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                INTRODUCTION TO ADOBE & PHOTOSHOP




         Beginners' guide on Photoshop | R. Mao N. Pareek
                                       Introduction to Adobe & Photoshop by R. Mao M. Pareek


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                                       Introduction to Adobe & Photoshop by R. Mao M. Pareek


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                                                            Introduction to Adobe & Photoshop by R. Mao M. Pareek


Adobe Systems




Table of Contents
Adobe Systems ................................................................................................................................ 4
   History ......................................................................................................................................... 6
   Top competitors .......................................................................................................................... 7
   Company events: ......................................................................................................................... 7
       1992 ......................................................................................................................................... 7
       1999 ......................................................................................................................................... 7
       2003 ......................................................................................................................................... 7
       2004 ......................................................................................................................................... 7
       2005 ......................................................................................................................................... 8
       2007 ......................................................................................................................................... 8
       2008 ......................................................................................................................................... 8
       2009 ......................................................................................................................................... 9
   Corporate leadership................................................................................................................... 9
   Products....................................................................................................................................... 9
   Financial information ................................................................................................................ 10
   Revenue ..................................................................................................................................... 10
   Awards ....................................................................................................................................... 11
   Criticism ..................................................................................................................................... 11
   See also ...................................................................................................................................... 11
   Notes ......................................................................................................................................... 12
   References ................................................................................................................................. 14
Adobe Photoshop .......................................................................................................................... 15
   Development ............................................................................................................................. 15
   Early history ............................................................................................................................... 16
   Features ..................................................................................................................................... 16
   CS3 ............................................................................................................................................. 17
                                                            Introduction to Adobe & Photoshop by R. Mao M. Pareek


   CS4 ............................................................................................................................................. 17
   Plugins ....................................................................................................................................... 18
   Trademark ................................................................................................................................. 18
   Consumer market ...................................................................................................................... 18
   Controversies............................................................................................................................. 18
   See also ...................................................................................................................................... 19
   References ................................................................................................................................. 19
Adobe Photoshop Express ............................................................................................................. 20
   Terms of Use.............................................................................................................................. 20
   References ................................................................................................................................. 21
   Beta development ..................................................................................................................... 24
   Official release ........................................................................................................................... 24




Adobe Systems Incorporated (pronounced /əˈdoʊbiː/ ə-DOE-bee) (NASDAQ: ADBE) is an
American computer software company headquartered in San Jose, California, USA. The
company has historically focused upon the creation of multimedia and creativity software
products, with a more-recent foray towards rich Internet application software development.



Adobe was founded in December 1982[3] by John Warnock and Charles Geschke, who
established the company after leaving Xerox PARC in order to develop and sell the PostScript
page description language. In 1985, Apple Computer licensed PostScript for use in its
LaserWriter printers, which helped spark the desktop publishing revolution. The company name
Adobe comes from Adobe Creek in Los Altos, California, which ran behind the house of one of
the company's founders.[3] Adobe acquired its former competitor, Macromedia, in December
2005, which added newer software products and platforms, such as Adobe Flash and Adobe Flex,
to its product portfolio.



As of February 2009, Adobe Systems has 7,173 employees,[3] about 40% of whom work in San
Jose. Adobe also has major development operations in Orlando, FL; Seattle, WA; San Francisco,
CA; Ottawa, Ontario; Minneapolis, MN; Newton, MA; San Luis Obispo, CA; Hamburg, Germany;
Noida, India; Bangalore, India; Bucharest, Romania; Beijing, China.
                                        Introduction to Adobe & Photoshop by R. Mao M. Pareek




History
Adobe Systems headquarters in San Jose, California.



Adobe's first products after PostScript were digital fonts, which they released in a proprietary
format called Type 1. Apple subsequently developed a competing standard, TrueType, which
provided full scalability and precise control of the pixel pattern created by the font's outlines,
and licensed it to Microsoft. Adobe responded by publishing the Type 1 specification and
releasing Adobe Type Manager, software that allowed WYSIWYG scaling of Type 1 fonts on
screen, like TrueType, although without the precise pixel-level control. But these moves were
too late to stop the rise of TrueType. Although Type 1 remained the standard in the
graphics/publishing market, TrueType became the standard for business and the average
Windows user. In 1996, Adobe and Microsoft announced the OpenType font format, and in
2003 Adobe completed converting its Type 1 font library to OpenType.



In the mid-1980s, Adobe entered the consumer software market with Adobe Illustrator, a
vector-based drawing program for the Apple Macintosh. Illustrator, which grew from the firm's
in-house font-development software, helped popularize PostScript-enabled laser printers.
Unlike MacDraw, then the standard Macintosh vector drawing program, Illustrator described
shapes with more flexible Bézier curves, providing unprecedented accuracy. Font rendering in
Illustrator, however, was left to the Macintosh's QuickDraw libraries and would not be
superseded by a PostScript-like approach until Adobe released Adobe Type Manager.



In 1989, Adobe introduced what was to become its flagship product, a graphics editing program
for the Macintosh called Photoshop. Stable and full-featured, Photoshop 1.0 was ably marketed
by Adobe and soon dominated the market.[4]



Arguably, one of Adobe's few missteps on the Macintosh platform was their failure to develop
their own desktop publishing (DTP) program. Instead, Aldus with PageMaker in 1985 and Quark
with QuarkXPress in 1987 gained early leads in the DTP market. Adobe was also slow to address
the emerging Windows DTP market. However, Adobe made great strides in that market with
release of InDesign and its bundled Creative Suite offering. In a failure to predict the direction of
computing, Adobe released a complete version of Illustrator for Steve Jobs' ill-fated NeXT
system, but a poorly-produced version for Windows.
                                       Introduction to Adobe & Photoshop by R. Mao M. Pareek




Despite these missteps, licensing fees from the PostScript interpreter allowed Adobe to outlast
or acquire many of its rivals in the late 1980s and early 1990s. In December 1991, Adobe
released Adobe Premiere, which Adobe rebranded to Adobe Premiere Pro in 2003. In 1994,
Adobe acquired Aldus and added Adobe PageMaker and Adobe After Effects to its production
line later in the year; it also controls the TIFF file format. In 1995, Adobe added Adobe
FrameMaker, the long-document DTP application, to its production line after Adobe acquired
Frame Technology Corp. In 1999, Adobe introduced Adobe InCopy as a direct competitor to
QuarkCopyDesk.[5]



Top competitors
According to Hoovers[6] Adobe's top competitors are:

     Apple Inc.
     Microsoft
     Quark, Inc.



Company events:
1992


   Acquired OCR Systems, Inc.



1999
  Acquired GoLive Systems, Inc. and released Adobe GoLive.
  Shipped Adobe InDesign as a direct competitor to QuarkXPress and eventual replacement
     for PageMaker.



2003


       May: Acquired Syntrillium Software, adding Adobe Audition to its product line.



2004
                                      Introduction to Adobe & Photoshop by R. Mao M. Pareek


   December: Acquired French company OKYZ S.A., makers of 3D collaboration software. The
acquisition added 3D technology and expertise to the Adobe Intelligent Document Platform.



2005
"Formerly Macromedia" logo

     December 12, 2005: Acquired its main rival Macromedia in a stock swap valued at about $3.4
billion adding: Adobe ColdFusion, Adobe Contribute, Adobe Captivate, Adobe Acrobat Connect
(formerly Macromedia Breeze), Adobe Director, Adobe Dreamweaver, Adobe Fireworks, Adobe
Flash, Macromedia FlashPaper, Adobe Flex, Macromedia FreeHand, Macromedia HomeSite,
Macromedia JRun, Adobe Presenter, and Macromedia Authorware to Adobe's production
line.[7][8][9]



2007
  January: Released Adobe Photoshop Lightroom to assist photographers in managing
     digital images and doing post production work. The product was intended as a competitor
     to Apple's Aperture in the RAW image editing market.
  May 2007: Acquired Scene7, which makes an image processing and display platform used
     in many retail sites on the web.
  July: Adobe released Adobe Soundbooth. This product was not intended to replace the
     existing Adobe Audition but merely to provide an environment for professionals not
     specializing in audio.
  August 3, 2007: announced their plans to discontinue development of Authorware, the
     “visual authoring tool for creating rich-media e-learning applications for delivery on
     corporate networks, CD/DVD, and the Web.” Authorware was one of the development
     tools acquired in the Macromedia/Adobe merger. This was replaced by Adobe Captivate.
  October 2007: Acquired Virtual Ubiquity, with its online word processor, Buzzword.
  November 12, 2007: CEO, Bruce Chizen resigns. Effective December 1, he is to be replaced
     by Shantanu Narayen, Adobe's current president and Chief Operating Officer. Bruce
     Chizen is expected to serve out his term on Adobe's Board of Directors, and then continue
     in a strategic advisory role until the end of Adobe's 2008 fiscal year.



2008
    April: Adobe releases Adobe Media Player. Many videos and tutorials available for
     entertainment or training.
    27 April: Adobe discontinues development and sales of its older HTML/web
     development software, GoLive in favour of Dreamweaver. Adobe offers a discount on
                                      Introduction to Adobe & Photoshop by R. Mao M. Pareek


       Dreamweaver for GoLive users and supports those who still use GoLive with online
       tutorials and migration assistance.
      1 June: Adobe launches Acrobat.com, a series of web applications geared for
       collaborative work. [10]
      Creative Suite 4 which includes Design, Web, Production Premium and Master
       Collection came out in October 2008 in six configurations at prices from about USD
       $1,700 to $2,500[11] or by individual application.[12] The Windows version of
       Photoshop includes 64-bit processing.[12]
      December 3, 2008: Adobe lays off 600 of its employees (8% of the worldwide staff)
       citing the weak economic environment.



2009
  Creative Suite 4 sales seem to be low.[13]
  September 15th - Adobe announces their acquisition of Omniture.[14]



Corporate leadership
Executive Board[15]

Charles M. Geschke     Co-Chairman of the Board

John E. Warnock        Co-Chairman of the Board

Shantanu Narayen       President & Chief Executive Officer (2005 Compensation: $1.08 M USD)

Karen Cottle   Senior Vice President, General Counsel, and Corporate Secretary

Mark Garrett   Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer

Donna Morris Senior Vice President, Human Resources

Kevin Lynch    Senior Vice President: Experience & Technology Group, Chief Technology Officer

Products
Adobe's products include:

 1. desktop software, such as Adobe Photoshop (part of the Adobe Creative Suite) and Adobe
    Audition
 2. server software, such as Adobe ColdFusion and Adobe LiveCycle
 3. technologies, such as Portable Document Format (PDF), PDF's predecessor PostScript, and
    Flash
 4. web hosted services as Adobe Kuler, Photoshop Express, and Acrobat.com
 5. web design programs: Adobe Dreamweaver and Adobe GoLive
                                       Introduction to Adobe & Photoshop by R. Mao M. Pareek


  6. video editing and visual effects: Adobe Premiere and Adobe After Effects



Financial information
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Adobe Systems entered NASDAQ in 1986. Adobe's 2006 revenues were $2.575 billion USD.[16]



As of February 2007, Adobe's market capitalization was roughly $23 billion USD; as of August
2007, its shares were trading on the NASDAQ for around $40 USD, with a P/E ratio of about 49
and EPS of about $0.82.[16]



As of March 2008, Adobe's market capitalization was roughly $18 billion USD; its shares were
trading on the NASDAQ for around $33 USD, with a P/E ratio of about 27 and EPS of about
$1.21.[16]

Revenue
 2000s

Fiscal year      Revenue

2008     $3.58 billion [17]

2007     $3.158 billion [18]

2006     $2.575 billion[19]

2005     $1.966 billion[19]

2004     $1.667 billion[20]

2003     $1.295 billion[21]

2002     $1.165 billion[21]

2001     $1.230 billion[22]
                                        Introduction to Adobe & Photoshop by R. Mao M. Pareek


2000     $1.156 billion[23]



 1990s

Fiscal year      Revenue

1999     $1.015 billion[23]

1998     $0.895 billion[24]

1997     $0.912 billion[24]

1996     $0.787 billion[24]

1995     $0.762 billion[24]

1994     $0.676 billion[24]



Adobe's fiscal years run from December through November. For example, the 2007 fiscal year
ended on November 30, 2007.

Awards
Since 1995, Fortune has ranked Adobe as an outstanding place to work. Adobe was rated the
fifth-best U.S. company to work for in 2003, sixth in 2004, 31st in 2007, 40th in 2008, and
eleventh in 2009.[25] In May 2008, Adobe Systems India was ranked 19th of great places to
work in India.[26] In October 2008, Adobe Systems Canada Inc. was named one of "Canada's
Top 100 Employers" by Mediacorp Canada Inc., and was featured in Maclean's
newsmagazine.[27]

Criticism
Adobe has been criticised[28][29][30] for its pricing practices, with retail prices being as much as
twice as high[31] in foreign countries than in the domestic market. In June 2009, Adobe
increased its prices in the UK by 10%.[32]

See also
         Companies portal

      Adobe Engagement Platform
      Adobe Solutions Network
      Adobe MAX
      US v. ElcomSoft Sklyarov
      List of Adobe software
                                      Introduction to Adobe & Photoshop by R. Mao M. Pareek




Notes


 1. Adobe - Company Overview - Hoover's

 2. "Company Profile for Adobe Systems Inc (ADBE)".
http://zenobank.com/index.php?symbol=ADBE&page=quotesearch. Retrieved 2008-09-29.

 3. a b c d "Adobe Fast Facts" (PDF). 2009-03-09.
http://www.adobe.com/aboutadobe/pressroom/pdfs/fastfacts.pdf. Retrieved 2009-04-04.

 4. Hormby, Thomas. "How Adobe's Photoshop Was Born". SiliconUser.
http://www.siliconuser.com/?q=node/10. Retrieved June 12 2007.

 5. About Adobe - Press Room - For Immediate Release

 6. Adobe - Company Overview - Hoover's

 7. Adobe (April 18, 2005). "Adobe to acquire Macromedia". Press release.
http://www.adobe.com/aboutadobe/invrelations/adobeandmacromedia.html. Retrieved 2007-
03-31.

 8. Macromedia (April 18, 2005). "ADOBE TO ACQUIRE MACROMEDIA". Press release.
http://www.macromedia.com/macromedia/proom/pr/2005/adobe_macromedia.html.
Retrieved 2007-03-31.

 9. Graham, Jefferson (2005-04-18). "Adobe buys Macromedia in $3.4B deal". USA Today.
http://www.usatoday.com/money/industries/technology/2005-04-18-adobe-
macromedia_x.htm?csp=34. Retrieved 2007-03-31.

 10. Erik Larson (2008-06-01). "Welcome to Acrobat.com — Work. Together. Anywhere.".
Adobe. http://blogs.adobe.com/acom/2008/06/welcome_to_acrobatcom_work_tog_1.html.
Retrieved 2008-06-02.

 11. "Adobe launches Creative Suite 4; Likely to top low expectations". ZDNet (CBS). September
23, 2008. http://blogs.zdnet.com/BTL/?p=10127. Retrieved 2008-09-23.

 12. a b Carlson, Jeff (September 23, 2008). "Adobe Announces Vast Creative Suite 4". TidBITS.
http://db.tidbits.com/article/9782. Retrieved 2008-09-23.

 13. http://www.menafn.com/qn_news_story.asp?StoryId={71506579-2A79-4443-B4C6-
91AFEBB869A9}
                                     Introduction to Adobe & Photoshop by R. Mao M. Pareek


 14.
http://www.businesswire.com/portal/site/google/?ndmViewId=news_view&newsId=20090915
006569&newsLang=en

 15. http://www.adobe.com/aboutadobe/pressroom/pdfs/fastfacts.pdf

 16. a b c "Adobe Systems Incorporated Company Profile". Google Finance.
http://finance.google.com/finance?q=ADBE.

 17. Q4 and FY2008 earnings press release

 18. Macsimum News - Adobe announces record revenue

 19. a b adobe.com

 20. adobe.com

 21. a b Adobe Systems Reports Record Quarterly and Annual Revenue

 22. adobe.com

 23. a b adobe.com

 24. a b c d e adobe.com

 25. "100 Best Companies to Work For 2009".
http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/bestcompanies/2009/full_list/.

 26. "Best Places to work in India". http://www.greatplacetowork.com/best/list-in.htm.

 27. "Reasons for Selection, 2009 Canada's Top 100 Employers Competition".
http://www.eluta.ca/top-employer-adobe-systems-canada.

 28. "Photographers take stand against Adobe". http://www.bjp-
online.com/public/showPage.html?page=441615.

 29. "Adobe responds to CS4 pricing criticism".
http://news.zdnet.co.uk/software/0,1000000121,39497760,00.htm?r=1.

 30. "Adobe defends CS4 pricing". http://www.builderau.com.au/news/soa/Adobe-defends-
CS4-pricing/0,339028227,339292472,00.htm.

 31. "Adobe responds to customer protests against perceived unfair pricing.".
http://www.creativepro.com/article/creative-suite-pricing-varies-throughout-world.

 32. http://www.pcpro.co.uk/news/254173/adobe-hikes-uk-prices-by-10.html
                                      Introduction to Adobe & Photoshop by R. Mao M. Pareek


References


  * "Adobe Logo History" (HTML). http://worldsbestlogos.blogspot.com/2007/08/adobe-
systems-logo-history.html.

  * "Adobe timeline" (PDF). Archived from the original on 2006-01-06.
http://www.archive.org/download/AdobeTimeline2005/timeline.pdf.

  * "Patents owned by Adobe Systems". US Patent & Trademark Office.
http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-
Parser?Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&u=%2Fnetahtml%2Fsearch-
adv.htm&r=0&p=1&f=S&l=50&Query=an%2F%22Adobe+Systems%22&d=ptxt. Retrieved 8
December 2005.

  * San Jose Semaphore on Adobe's building



  * "Adobe Systems Incorporated Company Profile". Yahoo!.
http://biz.yahoo.com/ic/12/12518.html.
                                      Introduction to Adobe & Photoshop by R. Mao M. Pareek




Adobe Photoshop
Adobe Photoshop, or simply Photoshop, is a graphics editing program developed and published
by Adobe Systems. It is the current market leader for commercial bitmap and image
manipulation software, and is the flagship product of Adobe Systems. It has been described as
"an industry standard for graphics professionals"[1] and was one of the early "killer
applications" on the Macintosh, later also for the PC.[2]



Adobe's 2005 "Creative Suite" rebranding led to Adobe Photoshop 8's renaming to Adobe
Photoshop CS. Thus, Adobe Photoshop CS4 is the 11th major release of Adobe Photoshop. The
CS rebranding also resulted in Adobe offering numerous software packages containing multiple
Adobe programs for a reduced price. Adobe Photoshop is included in most of Adobe's Creative
Suite offerings.



Photoshop's popularity, combined with its high retail price, makes Photoshop's piracy rate
relatively high.[3] Adobe countered by including SafeCast DRM starting with Adobe Photoshop
CS.



      1 Development
      1.1 Early history
      2 Features
      2.1 CS3
      2.2 CS4
      3 Plugins
      4 Trademark
      5 Consumer market
      6 Controversies
      7 See also
      8 References
      9 External links



Development
                                       Introduction to Adobe & Photoshop by R. Mao M. Pareek


Early history
Photoshop 0.63 icons



In 1987, Thomas Knoll, a PhD student at the University of Michigan, began writing a program on
his Macintosh Plus to display grayscale images on a monochrome display. This program, called
Display, caught the attention of his brother John Knoll, an Industrial Light & Magic employee,
who recommended Thomas turn it into a full-fledged image editing program. Thomas took a six
month break from his studies in 1988 to collaborate with his brother on the program, which had
been renamed ImagePro.[4] Later that year, Thomas renamed his program Photoshop and
worked out a short-term deal with scanner manufacturer Barneyscan to distribute copies of the
program with a slide scanner; a "total of about 200 copies of Photoshop were shipped" this
way.[5]



During this time, John traveled to Silicon Valley and gave a demonstration of the program to
engineers at Apple Computer Inc. and Russell Brown, art director at Adobe. Both showings were
successful, and Adobe decided to purchase the license to distribute in September 1988.[4] While
John worked on plug-ins in California, Thomas remained in Ann Arbor writing program code.
Photoshop 1.0 was released in 1990 for Macintosh exclusively.[6]

Features
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Further information: Comparison of raster graphics editors#Features



Photoshop has strong ties with other Adobe software for media editing, animation, and
authoring. The .PSD (Photoshop Document), Photoshop's native format, stores an image with
support for most imaging options available in Photoshop. These include layers with masks, color
spaces, ICC profiles, transparency, text, alpha channels and spot colors, clipping paths, and
duotone settings. This is in contrast to many other file formats (e.g. .EPS or .GIF) that restrict
content to provide streamlined, predictable functionality.



Photoshop's popularity means that the .PSD format is widely used, and it is supported to some
extent by most competing software. The .PSD file format can be exported to and from Adobe
Illustrator, Adobe Premiere Pro, and After Effects, to make professional standard DVDs and
                                       Introduction to Adobe & Photoshop by R. Mao M. Pareek


provide non-linear editing and special effects services, such as backgrounds, textures, and so on,
for television, film, and the Web. Photoshop is a pixel-based image editor, unlike Adobe
Illustrator or CorelDraw, which is a vector-based image editor.



Photoshop can utilize the color models RGB, lab, CMYK, grayscale, binary bitmap, and duotone.
Photoshop has the ability to read and write raster and vector image formats such
as .EPS, .PNG, .GIF, .JPEG, and Adobe Fireworks.

CS3
Smart Layers display the filter without altering the original image (here on Mac OS X)



Photoshop CS3 is marketed with three main components of improvement over previous
versions: "Work more productively, edit with unrivalled power, and composite with
breakthrough tools."[7] New features propagating productivity include streamlined interface,
improved Camera Raw, better control over print options, enhanced PDF support, and better
management with Adobe Bridge. Editing tools new to CS3 are the Clone Source palette and
nondestructive Smart Filters, and other features such as the Brightness/Contrast adjustment
and Vanishing Point module were enhanced. The Black and White adjustment option improves
users control over manual grayscale conversions with a dialog box similar to that of Channel
Mixer. Compositing is assisted with Photoshop's new Quick Selection and Refine Edge tools and
improved image stitching technology.[7]



CS3 Extended contains all features of CS3 plus tools for editing and importing some 3D graphics
file formats, enhancing video, and comprehensive image analysis tools, utilizing MATLAB
integration and DICOM file support.[8]

CS4


Photoshop CS4 features additions such as the ability to paint directly on 3D models, wrap 2D
images around 3D shapes, convert gradient maps to 3D objects, add depth to layers and text,
get print-quality output with the new ray-tracing rendering engine, and enjoy exporting to
supported common 3D formats; the new Adjustment and Mask Panels; Content-aware scaling
(also known as seam carving[9]); Fluid Canvas Rotation and File display options.[10] On 30 April,
Adobe released Photoshop CS4 Extended, which includes all the same features of Adobe
Photoshop CS4 with the addition of capabilities for scientific imaging, 3D, and high end film and
video users. The successor to Photoshop CS3, Photoshop CS4 is the first 64-bit Photoshop on
consumer computers (only on Windows – the OS X version is still 32-bit only.)[11]
                                        Introduction to Adobe & Photoshop by R. Mao M. Pareek


Plugins
Main article: Photoshop plugin



Photoshop functionality can be extended by add-on programs called Photoshop plugins which
act like mini-editors that modify the image. The most common type are filter plugins that
provide various image effects. They are located in the 'Filter' menu. Photoshop plugin API has
become a standard, and many other image editors also support Photoshop Plugins.



Adobe Camera Raw (also known as ACR and Camera Raw) is a special plugin, supplied free by
Adobe, used primarily to read and process raw image files so that the resultant images can be
processed by Photoshop.[12] It is invoked by attempting to open such a file, rather than from
the 'Filter' menu, but like other plugins is listed in the 'Help > About Plug-In' menu (as "Camera
Raw").

Trademark


Adobe discourages use of "Photoshop" as a verb, as in using photoshopping to refer to photo
editing, to prevent its trademark from becoming a genericized trademark.[13] Nevertheless,
photoshop is commonly used as a verb.[14]

Consumer market


While Photoshop is the industry standard image editing program for professional raster graphics
and other digital art, its relatively high suggested retail price has led to a number of competing
graphics tools, such as GIMP and Paint.NET, becoming popular. To compete in this market, and
to counter unusually high rates of piracy of its high end products, the company introduced a
consumer-oriented version of Photoshop as Adobe Photoshop Elements. A more user-friendly
interface and new tools such as the "red-eye" reduction brush were aimed firmly at the more
casual image editor. Many professional features were omitted. Removing CMYK functionality,
for example, initially made Elements unsuitable for commercial prepress work; paradoxically,
the ability of Adobe InDesign to enable an entirely RGB workflow has meant that Elements can
now be used as part of a professional workflow.[15]

Controversies


Many fashion and fitness magazines have been known to use Photoshop to airbrush details on
their covers. In a September 2009 Self, a fitness magazine had former American Idol Kelly
                                      Introduction to Adobe & Photoshop by R. Mao M. Pareek


Clarkson on the cover and they airbrushed to make her look thinner. Kelly Clarkson was not
happy with the cover.[16]



On October 14, 2009 Filippa Hamilton a model of Ralph Lauren was released from her modeling
contract with the designer because she could not fit into the samples, and a photo ad of her was
photoshopped and made her look very thin and emaciated.

See also


       Adobe Photoshop release history
       Adobe Photoshop Express
       Image editing
       Photoshop contest



References


 1. "Adobe in Photoshop freebie". CNN.com. 2007-03-01.
http://money.cnn.com/2007/03/01/technology/adobe/. Retrieved 2007-04-27.

 2. Christopher Null (2007-04-02). "The 50 Best Tech Products of All Time". PC World.
http://www.pcworld.com/article/id,130207-page,4-c,technology/article.html.

 3. Brian Auer (2008-03-28). "60% of Photoshop Users are PIRATES!". Epic Edits Weblog.
http://blog.epicedits.com/2008/03/28/60-of-photoshop-users-are-pirates/l.

 4. a b Schewe, Jeff (2000). "Thomas & John Knoll". PhotoshopNews.
http://www.photoshopnews.com/feature-stories/photoshop-profile-thomas-john-knoll-10/.
Retrieved 2007-06-15.

  5. Story, Derrick (2000-02-18). "From Darkroom to Desktop—How Photoshop Came to Light".
Story Photography. http://www.storyphoto.com/multimedia/multimedia_photoshop.html.
Retrieved 2007-06-15.

 6. Hormby, John (2007-06-05). "How Adobe's Photoshop Was Born". Story Photography.
http://siliconuser.com/?q=node/10. Retrieved 2007-06-15.

 7. a b "Adobe Photoshop CS3 Product overview" (PDF). Adobe official site. 2007.
http://wwwimages.adobe.com/www.adobe.com/products/photoshop/photoshop/pdfs/photos
hop_overview.pdf. Retrieved 2007-06-17.
                                        Introduction to Adobe & Photoshop by R. Mao M. Pareek


  8. "Adobe Photoshop CS3 Extended - Product overview" (PDF). Adobe Official site. 2007.
http://www.adobe.com/products/photoshop/photoshopextended/pdfs/photoshopex_datashee
t.pdf. Retrieved 2007-06-17.

  9. Adobe uses graphics chip for faster Photoshop CS4 - Posted by Stephen Shankland
(September 22, 2008) CNET News.

 10. features: digital filters, image editing - Adobe Photoshop CS4 Extended.

 11. PC World - Adobe Announces Creative Suite 4.

 12. Digital camera raw file support

 13. "Permissions and trademark guidelines - Proper use of the Photoshop trademark". Adobe
official site. 2007. http://www.adobe.com/misc/trade.html#photoshop. Retrieved 2007-06-15.

 14. David Blatner of MacWorld on professional photoshopping.

 15. creativepro.com - Photoshop Elements: Almost-Photoshop Image Editing at a Bargain
Price.

 16. [1]


Adobe Photoshop Express

Adobe Photoshop Express is a Flash-based image editing web application from Adobe used to
directly edit photos on blogs and social networking sites, so that users do not have to download
or upload images. Similar to Picnik, the application currently works with sites such as Facebook,
Flickr, Picasa and Photobucket. [1]



Currently in beta, features include a touchup tool, soft focus, black and white capabilities,
layering of fixes and effects, storage space, sketch effect, albums, and 3D online galleries.[2]

Terms of Use
In the early days of the beta test, the product's Terms of Use raised controversy, in that it
claimed to retain an irrevocable license to use certain works submitted by end users in
perpetuity.[3][4] At that time, Adobe held users of Photoshop Express to Adobe.com's general
Terms of Use, which had not been drafted in contemplation of the sort of user-created content
utilized in Photoshop Express.
                                       Introduction to Adobe & Photoshop by R. Mao M. Pareek


Following user concerns and negative press, Adobe issued new, more specialized Terms of Use
for the Photoshop Express product that superseded sections of the General Terms, and clarified
many of these issues. Changes included making the license expressly revocable and indicating
that Adobe's rights to use the content are solely for the operation of Photoshop Express itself.[5]

References
 1. Hughes, Gina (2008-03-28). "Adobe launches web-based Photoshop service". Yahoo!.
http://tech.yahoo.com/blogs/hughes/25401. Retrieved 2008-03-30.

 2. My Top 10 Favorite Features of Photoshop Express Beta by Matt Kloskowski

  3. "Terms of Use (as effective prior to April 10, 2008)". photoshop.com.
https://www.photoshop.com/express/terms_old.html. Retrieved 2008-04-10. "Adobe does not
claim ownership of Your Content. However, with respect to Your Content that you submit or
make available for inclusion on publicly accessible areas of the Services, you grant Adobe a
worldwide, royalty-free, nonexclusive, perpetual, irrevocable, and fully sublicensable license to
use, distribute, derive revenue or other remuneration from, reproduce, modify, adapt, publish,
translate, publicly perform and publicly display such Content (in whole or in part) and to
incorporate such Content into other Materials or works in any format or medium now known or
later developed."

 4. Morgenstern, David (2008-03-28). "Concerns raised over content ownership, terms with
Adobe Photoshop Express service". zdnet.com. http://blogs.zdnet.com/Apple/?p=1477.
Retrieved 2008-03-29.

 5. "Photoshop Express Terms of Use, Section 6". photoshop.com.
https://www.photoshop.com/express/pxterms.html. Retrieved 2008-04-10.
                                        Introduction to Adobe & Photoshop by R. Mao M. Pareek


Adobe Photoshop Elements
Adobe Photoshop Elements is the consumer version of the Adobe Photoshop raster image
editing product, targeted at hobbyist group of users and hence sold at a fraction (roughly 1/6th)
of the cost of the professional product. It contains most of the features of the professional
version but with fewer and simpler options. The program allows users to create, edit, organize
and share images, all from the same product.



Originally introduced alongside Photoshop version 7, Photoshop Elements targets photography
enthusiasts and thus lacks many features that make it useful in a proper print production
environment. For example, Photoshop Elements cannot export files in the CMYK colour mode
(without using a third-party plug-in), supports a simplified colour management system, and
excludes detailed soft-proofing. It also either eliminates completely or offers simplified versions
of some of the more powerful plug-ins, and instead has a number of features aimed at non-
experts (such as removing the red-eye effect or changing the skin tone in a picture). An example
of a redesigned feature would be the Variations correction dialog. Some versions can, however,
open, edit, and save PDFs.



Photoshop LE (Limited Edition) was Adobe's consumer raster image editing product prior to the
introduction of Elements. Photoshop LE had similar limitations to Elements.

Versions
The latest Windows version is Photoshop Elements 8,[1] released in September 2009.

The latest Mac OS X version is Photoshop Elements 8, [2] released also in 2009.

Windows release history
  * Version 1: April 2001

  * Version 2: August 2002

  * Version 3: October 2004

  * Version 4: October 2005

  * Version 5: October 2006

  * Version 6: October 2007

  * Version 7: October 2008

  * Version 8: September 2009
                                    Introduction to Adobe & Photoshop by R. Mao M. Pareek


Mac version release history


 * Version 2: 2002

 * Version 3: 2004

 * Version 4: 2006

 * Version 6: 2008

 * Version 8: 2009



Further reading


 * Photoshop Elements 4 Solutions, by Mikkel Aaland

 * Photoshop Elements 5: The Missing Manual, by Barbara Brundage

 * The Hidden Power of Photoshop Elements 4, by Richard Lynch



References


 1. Adobe - Adobe Photoshop Elements for Windows

 2. Adobe - Adobe Photoshop Elements for Mac



See also


 * Adobe Premiere Elements
                                      Introduction to Adobe & Photoshop by R. Mao M. Pareek


Adobe Photoshop Lightroom
Adobe Photoshop Lightroom is a photography software program developed by Adobe Systems
for Mac OS X and Microsoft Windows, designed to assist professional photographers in
managing thousands of digital images and doing post production work. It is not a file browser
like Adobe Bridge, but rather an image management application database which helps in
viewing, editing, and managing digital photos (including those on backup DVDs).



History
In 2002, veteran Photoshop developer Mark Hamburg began a new project, code-named
“Shadowland". Hamburg reached out to Andrei Herasimchuk, former interface designer for the
Adobe Creative Suite, to get the project off the ground. [1] The new project was a deliberate
departure from many of Adobe’s established conventions. 40% of Photoshop Lightroom is
written using the Lua scripting language. After a few years of research by Hamburg,
Herasimchuk, Sandy Alves, the former interface designer on the Photoshop team, and Grace Kim,
a product researcher at Adobe, the Shadowland project got momentum around 2004.
Herasimchuk chose to leave Adobe Systems at that time to start a design company in the Valley,
and then Hamburg chose Phil Clevenger, a former associate of Kai Krause’s, to create a new look
for the application.[1]



Photoshop Lightroom’s (LR) engineering talent is based largely in Minnesota, comprising the
team that had already created Adobe’s ImageReady application. Troy Gaul, Melissa Gaul, and
the rest of their crew (reportedly known as the “Minnesota Phats”[2]), along with Hamburg,
developed the architecture behind the application. George Jardine, a skilled photographer and
previous Adobe evangelist, rounded out the early team, filling the Product Manager role.[1]

Beta development


On January 9, 2006, an early version of Photoshop Lightroom, previously just called Lightroom,
was released to the public as a Macintosh-only public Beta, on the Adobe Labs website. This was
the first Adobe product released to the general public for feedback during its development. This
method was then later used in the development of Adobe Photoshop CS3. Further Beta releases
followed. Notable releases included Beta 3 on July 18, 2006, which added support for Microsoft
Windows systems. On September 25, 2006, Beta 4 was released, which saw the program
merged into the Photoshop product range, followed by a minor update on October 19, which
was released as Beta 4.1.

Official release
                                        Introduction to Adobe & Photoshop by R. Mao M. Pareek


On January 29, 2007, Adobe announced that Lightroom would be shipping on February 19, 2007.
US list pricing was set at $299. The UK retail price was £199.



Lightroom 1.1 update was released on June 26, 2007, followed by updates:

       Update 1.2, released 15 September 2007.
       Update 1.3, released 15 November, 2007.
       Update 1.4, released 14 March, 2008.
       Update 1.4.1, released 10 April 2008.

Release 1.4 was taken off line on 19 March 2008 because of serious bugs that could alter the
original images; release 1.3.1 was put back.

A 30-day trial of Lightroom 1.4.1 is currently available. Lightroom v1.x.x is not updated when an
upgrade to v2 is installed; a complete new program is installed and requires a new serial number.

Version 2.0
Lightroom Release Timeline.

Adobe Photoshop Lightroom 2.0 Beta was advertised in official emails from Adobe in April 2008.
New features include:



       Localized corrections (edit specific parts of an image)
       Improved organization tools
       Multiple monitor support
       Flexible printing options
       64-bit support



The official release of Lightroom v2 was on July 29 2008, along with the release of Adobe
Camera Raw v4.5 and DNG Converter 4.5. Adobe has added DNG Camera Profiling to both
releases. This technology allows custom camera colour profiles, or looks, to be created by the
user and saved. It also allows profiles matching the creative styles built in to cameras to be
replicated. Adobe released a complete set of such Camera Profiles for Nikon and Canon models,
in addition to basic Standard Profiles for all supported makes and models, through Adobe Labs,
at the same time as the Lightroom v2 release. This technology is open to all programs compliant
with the DNG file format standard.

       Update 2.1, released 23 October 2008.
       Update 2.2, released 16 December 2008.
                                       Introduction to Adobe & Photoshop by R. Mao M. Pareek


       Update 2.3, released 3 March 2009.
       Update 2.5, released 15 September 2009.



Features
Unlike traditional image editing software, Photoshop Lightroom is focused on the following
workflow steps:

    1. Library - image collection review and organization - similar in concept to the 'Organizer'
       in Adobe Photoshop Elements
    2. Develop - non-destructive RAW and JPEG file editing
    3. Slideshow - tools and export features
    4. Print - layout options and preferences
    5. Web - automatic gallery creation and upload



The Develop mode has a number of presets for colour correction/effects. Apart from the regular
presets, there are a huge number of presets available for free download on the internet, which
makes it a very useful tool for professional photographers.

Competitors
Apple Inc. develops a similar product, Aperture.

According to 2009 statistics from research company InfoTrends, released by Adobe product
manager John Nack, of all the 1,045 North American professional photographers who were
interviewed, 37.0% used Lightroom and 6.3% used Aperture while 57.9% used the Photoshop
Camera Raw plug-in. Of the Mac users, 44.4% used Lightroom and 12.5% used Aperture. [3]

Bibble from Bibble Labs is another RAW conversion and photography workflow system. It is
available for Windows, Mac and Linux systems.

IMatch is another product with similar features.

See also
  * Comparison of raster graphics editors



References
 1. a b c Jeff Schewe (January 9, 2006). "The Shadowland/Lightroom Development Story".
http://photoshopnews.com/2006/01/09/the-shadowlandlightroom-development-story.
Retrieved 2006-01-09.
                                   Introduction to Adobe & Photoshop by R. Mao M. Pareek


 2. Jeff Schewe (January 9, 2006). "Announcing Adobe Lightroom".
http://www.photoshopnews.com/2006/01/09/announcing-adobe-lightroom/. Retrieved 2007-
09-29.

 3. http://blogs.adobe.com/jnack/2009/09/lightroom_vs_aperture_09.html




Resources
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                       Fee
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