We're going to look at how somewhat
disjunct technology trends have shaped
Hypermedia & Multimedia (CD-ROM)
Making the Unreal into
“In early 1968 we made the rounds of The New
York Times and Time/Life.
And we found that our system was essentially
too complex for them to understand. Remember
that these people were producing magazines and
newspapers and other forms of printed material.
At most they had typographic programs that set
type and maybe some software that did display
ad management. …
But the idea of sitting on-line behind a tube and
actually authoring and editing and rearranging
and cross-referencing really was more than they
were willing to believe you needed to do or
should do. It was ‘very interesting.’
I remember this particular demo we did at
Time/Life when our audience said, "That's great,
but it will take us at least 10 years before people
will be willing to sit down behind tubes and do
• Andries van Dam, Hypertext Keynote
Macintosh Bit-mapped Display
The Graphical User Interface (GUI)
Page Description Languages (PostScript)
Page Layout Programs
Apple, Adobe and Aldus
Three companies shaped desktop
publishing, which might have been more
appropriately called desktop production.
technologies in the
was released in
which was nearly
as important as
the Macintosh, was
released in 1985.
First ones cost
Founded in 1982 by
John Warnock and
researchers who had
worked on laser
printers and page
From “Inside the Publishing Revolution”
a device-independent page
vector-based font descriptions
an interpreted graphics
programming language; the
interpreter is embedded in the
What You See is What You Get
• Page layout
• Later acquired by Adobe,
Aldus retreated from its
Quark Xpress came to be the
leading professional page
Adobe’s InDesign so-called
Automates the process of publishing: editing,
layout and typesetting of publications.
Results in lower production costs.
Reduces the time-to-market by eliminating
steps in the production process.
Enables any organization and any individual to
create high quality publications.
The Product is print; as a by-product,
information exists electronically.
Batch Formatting Systems
TeX and LaTeX
Analogous to source code
Formatter interprets source and
creates output for a specific print
Example: Man Pages
Standard Generalized Markup
Came out of IBM (GML) and
standardized by Charles Goldfarb.
• Became an ISO standard in 1986
Really a language for defining markup
Assumes a batch processing model.
Use markup to identify the structural
elements of a document; a tree structure.
Separate presentation from content
Allow the same content to reused in different
Style sheets contain formatting instructions
that are associated each element.
Make it easier to exchange documents
among different parties.
Document Type Definitions
A way to define a set of elements to be
used in the markup of a class of
documents and the hierarchical
relationships among these elements.
Assumed that communities/industries
would standardizes on DTDs for
Met Needs of Defense Industry
E.g. Aircraft Maintenance Manuals
Fostered development of highly
specialized, high-end "industrial"
hypermedia software tools.
Dynatext from EBT
KMS (Knowledge Management Systems)
Started in 1988, looked at domain of
technical documentation, mostly for
Docbook DTD emerged from this
Problems with SGML
SGML tools were expensive and
Print formatting solutions were not
DTDs were difficult to develop.
Primarily designed for text-based
The battle over formats
• Identify semantics
• From SGML to XML
• Page Fidelity
• From Postscript to PDF
• An improved version of SGML developed
at the W3C
• Move beyond the browser
Separate content from presentation
Make possible multiple delivery methods
Documents vs. Data
Integration of text, graphics, and sound
as objects or components of a document.
These components can be linked together
in a variety of ways.
Focused on publishing information as a
Research Project at Brown University
Begun as a project with Ted Nelson and Andries Van Dam in
1968; Nelson became “disillusioned” with it and left.
First used for an English course in 1987
IRIS project, headed by Norman Meyrowitz
Commercial release in 1989
Development ends around 1992.
Outline View, Web View
"hypermedia functionality should be handled
at the system level, where linking would be
available for all participating applications in
much the same way that copying to and
pasting from the clipboard facility is
supported in the Macintosh and Microsoft
Windows environments. ("IRIS Hypermedia Services"
p. 38)" from Intermedia entry at the Electronic Labyrinth
Other Hypermedia Systems
Owl created first commercial hypertext
system, released in 1986, as a
Implemented the idea of stretch-text. A
kind of outliner for presentations.
Four classes of links; cursor changes
when moved over link.
The most popular and practical
implementation of hypermedia
• Developed by Bill Atkinson at Apple.
• Used a stack of cards as central metaphor
• Organized images and text
• Also supported sound, some animation and
• A million sold in first year (1987).
• Purists debated whether it is truly
Hypertext ’87 Keynote
“HyperCard, despite all its limitations, is
beautifully engineered, and has a wonderful
user interface, especially for hypertext-style
linking. It will really acculturate our computer
user community. It is simple enough, despite
its complexity, that a lot of people can get
access to it at a relatively simple level. It's a
fraction of what Doug and Ted and others of us
believe to be the potential of hypertext or
hypermedia.” Andries van Dam; Keynote.
HyperCard As Browser
A single program used to access
different kinds of content.
Authoring and linking model was
Hypertalk language was a precursor to
A large capacity distribution medium in search
of mixed-media content.
Microsoft a big supporter, primarily viewing it
as a means for software distribution. But also
produced products like Cinemania.
A packaged product that blurs the line between
software and "content."
Macromedia's Director became the high-
end authoring tool for CD-ROM
A lot like HyperCard but more powerful
and complex to learn.
Lingo programming language like HyperTalk
Head of Development at Macromedia is
now Norman Meyerowitz
A Few Key Multimedia
Hard Day’s Night
A Place For Art
All in One
A Day in Thailand
Broderbund has not been successful with
"information" or "content" on CD other
Doug Carlston, ex-CEO of Broderbund,
described a productivity application as one
where the user adds the value by contributing
his or her own information. (Family Tree).
1997 Sales of $190M “Broderbund's first big hit came in
% of total 1984 with Print Shop. The next year it
Productivity 56 released Where in the World Is
Education 27 Carmen Sandiego? The company
Entertainment 13 went public in 1991, and the following
Affiliated labels 4 year it acquired PC Globe, an
electronic atlas publisher.
Broderbund also expanded its list of
affiliated labels (software it
distributes exclusively for other
Sold to Learning Company for $420 publishers) and in 1994 formed a joint
in 1998. venture with Random House to create
Living Books, a line of interactive
children's storybook CD-ROMs.”
Convergence of imaging, animation,
audio and video technologies, while
ongoing difficulty in standards and
Content unavailable outside of
proprietary program; programs
dedicated to one body of content.
Biggest success in games and educational
Additional CD-ROM Issues
High production costs for consumer
• Projects began to look more like "Hollywood"
movie projects and did not meet with success. (12-
18 months of effort; $5-10 million budget.)
Difficulty of developing distribution channels
• bookstores were not successful selling CD-ROMs.
• software stores also had difficulty
Continued use for data distribution.
Two ends of the spectrum.
Consumer Online Services
CompuServe (founded 1969)
Dial up access
User-created content & community
Professional Online Services
Required specially trained experts to
Research oriented and publication
Early Internet Systems
University of Minnesota
Menu-based access to text files
Wide-Area Information System
Search engine by Brewster Kahle
Tim Berners-Lee at CERN invents the
Web as a global hypertext system utilizing
Submits paper to HyperText Conference
in 1991; it’s rejected.
NCSA begins Mosaic development in
HTTP, HTML, and URLs
A simple protocol, a simple device-
independent data format and a
straightforward global addressing system.
The data now exists outside of the
browser software required to access and
display it; allows other programs besides
browsers to access it.
URL -- Uniform Resource
Tim Berners-Lee key insight was that a
distributed hypertext system did not have
to know in advance whether a link
reference could be resolved.
The Web’s most significant contribution is
establishing ubiquitous point-to-point
E-commerce: The Web became its own
Relatively low cost for development.
Wide range of applications beyond
Rich Media (Flash)
Peer To Peer
Napster et. al
• Clients become servers.
Automating the exchange of information
among web applications.
• Servers talk to servers.
The development of desktop publishing, CD-
ROM and the Web seem to be separate paths.
The people and the companies that shaped these
developments were starting off in new directions,
deciding that what was essential involved ignoring
much of what was there.
Also, those companies heavily invested in one
remained skeptical that "the next thing" was
Desktop publishing requires a fine degree
of control over presentation; so did CD-
Hypermedia on CD-ROM introduced
basic forms of interactivity.
The Web began with more basic forms of
content, presentation and interactivity.
A CD-ROM was a packaged good.
Lacked an established distribution channel.
Web content is not really packaged.
Online service model
Web development benefited from
people who had experience in
desktop publishing, markup
systems, hypermedia, and CD-ROM
Confluence of creative and technical