Cushenbury Buckwheat by fanzhongqing


                                                  March 2012
PLANTS                       Cushenbury Buckwheat (Eriogonum ovalifolium var. vineum)

Cushenbury Buckwheat
(Eriogonum ovalifolium var.
           Legal Status
                           State: S1.11                           Photo courtesy of Megan Enright (Dudek).

                           California Rare Plant Rank: 1B.12
                           Federal: Endangered; U.S. Forest Service Sensitive
                           Critical Habitat: Designated on December 24, 2002 (67 FR 78570–
                           Recovery Planning: San Bernardino Mountains Carbonate Plants
                           Draft Recovery Plan (USFWS 1997)
                           Notes: No changes in federal listing status recommended by the U.S.
                           Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in 2010 (75 FR 28636–28642).

                           Cushenbury buckwheat (Eriogonum ovalifolium var. vineum) was first
                           classified as Eriogonum vineum by John Kunkel Small in 1898 (67 FR
                           78570–78610), but Nelson (1911) treated the plant as a variety,
                           Eriogonum ovalifolium var. vineum. It is now classified as one of eight
                           varieties of E. ovalifolium in California distinguished by floral and leaf
                           characteristics (Jepson Flora Project 2011). In addition, the other three
                           varieties do not occur in the San Bernardino Mountains, to which
                           Cushenbury buckwheat is endemic (USFWS 2009). Cushenbury
                           buckwheat is in the buckwheat family (Polygonaceae) (Jepson Flora
                           Project 2011). There have been no changes in taxonomic classification
                           or nomenclature since its listing as endangered in 1994 (USFWS 2009).

                           Cushenbury buckwheat is a mound-forming perennial herb that is
                           approximately 15 to 25 centimeters (6 to 10 inches) in diameter. A full
                           physical description of the species can be found in the Jepson eFlora
                           (Jepson Flora Project 2011) and Sanders (2003).

1   S1: Critically imperiled; X.1: Very threatened.
2   1B: Rare, threatened, or endangered in California and elsewhere; X.1: Seriously endangered in California.

                                                        1                                           March 2012
                                  March 2012
PLANTS          Cushenbury Buckwheat (Eriogonum ovalifolium var. vineum)


               There are a total of 37 occurrences in the California Natural Diversity
               Database (CNDDB) (CDFG 2012a). Cushenbury buckwheat is endemic
               to a small area of the San Bernardino Mountains in San Bernardino
               County (USFWS 2009). It occurs along the northeastern edge of the San
               Bernardino Mountains, northwest, north, and east of Big Bear Lake
               from White Mountain southeast to Mineral Mountain on the north side
               of Rattlesnake Canyon (Figure SP-P9) (Sanders 2003; USFWS 2009).
               Cushenbury buckwheat occurs in Arctic and Cushenbury canyons,
               Terrace and Jacoby springs, along Nelson Ridge, and near Onyx Peak
               (USFWS 2009). Most populations are on U.S. Forest Service (USFS)
               lands, but the distribution does extend slightly onto Bureau of Land
               Management (BLM) lands (Sanders 2003). As of 2003, there were an
               estimated 239 mapped localities (67 FR 78570–78610). There are
               about 1,213 acres of occupied habitat (Olsen 2003). Cushenbury
               buckwheat is closely associated with carbonate substrates (apparently
               primarily limestone rather than dolomite) on stable slopes with
               bedrock outcrops and elevations between about 4,600 and 7,900 feet
               above mean sea level (amsl; Sanders 2003; USFWS 2009), although
               there are reports from up to 8,100 feet (Sanders 2003).

         Distribution and Occurrences within the Plan Area

               Of the six occurrences in the Plan Area, five are considered historical.
               One occurrence dates from 1966, and was observed along Highway
               18, southeast of Victorville, and is located on BLM or private land. One
               occurrence dates from 1979 and was observed between Arrastre
               Canyon and Grapevine Canyon, near Rattlesnake Mountain;
               ownership unknown. One occurrence dates from 1988, and was
               observed on the west slope of Furnace Canyon, on private land. Two
               occurrences are not dated and indicate the U.S. Forest Service as the
               source. These two occurrences were observed near Blackhawk Mine
               and Arctic Canyon Pit; one on BLM land and the other on land of
               unknown ownership (CDFG 2012a).

                                       2                                     March 2012
                                 March 2012
PLANTS         Cushenbury Buckwheat (Eriogonum ovalifolium var. vineum)

              There is one recent CNDDB occurrence located on White Mountain north
              of North Peak, within the San Bernardino National Forest. The site has
              been observed several times from 1992 through 2001 (CDFG 2012a).

   Natural History
         Habitat Requirements

              Cushenbury buckwheat is closely associated with carbonate substrates
              on stable slopes with bedrock outcrops and elevations between about
              4,600 and 7,900 feet amsl (Sanders 2003; USFWS 2009; CDFG 2012a).
              It has never been found away from carbonate substrates and appears to
              be more closely associated with limestone than dolomite, but this
              preference needs confirmation (Sanders 2003). General vegetation
              communities associated with Cushenbury buckwheat are pinyon-
              juniper woodland, Joshua tree woodland, and Mojavean desert scrub
              (CNPS 2011; CDFG 2012a) (see Table 1). Sanders (2003) notes that it
              also has been observed in Jeffrey pine-western juniper woodland. It
              occurs in open areas on gentle to steep slopes with north or west
              aspects, little accumulation of organic material, open canopy cover
              (generally less than 15%), and powdery fine soils with rock cover
              exceeding 50% (USFWS 2009). Although it may be locally common,
              individuals tend to be scattered (Sanders 2003), and only about 25% of
              less than 20 occurrence locations known in 1984 supported more than
              1,000 individuals (USFWS 2009).

              Table1. Habitat Associations for Cushenbury Buckwheat

                                              Habitat       Habitat           Supporting
               Land Cover Type                Designation   Parameters        Information
               Pinyon-juniper woodland,       Primary       Carbonate soils   Gonella and
               Joshua tree woodland,          habitat       (limestone),      Neel 1995;
               Mojavean desert scrub,                       4,600–7,900       Sanders 2003;
               Jeffrey pine-western                         feet              USFWS 1997
               juniper woodland

              Gonella and Neel (1995) compared habitat conditions of carbonate
              sites both occupied and unoccupied by Cushenbury buckwheat.

                                          3                                       March 2012
                           March 2012
PLANTS    Cushenbury Buckwheat (Eriogonum ovalifolium var. vineum)

         Carbonate sites occupied by Cushenbury buckwheat, compared with
         unoccupied carbonate sites, typically had higher percent calcium
         (21.9%) higher outcrop cover (6.7%) (Gonella and Neel 1995).
         Generally, plant species composition on carbonate sites does not
         distinguish Cushenbury buckwheat occupied and unoccupied sites,
         although plant constituents on carbonate sites are distinguishable
         from non-carbonate sites in terms of species richness and diversity
         (Gonella and Neel 1995). Cushenbury buckwheat–occupied plots did
         not support any indicator plant species, but did support five
         characteristic shrub species: blackbush (Coleogyne ramosissima),
         bigberry manzanita (Arctostaphylos glauca), rubber rabbitbrush
         (Ericameria nauseosa), rose sage (Salvia pachyphylla), and Mojave
         yucca (Yucca schidigera) (Gonella and Neel 1995). Occupied sites also
         supported four characteristic herb species: desert sandwort
         (Eremogone macradenia), brickell bush (Brickellia oblongifolia),
         Shockley’s rock-cress (Arabis shockleyi), and Douglas’ phacelia
         (Phacelia douglasii). Carbonate sites (both occupied and unoccupied)
         generally support three overstory tree species: Utah juniper
         (Juniperus osteosperma), singleleaf pinyon pine (Pinus monophylla),
         and Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia). Shrub species characteristic of
         carbonate sites included Great Basin sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata),
         curl-leaf mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus ledifolius), sticky
         snakeweed (Gutierrezia microcephala), hedgehog cactus (Echinocereus
         triglochidiatus var. mojavensis), beavertail cactus (Opuntia basilaris
         var. basilaris), antelope bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata var.
         glandulosa), and San Bernardino buckwheat (Eriogonum microthecum
         var. corymbosoides). Four grass species were characteristic of
         carbonate sites: Fendler’s bluegrass (Poa fendleriana), western
         ricegrass    (Achnatherum     hymenoides),     Parish’s  needlegrass
         (Achnatherum parishii), and desert needlegrass (Achnatherum
         speciosum). Seven herb species were also characteristic of carbonate
         sites: beautiful rock-cress (Arabis pulchra), desert paintbrush
         (Castilleja angustifolia), tansey mustard (Descurainia pinnata),
         southwestern gilia (Gilia austro-occidentalis), slender jewelflower
         (Caulanthus major), firecracker penstemon (Penstemon eatonii), and
         Fremont’s phacelia (Phacelia fremontii).

                                4                                    March 2012
                                March 2012
PLANTS         Cushenbury Buckwheat (Eriogonum ovalifolium var. vineum)

              Information about these habitat features provided the basis for
              identification of three primary constituent elements for designated
              critical habitat (67 FR 78570–78610):

                 1. Upper and middle members of the Bird Spring Formation and
                    Bonanza King Formation parent materials that occur on
                    hillsides at elevations between 4,600 and 7,900 feet amsl

                 2. Soils with intact, natural surfaces that have not been
                    substantially altered by land use activities (e.g., graded,
                    excavated, re-contoured, or otherwise altered by ground-
                    disturbing equipment)

                 3. Associated plant communities that have areas with an open
                    canopy cover (generally less than 15% cover) and little
                    accumulation of organic material (e.g., leaf litter) on the
                    surface of the soil.

              Notably, specific plant community types and component species are
              not included in the primary constituent elements.


              Cushenbury buckwheat is a long-lived, prostrate to mound-forming
              perennial herb (Sanders 2003; CNPS 2011). A study of its
              reproduction patterns found it to be outcrossing with high levels of
              diversity, low levels of inbreeding among maternal individuals, and
              selection against homozygous offspring (Neel et al. 2001). The main
              flowering period is May and June, and fruits ripen in about July and
              prepare for germination during any summer rains in August and
              September (Sanders 2003). There can also be later flowering in
              September. It is probably pollinated by small insects and possibly by
              generalist flower visitors rather than a specialist (Sanders 2003). A
              personal communication to Sanders (2003) by Morita reported that
              nearly 100 insect species visited flowers, including potential
              pollinators and plant feeders. Insect taxa visiting flowers included
              many flies (particularly tachinids), bee-flies (Bombylidae), and
              smaller species such as chloropids (Sanders 2003). A reintroduction
              study onto a disturbed site by Mistretta and White (2001) showed
              about 77% survival from 1991 to 1998 and successful reproduction

                                     5                                   March 2012
                                  March 2012
PLANTS          Cushenbury Buckwheat (Eriogonum ovalifolium var. vineum)

               within 6.6 feet of planting areas. Mistretta and White (2001)
               suggested that Cushenbury buckwheat does not depend on
               specialized pollinators or soil microorganisms due to its success on
               the disturbed site, as well as in botanical gardens. Short dispersals
               likely are wind-aided, with the dried tepals (a division of the perianth
               where the petals and sepals are indistinguishable) acting as wings
               (Sanders 2003). Long-distance seed dispersal in Cushenbury
               buckwheat has not been directly studied, but buckwheat seeds are
               thought to be dispersed by birds; however, there is no evidence of
               long-distance dispersal by Cushenbury buckwheat given its restricted
               distribution (Sanders 2003). As noted previously, Mistretta and White
               (2001) documented progeny within 6.6 feet of planting areas and no
               individuals were found more than 98 feet from planting areas.

         Ecological Relationships

               Other than their association with carbonate soils and some other
               habitat features such as canopy, litter, and slope described in Habitat
               Requirements, little is known of the life history and ecological
               relationships of Cushenbury buckwheat. It may be pollinated by a
               variety of small generalist insect pollinators and not dependent on a
               specialized pollinator (Mistretta and White 2001; Sanders 2003).
               Short-distance dispersal is probably wind-aided but long-distance
               dispersal is unknown and may not occur (Sanders 2003). In a
               reintroduction study, Mistretta and White (2001) found progeny
               within 6.6 feet of planting areas and no individuals were found more
               than 98 feet from planting areas.

               As described in Habitat Requirements, Cushenbury buckwheat occurs
               in areas with low canopy cover. The species Eriogonum ovalifolium is
               not well adapted to competing for light due to its low stature, but it
               competes well on sites with moisture and nutrient deficiencies, wind,
               and winter cold due to its compact “cushion” habit (Sanders 2003).
               The dense covering wool on its leaves, which reduces water loss,
               indicates that moisture is an important controlling factor for this
               species, but light is not. Tall, fast-growing species that may
               outcompete Eriogonum ovalifolium for light do not grow well on
               limestone sites with nutrient deficiencies and high pH, which
               interferes with mineral uptake (Sanders 2003).

                                       6                                     March 2012
                                 March 2012
PLANTS          Cushenbury Buckwheat (Eriogonum ovalifolium var. vineum)

              Cushenbury buckwheat does not appear to tolerate high or continuing
              levels of anthropogenic or natural disturbance (e.g., washes and
              canyon bottoms), but has been observed colonizing abandoned haul
              roads (Sanders 2003). Mistretta and White (2001) were able to
              successfully reintroduce it to a barren cut slope above a quarry haul
              road where no habitat enhancements were made other than irrigation
              the first summer and fall after planting and use of the potting soil mix
              surrounding the roots of the plantings.

   Population Status and Trends
              Global: G5T1, Critically Imperiled (NatureServe 2011, status last
              updated 2009)
              State: S1, Critically Imperiled (CDFG 2012b)

              The most recent data for population status and trends of Cushenbury
              buckwheat is from the federal 5-year review (USFWS 2009).

              The estimated population of Cushenbury buckwheat when it was listed
              in 1994 was estimated to be about 13,000 individuals in fewer than 20
              locations, with about 25% of the occurrence supporting fewer than
              1,000 individuals (USFWS 2009). At the time critical habitat was
              designated in 2002, there were 239 site-specific occurrences of
              Cushenbury buckwheat (67 FR 78570–78610). However, in the 5-year
              review in 2009, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) (2009)
              indicated that determining population trends was difficult because
              what constitutes site-specific occurrences has been subjectively defined
              and surveys efforts have likely increased since its listing in 1994.

         Threats and Environmental Stressors

              The main threat to Cushenbury buckwheat when it was federally listed
              in 1994 was mining (USFWS 2009). Other threats at the time included
              off-highway vehicle (OHV) use, a hydroelectric project, and a 115-
              kilovolt power line proposed for construction through Cushenbury
              Canyon (USFWS 2009). About 75% of occupied habitat was under
              threat as a result of being under claim for mining, in private ownership
              and subject to mining, or as a result of other disturbances (USFWS
              2009). Mining continues to be the primary threat to the species, but
              other threats include energy development and OHV use, which can

                                      7                                     March 2012
                                 March 2012
PLANTS         Cushenbury Buckwheat (Eriogonum ovalifolium var. vineum)

              result in direct ground disturbance and dust generation (USFWS 2009).
              Further, dispersed target shooting, dispersed camping areas, and
              fuelwood collection can result in trampling of Cushenbury buckwheat
              and impact its habitat through ground disturbance or dust creation
              (USFWS 2009). Padgett et al. (2007) conducted a study examining dust
              deposition from dolomite mining activities in Holcomb Valley and
              potential effects on Cushenbury buckwheat and other listed carbonate
              plant species. This study documented lower photosynthetic activity and
              less growth for plants growing in the dust deposition zone near the
              mine. Fire suppression activities can result in ground disturbance
              through fire line construction, retardant and water drops, and
              establishment of fire camps (USFWS 2009). Artificial lighting from mine
              facilities is also cited as a potential threat due to potential impacts on
              the behavior of pollinators or seed dispersers, or by altering
              photoperiod responses (USFWS 2009).

              The specific potential effects of climate change on Cushenbury
              buckwheat are unknown, but if climate change caused a shift to higher
              elevations due to warmer and drier conditions, as has occurred with
              other plant species on the Santa Rosa Mountains of Southern
              California (Kelly and Goulden 2008), this endemic species could be
              concentrated in a smaller area and more vulnerable to extinction
              (USFWS 2009).

         Conservation and Management Activities

              The San Bernardino Mountains Carbonate Plants Draft Recovery Plan,
              prepared by the USFWS in 1997, addressed Cushenbury buckwheat and
              four other federally listed species: Parish’s daisy (Erigeron parishii),
              Cushenbury milk-vetch (Astragalus albens), San Bernardino Mountains
              bladderpod (Lesquerella kingii ssp. bernardina), and Cushenbury
              oxytheca (Oxytheca parishii var. goodmaniana) (USFWS 1997). The
              Recovery Plan for these species included the following recovery criteria:

                 1. Sufficient habitat protected in a reserve system for persistence
                    of existing populations in their ecological context, including the
                    largest populations and best and manageable habitat
                 2. Identification of potential buffer zones, although not
                    necessarily secured, with an estimate of 4,600 acres needed for
                    habitat connectivity, buffers, and a natural community context

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                           March 2012
PLANTS    Cushenbury Buckwheat (Eriogonum ovalifolium var. vineum)

            3. Population monitoring and habitat management to provide for
               early detection of population instability in the reserve system
            4. Expansion of existing populations or reintroductions to reduce
               the chance of extinction due to randomly occurring events.

         Based on these recovery criteria, the Recovery Plan identified the
         following actions:

            1. Protect significant extant populations in a reserve system on
               federally owned land, which would include buffer zones and
               maintain selection habitat connections.
            2. Restore habitat and conduct reintroductions and/or
               population enhancements where appropriate and feasible.
            3. Identify and implement appropriate management measures.
            4. Monitor populations.
            5. Conduct limited surveys and taxonomic assessments to find
               new populations.

         The Recovery Plan identified the USFS, BLM, California Department of
         Fish and Game (CDFG), and USFWS as the agencies primarily involved
         in the recovery effort (USFWS 1997).

         In 2003, the Carbonate Habitat Management Strategy (CHMS) was
         developed by the USFS and BLM in collaboration with a Working
         Group consisting of mining interests, private landowners, and
         conservation groups to address impacts to the five federally listed
         plants associated with carbonate habitats (Olsen 2003). The CHMS,
         which covers about 160,000 acres (called the Carbonate Habitat
         Management Area or CHMA), has three main objectives:

            1. Economic: regulatory certainty for mining activities, protection
               of the viability of mining, and streamlining and cost reduction
               of the permitting process
            2. Conservation: maintenance and management of geomorphic
               and ecological processes of the landscape and placement of
               habitat blocks to maintain the carbonate plants, to avoid
               jeopardy (per Section 7 of the federal Endangered Species Act)

                                9                                    March 2012
                           March 2012
PLANTS    Cushenbury Buckwheat (Eriogonum ovalifolium var. vineum)

                and adverse modification or destruction of critical habitat, to
                contribute to recovery, and to avoid future listings
            3. Regulatory:       streamlining      of     permitting,  California
               Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) review, streamlining of
               County implementation of the California Surface Mining
               Reclamation Act, and to allow BLM and USFS to comply with
               certain court-ordered stipulations stemming from lawsuits
               (i.e., Center for Biological Diversity v. BLM and Southwest Center
               for Biological Diversity v. Sprague).

         The CHMS includes delineation of an Initial Habitat Reserve,
         designation of Conservation Units within the CHMA whereby loss and
         conservation of habitat values can be objectively measured, and
         contribution by federal agencies and mining interests to reserve
         assembly through various mechanisms (e.g., dedication of existing
         unclaimed federal land, purchase of private lands or lands with mining
         claims, land exchanges, or conservation banking) (Olsen 2003).

         Upon successful completion, the CHMS would meet or exceed
         recovery criteria 1 and 2 listed above (USFWS 2009).

         Implementation of the CHMS has been incorporated by the USFS into
         the Land Management Plans for the Angeles and San Bernardino
         National Forests (USFS 2005) and by the BLM into the West Mojave
         Plan (BLM 2005).

         The USFWS 5-year review (USFWS 2009) also listed some other
         activities conducted by the USFS to reduce threats to Cushenbury
         buckwheat, such as OHV use and other activities by the public. The
         USFS has closed roads and erected barriers and signage to help limit
         OHV use. The USFS also has prohibited fuelwood collection and target
         shooting in carbonate plant habitat and has provided fire-fighting
         personnel with maps and guidance to reduce impacts to the extent
         practicable during fire-suppression activities. The Land Management
         Plans for the Angeles and San Bernardino National Forests (USFS
         2005) also address impacts to the carbonate plants, including land use
         zoning and standards such that new planned activities are neutral or
         beneficial to Cushenbury buckwheat.

                                10                                     March 2012
                               March 2012
PLANTS       Cushenbury Buckwheat (Eriogonum ovalifolium var. vineum)

   Data Characterization
            The general distribution of Cushenbury buckwheat probably is fairly
            well known based on its close association with carbonate substrates
            and increased survey efforts since its federal listing as endangered in
            1994. However, its population status in terms of population trends is
            not well understood due to subjective mapping of occurrences
            between the different survey efforts (USFWS 2009).

   Management and Monitoring Considerations
            The USFWS (2009) indicates that focused research is needed to
            inform management of Cushenbury buckwheat, including information
            on pollination ecology, seed dispersal mechanisms, population
            dynamics, microclimate effects of vegetation removal/bare areas,
            seedbank dynamics, and fire ecology. Preliminary studies indicate that
            pollinators are probably generalists and that this species does not
            exhibit long-distance dispersal (Mistretta and White 2001; Sanders
            2003). It appears capable of recolonizing mildly disturbed areas based
            on an anecdotal observation on an abandoned haul road (Sanders
            2003) and successful reintroduction to a disturbed site (Mistretta and
            White 2001).

   Predicted Species Distribution in Plan Area
            A proxy model for suitable habitat for Cushenbury buckwheat in the
            Plan Area was developed using spatial data for suitable and occupied
            habitat in the Carbonate Habitat Management Strategy (Olsen 2003).
            There are 66,407 acres of suitable habitat for Cushenbury
            buckwheat in the Plan Area. Appendix C includes specific model
            parameters and a figure showing the modeled suitable habitat in the
            Plan Area.

   Literature Cited
            67 FR 78570–78610. Final rule: “Endangered and Threatened Wildlife
                   and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Five Carbonate
                   Plants from the San Bernardino Mountains in Southern
                   California.” December 24, 2002.

                                   11                                    March 2012
                            March 2012
PLANTS    Cushenbury Buckwheat (Eriogonum ovalifolium var. vineum)

         75 FR 28636–28642. Notice of Initiation: “Endangered and Threatened
               Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of 5-Year Reviews of 34 Species in
               California and Nevada; Availability of 96 Completed 5-Year
               Reviews in California and Nevada.” May 21, 2010.

         BLM (Bureau of Land Management). 2005. Final Environmental
               Impact Report and Statement for the West Mojave Plan. A
               Habitat Conservation Plan and California Desert Conservation
               Area Plan Amendment. January 2005.

         CDFG (California Department of Fish and Game). 2012a. “Eriogonum
               ovalifolium var. vineum.” Element Occurrence Query. California
               Natural Diversity Database (CNDDB). RareFind, Version 4.0
               (Commercial Subscription). Sacramento, California: CDFG,
               Biogeographic Data Branch. Accessed February 2012.

         CDFG. 2012b. Special Vascular Plants, Bryophytes, and Lichens List.
               California Natural Diversity Database (CNDDB). January 2012.
               Accessed March 2012.

         CNPS (California Native Plant Society). 2011. “Eriogonum ovalifolium
               var. vineum.” Inventory of Rare and Endangered Plants (online
               edition, v8-01a). Sacramento, California: California Native Plant
               Society. Accessed May 2011.

         Gonella, M.P., and M.C. Neel. 1995. “Characterizing Rare Plant Habitat
                for Restoration in the San Bernardino National Forest.” In
                Proceedings: Wildland Shrub and Arid Land Restoration
                Symposium, compiled by B.A. Roundy, E.D. McArthur, J.S. Haley,
                and D.K. Mann, 81–93. Gen Tech. Rep. INT-GTR-315. Ogden,
                Utah: U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
                Intermountain Research Station. April 1995.

         Jepson Flora Project. 2011. “Eriogonum ovalifolium var. vineum.” M.
                Costea and J.L. Reveal. Jepson eFlora [v. 1.0]. Berkeley,
                California: University of California. Accessed May 2011.

                                 12                                    March 2012
                            March 2012
PLANTS    Cushenbury Buckwheat (Eriogonum ovalifolium var. vineum)

         Kelly, A.E., and M.L. Goulden. 2008. “Rapid Shifts in Plant Distribution
                 with Recent Climate Change.” Proceedings of the National
                 Academy of Sciences 105:11823–11826.

         Mistretta, O., and S.D. White. 2001. “Introducing Two Federally Listed
                Carbonate-Endemic Plants onto a Disturbed Site in the San
                Bernardino Mountains, California.” In Southwestern Rare and
                Endangered Plants: Proceedings of the Third Conference, J.
                Maschinski and L. Holter (eds.), 20–26. Fort Collins, Colorado:
                U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain
                Research Station.

         Neel, M.C., J. Ross-Ibara, and N.C. Ellstrand. 2001. “Implications of the
                Mating Patterns for Conservation of the Endangered Plant
                Eriogonum ovalifolium var. vineum (Polygonaceae).” American
                Journal of Botany 88:1214–1222.

         Nelson, A. 1911. Contribution from the Rocky Mountain Herbarium.
               IX. New Plants from Idaho. Botanical Gazette 52:262.

         Olsen, T.G. 2003. Carbonate Habitat Management Strategy. Prepared
                for San Bernardino National Forest Association. April 29, 2003.
                Accessed May 2011.

         Padgett, P.E., W.M. Dobrowolski, M.J. Arbaugh, and S.A. Eliason. 2007.
               “Patterns of Carbonate Dust Deposition: Implications for Four
               Federally Endangered Plant Species.” Madroño 54:275–285.

         Sanders, A.C. 2003. “Cushenbury buck-wheat.” Species account
               included in Appendix B to Carbonate Habitat Management
               Strategy (Olsen 2003), 47–51.

         USFS (U.S. Forest Service). 2005. Final Environmental Impact
               Statement, Volume 1, Land Management Plans: Angeles National
               Forest, Cleveland National Forest, Los Padres National Forest,
               San Bernardino National Forest. R5-MB-074-A. U.S. Department
               of Agriculture, Pacific Southwest Region. Accessed May 2011.

                                  13                                     March 2012
                            March 2012
PLANTS    Cushenbury Buckwheat (Eriogonum ovalifolium var. vineum)

         USFWS (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service). 1997. San Bernardino Mountains
              Carbonate Plants Draft Recovery Plan. Portland, Oregon: U.S. Fish
              and Wildlife Service, Region 1. September 1997.

         USFWS. 2009. Eriogonum ovalifolium var. vineum (Cushenbury
              Buckwheat), 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. Carlsbad,
              California: Carlsbad Fish and Wildlife Office. August 13, 2009.

                                14                                    March 2012

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