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Toner Powered By Docstoc
					   ANDREW GEORGEADES
    URBAN STUDIES 515
PROF. RAQUEL PINDERHUGHES
      MARCH 20, 2003
   Xerographic Toner:

     A “CRADLE-TO-GRAVE”
ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE ANALYSIS
                         Xerographic Toner
This presentation focuses on Xerographic Toner, the primary medium used
   to create photocopies. In my presentation, we investigate the
   environmental, social, and public health impacts from the used of toner
   and other materials associated with the xerographic process. We will
   follow the ‘lifecycle’ of this product from ‘cradle-to-grave,’ examining:
         1. Origin and extraction as a petrochemical
         2. Transformation into a product and the impact on communities
         3. Implications of the use of toner
         4. Toner’s affect on the waste stream, and the reciprocal effects of
                   the technology
  Xerographic Toner

      -INTRODUCTION-


MAGIC AND THE BLACK POWDER
                             Introduction
• I have always enjoyed making photocopies. I am not sure I
  understand why exactly.
   – Perhaps it is because I am so unsure what is going on inside the
     machine. You press a button and, “presto,” there an almost exact
     copy of your original sliding out the tray in seconds.
   – Or maybe I enjoy being able to create:
       • Publications
       • Forms and documents for my contracting work
• But making copies always stops when that little symbol on the
  control panel lights up--
 Introduction




ADD TONER
                         Introduction
• Given this assignment, I decided to find out what power this
  black powder held over the copier (and myself).
• Through my investigations, I have learned that toner has a
  significant impact on the environment and on different cultures
  and communities in the US and around the world.
                            Introduction: Origins
• The modern xerographic process
  used today was pioneered by
  Chester Carlson1
   – Xerography is Greek for “dry
     writing.” 2


                                       • Chester Carlson developed the
                                         first mass produced office copier
                                         with the Haloid Company, which
                                         later became Xerox.

      The first xerographic image
                    Introduction: Origins
• 65 years later, though, the xerographic process is
  revolutionizing the world,
   – but not the way you would think.
     Xerographic Toner

-EXTRACTION FROM THE ENVIRONMENT-


      THE ORIGINS OF TONER
   Extraction: Toner Composition
In order to begin our analysis, we must ask:
               What is toner?
               Extraction: Toner Composition
• Toner is essentially a very small     a toner particle
  particle of plastic and pigment     (weight=1 nanogram)

  that is able to maintain a
  particular polar
  electric/magnetic charge.1
• The particle may also contain
  ferromagnetic or other additives
  in order to strengthen its
  magnetic properties. 2

                                       toner carrier bead
                                      (size= 100 microns)
             Extraction: Toner Composition
• Toner is typically composed      a toner particle
                                 (weight=1 nanogram)
  of a mix of two materials:
   – 80%-90% ‘plastic’ polymer
   – 20%-10% carbon black
     pigment3

• Both of these materials have
  their origins as
  petrochemicals.
                                  toner carrier bead
                                 (size= 100 microns)
                            Extraction: Oil
• Toner production relies on oil, and companies to extract
  provide the petrochemicals needed.
• Oil exploration and extraction is one of the most lucrative, but
  also most disruptive, industries of the modern era.
   – Oil companies spend $156 billion dollars annually exploring for new
     oil reserves. 4
       • Some of this subsidized by the US government ($11.9 billion).
   – Twelve major US oil companies made combined profits of $69.6
     billion in 20005, and, according to industry sources, hold an
     estimated $499 billion in assets.6
                          Extraction: Oil
• Using their incredible wealth, oil companies have virtually
  unlimited resources at their disposal to pursue new revenue
  sources, and strong influence over countries who lack or desire
  the lure of development funding. Combined with loans from
  international lending agencies, their power is almost
  irresistible.
   – Those who gain the most from accepting and arranging foreign
     funding, the social elite of the developing country, are often the
     least impacted by the effects of oil extraction.
                                    Extraction: Oil
• Oil exploration and drilling take a
  heavy toll on the environment
    – A typical exploration through rainforest
      requires cutting 800 miles of trails for
      seismic mapping, and the clearing of
      1500 helicopter pads. 6
    – About 2000 acres of forest is demolished
      even before an oil well is drilled.
    – Wildlife is displaced and forests have
      difficulty reclaiming the ruined area.
    – Desertification occurs because the fragile
      nature of the soil inhibits regrowth.
Extraction: Oil
           – Drilling operations often create
             oil spills.
               • This damages ecosystems
                 surrounding the operation as well
                 as down stream.
           – Oil and other byproducts from
             drilling are dumped into streams
             and rivers, or are pumped back
             into the ground, making the water
             in the aquifer toxic to people. 8
                                  Extraction: Oil
• Impoverished people, and
  racial, ethnic, and indigenous
  communities are continually
  impacted by drilling operations.
    – Niger Delta Villagers, Niger
        • Many poor villagers of the Niger
          Delta community of Erovie
          experienced health problems
          caused by Shell Oil’s practice of
          injecting production waste into
          abandoned wells. 93 villagers
          eventually died from ingesting
          water and food containing high       In 2000, 200 Niger Delta villagers were
          levels of heavy metals. 9            killed when an oil pipeline ruptured and
                                                              exploded.
Extraction: Oil
       – The U’wa People, Columbia10
           • The U’wa people of Columbia are in danger of
             losing their cultural identity from US oil
             company Occidental, whose arrangements
             with the government have allowed the
             company “carte blanche” exploration and
             development of land traditionally supporting
             the U’wa.
                – Occidental bypassed the tribal government,
                  arranging drilling rights with the
                  government.
           • Protests by the U’wa with the government
             were met with delays, allowing the oil
             development to continue unchecked.
                                          Extraction: Oil
– The Huao People, Ecuador11
     • The Huaorani people, a hunter-gatherer
       culture, found that game was disappearing
       from their traditional hunting grounds from
       the disruption of road building and seismic
       trail cutting.
     • Oil developer Maxus, like Occidental, struck
       deals with the Ecuadorian government
       without adequate representation by the
       Huaorani and other tribes living in the
       Amazon rainforest.
     • Road building by the oil developers attracted
       colonization by impoverished peasants deep
       in the forest, causingfurther destruction of the
       environment the Hauorani require to survive.

                                                          Homesteading along cleared road
                                                             as seen at high altitude.
Xerographic Toner

     -PRODUCTION-


FROM OIL TO RAW MATERIAL
   TO FINISHED PRODUCT
                             Production
• The transformation of oil into a
  finished toner product begins
  with the creation of the two
  primary components:
    – Carbon black
    – Plastic polymer
                   Production: Carbon Black
• Carbon black is used as a black pigment in a great number of
  modern products.
   – Pigment blacks are used in printing inks, coatings, and for UV
     protection in plastics. 1
   – Chemical companies sold 7.7 million metric tons (17.2 billion lbs.) of
     carbon black world wide in 20022
       • The majority of carbon black sold (70%) is to the rubber market; pigments
         make up 10%.
                     Production: Carbon Black
• Carbon black is created from the
  incomplete combustion of the
  hydrocarbons in oil. 3
    – Oil is heated into a gaseous state
      and heated in a chamber until an
      almost pure carbon residue is
      formed.
    – The carbon particles are collected
      in filter bags and the remaining
      residue is vented through
      chimneys.
                    Production: Carbon Black
• Though the production processes of today are more efficient
  than those in the past, carbon black plants produce significant
  amount of pollution4
   – The venting process releases sulfates and organic particles.
       • Contributors to respiratory illness and cancer5
   – The “thermal black” process of production is notorious for producing
     groundwater contamination. 6
                 Production: Carbon Black
– Workers at carbon black facilities are at an elevated risk for lung
  and bladder cancer caused by exposure to carbon black.
    • Despite warnings from health organizations including WHO, chemical
      producers deny that carbon black is a carcinogen. Chemical manufacturer
      Degussa, for example, stated in 1989 that they will “continue to act on the
      basis that carbon blacks do not cause cancer in human beings.” 7
                   Production: Plastic Polymer
• Polymers are created during the
  refining of oil.
    – Under high heat and pressure, oil
      stock is distilled; the denser
      products, long chains of carbon,
      are removed and form the
      beginnings of plastic polymers.
• Polymer production produces
  wastes similar to carbon black
  production as well as
  greenhouse gasses. 8
                    Production: Plastic Polymer
• Each toner manufacturer
  requires different types of
  polymers depending on their
  proprietary designs and the
  polymer’s melting point. 9
   – Some of the polymers used in
     toner today include
       •   Styrene
       •   Acrylic and polyester co/polymers
       •   Polyamides
       •   Polyethylene
       •   Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers   Poly(N-vinylcarbazole), a polymer
                                         Production: Toner
    • Copier companies do not produce the carbon black or polymers
      themselves. They purchase these materials from a provider and mix
      the toner themselves, or contract an outside manufacturer to produce
      the toner to their specifications. 10



                                                                                             and finally package the finished
                                                                                             product for market.

Manufacturers mix and melt
the ingredients together…
                             flatten and cool
                             the mixture into sheets…
                                                     crush, sift and refine it through
                                                     filters until a uniform particle size
                                                     is reached…
          Production: Xerographic Equipment
• Making photocopies requires more than just toner; the
  equipment and machinery associated with photocopies play an
  important role in the lifecycle and impact of toner.
            Production: Xerographic Equipment
• Photocopy equipment (and,
  similarly, laser printer
  equipment) production requires
  resources that are toxic to
  humans.
   – The Xerox Corp., the primary
     developer of the xerographic
     process used today, manufactured
     and developed their early copiers
     at their facilities in Rochester, NY,
     and in near-by Webster, NY. 11
Production: Xerographic Equipment
                 • Using a series of maps, I will
                   attempt to illustrate the toxic
                   legacy left by the production of
                   copier toner and equipment.
                 • In this map (from Mapquest), we
                   will locate the Xerox facility for
                   reference in the next map.
                     – The facility is represented by a
                       red star.
     Production: Xerographic Equipment

This map shows toxic material releases in the
Rochester area as of 2002.
Production: Xerographic Equipment

                  • When we zoom in on the location of
                    the Xerox facility, we see it is located
                    in an area clustered with hazardous
                    waste storage site and toxic release
                    points.
                       – This facility is listed in the EPA website
                         as being monitored for releases. 12
                             • In 1996, this facility emitted 160 tons
                               of volatile organic compounds into the
                               air. 13
                             • In 1997, this facility released 85,654
                               lbs. from TRI sources. 14
                                   – These releases may have been
                                     permitted by the EPA
Production: Xerographic Equipment
                 • While Xerox is just one among many
                   facilities to contribute to the 64.4
                   million lbs. of toxic chemicals into the
                   Rochester environment annually, its
                   impact on the community is being
                   expressed through the increased
                   cancer rates, and reproductive,
                   respiratory and neurological
                   disorders. 15
                      – Rochester was ranked #1 in the nation
                        for releases of cancer causing chemicals
                         16

                              • (Majority of the releases come from
                                Eastman Kodak’s four plants in the
                                city.)
         Production: Xerographic Equipment
– These polluting facilities are located in areas that have a higher percentage of
  African American households. It is these households that are more likely to be
  impacted by the health hazards for the proximity to toxic emissions than white
  households.




                                                                               Maps: H.U.D.
                    Production: Xerographic Equipment
   Using census data, we can get a visual sense of the disproportional exposures
   between racial households from their proximity to toxic producing facilities like Xerox.

In this map, the dark green color shows that a          The dark green color in the map below shows that a
higher percentage (98-100%) of white households         higher percentage (36.1-100%) of black households
live outside the industrial area of Rochester,          live within the industrial area of Rochester, showing
illustrating that these households are less likely to   that these households are more likely to be
be exposed to toxic releases.                           exposed to toxic releases by proximity to the
                                                        sources.




                                                                                                     Maps: H.U.D.
         Production: Xerographic Equipment
– These maps illustrate the
  environmental justice issues of
  the toner industry, I hope, and to
  show that the distribution of
  environmental harm is
  inequitable over the population of
  Rochester, and that Xerox
  contributes to this harm by
  locating this facility and other in
  areas that have a higher density
  of racial households.




                                             Maps: H.U.D.
        Production: Xerographic Equipment
– Other Xerox facilities and other companies show this pattern as
  well. Ricoh, an office equipment producer, is a significant chromium
  waste producer in Santa Ana, CA, and is within close proximity to a
  high percentage of ethnic and racial households. 17
    • Having been fined for water releases, indications show that Ricoh may try
      to avoid environmental restrictions as they are opening a new facility in
      Mexico. 18
– Within the past decade the toner and copier producers have been
  trying to clean-up their act by using recycling techniques with their
  production and distribution. 19
 Xerographic Toner

      -CONSUMPTION-

  LETS MAKE SOME COPIES!
LETS PRINT SOME DOCUMENTS!
         Consumption: The Xerographic Process
• Before we get into the repercussions of making copies, lets look at how
  copies are made.
      Consumption: The Xerographic Process
– First, the copier captures an image of your desired document optically, and
  converts the image into a beam of light. Today, lasers are used to project the
  light beam. 1
      Consumption: The Xerographic Process
– Next, the laser projects the pattern of the document onto a photosensitive
  cylinder. This light creates a polar electric charge on the surface of the drum
  that retains that pattern.
      Consumption: The Xerographic Process
– The photoelectric cylinder rotates where it comes in contact with the toner.




            toner
      Consumption: The Xerographic Process
– The polar charges on cylinder
  surface attract the oppositely
  charged toner particles.
– Paper is applied to the cylinder as
  it rotates, sandwiching the toner
  in between.
– The paper and toner then are
  compressed against the cylinder
  by a very hot roller. The heat
  fuses the plastic toner particles
  into the paper fiber, creating the
  document. The heat also
  disperses the cylinder’s charge,
  allowing another pass.
      Consumption: The Xerographic Process
– Finally, like magic, our copy comes out of the side of the machine and into our
  lives.
Consumption: Making Copies
             • The Xerox 914, when it debuted in
               1960, could produce 7 copies a
               minute.2
                 – Today’s laser copiers can produce 180
                   documents per minute. 3
             • The amount of copies annually is
               growing constantly.
                 – …in 1965- 9.5 billion
                 – …in 1966- 14 billion
                 – …in 1985- 700 billion worldwide 4
             • Toner, which comes in a cartridge,
               typically costs $100-$200, and
               provides thousands of copies per
               cartridge. 5
                      Consumption: Laser Printers
• Laser printers, which produce high
  quality documents as fast as a
  photocopiers, also use toner and
  operate much the same as
  photocopiers.
    – 360,000 laser printers were sold in the
      US in 19986
    – Sales continue to grow; prices continue
      to drop
         • Prices are currently dropping below
           $200 in the US. 7
• These are often able to perform the
  same functions as photocopiers, and
  may eventually take over that
  technology.
                      Consumption: Toner
• With the ever increasing popularity of toner-reliant electronic
  devices in the developed world, toner consumption continues
  to escalate.8
   – According to market research firms, the laser printer market will
     grow 8.5% annually, causing an increased demand for toner
     products.
   – In 2000, 350 million lbs (175,000 tons) of toner was purchased by
     consumers.
                   Consumption: The Paper Factor
• While we expect increased oil
  extraction from the increase of toner
  demand, we must add paper into the
  analysis.
    – Technology once boasted the advent of
      the paperless office, but with the
      constant advancements and changes in
      software and hardware, offices are more
      dependant on paper documents than
      ever.
    – The popularity of the home laser printer
      is causing a staggering demand for office
      quality paper.
         • It is estimated that 1.2 trillion paper
           documents will be printed in US homes
           this year. 9
                   Consumption: The Paper Factor
• Importation of paper for these devices
  is at an all time high. 10
    – Canada saw office paper sales jump 14%
      in 2000.
    – All Canadian paper mills are operating at
      95% of capacity to meet US paper
      demands.
• Demand for paper in the US is
  expected to increase another 50%
  over the next 10 to 15 years. 11
    – Increased logging leads to destruction of
      natural habitat, cultural livelihoods and
      resources of the US and foreign countries
Consumption: The Digital Divide
                • Xerography gives people the ability to
                  transfer information like no other
                  time in history, and is relatively
                  inexpensive (for us) and less time
                  consuming than previous forms of
                  duplication.
                • If, though, we consider that these
                  advances and resources are primarily
                  located the developed countries, this
                  puts people in developing countries at
                  a severe disadvantage; the access to
                  this form of information transfer is
                  out of the hands for the majority of
                  the worlds population.
               Consumption: The Digital Divide
• The ‘diffusion’ theory of technologic advancement may apply to these
  developing nations 12
    – The high socioeconomic status and education of those in the developed world
      conditions its citizens to have increased flexibility when adapting to new
      technologies (Early Adopters), reinforcing economic advancements.
    – On the other hand, those without the advantages of the developed world will
      have a more difficult time integrating with these technologies and my be locked
      out of new markets and information sources.
Xerographic Toner

     -DISPOSAL-

INTO THE WASTESTREAM:
       LANDFILL
      RECYCLING
     AND E-WASTE
                                 Disposal
• While documents made with toner are almost archival, not all
  documents created were intended to be archived.
   – People have found many other uses other than business or
     information purposes for copiers and printers.
       • A 1985 study estimated 29% of copier use in the office place was unrelated
         to business. 1
       • Printing and copying email, directions, photographs, and bodyparts is
         popular, and these documents end up quickly in the wastestream.
                 Disposal: Recycling and Landfills
• Of the 198 million tons of waste
  produced by Americans in 2000, 50%
  of that waste was made of paper.
    – Office quality paper makes up 15% of
      the wastestream2
• Over the previous decade recycling of
  paper has been improving
    – But despite the improvements, the         2
      amount of paper being land filled has
      remained constant; the recycling has
      been only able to catch up with the
      increase of paper entering the disposal
      system.3
    – Between 1990 and 2001, the US has
      landfilled nearly 500 million tons of
      paper, much of it office quality.
                 Disposal: Recycling and Landfills
                                                    • The toner infused paper is processed
                                                      faces another challenge.
                                                        – Because toner is melted into the paper
                                                          fiber, it is more difficult to remove than
                                                          traditional inks and requires modern
                                                          deinking facilities (which are usually
                                                          integrated with pulp mills).
                                                              • Deinking facilities have been closing
                                                                because of lack of interest by business
                                                                in recycled paper. No modern deinking
                                                                exists on the west coast.4
                                                        – 33% of the paper fiber is lost during the
                                                          deinking process because of the strong
Electron microscopic view of toner fused to paper         toner particle/paper fusion. 5
                  Disposal: Recycling and Landfills
• Advanced deinking to extract toner
  from pulp also causes the problems of
  disposal of the “deinking sludge”
    – Though the chemicals used to separate
      the toner are not toxic solvents, their
      formulation is an industry secret.
    – The majority of the sludge is landfilled.
          • 2 million tons landfilled in 1993.
          • Only time will tell whether these
            proprietary chemicals will pose a
            hazard.
• In 1993, less than 6% of printing and
  writing quality paper was recycled
  into any paper form, and less than 1%           Polymer particles captured in surfactant during
  was returned to the previous quality.6                      recycling experiment
                            Disposal: E-Waste
• Toner does not just bring paper with it into the waste stream;
  it also brings the equipment along for the ride too.
   – The technology behind toner infused documents is finding it way into
     landfills.
       • The photosensitive materials and the electronic controlling the devices
         contain heavy metals that are hazardous to humans and the environment.
       • Toner cartridges, because they are easily replaced, are often thrown into
         the garbage.
           – According to recycleminnesota.org, of the 100 million cartridges that will be sold this
             year, only 30% of toner cartridges are recycled
                 » (each cartridge made from two pints of oil)
                         Disposal: E-Waste
• Toner cartridges are reasonable easy to recharge and resell,
  and, because of the boom of laser printer sales, is becoming a
  rapidly growing industry.
   – Printer and toner cart manufacturers have been resisting the recycle
     movement; the companies can make more profit selling new
     equipment.
       • Manufacturers have been using legal and rebate strategies to block
         resellers.7
• But consumers who has intentions of sending their cartridges
  and tech trash to recyclers may be causing more harm than
  good.
                            Disposal: E-Waste
• Lack of regulations for recycling
  e-waste are leading some
  recycling companies to make
  quick profit by shipping the
  waste to developing countries.
    – ‘Entrepreneurs’ in these countries
      then hire impoverished villagers
      for low wages to extract any
      metal of value from the toner
      cartridges and other e-waste
      using techniques that put the
      villagers’ and the villages’ health
      at severe risk.
Disposal: E-Waste
         • Activists from the Basel Action
           Network documented the
           villagers of Guiyu, China
           dismantling used toner
           cartridges in primitive
           conditions.8
         • Burning of cartridge casings,
           plastics and circuit boards for
           metals have polluted the water
           supply with heavy metals, acids
           and organic compounds.
             – Water had to be imported from
               neighboring villages.
Disposal: E-Waste

      •Workers were give no protective gear against inhalation
      of the toner
      •Manufactures state that toner inert and non-toxic,
      despite carbon black content, but if enough is inhaled,
      infection and death can occur.




     This villager is breaking cartridges and removing the toner by
     hand into a bucket to be sold in a larger city.
Disposal: E-Waste

          • In this case, as in the extraction
            of oil for toner production,
            another underrepresented social
            group is negatively impacted by
            the consumptions patterns of
            another, leading to the damage
            of the environment and way of
            life.
Xerographic Toner

    -CONCLUSIONS-

      ADVANCES
        AND
 COPYING RESPONSIBLY
                           Conclusions
• Xerography has proven itself to be an important tool for
  societies in many aspects.
   – Information and knowledge can be duplicated and transferred easily
     and quickly at all levels of society.
   – The technology drives business, education, and entertainment to
     new heights.
                                Conclusions
• But as the process is integrated into more and more products,
  the cumulative effect of—
       •   increased extraction of oil
       •   production of toxic byproducts from processing
       •   increased logging
       •   Negative impacts on racial and impoverished social groups
   – challenges us to consider if this technology is more harmful than
     good.
                           Conclusions
• There is some hope in new technological developments:
   – Current research on a soy based toner could lead to lessen the
     dependence on oil.1
   – EPA has finished an experiment on a project to develop a
     “decopier,” a stand alone machine that removes toner without
     having to pulp and remake paper. Final results have been
     successful.2
• Individuals can reduce waste by copying and printing on both
  sides of paper when making documents, and by being aware of
  paper and technology use and recycling.
                           Conclusions
• Technology continues to promise advances that will lessen our
  reliance on paper.
• But technology is creating problems as fast as innovations, as
  seen with xerography with
   – the inequities that we have placed on other cultures and the
     environment that sustains us,
   – the growing extraction of natural resources,
   – waste increasing from all aspects,
• …all to benefit so few, creates a debt that we have yet to
  pay.
                References: Introduction
1. Mort, J. “The Anatomy of Xerography” Jefferson,NC:
   McFarland, 1989 Mort, J. “The Anatomy of Xerography”
   Jefferson,NC: McFarland, 1989
2. Smith, Douglas K., and Robert C. Alexander. “Fumbling the
   Future.” New York: William Morrow, 1988
                         Reference: Extraction
1.    AQC Group. “Toner Plant Website.” www.aqcgroup.com
2.    Mort, J. “The Anatomy of Xerography” Jefferson,NC: McFarland, 1989
3.    Mort, J. “The Anatomy of Xerography” Jefferson,NC: McFarland, 1989
4.    Kretzmann, Steve, Shannon Wright. "drilling to the ends of the earth." Berkeley,
      CA:tree farm. 1998.
5.    www.publiccitizen.org
6.    www.grazman.com
7.    Kane, Joe. “Savages” New York: Vintage, 1996
8.    www.corpwatch.org
9.    www.corpwatch.org
10.   Project Underground. “Blood of our Mother” www.moles.com
11.   Kane, Joe. “Savages” New York: Vintage, 1996
                                  Reference: Production
1.    Chemical Week. “Markets & Economics: Carbon Black” January 30, 2001
2.    Chemical Week. “Markets & Economics: Carbon Black” January 30, 2001
3.    EPA. “AP-42.CH 6.1:CB” www.epa.gov
4.    www.rtknet.org
5.    Strahler, Alan, Arthur Strahler. “Introduction to Physical Geography.” Weily and Sons. 2003
6.    Jett, George M. “Development Document for Interim Final Effluent Elimitations, Guidelines and Proposed New Source
      Performance Standards for the Carbon Black Manufacturing: Point Source Category.” Washington DC: EPA, 1976
7.    Putoni, Riccardo. “Occupational exposure to carbon black and risk of bladder cancer.” The Lancet. August 18, 2001
8.    www.epa.gov
9.    Mort, J. “The Anatomy of Xerography” Jefferson,NC: McFarland, 1989
10.   AQC Group. “Toner Plant Website.” www.aqcgroup.com
11.   Jacobson, Gary, John Hillkirk. “Xerox: American Samurai.” New York: MacMillian, 1986.
12.   www.epa.gov
13.   www.rtknet.org
14.   www.rtknet.org
15.   www.ggw.org/RochesterEnvironment/
16.   http://www.democratandchronicle.com/news/0123story1_news.shtml.36
17.   www.hud.gov
18.   Chemical Week “Markets & Economics” 2001.
19.   www.epa.gov
                           Reference: Consumption
1.    Mort, J. “The Anatomy of Xerography” Jefferson,NC: McFarland, 1989 Mort, J. “The Anatomy of
      Xerography” Jefferson,NC: McFarland, 1989
2.    Mort, J. “The Anatomy of Xerography” Jefferson,NC: McFarland, 1989 Mort, J. “The Anatomy of
      Xerography” Jefferson,NC: McFarland, 1989
3.    www.xerox.com
4.    Jacobson, Gary, John Hillkirk. “Xerox: American Samurai.” New York: MacMillian, 1986.
5.    www.xerox.com
6.    The New York Times. “The Paperless Office? Not By a Long Shot.“ Technology. 21, April,2001.
      www.newyorktimes.com
7.    www.cnet.com
8.    CAP Ventures. “CAP Ventures Examines World Toner Market in New Report.” 2003. www.capv.com
9.    The New York Times. “The Paperless Office? Not By a Long Shot.“ Technology. 21, April,2001.
      www.newyorktimes.com
10.   The New York Times. “The Paperless Office? Not By a Long Shot.“ Technology. 21, April,2001.
      www.newyorktimes.com
11.   The New York Times. “The Paperless Office? Not By a Long Shot.“ Technology. 21, April,2001.
      www.newyorktimes.com
12.   Norris, Pippa. “Digital Divide.” Cambridge, UK: Cambridge, 2001
                              Reference: Disposal
1.   Jacobson, Gary, John Hillkirk. “Xerox: American Samurai.” New York: MacMillian, 1986.
2.   Assman, David. “Recycled Paper-Exploding the Myths” Recycling Sourcebook: A Guide to
     Recyclable Materials, Case Studies, Orgs., Agencies and Publications. Ed. Cichonski, Thomas J.,
     Karen Hill. Detroit, MI: Gale Research, 1993.
3.   www.afandpa.org
4.   Assman, David. “Recycled Paper-Exploding the Myths” Recycling Sourcebook: A Guide to
     Recyclable Materials, Case Studies, Orgs., Agencies and Publications. Ed. Cichonski, Thomas J.,
     Karen Hill. Detroit, MI: Gale Research, 1993.
5.   Borchardt, John K., Rask, James. “Office Paper Deinking” Plastics, Rubber, and Paper Recycling: A
     Pragmatic Approach. Ed. Rader, Charles P.
6.   Assman, David. “Recycled Paper-Exploding the Myths” Recycling Sourcebook: A Guide to
     Recyclable Materials, Case Studies, Orgs., Agencies and Publications. Ed. Cichonski, Thomas J.,
     Karen Hill. Detroit, MI: Gale Research, 1993.
7.   Truini, Joe. “Printer Cartridge Case May Set Precedent for Many Types of Recycling” Waste News.
     February 03,2003.
8.   www.ban.org
                 Reference: Conclustions
1. “Polyamide-Based Toner Resins Show Improved Delinking
   Properties for Paper Recycling.” Chemical Innovation. June
   2000, Vol.30, Issue 6, p.7
2. EPA “Office Paper De-Copying.” Feb 15, 2003 www.epa.gov
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                Have a Nice Summer.

				
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