Safe handling of sharps by fanzhongqing

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									                          Department of Physiology
                                                                       Procedure No:      PHY/SOP/RE03
                          Safety & Health
 Laboratory (Location):   Cytokine biology Lab, MD9                    Revision No:       001


 Title:                                                                Effective Date :   14/6/2010
 Safe handling of sharps
 (Adopted from OSHE/SOP/BS/07)                                         Page:              Page 1 of 6


 Prepared/Review By                      Approved By                                Next Review Date
 Oh Chu Yun                              Dr. Leung Pui Lam Bernard                  14/6/2013




                                         * Review Date = Future date for the next revision (every 3yrs)

1.0 OBJECTIVE
The objective of this SOP is to provide guidance to all laboratory personnel on the safe handling
of sharps in order to prevent the occurrence of percutaneous injury. Physical injuries and
accidental injections of infectious agents / toxic or harmful materials may result from sharps
injuries.


2.0 SCOPE
The procedure is applicable to all Department of Physiology laboratories where sharps are used
in the course of work. All staff and students are to adopt the practices in the procedure.


3.0 RESPONSIBILITIES

3.1 Head of Department/ Principal Investigator
    Principal Investigators (PI) and Head of Department (HOD) shall be responsible for ensuring
    that this SOP is disseminated to all laboratory personnel and that they are aware of the
    procedures to take for safe handling of sharps.

3.2 Laboratory personnel
    All lab personnel shall be responsible for proper handling and use of sharps in accordance
    with this procedure. All lab personnel shall report any injuries with sharps to their supervisor
    or the Department Safety and Health officer.


4.0 DEFINITION
    a. Sharp(s) - Any object used or encountered in a laboratory setting that can puncture or
       penetrate the skin or any other part of the body and result in an exposure incident.
       Examples of laboratory items that fall under this category include but are not limited to,
       needle devices (hypodermic needles, suture needles etc), scalpels, lancets, pasteur
       pipettes, broken glass, and broken capillary tubes and disposable syringes.
                          Department of Physiology
                                                                     Procedure No:      PHY/SOP/RE03
                          Safety & Health
 Laboratory (Location):   Cytokine biology Lab, MD9                  Revision No:       001


 Title:                                                              Effective Date :   14/6/2010
 Safe handling of sharps
 (Adopted from OSHE/SOP/BS/07)                                       Page:              Page 2 of 6


    b. Sharps injury - Any injury caused by a sharp, including, but not limited to, cuts,
       abrasions, or needle sticks.


5.0 PROCEDURE
There are two aspects to dealing with sharps: using them and throwing them away. Both can be
risky and require special care. Use the hierarchy of controls concept to prioritize prevention. The
first priority is to eliminate and reduce the use of needles and other sharps where possible.
Second is to substitute with safer alternatives. Next is to isolate the hazard, thereby protecting
an otherwise exposed sharp, through the use of an engineering control. When these strategies
are not available or do not provide total protection, consider work-practice controls and personal
protective equipment.

5.1 Elimination/substitution of sharps
    a. The best way to avoid a sharps injury is to avoid using sharps. E.g. Needles and
       syringes should never be used as a substitute for pipettes!
    b. Avoid using needles and syringes whenever possible because the majority of laboratory
       biohazard injuries are due to needlestick injuries. The use of needles and syringes
       should be restricted to procedures for which there is no alternative.
    c. Where possible, find alternatives to using needles such as:
           - Using alternate routes for inoculation, medication delivery or vaccination to
              animals e.g. blunt cannulae or IV delivery systems that do not require needle
              access.
           - Reviewing specimen collection systems to identify opportunities to consolidate
              and eliminate unnecessary punctures.
    d. Substitute sharps with plastic where possible. For example:
           - Disposable transfer pipettes may be a good replacement for glass pasteur
              pipettes.
           - Replace lab glassware with plastic ware wherever possible. It can eliminate
              broken glass problems.
    e. Use round-tipped scalpel blades instead of sharp-tipped blades

5.2 Engineering Controls
       a. Use devices with engineered sharps injury prevention features e.g. safety-
          engineered blood collection needles. These devices have a built-in physical attribute
          such as blunting, needle withdrawal, automatic needle-resheathing or other physical
          mechanism which effectively reduces the risk of an exposure incident.
       b. Use a sharps disposal container for the disposal of sharps and place it close to
          where sharps are being used. The container should be durable, closable, leak
          resistant and puncture resistant. It should be clearly visible, with appropriate warning
          signals, and be easily accessible to lab personnel who use\dispose of sharp devices.
                          Department of Physiology
                                                                   Procedure No:      PHY/SOP/RE03
                          Safety & Health
 Laboratory (Location):   Cytokine biology Lab, MD9                Revision No:       001


 Title:                                                            Effective Date :   14/6/2010
 Safe handling of sharps
 (Adopted from OSHE/SOP/BS/07)                                     Page:              Page 3 of 6


             These are typically available commercially in different sizes as yellow plastic
             containers with a biohazard symbol. Use an appropriate sized container to minimize
             protruding sharps.

5.3 Work-practice Controls
When sharps must be used, the following procedures are recommended:

    5.3.1 General controls
    a. Use instruments rather than bare hands to handle sharps. For example, use forceps to
        load or unload needles and scalpels; use tongs to pick up broken glass.
    b. Give verbal announcements when passing sharps.
    c. Do not leave unprotected sharps (razor blades, scalpel tips, etc.) unattended on bench
        tops. Contain the sharp items in a tray or a suitable container.
    d. Be careful when cleaning up after experimental procedures that require the use of
        sharps as sharp items may have become hidden in the garbage.
    e. Lab glassware that are chipped or cracked should be discarded.

    5.3.2 Syringes and Needles
    As the majority of laboratory biohazard injuries are due to hypodermic needles, special
    attention must be paid to the use and disposal of needles to minimize the possibility of
    exposure via accidental autoinoculation.
    a. To attach a needle to a syringe, insert the small end of the syringe into the hub of the
        capped needle.
    b. To remove a needle cap, hold the syringe with one hand and use the other hand to
        grasp and push the needle cap toward the syringe while rotating the cap just slightly
        (about 1/4 turn) to break the seal. Do not try to pull the cap off the needle as you may
        inadvertently stick yourself when the cap comes off suddenly.
    c. Never leave an uncovered needle on the counter. Always rest the needle in its cap while
        waiting to use the assembled needle and syringe or in between steps of a procedure. It
        is not necessary to place the cap securely onto the needle at this point.
    d. Do not walk around the lab with an uncapped needle or syringe and needle
    e. Do not bend, break, or otherwise manipulate needles BY HAND.
    f. Never recap needles as an accidental puncture may occur. If it is absolutely necessary,
        recap use a cap-holding device or a pair of forceps or a one-handed technique to scoop
        the cap up.
    g. Use disposable needle locking syringe units whenever possible. Do not remove needles
        from syringes. Throw away the entire syringe-needle combination.
    h. When using syringes and needles with biohazardous or potentially infectious agents,
                i.  Work in a biosafety cabinet and avoid quick and unnecessary movements of
                    the hand holding the syringe.
               ii.  Wear surgical or other type of rubber gloves
                          Department of Physiology
                                                                         Procedure No:      PHY/SOP/RE03
                          Safety & Health
 Laboratory (Location):   Cytokine biology Lab, MD9                      Revision No:       001


 Title:                                                                  Effective Date :   14/6/2010
 Safe handling of sharps
 (Adopted from OSHE/SOP/BS/07)                                           Page:              Page 4 of 6


              iii.    Use needle-locking (Luer-Lok type) syringes.
              iv.     Fill the syringe carefully to minimize air bubbles and frothing of the inoculums.
               v.     Expel air, liquid and bubbles from the syringe vertically into a cotton/gauze
                      pad moistened with disinfectant.
              vi.     Do not use a syringe to mix infectious fluid forcefully so as to prevent aerosol
                      formation.
              vii.    Do not contaminate the needle hub when filling the syringe in order to avoid
                      transfer of infectious material to fingers.
             viii.    Wrap the needle and stopper in a cotton pad moistened with disinfectant
                      when removing a needle from a rubber-stopper bottle.
              ix.     Use a separate pan of disinfectant for reusable syringes and needles. Do not
                      place them in pans containing pipettes or other glassware in order to
                      eliminate sorting later.

5.4 Sharps Disposal
Proper disposal of sharps is essential for protecting cleaners/ waste disposal workers; and the
general public from being injured by discarded sharps.
    a. Never discard sharps into regular trash bins or biological waste.
    b. Dispose of all sharps into puncture resistant containers that do not allow the whole hand
       to go in.
    c. Never try to recover sharp material after it has been disposed off into the sharp
       container.
    d. When disposing needles and syringes, do not recap the needle nor remove the needle
       from the disposable syringe. Place the entire needle-syringe unit directly into the sharps
       disposal container.
    e. All contaminated sharps are to be treated as infectious and disposed of only through
       licensed biohazard waste collectors.
    f. Contaminated broken test tubes or other small items of broken glassware should be
       placed directly into Sharps containers. Larger pieces of clean broken glassware (e.g.
       beakers, flasks, test tubes, etc free from biohazard, radioactive or chemical
       contamination) can be discarded into the standard broken glassware boxes. If the
       glassware is contaminated disinfect it before disposal.
    g. Do not place sharps containers on the floor of the lab at all times
    h. Keep sharps containers covered at all times except when sharps are being deposited
       into the container.
    i. Do not overfill sharp containers beyond the recommended fill line or beyond 3/4 full.
    j. Filled sharps containers should be sealed, labeled as ‘SHARPS’ and the biohazard
       symbol before disposal by licensed biohazard waste collectors for incineration.
    k. Refer to CBL/SOP/04 for more details of the waste disposal procedure.
                          Department of Physiology
                                                                   Procedure No:      PHY/SOP/RE03
                          Safety & Health
 Laboratory (Location):   Cytokine biology Lab, MD9                Revision No:       001


 Title:                                                            Effective Date :   14/6/2010
 Safe handling of sharps
 (Adopted from OSHE/SOP/BS/07)                                     Page:              Page 5 of 6


5.5 Sharps/ Needlestick injury
    a. In the event of a sharps or needlestick injury, encourage bleeding, wash the punctured
       wound with soap and water and apply an appropriate skin disinfectant.
    b. Inform the principal investigator or laboratory supervisor about the cause of the wound
       and organisms involved if any.
    c. In the event of exposure to biological materials/infectious agents resulting in possible
       infection, disease or illness, please call at the University Health and Wellness Center
       (UHWC) for a medical assessment or proceed to the Accident & Emergency Units of
       Hospitals after office hours.
    d. Submit a report to OSHE via the online NUS Accident and Incident Reporting System
       (AIRS).


             1. YIH Main Clinic                   2. Bukit Timah Campus (BTC)
             Level 4, Yusof Ishak House           Block B, MPA-02-01
             Kent Ridge Crescent                  (Level 2 MPA block).
             x2880 (65162880)                     Consultation Hours
             Consultation Hours:                  Mondays, Wednesdays & Fridays
             Monday - Thursday                    8.30am to 10.30am
             8.30am to 6.00pm
             (Closed 12.30pm to 1.30pm)
             Last registration at 5.40pm
             Friday
             8.30am to 5.30pm
             (Closed 12.30pm to 1.30pm)
             Last registration at 5.10pm




6 RECORDS
   a. Records for the disposal of the wastes must be kept for verification by authorities or for
      inspection.
   b. All sharps injuries have to be reported via OSHE’s Accident and Incident Reporting
      System (AIRS).
                          Department of Physiology
                                                               Procedure No:      PHY/SOP/RE03
                          Safety & Health
 Laboratory (Location):   Cytokine biology Lab, MD9            Revision No:       001


 Title:                                                        Effective Date :   14/6/2010
 Safe handling of sharps
 (Adopted from OSHE/SOP/BS/07)                                 Page:              Page 6 of 6


7 REFERENCES
   a. National Environmental Agency (NEA) guidelines on bio-Hazardous substances control
      (http://app.nea.gov.sg/)
   b. CBL/SOP/ - Biological Waste Disposal
   c. CDC Workbook for Designing, Implementing, and Evaluating a Sharps Injury Prevention
      Program (http://www.cdc.gov/sharpssafety/)
   d. U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Safety
      and Health Topic: “Blood borne pathogen and needlestick prevention” (www.osha.gov)
   e. U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
      standards - 29 CFR Part 1910.1030: “Occupational Exposure to Blood borne Pathogens
      Standard” (Blood borne Pathogens Standard)


8 APPENDICES
Nil

								
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