The Fruits by yurtgc548

VIEWS: 49 PAGES: 34

									              The Fruits
The frut is the devoloped , fertilized,
 mature ovary or ovaries of a single
 flower.
Function: to protect and nourish the
 seed during development.
•   A-Superior Fruits:
•   e.g Linseed, Solanaceae, Mustard.
•   B-Inferior fruits:
•   Cardamom, Umbelliferae
Inferior fruits




Superior fruits
  The Fruit is Classified into
• True                    False
The Gynoecium only   The Gynoecium +
                     other floral parts
                  True Fruits


 Simple        Aggregate     Composite (compound)

Derived from     Derived         Formed from
single ovary     from            the whole
of one or        apocarpo        inflorescence
more united      us ovary
                                   e.g Mullberry
carpels          (separate
                                       ‫شجرة التوت‬
e.g Fennel       carpels)
                 e.g Star
                 anise
The Fruits
                              The Fruits
                              The Fruits



                       True                  False



            Simple
                                 Aggregate
                                                     Composite




Succulent            Dry   Achenes      Follicles
Succulent (fleshy pericarp)
 Drupe, the endocarp

  is hard and woody

 Berry, the endocarp

  neither hard

 nor lignified
Teeth
     Dry (with a dry or leathery
              pericarp)
 Dehiscent: split open when ripe to release the
   seeds
 Indehiscent: don’t split open when ripe (one
   seeded)
 Schizocarpic:
- bi- or multilocular fruit,
- split up into one seed
 indehiscent parts
 (mericarps)
           Dehiscent Fruits
1-Follicle: the splitting along one side only
  e.g. star anise, strophanthus
2- Siliqua: the splitting by
2 valves to apex e.g
mustard seed
              3- Legume
The splitting along the two sides
4- Capsule: dehisces by various
             ways.
             Capsule            As 1/or 2
                                but seeds
                                remain
                                  As 1 or 2
                                attached to
                                  but seeds
                                central axis
                                  remain
 Split
Split
 along
along
 the
middle
 middle
septa
 septa


          Split along the
           Split open into
          middle line of each
           locules
          locule
                                       Partial longitudinal
                                       splitting forming
                      Split by pores
                                       teeth




Capsule whose upper
part falls off
when the seeds
are released-
don’t split open when ripe (usually one-seeded)
 Monocarpillary derived
 from superior ovary,
 pericarp is
 memberaneous-not
 fused with the testa e.g
 strawberry (aggregates
 of achene)



                  a         b    c        d
              From
Caryopsis   inferior
              ovary
Cypsella
              (Indehiscent cont.)




Sycamore
‫شجرة الجميز‬
                                    ‫البندق‬
3rd type of dry fruit
                  e.g Labiatae




On ripening, it splits into
numerous one-seeded
achene-like mericarps
                                    Composed of 2 or
                                    more indehiscent
                                    winged parts split
                                    from each other
Polycarpellary multilocular ovary




     e.g Castor
               ‫الخروع‬       ‫سكر القيقب‬
2nd type of true fruit
            Aggregate Fruits
Achenes: grouped on
 swollen or dry receptacle
Follicles:
 A Follicle is a dry dehiscent fruit
 which splits
 on one side only.
 . It may contain one or many seeds
                    3-Composite fruit


Strobile , derived from scaly          Syconus
inflorescence e,g Hops
                                A collective
                                fleshy fruit ,in
                                which the
                                ovaries are
                                hidden within a
                                hollow
                                receptacle ,as in
                                the fig .
Fig
Serosis             3-Composite fruit (cont.)

(soross):
derived from a
spike
(inflorescence)
with a fleshy
axis and
perianthes of
the single fruits
fused pepper
Longtogether.
e.g Mullberry
long pepper
        Histology of the fruit
• As the ovary matures, its wall develops to
 form the pericarp, which is divided into
 three layers. The outermost, the exocarp,
 is usually a single epidermal layer. The
 extent of the middle layer, the mesocarp,
• The inner layer, the endocarp, varies
 widely, but in any single type of fruit
 one of the layers may be thick, the
 others thin.
• These layers are generally more
 conspicuous in fleshy fruits than in
 dry ones.
     Terminology of the fruit

Carpophore: Floral axis
 extension between
 adjacent carpels,
 as in the Apiacea.


Epicarp or Exocar: Outermost layer of
 pericarp
Mesocarp: Middle layer of pericarp .
Endocarp: Innermost differentiated
 layer of pericarp .

Pericarp: Fruit wall .
Placenta: Region of attachment of
 seeds on inner fruit wall .
Ex.
Three-layer structure
shared by all fruits.
The fruit skin
is the outermost
layer, called the
exocarp.
It protects
two inner layers: the mesocarp, and the pit, or
endocarp. Together, these three layers comprise the
pericarp, the thickened wall of fruit that encases and
protects the seed.
                          Caox



                          Oil drops




(Innermost of mesocarp)
www.tantapharmacy.org

  http://www.tantapss.com/

								
To top