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					Technology Trends
   Week 3




                1
Key Technology
Developments
   We're going to look at how somewhat
    disjunct technology trends have shaped
    electronic publishing.
     Desktop Publishing
     Markup Systems

     Hypermedia & Multimedia (CD-ROM)

     Online Services

     Web


                                             2
Making the Unreal into
Reality
 “In early 1968 we made the rounds of The New
 York Times and Time/Life.
 And we found that our system was essentially
 too complex for them to understand. Remember
 that these people were producing magazines and
 newspapers and other forms of printed material.
 At most they had typographic programs that set
 type and maybe some software that did display
 ad management. …



                                              3
   But the idea of sitting on-line behind a tube and
    actually authoring and editing and rearranging
    and cross-referencing really was more than they
    were willing to believe you needed to do or
    should do. It was ‘very interesting.’
   I remember this particular demo we did at
    Time/Life when our audience said, "That's great,
    but it will take us at least 10 years before people
    will be willing to sit down behind tubes and do
    anything on-line."
       • Andries van Dam, Hypertext Keynote



                                                     4
Desktop Publishing
 Macintosh Bit-mapped Display
 The Graphical User Interface (GUI)
 Laser Printers
 Page Description Languages (PostScript)
 Page Layout Programs




                                            5
Apple, Adobe and Aldus
   Three companies shaped desktop
    publishing, which might have been more
    appropriately called desktop production.




                                               6
Apple: 1984
   Apple
    commercialized
    several new
    technologies in the
    Macintosh, which
    was released in
    1984.
       Famous 1984
        Commercial


                          7
LaserWriter
   The Apple
    LaserWriter,
    which was nearly
    as important as
    the Macintosh, was
    released in 1985.
       First ones cost
        $17,000.



                          8
Adobe Generates
PostScript
                                             Founded in 1982 by
                                              John Warnock and
                                              Charles Geschke,
                                              Xerox PARC
                                              researchers who had
                                              worked on laser
                                              printers and page
From “Inside the Publishing Revolution”
                                              description
                                              languages.

                                                                    9
PostScript
 a device-independent page
  description language
 vector-based font descriptions
 an interpreted graphics
  programming language; the
  interpreter is embedded in the
  device.

                                   10
WYSIWYG
          What You See is What You Get
                Aldus Pagemaker
                  • Page layout
                  • Later acquired by Adobe,
                    Aldus retreated from its
                    prominence –
                Quark Xpress came to be the
                 leading professional page
                 layout solution.
                Adobe’s InDesign so-called
                 “Quark killer.”



                                           11
Desktop Publishing
   Automates the process of publishing: editing,
    layout and typesetting of publications.
   Results in lower production costs.
   Reduces the time-to-market by eliminating
    steps in the production process.
   Enables any organization and any individual to
    create high quality publications.
   The Product is print; as a by-product,
    information exists electronically.

                                                 12
Markup Systems
   Batch Formatting Systems
       Troff
       TeX and LaTeX
       RTF
   Generalized Markup
       SGML
       XML

                               13
Batch Formatting
 Analogous to source code
 Formatter interprets source and
  creates output for a specific print
  device.
 Troff (typesetting)
 Nroff (screen-based)
       Example: Man Pages

                                        14
SGML
   Standard Generalized Markup
    Language
       Came out of IBM (GML) and
        standardized by Charles Goldfarb.
        • Became an ISO standard in 1986
     Really a language for defining markup
      languages.
     Assumes a batch processing model.


                                              15
Structural Markup
   Use markup to identify the structural
    elements of a document; a tree structure.
   Separate presentation from content
       Allow the same content to reused in different
        contexts.
       Style sheets contain formatting instructions
        that are associated each element.
   Make it easier to exchange documents
    among different parties.

                                                    16
DTD
   Document Type Definitions
     A way to define a set of elements to be
      used in the markup of a class of
      documents and the hierarchical
      relationships among these elements.
     Assumed that communities/industries
      would standardizes on DTDs for
      interchange.


                                           17
SGML Publishing
Applications
   Met Needs of Defense Industry
       E.g. Aircraft Maintenance Manuals
   Fostered development of highly
    specialized, high-end "industrial"
    hypermedia software tools.
     Dynatext from EBT
     KMS (Knowledge Management Systems)

     Atex


                                            18
Davenport Group
 Started in 1988, looked at domain of
  technical documentation, mostly for
  software.
 Docbook DTD emerged from this
  process.




                                    19
Problems with SGML
 SGML tools were expensive and
  complex.
 Print formatting solutions were not
  practical.
 DTDs were difficult to develop.
 Primarily designed for text-based
  information.

                                        20
Electronic Documents
   The battle over formats
       Markup
        • Identify semantics
        • Reuse
           • From SGML to XML
       Presentation
        • Page Fidelity
           • From Postscript to PDF



                                      21
XML
• An improved version of SGML developed
  at the W3C
• Move beyond the browser
     Separate content from presentation
     Make possible multiple delivery methods
     Documents vs. Data
     Messaging formats


                                                22
Hypermedia Systems
   Integration of text, graphics, and sound
    as objects or components of a document.
       Compound Documents
   These components can be linked together
    in a variety of ways.
   Focused on publishing information as a
    groupware application.



                                           23
Intermedia
   Research Project at Brown University
   Timeline
       Begun as a project with Ted Nelson and Andries Van Dam in
        1968; Nelson became “disillusioned” with it and left.
       First used for an English course in 1987
       IRIS project, headed by Norman Meyrowitz
       Commercial release in 1989
       Development ends around 1992.
   Outline View, Web View




                                                                24
     Intermedia
Windowing Model
   "hypermedia functionality should be handled
    at the system level, where linking would be
    available for all participating applications in
    much the same way that copying to and
    pasting from the clipboard facility is
    supported in the Macintosh and Microsoft
    Windows environments. ("IRIS Hypermedia Services"
    p. 38)" from Intermedia entry at the Electronic Labyrinth


                                                                25
Other Hypermedia Systems
   Owl's Guide
     Owl created first commercial hypertext
      system, released in 1986, as a
      productivity application.
     Implemented the idea of stretch-text. A
      kind of outliner for presentations.
     Four classes of links; cursor changes
      when moved over link.

                                           26
HyperCard
   The most popular and practical
    implementation of hypermedia
      • Developed by Bill Atkinson at Apple.
      • Used a stack of cards as central metaphor
      • Organized images and text
      • Also supported sound, some animation and
        video
      • A million sold in first year (1987).
      • Purists debated whether it is truly
        hypertext.

                                               27
Hypertext ’87 Keynote
   “HyperCard, despite all its limitations, is
    beautifully engineered, and has a wonderful
    user interface, especially for hypertext-style
    linking. It will really acculturate our computer
    user community. It is simple enough, despite
    its complexity, that a lot of people can get
    access to it at a relatively simple level. It's a
    fraction of what Doug and Ted and others of us
    believe to be the potential of hypertext or
    hypermedia.” Andries van Dam; Keynote.


                                                   28
HyperCard As Browser
 A single program used to access
  different kinds of content.
 Authoring and linking model was
  simple.
 Scriptable
       Hypertalk language was a precursor to
        Javascript.


                                            29
CD-ROM
   A large capacity distribution medium in search
    of mixed-media content.
   Microsoft a big supporter, primarily viewing it
    as a means for software distribution. But also
    produced products like Cinemania.
   A packaged product that blurs the line between
    software and "content."



                                                      30
Macromedia
 Macromedia's Director became the high-
  end authoring tool for CD-ROM
  development.
 A lot like HyperCard but more powerful
  and complex to learn.
       Lingo programming language like HyperTalk
   Head of Development at Macromedia is
    now Norman Meyerowitz

                                               31
A Few Key Multimedia
Applications
   Voyager
       Beethoven
       Hard Day’s Night
   Microsoft
       Cinemania
   Corbis
       A Place For Art
   All in One
       A Day in Thailand
   Broderbund
       Myst


                            32
Productivity applications
   Broderbund has not been successful with
    "information" or "content" on CD other
    than games.
       Doug Carlston, ex-CEO of Broderbund,
        described a productivity application as one
        where the user adds the value by contributing
        his or her own information. (Family Tree).



                                                   33
Broderbund
1997 Sales of $190M                 “Broderbund's first big hit came in
                   % of total       1984 with Print Shop. The next year it
   Productivity           56       released Where in the World Is
   Education              27       Carmen Sandiego? The company
   Entertainment          13       went public in 1991, and the following
   Affiliated labels       4       year it acquired PC Globe, an
                                    electronic atlas publisher.
                                    Broderbund also expanded its list of
    Total                 100
                                    affiliated labels (software it
                                    distributes exclusively for other
Sold to Learning Company for $420   publishers) and in 1994 formed a joint
   in 1998.                         venture with Random House to create
                                    Living Books, a line of interactive
                                    children's storybook CD-ROMs.”
                                    Source: Hoover’s.




                                                                      34
CD-ROM Issues
        Convergence of imaging, animation,
         audio and video technologies, while
         ongoing difficulty in standards and
         interoperability.
        Content unavailable outside of
         proprietary program; programs
         dedicated to one body of content.
        Biggest success in games and educational
         software.



                                                35
Additional CD-ROM Issues
    High production costs for consumer
     products.
      • Projects began to look more like "Hollywood"
        movie projects and did not meet with success. (12-
        18 months of effort; $5-10 million budget.)
    Difficulty of developing distribution channels
      • bookstores were not successful selling CD-ROMs.
      • software stores also had difficulty
    Continued use for data distribution.

                                                       36
Online Services
Two ends of the spectrum.
 Consumer
 Professional




                            37
Consumer Online Services
       CompuServe (founded 1969)
       AOL (1985)
       Prodigy, MSN
   Dial up access
   User-created content & community
    Bulletin-boards/Conferencing/Forums
    Email, Chat

                                          38
Professional Online Services
 Mead-Data
 Lexis-Nexis
     Required specially trained experts to
      perform searches
     Research oriented and publication
      focused.




                                              39
Early Internet Systems
 Ftp
 Gopher
     University of Minnesota
     Menu-based access to text files

   Wais
     Wide-Area Information System
     Search engine by Brewster Kahle



                                        40
The Web
   Tim Berners-Lee at CERN invents the
    Web as a global hypertext system utilizing
    the Internet.
   Submits paper to HyperText Conference
    in 1991; it’s rejected.
   NCSA begins Mosaic development in
    1993.

                                            41
Simple Standards
 HTTP, HTML, and URLs
 A simple protocol, a simple device-
  independent data format and a
  straightforward global addressing system.




                                         42
HTML
   The data now exists outside of the
    browser software required to access and
    display it; allows other programs besides
    browsers to access it.




                                            43
URL -- Uniform Resource
Locators.
   Tim Berners-Lee key insight was that a
    distributed hypertext system did not have
    to know in advance whether a link
    reference could be resolved.




                                           44
Reshaping Distribution
   The Web’s most significant contribution is
    establishing ubiquitous point-to-point
    distribution.
   E-commerce: The Web became its own
    channel.
   Relatively low cost for development.
   Wide range of applications beyond
    publishing.


                                            45
New Directions
   Streaming Media
   Rich Media (Flash)
   Peer To Peer
       Napster et. al
         • Clients become servers.
   Web Services
       Automating the exchange of information
        among web applications.
         • Servers talk to servers.


                                                 46
Conclusions
Disjunct Developments
 The development of desktop publishing, CD-
  ROM and the Web seem to be separate paths.
       The people and the companies that shaped these
        developments were starting off in new directions,
        deciding that what was essential involved ignoring
        much of what was there.
   Also, those companies heavily invested in one
    remained skeptical that "the next thing" was
    real.

                                                             47
   Desktop publishing requires a fine degree
    of control over presentation; so did CD-
    ROM.
   Hypermedia on CD-ROM introduced
    basic forms of interactivity.
   The Web began with more basic forms of
    content, presentation and interactivity.

                                           48
   A CD-ROM was a packaged good.
       Lacked an established distribution channel.
   Web content is not really packaged.
       Online service model
       Advertising




                                                      49
Collaborative Development
 Web development benefited from
  people who had experience in
  desktop publishing, markup
  systems, hypermedia, and CD-ROM
  authoring.
 Confluence of creative and technical
  capabilities.


                                     50

				
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