorporated into direct support. The DSP includes a summary statement that
       describes the person's needs in each of the four areas. There is a reflection on
       each aspect in regards to the needs and strengths that the person has in the
       area. The DSP describes techniques he or she has used to overcome any
       challenges in this area and how well they worked.
      The direct support professional (DSP) shows evidence of working with a person
       who is overly sensitive3 to some aspect of oral care (brushing, flossing, diet, or
       visiting the dentist). With actual work samples as evidence (narratives,
       communication with the dentist, samples of tools and structures used to assist
       the person, etc.) the DSP writes a summary statement the describes the issue,
       what assessment of the situation was done, what was tried, the success and
       limits of the interventions, and the lesson's learned through this processes.
      The direct support professional (DSP) researches some aspect of oral health or
       oral care as it relates to special populations. The DSP summarizes what was
       learned (citing sources) and how he or she anticipates using this knowledge in a
       practices situation.




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                 Portfolio Activities: Person-Centered Planning



Lesson 1: Foundations of Person-Centered Planning

 •       The direct support professional prepares and delivers a presentation regarding
           the roots of person-centered planning. The presentation highlights the
           influence of normalization on these practices. The portfolio sample should
           include: a list of references used to understand and organize the material in the
           presentation; an outline of the presentation; copies of any materials distributed
           or used in the presentation (for example, overhead slides, names of videos,
           etc.), and evaluations of the presentation by participants. A summary statement
           regarding what the DSP learned from this experience, especially in regards to
           the concepts of normalization and person-centered planning is included.
 •       The direct support professional (DSP) observes or participates in at least one
           service-centered planning session and one person-centered planning session
           facilitated by an experienced and trained facilitator. The DSP includes the
           resulting plan of each session and list of participants (by role with names
           blacked out for confidentiality) or other evidence of the outcomes of the
           meeting. The DSP includes a summary statement that compares and contrasts
           the two planning sessions. He or she reflects on which type of meeting would
           be preferred from his or her point of view.


Lesson 2: An Overview of Person-Centered Approaches

        The direct support professional (DSP) writes a reflective essay on the following
         core MAPS value: "We all need to help figure out what an inclusive community is
         and how to create and live together in one." The DSP describes how he or she
         envisions an inclusive community. What would be different from today? What
         would it take to create this vision? In what ways is the vision already realized and
         how could those strengths be built upon? What is the biggest threat to this
         vision? How can this be overcome?

        The direct support professional (DSP) shows evidence of research completed
         with a person interested in being a focus person of person-centered planning.
         The evidence shows how resources were located and how decisions were made
         in regard to selecting a facilitator. The DSP includes a summary statement that
         describes the process. Included in the summary is a reflection on what was
         learned from the process and what the DSP would do differently, if anything.


Lesson 3: The Person-Centered Planning Process

        The direct support professional (DSP) keeps a log of activities that he or she
         engaged in, in order to prepare for a person-centered planning gathering. These
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       activities may include personal reflection and preparation. It may include
       responding to requests of others such as preparing food, helping to distribute
       invitations, scheduling a place for the meeting, or talking to persons being
       supported, family members or others about the process. The DSP includes a
       statement that summarizes what he or she did. It should include a short
       description of the gathering. It should include things that the DSP would do
       differently next time. It should also include things that went well and that the DSP
       would do again in preparing for this type of gathering. It should be clear in the
       sample and summary that attention to the individual and cultural needs of the
       person were attended to in the process or in the reflection.

      The direct support professional (DSP) shows evidence of having attended and
       participated in a person-centered planning session. He or she includes a
       summary of the session that includes: 1) what format was used. 2) challenges
       and conflicts that happened during the session. 3) what strategies were used to
       overcome these challenges. The summary should include a reflection on the
       overall effectiveness of the strategies used including what things the DSP felt
       should be used again, which should not, and some possible alternatives to these
       strategies.

      The direct support professional (DSP) researches effective person-centered
       planning methods and writes a reflective essay comparing and contrasting the
       differences in roles and people who are present as compared to system-centered
       planning. The essay will have special emphasis on the role of the person
       supported and the DSP.

Lesson 4: Bringing Person-Centered Plans to Life

      The direct support professional (DSP) includes a person-centered plan for
       someone he or she supports. The plan must have a clear vision regarding how
       the person wants to live his or her life. It should include an action plan. The DSP
       writes a reflective essay regarding how the steps in the action plan are in line
       with the vision. He or she discusses how the vision would be used to help the
       person make a decision that is not clearly listed on the action plan. (The DSP
       should include evidence of supporting this in an actual work setting to strengthen
       that portfolio sample.)




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              Portfolio Activities: Positive Behavior Support



Lesson 1: Understanding Behavior

     The direct support professional (DSP) includes an example of a behavior support
      plan (BSP) that he or she has implemented at his or her place of employment.
      The BSP is highlighted and annotated to show mastery of vocabulary related to
      behavioral interventions. If there are problems or issues with the BSP-for
      example, behaviors not described in observable terms or inaccurate use of
      terms, the DSP will use annotations to clarify these issues or concerns. The DSP
      includes a reflective statement in regards to whether the BSP is well-developed
      and effective in the actual environment. The statement would include what the
      DSP would change, if anything, about the BSP.
     The direct support professional (DSP) gathers examples and documentation of
      behavior exhibited by someone that he or she supports and that the DSP finds
      challenging. A summary statement is included that describes the behaviors in
      observable and measurable terms. The DSP identifies the antecedents and
      consequences that stimulate and maintain the behavior. He or she reflects on
      whether these antecedents or consequences should be change in order to
      improve the person's quality of life or safety. If changes should be made, the
      summary statement will include details about how the DSP suggests they be
      changed. Behavioral terms and concepts are used accurately and effectively in
      the sample.
     · The direct support professional (DSP) reviews an example practice scenario
      that includes challenging behavior. The DSP includes a reflective statement that
      correctly identifies and describes the behavior. The DSP identifies likely
      antecedents and what is reinforcing the behavior. He or she offers reasonable
      interventions based on the information in the scenario. The reflect statement
      uses correct terminology and emphasizes a comprehensive intervention
      approach that includes a review of quality of life issues, and proactive as well as
      reactive strategies.

Lesson 2: Functions and Causes of Behavior

     The direct support professional (DSP) reviews a complete behavior support plan
      (BSP) for ethical issues. This BSP can be an actual work sample for experienced
      DSPs or a prepared instructor example for students. The DSP highlights areas
      on the BSP that attend to important areas that are likely to create ethical
      problems such as the person's lack of choice, communication barriers, or
      underlying physical or mental conditions. The DSP writes a reflective summary
      describing how well the BSP attends to these issues, noting the highlighted areas
      and anything that is missing from the DSP's perspective. A reflection on actual
      practices situations or likely practice situations is included in which the DSP
      describes conflicts or concerns or improvements he or she would suggest for the
      BSP.

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     The direct support professional (DSP) includes a completed behavior support
      plan and a reflective statement that identifies the behavior, the function of the
      behavior, the antecedents, the consequences, any setting events, reactive
      strategies and proactive strategies as listed in the behavior support plan. The
      DSP includes work samples that reflect implementation of this behavior support
      plan. A summary statement in regards to the effectiveness of having this plan
      and its strengths and weaknesses in practice is included.
     The direct support professional (DSP) gathers work samples that reflect a
      behavioral issue that the DSP faces in working with an individual. Using the work
      samples as a basis, the DSP includes a summary statement that represents an
      informal functional assessment of the behavior. The summary should include all
      the components of a good hypothesis statement such as: An objective
      description of the behavior, antecedents, consequences, function, and context
      including setting events or problem routines. Based on this informal functional
      assessment the DSP will describe changes he or she will make in the support
      setting to assist the person better. Work samples should be sufficient to help
      reviewer understand if hypothesis is likely to on target.

Lesson 3: Understanding Positive Approaches

     The direct support professional (DSP) works to enhance the overall quality of life
      of a person being supported who exhibits challenging behavior. Work samples in
      conjunction with a summary statement help the reviewer understand the normal
      routine of the person and the approximate frequency, duration, intensity and form
      of challenging behavior prior to intervention and how that compares after durable
      changes were made. Areas of focus include how much choice the person has
      over daily routines, the amount of time the person spends in positive and
      personally meaningful activities including enjoyable employment, time with family
      and self-chosen friends, and other activities the person enjoys or feels good
      about. Part of the included summary statement with the sample reflects on the
      DSP's perception of how quality of life efforts affect positive behavior support
      overall and strengths and weaknesses to this approach to affecting behavior.
     The direct support professional (DSP) includes work samples over a period of
      time such as incident reports and behavioral charts or narratives and training
      logs that indicate the direct support professionals personal strengths and
      weaknesses in dealing with challenging behavior and his or her professional
      growth in this area. The sample includes a reflective summary by the DSP in
      regards to how well he or she feels she does in this area and what changes the
      DSP has made to enhance his or her ability in this area.
     · The direct support professional (DSP) does a research report on past
      behavioral interventions that includes review of historical documents and
      important events in civil rights for people with disabilities. The influence of
      important trends such as normalization, desegregation policies, and inclusion
      and person-centered planning movements are included. This research sample
      could be a personal story of one individual or focused on a state or region. A
      reflective essay that pulls together the full sample and gives the DSP perspective
      on current barriers yet to be overcome in this area, with suggestions for
      improvement is included.

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Lesson 4: Preventing Challenging Behavior

     The direct support professional (DSP) uses authentic samples of work completed
      to demonstrate his or her capacity to use effective prevention strategies when
      working with people who exhibit challenging behaviors. Actual samples include
      documents, photo, videos, etc that demonstrate the implementation of formal or
      informal behavior support plan. A summary statement should tie the sample
      together by describing the issue, the approach, and the outcome of strategies.
      The statement includes a reflection in regards to which of the strategies were
      prevention strategies and how effective they were overall from the DSPs
      perspective in helping to change behavior as compared to response strategies.
     The direct support professional (DSP) demonstrates the ability to effectively
      support a person with challenging behavior to change behaviors over a period of
      time. Authentic work samples are included to demonstrate the form and
      frequency of the behavior. Supporting materials to show a decrease in the use of
      the behavior and interventions use are included. A summary statement is
      included in which the DSP describes the use of prevention strategies that were
      used and what changes were made as more was learn about the behavior or the
      person's capacity to self-manage increased.
     The direct support professional (DSP) includes work samples of different
      methods of teaching news behaviors that he or she has used in supporting
      people. A summary statement is included in which the DSP explains criteria he or
      she uses to identify what method of teaching might work best for the person.

Lesson 5: Responding to Behavior

     The direct support professional (DSP) provides a collection of work samples that
      demonstrates his or her capacity to correctly use consequence management as
      part of behavioral support. A summary statement is included that describes
      effective uses of consequences management and how this is related to the
      function of the behavior. The learner reflects on how consequences can be used
      effectively as well as the limitations of consequence management, using work
      samples as illustration of these concepts.
     The direct support professional (DSP) uses actual work place documentation
      around a critical incident that was behaviorally related (as opposed to for
      example, a medical emergency). A summary statement is included that describes
      how the situation was handled with the long term goals of supporting the person's
      eventual self-management of the behavior and protection of rights and safety in
      mind.
     When the direct support professional (DSP) is given a sample case study and/or
      hypothesis statement, he or she can describe a behavior support approach that
      is likely to be effective in helping the person learn and maintain new behaviors
      and decrease challenging behaviors. Specific methods of consequence
      management and their purpose are described. The statement uses methods that
      are respectful, and emphasize the development of self-direction and self-
      management skills.

Lesson 6: Behavior Support Plans

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      The direct support professional (DSP) includes a sample behavior support plan
       (an actual support plan-names removed- or one provided by an instructor or
       trainer). The DSP highlights the important components of the plan (visually) and
       labels them. A summary statement from the perspective of the DSP in regards to
       the following is included: 1) the overall quality of the plan - does it make sense, is
       it likely to be possible to implement as written or not, is it likely to be effective or
       not. 2) describes any missing or poorly included components of the plan and the
       DSPs suggested substitution.
      The direct support professional (DSP) uses a behavior support plan and other
       authentic representations of actual work that reflect his or her role in being part of
       a team that develops, implements, and revises behavior support plans. A
       summary statement is included that describes the DSPs actual roles on an on-
       going basis. The DSP includes a reflection on his or her perception of what the
       DSP contributes and does well and what he or she could improve in these roles.
       The DSP reflects on new role he or she have taken on and benefits and barriers
       to participating in various aspects of behavior support plans. For any barrier
       listed the DSP should include a possible solution he or she is willing to try.
      The direct support professional (DSP) pulls together a sample of various
       methods of documentation he or she has completed in relation to tracking and
       describing behavior. A summary statement that describes the DSP's perspective
       on documentation as far as its value in understanding the effectiveness of
       interventions and the impact on the DSP's job is included. The statement
       includes a summary of methods the DSP has uses to ensure documentation is
       timely and accurate.

Lesson 7: Rules, Regulations, Policies, and Rights

      The direct support professional (DSP) provides a copy of behavior support plan
       that he or she was responsible for implementing and that includes a restrictive
       procedure. (The DSP observes correct privacy and permission procedures in
       including this sample.) Sample of documentation in regards to implementation of
       this plan are also included (behavioral charting, incident reports, etc). A summary
       statement is included that describes the DSP's role in the developing,
       implementing, and revising the plan. The summary indicates how procedures to
       ensure protections of rights were included and the DSPs role in achieving this
       protection in daily practice. Areas on the copies of the actual documentation may
       be highlighted and annotated in order to help reviewer understand important
       components as listed in the summary statement.
      The direct support professional (DSP) assesses his or her work environment for
       rights restrictions. The DSP includes the initial dated assessment which lists
       known rights restrictions in the environment as well as possible rights restrictions.
       The DSP includes any use of locks, buzzers, or other method of tracking people
       or keeping them from full access to their environment. The DSP includes use of
       restraints such as straps, casts, special clothing, helmets, etc. He or she also
       includes formal or informal limits on personal choice in the environment. In a
       summary statement the DSP describes a process of reviewing the assessment,
       clarifying if each item is a rights restriction or not; and steps taken to change
       practices that are unnecessary or unapproved restrictions. A second, dated
       assessment is included to compare changes in the environment. The summary
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    statement includes the DSP's perspective on the challenges and barriers to
    change, the effectiveness or change, and any next steps based on second
    assessment.
   The direct support professional (DSP) includes a list and copies of any federal,
    state or local laws or regulations that protect the rights of people he or she
    supports. The DSP includes a summary statement in regards to what is specified
    by law and what is not specified. The DSP describes his or her views in regards
    to whether the laws are effective in really providing freedom of rights restrictions
    for people or not. The DSP describes barriers and possible solutions to any
    common or potential rights restrictions.




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       Portfolio Activities: Safety at Home and in the Community



Lesson 1:

     Videotape of a person s/he supports participating in a variety of events and
      situations outside of the primary support environment. The narrative explains
      what s/he did to demonstrate the competency and the outcomes for the people
      they supported.
     Personal reflection of how s/he supported a person in becoming involved in their
      community and how s/he planned for and dealt with the safety issues that arose.
     Personal profiles of the people s/he supports, what things they like to do outside
      of the primary support environment, and what safety risks are present for them in
      those specific situations. Illustration of what the DSP has done to minimize risk
      while still making possible community connections and a variety of learning
      opportunities for the people s/he supports.
     A description of one area where the DSP has developed new skills that improved
      the safety of the people he or she supports while they enjoyed opportunities and
      experiences outside of the primary support setting.

Lesson 2:

     Provide a listing of potential safety hazards in the home and share at least one
      idea for resolving each issue.
     Map out the home indicating where shared space and personal space for each
      individual are. Then describe how safety must be mitigated differently in each
      space.
     Write a reflection on how the learner will balance individual rights and universal
      standards regarding home safety. Provide a listing of potential safety hazards in
      the home and share at least one idea for resolving each issue.

Lesson 3:

     Reflective journal entry regarding issues that have come up during fire drills and
      feelings the DSP has had suggestions for improving the fire drills if the drill had
      been a real fire.
     Reflective journal entry on successful techniques to teach the people s/he serves
      about the importance of fire safety.
     Copies of fire drill reports conducted by the DSP.

Lesson 4:

     The DSP prepares a reflective journal entry describing an actual emergency that
      occurred, what was done to prevent the emergency, how he or she responded to
      the emergency and what he or she would do differently in the future to prevent or
      respond to a similar emergency.

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Lesson 5:

     Videotape of a person they support participating in a variety of events and
      situations outside of the primary support environment.
     Personal reflection of how the DSP has supported a person in becoming involved
      in their community and of some of the safety issues that have arisen as such.
      Indication of what they did to prevent safety problems.
     Personal profiles of the people they support and what things they like to do
      outside of the primary support environment and what safety risks are present for
      them in those specific situations. Illustration of what the DSP has done to
      minimize risk while still making possible community connections and a variety of
      opportunities for the people s/he supports.
     A description of one area where the DSP has developed new skills in that last
      year that improves the safety of the people he or she supports when they enjoy
      opportunities and experiences outside of the primary support setting.

Lesson 6:

     Completed vehicle safety checklist signed by DSP and approved by supervisor.
     Reflective journal entry about any safety events that have occurred when the
      DSP was driving and what the DSP did to prevent the situation from occurring
      and how s/he responded.
     An assessment of an individual who has special transportation needs and a set
      of recommendations to increase the safety of the person when being transported.

Lesson 7:

     The learner completes an environmental assessment of the primary support
      environment and makes recommendations for changes regarding infection
      control.
     The learner participates in committee work regarding infection control and
      maintains a journal of activities regarding committee work.
     The learner shows evidence of teaching infection control methods to an
      individual he or she supports (series of narrative logs, video or photographic
      essay, recorded progress notes, etc.) and creates a summary statement
      regarding what the person needed to learn and why, what methods were
      proposed and used, and the outcome of the support intervention.

Lesson 8:

     A completed incident/accident form.
     A reflective journal entry about an incident/accident that occurred and what the
      DSP did in response to that incident/accident.
     A reflective journal entry regarding an incident/accident in which the DSP was
      uncertain as to whether or not it was reportable and how the DSP arrived at a
      decision and resolved the issue.


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                Portfolio Activities: Supporting Healthy Lives



Lesson 1: Living Healthy Lives

      Prepare an in-service for your co-workers on how to read food labels. The
       training should include the importance of eating the right foods, in the right
       amounts and how to assure the individuals supported get the vitamins, minerals,
       and nutrients they need every day. Include any tools you prepare for the in-
       service, a list of goals you plan to accomplish by presenting this training and the
       outline of what you covered. Present the in-service and prepare a summary
       statement for this portfolio assignment that includes why nutrition is important to
       leading a healthy life and how being able to understand nutritional food labels will
       help you support healthy choices.
      Prepare an in-service for your co-workers on how to use the food pyramid to plan
       nutritional meals. Include a two week menu in this portfolio entry. Include any
       tools you prepare for the in-service, a list of goals you plan to accomplish by
       presenting this training and the outline of what you covered. Present the in-
       service and prepare a summary statement for this portfolio assignment that
       includes why nutrition is important to leading a healthy life and how being able to
       understand nutritional food labels will help you support healthy choices.
      Prepare a list of ways people relax and then adapt these activities for the
       individuals you support. Include in your summary statement, what role a direct
       support professional plays in supporting people to find and participate in
       relaxation activities and why relaxation is important to the individuals you
       support.
      Prepare a portfolio entry that includes all six of the ways a direct support
       professional encourages individuals to participate in regular physical and aerobic
       exercise activities. Tell how you supported someone in each of these ways.
       Include a summary statement that explains why it is important to support physical
       and aerobic activities and what the benefits are to someone's physical well-being.
      Help someone you support find a physical activity they like to do. Describe the
       process you and the individual you support went through to find this activity.
       Outline what worked and what didn't work and what you did to make this activity
       fun. In your summary statement explain why having fun while you exercise is
       important.
      Develop a portfolio entry that demonstrates how you supported an individual in
       all four parts of living a healthy life. Include examples for physical,
       social/emotional, mental, and spiritual well-being. Also include a summary
       statement that tells why it is important for a direct support professional to know
       how to support each of these parts to living a healthy life.

Lesson 2: Health Across the Lifespan

      DSP includes a description of how s/he supports people served to make
       nutritional choices.

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      DSP includes a copy of the menus s/he has helped people to develop and
       identifies how personal choices were included in the development.
      DSP provides evidence of how s/he promotes exercise and activity with the
       people s/he supports. Considering a person's age is evidenced as well as the
       design of the activity.
      DSP identifies various age-related health considerations and makes appropriate
       adjustments for each person s/he supports.

Lesson 3: Individual Health Needs

      Complete a family medical history on a person you support (or on yourself).

Lesson 4: Signs and Symptoms of Illness

      Using Detective OAR's advice, select an individual you support and write a
       descriptive log entry for the individual that clearly describes what the person is
       like when they are healthy. Then, in one or two paragraphs, describe why it is
       important for a direct support professional to know what a person is like when
       they are healthy and what impact this will have on knowing and supporting the
       individual when they are not feeling well.
      Prepare an in-service training for your coworkers based on the information in this
       lesson. The goal is to prepare a one hour in-service you can share with
       coworkers to help them recognize signs and symptoms of illness for the
       individuals you support. You can use or modify the tools and handouts offered in
       this lesson or create your own. We encourage you to use other resources,
       including the policies and procedures from the agency you work for. Use your in-
       service materials to design and present the training to your coworkers. Finally, do
       a summary statement that provides an evaluation of your presentation and why it
       is important for a DSP to know how to recognize signs and symptoms of illness
       for the individuals he or she supports. Include your outline, handouts and
       evaluation in this portfolio entry.
      Enter a description of how to take a person's temperature, different methods of
       taking someone's temperature, and explain why it is important for a DSP to know
       how to take someone's temperature. Make sure you include information on what
       is considered normal body temperature for each of the methods described.
      Create a work sample that identifies a list of medication taken by one of the
       individuals you support. Then, using one of the references, such as a health care
       professional or practitioner, a PDR (Physician's Desk Reference) or Nursing Drug
       Handbook, list the side effects of each medication. Then, write a summary
       statement that describes why it is important for a DSP to know about the side
       effects of medications taken by the individual who needs support.
      Add a work sample to your portfolio that includes documentation about how you
       supported an individual who was not feeling well. You may use the sample
       document in this lesson, create your own, or use your agency's form. Include a
       summary of why documentation is important, and what information should be
       included. Also, tell why it is important for you, as a DSP, to document symptoms
       and treatment of illness for the individuals you support.


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Lesson 5: Care of Common Health Conditions

      The DSP gathers information about asthma and how it affects a person with
       developmental disabilities whom they support. The DSP uses the information to
       assist the person to understand and deal with the chronic disability. The DSP
       writes a narrative and uses other supplemental tools (e.g. picture, video, letters,
       etc.) to discuss their role, the challenges he/she faced, the impact of their
       assistance on the person's life, and what, if anything, they would do differently in
       future situations of a similar nature.
      The DSP does research on Hepatitis, develops a PowerPoint presentation, and
       conducts a 30-minute training session for his/her team. The DSP uses a
       feedback form and obtains specific feedback about his/her performance, the
       impact of the information on peers and writes a brief narrative or journal to
       discuss the process, what she/he learned, and how s/he used the feedback.
      Now that you have reviewed some of the common chronic health care conditions,
       discover if the individuals you support as a direct support professional have any
       chronic health conditions. Or select at least three chronic health care conditions
       to learn more about. Research them, then develop a portfolio entry with fact
       sheet about the three chronic health care conditions. In a summary statement
       explain why it is important for a direct support professional to know this
       information. Now that you have become the in-house expert on these health care
       conditions present the information you have learned at your next staff meeting so
       your coworkers will be able to support the individual better.
      Now that you have reviewed some of the common acute health conditions,
       research one of the ones listed or another condition you have encountered. Or
       select at least three different acute health conditions to learn more about.
       Research them, then develop a portfolio entry with fact sheets about the three
       conditions. Put these fact sheets in your portfolio and in a summary statement
       explaining why it is important for a direct support professional to know this
       information. Now that you have become the in-house expert on these health
       conditions present the information you have learned at your next staff meeting so
       your coworkers will be able to support the individual better.
      The DSP describes his/her experiences supporting a person with Prader Willi
       and completes the following questions: What are the challenges, the successes?
       What are the key characteristics of the person? What are his/her strengths,
       interests, talents, skills? The DSP also assists in the development and
       implementation of ongoing evaluation of a comprehensive support and treatment
       plan.
      Now that you have reviewed this lesson on care of common health conditions.
       Develop a portfolio entry that will help you better understand the individuals you
       support and any health conditions they may have. In a summary statement,
       explain why every staff working with this individual needs to know this
       information. Use the information to prepare new staff to support the individual.
       Make an entry about how you will use this information to help the individuals you
       support.

Lesson 6: Working with Health Care Professionals


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   Select an individual you support. Review medical information available and then
    using the forms suggested in this lesson, or ones used by your employer put
    together a complete medical record for this individual. Include family information,
    immunization records, health visit summary, and other information pertinent to
    providing health care services. Attach a summary statement that tells why you
    used the forms you did, why it is important to have accurate health care
    information and how you found out this information.
   Select an individual you support. Create a portfolio entry that identifies who has
    access to medical information on this person. Include any releases of information
    maintained by the employer for whom you work. Find out if there are any
    standard releases signed that allow others access to information in order to
    qualify for services. Detail how and to whom this information is released by the
    individual's health care provider. Include a summary statement that explains how
    you found out this information and how it was communicated to the individual or
    their family and if information is being shared with parties without the knowledge
    of the individual, their family or legal representative knowledge.
   Prepare an in service training for your coworkers based on the information in this
    lesson. The goal is to prepare a one-hour in-service you can share with
    coworkers to help them understand the health care reimbursement system.
    Outline detailed information about what is covered and not in your state. Attach
    handouts and the outline for the training. Then in a summary statement explain
    why it is important for DSPs to know something about the health care
    reimbursement system.
   Select an individual you support. Create a portfolio entry that details how you
    communicated health care recommendations to the individual, their family and
    legal representative. Include any information you used like brochures, Internet
    and / or other resources, and any written or verbal communication. What was the
    outcome of this information sharing, what decision was made and how did you
    follow-up with the health care provider? In a summary statement explain your
    role and why it was important for you to understand the information before
    sharing it with the individual, their family and or legal representative.
   Describe what steps you have taken to support someone to have a successful
    appointment with a health care provider. What actions did you take that were
    particularly successful? What barriers existed? What would you do differently
    next time?
   Develop a portfolio entry that summarizes the health care needs of an individual
    you support and why this information is important for the Direct Support
    Professional to know. How would you develop a health care assessment and
    what form would you use and why?
   Create a portfolio entry where you research, compile and present a list of health
    care provider options to the individual, their family and or legal representative.
    Outline the process that you used to create these options and then assist the
    individual to find a health care provider that can meet the health care needs of
    the individual. In a summary statement outline how you would assess whether
    there is a good match between the health care provider and the individual that
    you support. And explain what you would do if you felt this was not a good match
    and why.


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  Portfolio Activities: Supporting Jobs & Careers in the Community



Lesson #1 Successful Community Employment and Retention:

     The learner will create a work sample that demonstrates competence in
      assessing and developing successful employee supports. This sample should
      include information, which identifies the skills the person being supported needed
      to complete their work. Include how you assessed the abilities of the person.
      When gaps in needed skills and actual abilities exist, you will include what and
      how you provided any personalized training considered necessary for the person
      to be successful. Also, include how you determined if work accommodations are
      needed or appropriate and how you worked with the employer and employee to
      provide the best modification. You should conclude the work sample with a
      summary statement outlining what you learned during this process and what you
      would do differently when providing employee supports to others.
     The learner keeps a log for 1 week of things that are stressful in his or her role as
      a supervisor. The actual date and time of the event and an objective description
      of the event is included in the log. Each event is ranked for the level of stress the
      supervisor felt on a 1-10 scale, with 1 being slightly stressful and 10 being
      extremely stressful. The learner reviews the list and organizes the events and
      situations in a logical way. For example, sorting the events based on how
      important they are and how much control the supervisor has over them. The
      learner completes a summary statement that indicated what he or she learned
      about workplace stress and what methods he or she plans to implement in order
      to reduce stress. The original log is included as a work sample.
     The learner creates a work sample that assesses the supportive nature of the
      work sites where each person you support is employed. Next, you work with the
      employer and employee to determine what natural supports might improve the
      worker's productivity. Finally, you educate coworkers and the employer on
      effective ways to support the person receiving supports. The sample will include
      a summary statement that shares details about your process, challenges, and
      outcomes for the person being supported.
     The learner creates a work sample that demonstrates how to support
      professional interactions on the job with the person being supported. The sample
      includes how you used modeling, prompting, role-playing, shaping, and / or
      reinforcement techniques in your efforts to teach the person how to interact
      professionally at the work site. The summary statement should include what
      methods you used to foster these relationships and the results of your efforts.


Lesson #2 Employment Supports and Volunteering:

     The learner assists a person being supported to identify why he or she wants to
      volunteer. Working with the person and his or her support team, the learner
      identifies the on and off the job supports that will most effectively help the person

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      being supported to achieve his or her volunteer goals. This includes finding and
      keeping a volunteer job that matches the person
     The learner assists those he or she supports that are seeking volunteer work. By
      using the person-centered planning process, he or she identifies possible areas
      of interest. Next, the learner accesses the many resources available in his or her
      community and online to identify potential volunteer positions. Finally, he or she
      assists the person in obtaining a position of the person's choosing.
     The learner identifies a list of possible volunteer positions in his or her
      community. The learner should consider all the resources and possible
      opportunities available. Next, he or she reaches out to these organizations to
      determine their ability and willingness to provide volunteer work. After identifying
      possibilities, the learner shares the results with other professionals, as well as
      those he or she supports.


Lesson #3 Introduction to Government Benefit Programs:

     The learner will create a work sample that identifies the major features of the
      major government assistance programs in the United States. It will also identify
      the eligibility requirements for each program. This sample will include information
      specific to the state in which the person provides employment supports. The
      sample will also describe Substantial Gainful Activity (SGA) and how it applies to
      those they support. The sample will include a summary describing how the
      LEARNER will use this information when providing supported employment
      services to someone.
     The learner works with his or her supervisor to determine the training needs
      within their organization related to government benefits. The LEARNER drafts a
      document that identifies the areas that other employees feel training and support
      is needed. Next, he or she communicates and schedules an organizational
      training with the Social Security Administration to address these topics.


Lesson #4 Government Benefit Programs and Employment:

     The learner reviews the benefits of every person he or she provides primary
      supports to. He or she determines which benefits, if any, each uses. Next, the
      LEARNER assesses the work situation of each person (i.e., monthly earned
      income, monthly unearned income, and number of hours they work per month).
      For those that access Social Security Disability Insurance, he or she determines
      how many hours the person can work per month to remain under substantial
      gainful activity (SGA). For those on Supplemental Security Income (SSI), he or
      she determines the maximum number of hours the person can work to reduce
      the cash benefit to zero. Remember, SSI payments differ from state-to-state, so
      find out how much they receive in your state.
     The learner assesses the situation of the people he or she supports to determine
      if the person might qualify for any government incentives to reduce the countable
      income. After determining this, the learner contacts a Work Incentives Planning
      and Assistance Project to consult about how incentives could be used to benefit
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    the person and his or her work situation. Finally, the learner discusses these
    findings with people he or she supports and their support team.
   The learner provides assistance to the people he or she supports that want to
    leave government benefits. To begin, the learner works with the individual and
    his or her support team to develop a plan. This should include both short and
    long-term goals. Next, the learner consults with Work Incentives Planning and
    Assistance Project and the Social Security Administration to determine possible
    tools to assist in the process. Finally, the learner works with all necessary people
    to assist in implementing and monitoring the plan.




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           Portfolio Activities: Teaching People with Disabilities



Lesson 1: Understanding Teaching

      The DSP creates a photo essay that describes a person he or she supports and
       the best strategies for teaching the person new skills based on their abilities,
       preferences, current skills and needs, and general best practices (i.e., using
       natural opportunities and resources).

      The DSP uses a photo essay or other method to describe the process of
       assisting a person that he or she supports in identifying and setting personal
       goals, gathering necessary resources, and accomplishing and revising personal
       goals.

Lesson 2: Preparing to Teach

      The DSP has examples of initial, intermediate and completed drafts of task
       analysis that he or she has completed in a work setting. A summary statement
       which describes the process of developing the task analysis including initial and
       intermediate steps that were taken before the final task analysis was drafted.
      The DSP completes an environmental review of a teaching environment for a
       specific person he or she supports and makes recommendations for adaptations
       to the environment and/or the teaching plan in response to the person's needs.
      The DSP develops a resource to finding, ordering, and obtaining assistive
       devices and adaptive equipment in his or her community, that could be shared
       with others.
      The DSP develops a photo essay regarding the successfully teaching of a new
       skill for someone he or she supports, including how the skill was selected as
       appropriate to teach, what the criteria was for success, what the process of
       teaching was including preparation, needed adaptations in the environment, use
       of assistive devices, and/or changes to teaching strategies.

Lesson 3: Teaching Strategies

      The DSP presents a series of narrative log, data sheet, or a photo or video essay
       of using teaching strategies to support a person A summary is included that
       describes the goal, the selection of strategies, the use of the strategies and what,
       if any, changes were needed, and how long it took to achieve the goal. Include a
       discussion of how strategies were implemented in ways that were unobtrusive.
      The DSP develops a list of reinforcement options for a person he or she
       supports. A summary of the reinforcement options that have been chosen when
       teaching new skills and why it accompanies the menu of options is also included.

Lesson 4: Organizing and Applying Teaching Strategies


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   The DSP prepares a collection of various examples of documentation (e.g.,
    narratives, methods of charting) regarding progress of skill development that he
    or she has completed and/or supervised (for example when a person being
    supported is self-recording progress) and prepare a summary statement that
    describes the strengths and weakness of each type of documenting.




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  Portfolio Activities: Working with Families and Support Networks



Lesson 1: Understanding Support Networks

     Prepares a written reflection about the people in his or her life who provide
      various types of support to the DSP. Identifies the name, role, how they met the
      person and a description of their importance. Then prepares a similar document
      about a person with a disability to whom the DSP provides support. The DSP
      provides reflection and comments on the similarities and differences of the DSP's
      network and the individual with a disability's network.
     Writes a reflective journal entry on the benefits he or she have had as a member
      of a support network. Discusses how these benefits have impacted his or her life.
     The direct support professional identifies a person who needs to have a
      reinvigorated support network. Together, with the person, the direct support
      professional develops a comprehensive plan to create a strong support network.
      This plan includes strategies to 1) support and enhance members, 2) build strong
      support networks, 3) gather and discuss the purpose, 4) design and implement
      strategies for success, and 5) maintain and cultivate memberships. Include a
      summary statement about what you learned and how you would help other direct
      support professionals build successful support networks for others.
     The direct support professional reflects on a support network for which he or she
      is a member. They describe the network type, membership and purpose or
      outcomes. They then identify the strategies he or she uses to expand and
      maintain that specific support network. Include a summary statement about what
      was learned.

Lesson 2: Family Networks

     The direct support professional writes down his or her own definition of family
      and discusses the importance of family in his or her life. He or she draws a
      diagram or picture to convey the importance of family in his or her life and then
      discusses how this differs from how the people he or she supports define their
      families.
     The direct support professional demonstrates how he or she has helped a person
      he or she supports regain or stay in touch with a family member; or, strengthen a
      connection that led to new levels of involvement. The DSP is able to define what
      he or she learned from the family members about the person's history and family
      connectedness.
     The direct support professional creates an interview form or tool that helps them
      find out from the person's family support network members how they define
      quality of life for the individual they support. The DSP uses this tool with at least
      3 family members, to learn about how quality of life is defined for the person he
      or she is supporting.

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     The direct support professional provides evidence of how he or she has actively
      sought to understand the dreams and emotions of each member of a family
      system regarding their family member with a disability. The direct support
      professional describes how these dreams and expectations are similar and / or
      different among family members and also, between family members and the
      direct support professional. The direct support professional identifies specific,
      concrete strategies to resolve or work peacefully in a supportive way given these
      differences.

Lesson 3: Creating Partnerships with Support Network Members

     The direct support professional provides evidence of taking the necessary steps
      to develop trusting relationships with family support network members. Include a
      summary statement explaining what you did and what you learned. Add
      information about how you might share what you learned with other direct
      support professionals.
     The direct support professional conducts a self-assessment of his or her
      relationships with family support network members with reflection on issues of
      trust, respect, understanding, communication, and effective partnerships. The
      direct support professional includes identification of specific tasks he or she has
      used to improve the partnerships with families.

Lesson 4: Problem Solving within Support Networks

     The direct support professional describes a problem faced by a support network.
      The direct support professional then reflects and creates a strategy to overcome
      the problem using an effective problem-solving model.
     The direct support professional provides evidence of his or her involvement on a
      support network for a person he or she supports. This evidence includes
      discussions of problems and conflicts that arose and strategies used to
      overcome those conflicts and problems. It also includes a self-assessment of the
      direct support professional's contributions and the overall effectiveness of the
      support network.




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                    Portfolio Activities: You’ve got a Friend


Lesson 1: The Importance of Relationships

      A completed relationship map for him/herself.
      A completed relationship map for the person s/he supports.
      A reflective piece (e.g. journal entry) about the strengths and/or deficits of his/her
       social network.
      A reflective piece (e.g. journal entry) about the strengths and/or deficits of the
       social network of the person s/he supports.

Lesson 2: Barriers, Challenges, and Opportunities to Making Friends

      A photo essay demonstrating the physical and environmental accessibility of the
       neighborhood where the person s/he supports lives or works; essay should be
       accompanied by a written analysis of how the accessibility impedes or fosters the
       individual's development of relationships.
      An annotated resource directory of social organizations or events, where
       annotations include who may be interested in these resources and how they will
       be used.
      Resource materials about the culture or ethnicity of a person s/he supports and a
       reflective piece discussing how the DSP used those resources.
      A reflective journal entry about the strengths & interests, attractive qualities,
       personal goals and personal barriers of one person s/he supports and the
       creative approach s/he took to support the individual to create new or deeper
       relationships.

Lesson 3: Strategies for Building and Maintaining Relationships

      A two-week record of the social activities and events the person he or she
       supports has experienced, accompanied by a summary statement of how these
       opportunities do or do not match with the person's strengths and interests and
       the characteristics of positive relationships.
      Photo essay (a series of related photos taken over time that reflect a journey or
       story) of a person he or she supports assuming a valued role in the life of his/her
       community, accompanied by a reflective piece about the actions the DSP took to
       assist the person assume that role.
      A copy of an individual's person-centered plan and log notes or other statements
       demonstrating his/her achievement or progress toward deeper and sustaining
       relationships.
      A reflective journal entry about how assisting an individual to have and sustain
       his/her social relationships has affected the DSP's vision of her work.

Lesson 4: Supporting Family Networks



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   The DSP helps a person s/he supports to organize and/or fully participate in an
    event that is meaningful to the family and their family culture, such as hosting
    Easter Dinner, celebrating the Sabbath, attending an ethnic festival, or helping to
    organize a family reunion. Photos of the person s/he supports with his/her family
    and a reflective statement about what the DSP did to facilitate the family get-
    together and if the outcome was as he or she had imagined and what he or she
    learned from the experience.
   The DSP completes a Family FOCUS plan for one family of a person s/he
    supports and a reflective piece on the role of the DSP in that process.
   The DSP maintains a recording of staff meeting discussions and commentary on
    practices that have changed to better support and sustain family involvement
    with the people who use supports.




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                              Additional Resources



For CDS implementation assistance:
Scott Trudo
Project Director
Institute on Disability/UNH
(603) 228-2084X19
scott.trudo@unh.edu

To enroll staff :
Andy Trudo
DirectConnect College of Direct Support Administrator
The Moore Center
(603) 206-2753
andrew.trudo@moorecenter.org

The College of Direct Support web site:
www.collegeofdirectsupport.com
Here you will find news and events, curriculum information, success stories, publications -
everything you need to know about the College of Direct Support.

The Institute on Disability/UNH web site:
www.iod.unh.edu
Learn about the Institute on Disabilities; programs, research, services and more.

DirectConnect website:
www.directconnectnh.org
This is the website participants will use to enroll in DirectConnect. You must enroll in
DirectConnect before starting the CDS.

NADSP website:
www.nadsp.org
This is the website for the National Alliance of Direct Support Professionals.




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