CHAPTER 32-34--OUTLINES

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AP US HISTORY 11--OUTLINES
CHAPTERS 32--33: "The Crisis of Authority" and "From 'The Age of Limits' to Reagan"
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CHAPTER 32: The Crisis of Authority
         (1960s Social/Cultural, late 1960s/early 70s politics {Nixon})

I. The Youth Culture (p. 860-865)
       A. The young people of the 1960s were politically active and assertive

         B. More were attending college

         C. The New Left
              1. a movement on college/university campuses in the 1960s
              2. very radical
              3. challenged the "status quo" of government at all levels
              4. very sympathetic to, and popular among, African Americans, the
                     poor, and other minorities
              5. members were critical of the 1930s and1940s business growth
                     and 1950s bureaucracy growth
              6. drew ideas from many Marxist/Leninist writers although the NL
                     members were not Communist
              7. drew inspiration from the civil rights movement
              8. formed Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) in 1962
              9. FSM (Free Speech Movement) gained national attention as more
                     students began participating in protests

         D. New Left, SDS, and FSM all protested against Vietnam War
              1. encouraged draft dodging and draft card burning
              2. prevented military recruiters from coming onto college campuses
              3. committed acts of violence against corporations that made war
                      products and businesses that sold them

         E. "The Counterculture"
               1. This group was openly critical of the values/morals of "Middle America"
                      (the suburban life of post WWII America)
               2. very visible personal appearance changes characterized this lifestyle
                      and people
                      a. long hair
                      b. loud clothing (torn jeans, bright colors)
                      c. "britches, bandanas, and beads"
               3. created their own slang terms that they believed were more "hip" than
                      the language of their parents and older adults earning them the
                      nickname "hippies"
               4. also engaged in recreational drug use (marijuana and LSD)
                                          2

            5. sexual behavior was more relaxed and open (multiple partners) due
                  to the cultural revolution as well as the birth control pill and
                  condoms
            6. many "CC" members lived in California and New York (Haight-Ashbury
                  in Cali and various boroughs of NYC)

      F. These "anti-establishment" movements were also spurred on by music and
            tv programming that tended to reflect social and cultural conflict
            1. rock-n-roll and the protest songs of the late 1960s
            2. Woodstock Music Festival in New York (August, 1969)
            3. All in the Family (1972 tv program)

II. The Mobilization of Minorities (p. 865-871)
       A. The successes of the Civil Rights Movement encouraged other minority
              groups (Indians, Latinos, and Women) to do the same

      B. Native American grievances with their position in life had strong, deep roots
            and were many (p. 865).
            1. Government policies in the 1950s strongly encouraged assimilation
                   and "termination" of life as NA had known it on the reservation
            2. NA began to openly challenge government policies of the 1950s and
                   1960s.
            3. The Declaration of Indian Purpose (Chicago, 1961) declared that
                   Indians had "the right to choose our own way of life"
            4. American Indian Movement (1968) promoted Indian Nationalism
            5. The Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968 gave Indians the rights under the
                   Constitution (BoR), and recognized the autonomy of tribal councils
                   and tribal law.
            6. Tribes also began using courts to gain equal access victories
                   a. U.S. v. Wheeler (1978)
                   b. County of Oneida vs. Oneida Indian Nation (1985)

      C. Latinos were a much stronger minority group than Indians
            1. migration patterns in the south, east, Pacific Coast, and southwest
            2. origins in Cuba, Guatemala, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Peru
            3. came mostly due to government unrest in their native country
            4. efforts started in the 1980s to deport illegal immigrants
                   a. Operation Wetback (1953)
                   b. 1990s laws in states to deport illegal immigrants
            5. many immigrants were not well educated and could not speak
                   fluent or even conversational English
            6. Chicano activism
                   a. a name adopted by young Latino immigrants to show
                           shared culture
                   b. barrios were Mexican-American neighborhoods (ethnic
                           communities)
                                           3

                   c. La Raza Unida became the political arm of the Chicano
                         activism
                   d. Cesar Chavez created the United Farm Workers to unite
                         those in agriculture.

            7. Bilingualism has been a political issue with Latinos

      D. "Cultural Pluralism"
            1. challenge to the "melting pot" idea of America
            2. older immigrants from Europe believed that by assimilation and
                    acculturation that achievements could be met
            3. newer immigrant groups wanted to have their identity recognized
                    by law rather than be forced into assimilation to be successful.

      E. The Gay Rights Movement
            1. Stonewall Inn, Greenwich Village NYC was the sight of the first
                   major clash between gays and law enforcement
            2. The GLF (Gay Liberation Front) was formed in 1969 to push for gay
                   rights
            2. the AIDS epidemic of the 1980s hurt the move toward acceptance of
                   the homosexual lifestyle
            3. in the 1990s, the movement toned down their activism and has been
                   successful in some areas in toleration and acceptance of gays and
                   lesbians.

IV. The New Feminism (871-874)
      A. The Feminine Mystique by Betty Friedan (1963) showed the unhappiness
            with the role of women in the 1950s and early 60s.
            1. the suburbs had become "comfortable concentration camps" for
                   women
            2. women had no outlets for their talents, intellect, and education
            3. women were being "buried alive" by being "buried in the suburbs"

      B. JFK created the President's Commission on the Status of Women
            1. brought national attention to gender discrimination
            2. pushed for Congress to pass the Equal Pay Act (1963)
            3. pushed for Congress to include Title VII in the Civil Rights Act of 1964
                  which gave women many of the same legal protections as blacks.

      C. Friedan helped create the National Organization of Women (NOW) to
             "confront with concrete action the conditions which now prevent women
             from enjoying the equality of opportunity and freedom of choice…."
             1. NOW has pushed for more educational opportunities for women
             2. greatly improved workplace conditions for women
                                          4

      D. by the early 1970s, younger women were also joining in the Women's
            Liberation Movement
            1. the WLM began to challenge all of the traditional roles/views of
                   women
                   a. marriage
                   b. motherhood
                   c. sexuality
            2. also pushed for and helped women to open their own businesses
                   that catered to women (kind of a Niagara Movement for women)
            3. with the increase in younger women involved, many colleges were
                   pushed to become co-educational (Yale, Mississippi University
                   for Women)
            4. it became more acceptable for the woman/wife to work outside the
                   home
            5. the use of Ms. instead of Miss or Mrs.
            6. increase in the number of women in politics
            7. athletics and Title IX (Billie Jean King in tennis)

      E. Abortion continues to be the major political/social/economic issue for women

V. Environmental Issues (874-878)

VI. Presidency of Richard Nixon
      A. Election of 1968
             1. Democrats nominated Hubert Humphrey
             2. Republicans nominated Richard Nixon
             3. Nixon won

      B. Nixon and Vietnam
            1. promised "peace with honor" during his campaign
            2. worked with National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger on a way
                  to make that happen
            3. worked to change the draft to ease public opposition
            4. began "Vietnamization"--training South Vietnamese to assume most
                  combat duties
            5. began a troop drawdown but had to backtrack when negotiations to
                  end the war did not bring results
            6. Nixon and Kissinger instead increased the number of troops in
                  SE Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Thailand) which angered the American
                  public and gave Nixon a credibility issue
            7. Antiwar protests climaxed at Kent State University (Ohio) when four
                  college students were killed by law enforcement and two more
                  were killed at Jackson State (HBCU) in Mississippi
            8. The Pentagon Papers were released by the press showing that the
                  government had not been completely honest with the American
                  public about the war.
                                    5

      9. Morale among the military began to decline; suicides and drug use
            increased
      10. My Lai Massacre--innocent SV civilians were killed by American
            military in frustration over the war
      11. US government (FBI and CIA) at the direction of Nixon began
            intensifying surveillance of anti-war and radical groups in the US
      12. Negotiations to end the war continue through the campaign and
            election of 1972 (Nixon was re-elected)
      13. "The Christmas Bombings"
            a. a series of heavy attacks on Hanoi, Haiphong, and other
                    strategic NV targets
            b. began in December, 1972 and lasting into the new year
      14. The Paris Accords
            a. January, 1973--the NV and US sign an armistice agreement
                    essentially ending the war in Vietnam
            b. the terms were vague and left to a committee to finalize

C. The Fall of Saigon
     1. March, 1975--the NV launch a full scale attack on SV.
     2. SV asks the US for help, but is refused
     3. April, 1975--NV reach Saigon (SV capitol city) and the staff at the
             American embassy is air lifted out of the country
     4. Saigon is seized by the NV and renamed Ho Chi Minh City

D. Nixon and China
      1. US had a desire to strengthen China in order to counterbalance the
             power of the Soviet Union.
      2. China had a desire to move away from isolationism
      3. July, 1971: Nixon announces that he will visit China
      4. February, 1972: Nixon visits China which helped Americans overcome
             deep resentment to Chinese and communism.

E. Nixon and the USSR
      1. Leonid Brezhnev became Soviet premier in 1964
      2. RN and LB agreed to a policy of détente (a slight thaw) on Cold War
            tensions.
      3. US and USSR diplomats negotiated the SALT I Treaty (Strategic Arms
            Limitations Treaty) in order to reduce the amount of nukes each
            country had.
      4. Nixon signed the agreement in Moscow, and LB came to DC a year
            later.
                                      6


F. Nixon and the Third World
      1. tried to keep Third World as stable as possible with as little involvement
             as possible, especially in local disputes
      2. The Nixon Doctrine--the US would "participate in the defense and
             development of allies and friends", but would leave "basic
             responsibilities" to the nations themselves.
             a. Chile
                    i. elections in 1970 resulted in Marxist Salvadore Allende's
                            election
                    ii. US began sending money to opposition groups and in
                            1973, Allende was toppled and killed
                    iii. US recognizes equally repressive government of
                            Augusto Pinochet
             b. Israel
                    i. Six Day War
                            --Israel routed armies in Egypt, Syria, and
                                    Jordan, gained territory in the Golan Heights
                                    and Gaza Strip, and reclaimed all of Jerusalem
                            --Palestinians and the PLO fled into Jordan, but were
                                    kicked out by Jordan's President because he
                                    didn't want to ruin his relationship with the US
                    ii. Yom Kippur War
                            --Egypt and Syria attack Israel
                            --US pressures Israel to accept a cease fire to
                                    stabilize the Middle East and oil
                    iii. Arab Oil Embargo
                            --1973 by mainly Egypt and Saudi Arabia against
                                    those countries seen as supporters of Israel

G. Nixon and Politics at Home
      1. believed his domestic policies should speak for "the silent majority",
             middle class, conservative Americans who wanted to reduce
             federal input into their lives
      2. could not persuade Congress to pass legislation that would prohibit
             busing as a means of achieving integration
      3. could not stop the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare
             from withholding federal money for school systems who failed
             to integrate.
      4. dismantled several of the Great Society and New Frontier programs
             of JFK and LBJ
      5. tried to overhaul welfare, but failed due to not being able to
             communicate the real objective (guaranteed income vs. smaller
             government)
                               7

6. Nixon nominated a total of four (4) Supreme Court justices (Warren
       Burger for Earl Warren; Harry Blackmun for Abe Fortas; Lewis
       Powell for ??; and William Rehnquist for ??)
7. The New Supreme ("Nixon") Court carried on the precedent set by
       the Warren Court and ruled heavily in favor of civil/human rights
       (upholding school busing, overturning capital punishment,
       abortion rights, affirmative action)
8. won re-election in 1972 over George McGovern (very liberal from
       South Dakota)
9. Inflation began to rise due to deficit spending on the Vietnam War
       and new programs of the 1960s without raising taxes
       a. a fuel shortage in 1973 (see Arab Oil Embargo) caused "shock
              and dismay" with the American public; OPEC had raised
              prices 400% and caused gas and home heating oil prices to
              rise.
       b. manufacturing (industry) also began to suffer because our plants
              and management systems were not keeping up with the
              competition from the Europeans and Japanese.
       c. job shifts began to occur from "hands on" to "knowledge based"
       d. Nixon responded to the economic problems by reducing federal
              spending and raising taxes, but that didn't help.
       e. the economy did not move, creating "stagflation" (a period of
              persistent economic inactivity).
10. Watergate
       a. Nixon began to centralize the power of the "Office of President"
              to the "Person of the President", and saw anyone who was
              opposed to, or critical of his policies, as also critical of him.
       b. Nixon was also very mean spirited and secretive; he always
              felt someone was "out to get him" and thus responded to
              any kindness with abrasiveness
       c. Nixon believed that the Democrats (who had gained the majority
              of seats in the House and Senate in 1970) had "something"
              on him that they would use against him right before the
              Election in 1972.
       d. June 17, 1972: five people were arrested for breaking into and
              entering the Offices of the Democratic National Committee,
              which were located at the Watergate Hotel in DC
       e. The investigation revealed that several of those arrested had
              previously worked for the Committee to Re-Elect the
              President (CRP), and had been paid for the break-in from
              a CRP fund managed by White House Staff
       f. The President and his staff denied any connection to this
              "very bizarre incident", but he investigation and the
              questions continue
       g. Election (November) 1972--Nixon wins
                       8

h. January, 1973: The Watergate Five go on trial; James McCord
       agreed to "cooperate and answer questions fully" for the
       investigators in exchange for a lesser federal sentence; the
       confessions began "like a flood if Hoover Dam ever burst"
i. others were called to testify, including many WH staff
       members who finger-pointed others to keep their own
       backsides off the stove
j. John Dean, Special Counsel to the President, even accused
       Nixon of knowing about and covering up the break-in
k. as the investigation dragged on into the summer of 1973, the
       pattern of abuses and efforts to obstruct justice emerged
       (John Erlichman, H.R. Haldeman, John Mitchell)
l. "What did the President know, and when did he know it"
       --Senator Harold Baker of Tennessee
m. one testimony by Dean revealed the Oval Office taping
       system, and the tapes were subpeoned by Congress
n. Nixon refused, claiming "WH communications are protected by
       executive privilege"
o. Special Prosecutor Archibald Cox sued Nixon in court to get
       him to turn over the tapes.
p. when Nixon turned over the tapes, some of them had been
       erased.
q. The House of Representatives then began to consider
       impeachment proceedings against Nixon
r. to make matters worse, VP Spiro Agnew was convicted of
       takings bribes when he was Governor of Maryland, and
       Nixon replaced him with Gerald Ford (Michigan)
s. Nixon is found guilty by the courts (see above) of
       obstruction of justice and must give the tapes over to the
       special prosecutor
t. The House then brings three articles of impeachment against
       Nixon.
u. before the Senate can vote on the articles, Nixon resigns as
       President (August 8, 1974)
                                           9

CHAPTER 33—"FROM 'THE AGE OF LIMITS' TO THE AGE OF REAGAN"
p. 893-916


I. The Presidency of Gerald Ford
      A. became President upon the resignation of Nixon
      B. inherited a cynical public and increasingly dangerous economy
      C. no trust was earned by Ford when he offered a full pardon to
            Nixon

      D. Ford was a likable person and his self-deprecating humor helped
            him win over some of the American public

      E. As for the economy, Ford rejected most proposals to stop the
            inflation
            1. rejected wage and price controls
            2. called for "voluntary efforts" on behalf of business/industry
                    to control costs
            3. supported high interest rates
            4. opposed increasing federal spending (although the gov
                    spent anyway)
            5. inflation had reached 11% when by 1976

      F. In foreign policy, Ford had more success
             1. signed the SALT II agreements with the Soviets
             2. finally ratified the European border agreements laid out
                    after WWII
             3. Israel agreed to return large portions of the occupied
                    Sinai Peninsula to Egypt
             4. recognized the more moderate government in China
                    upon the death of Mao Tse Tung in 1976

      G. Election of 1976
            1. Ford faced opposition from former Cali governor Ronald
                   Reagan
            2. Dems nominated former Georgia governor James Earl
                   (Jimmy) Carter
            3. Carter ran on a platform of being a "Washington outsider"
                   (and he was—never having served in any federal
                   job either elected or appointed)
            4. Carter won by a slim margin—almost a vote of "the lesser
                   of two nothings" (not evils)
                                           10

II. The Presidency of Jimmy Carter
       A. Carter inherited much of Nixon's and Ford's unfinished business
              and continued mistrust of government by the public

      B. It didn't help that Carter micro-managed his presidency and was
             somewhat self-righteous and inflexible in his management style—
             not a good delegator

      C. Probably one of the most intelligent men ever to serve as President,
            but most often refused guidance from experienced politicians

      D. Most of his cabinet and advisors were friends from Georgia or
           associates he had formed trust with while Governor

      E. Carter's Domestic Policy
            1. focused on the economy and energy
            2. raised federal spending and cut taxes to decrease
                    unemployment
            3. oil prices continued to rise adding to the inflation (not because
                    of Carter's policies)
            4. by mid-terms, Carter had reversed policy and decided on
                    higher interest rates and reduced currency
            5. when he left office in 1981, interest on most commercial loans
                    (homes, cars, college educations) was at 20%, and most
                    credit cards were at 25% or higher
            6. 1979: second major fuel shortage in the US
                    a. caused Carter to retreat to Camp David
                    b. emerged two weeks later and gave a tv speech
                    c. basically said problems belonged to everyone, not
                            just government, because the American people
                            were not doing their part (conservation, spending
                            less on credit, etc.) to help the energy and economy
                    d. government could not do it all
                    e. while the intention was good ("We must all band
                            together to help each other"), the delivery sounded
                            parental, overbearing, and appeared to blame the
                            public rather than inspire them
                    f. probably cost Carter the election of 1980

      F. Carter and Foreign Policy
            1. based much of his FP on building human rights in other
                    countries
            2. critics pointed out that he often left HR abuses in the US
                    un-noticed or with no response (child abuse was one)
                             11

3. Carter completed the negotiations to give control of the
       Panama Canal to the Panamanians (actually started
       during the Nixon years)
4. negotiated a peace treaty between Israel and Egypt
       a. 1977: Egyptian President Anwar Sadat accepted an
              invitation from Israeli Prime Minister Menachem
              Begin to visit Israel
       b. Sadat announced that he was ready to recognize the
              legitimacy of the Israeli state and people
       c. negotiations started, but quickly broke down
       d. September, 1978: Carter invited both to Camp David
       e. stayed for two weeks to work out differences
       f. March 29, 1979: Begin, Sadat, and Carter signed a
              peace treaty known as the Camp David Accords
5. December, 1978: Carter announced renewed relations with
       Communist China and its moderate leader, Deng
       Xiaoping
6. negotiated a new SALT II agreement with the Soviets
7. Iranian Hostage Crisis
       a. The US had been providing support to Iran since
              the 1950s
       b. many of the mainline Muslims and Muslim clergy
              opposed the Shah's efforts to modernize the
              country, and resented the help (and input) from
              the US
       c. January, 1979: the Shah left Iran (partly to receive
              treatments for cancer in the US, and partly to
              escape a revolt and possible execution)
       d. power turned to the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini,
              who hated the west (the US)
       e. November, 1979: mobs supported by Khomeini
              stormed the US embassy and held hostage
              all of the diplomats and military personnel,
              including women and children.
       f. They demanded the return of the Shah in exchange
              for freedom for the Americans
       g. 53 Americans remained hostage (women and children
              were released within a few weeks) for 14 months,
              and were released only moments after Reagan
              took the oath of office as President
       h. Carter tried twice to rescue the hostages, but both
              attempts failed (a rescue helicopter crashed the
              first time, and the rescuers were captured the second)
                                           12

             8. Carter and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
                   a. the Soviets had gained a foothold in Afghanistan in
                          the early 1970s
                   b. the Soviets launched a full scale invasion in December,
                          1979
                   c. The US denounced the invasion as an attempt by the
                          USSR to gain control of Mid Eastern oil supplies
                          (which would have boosted a failing Soviet
                          economy)
                   d. Carter imposed sanctions, pulled the US out of
                          participation in the 1980 summer Olympic games in
                          Moscow, and pulled the SALT II treaty from
                          negotiations in the US Senate

III. The Rise of "The New Right"
       A. American anxiety in the 1960s and 70s forced a change in the
              political landscape

      B. In addition, the southern states of Florida, Georgia, North
             Carolina, Texas, California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Nevada
             created a population shift, and thus an electoral college shift, from
             the "Industrial North" to the "Sunbelt South"

      C. There was also tremendous disillusionment with the policies of the
           Democrats (JFK, LBJ, Carter, and Congressional leaders)

      D. While the south had generally been seen as populist (think farmers,
           agriculture, The Grange) and progressive (think Progressive
           Movement, helping others in need, WEB duBois and The
           Niagara Movement, and BTW), the post WWI era in the South
           had led to a rise of conservative political leaders (Conservative
           Southern Democrats) who were opposed to "big government"
           (rules, regulations, high taxes, even speed limits)

      E. As racial tensions grew in the south, many southerners embraced
            this as a "Second Reconstruction" by northern and New England
            Republicans and began to embrace the tension as a reason to
            further criticize the government
                                     13

F. In the west, new land-use policies and environmental regulations
       brought back images of the West as a place of "rugged
       individualism" and self-sustenance whereby people do not need
       government
       1. The Sagebrush Rebellion was led by mid-west and western
              farmers against environmental policies
       2. called for reduced federal land holdings in the west and
              mid-west and allow more land for development

G. The growth of suburbs also fueled the anti-government sentiments
     in the 1970s and early 1980s
     1. suburbs were seen as an escape from the harshness of the
            cities
     2. some even separated residents from larger cities next door
            by incorporating and forming governments, but imposing
            strict regulations on business/industrial/retail development
            to keep out what they left behind in the cities
            (think Montgomery and Pike Road/Wetumpka/Prattville)

H. A new religious revival (almost surpassing that of the Second Great
      Awakening in participation and religious fervor) took place in the
      1970s.
      1. some found growth in cults and "fake-faiths"
      2. most of the growth occurred in Evangelical Christianity
      3. Billy Graham and Oral Roberts
      4. strong belief in being "born again" through direct communication
              with Jesus Christ
      5. found a strong political spokesman in Jimmy Carter

I. late 1970s, Jerry Falwell (fundamentalist minister from Virginia)
       formed a group called the Moral Majority and attacked
       "humanism", a movement away from religion

J. 1990: Pat Robertson launched the Christian Coalition with the goal
      of a new era of politics (both domestic and foreign) in which
      Christian principles and values dominated

K. All of this (new political thought that was more conservative, new
       religious thought that was more conservative) led to the emergence
       of The New Right: a political ideology built around smaller
       government, more individual responsibility, and Christian values.

L. Election of 1980:
      1. Democrats nominate Jimmy Carter
      2. Republicans nominated Ronald Reagan
      3. Reagan won; would serve two terms; won a landslide in 84
                                           14

IV. The Presidency of Ronald Reagan
      A. Several small groups had banded together to support Reagan
             1. corporate elites (big industry/big business that had dominated
                   politics until the New Deal)
             2. "Neo-conservatives"—the term given to someone who
                   identified with the ideas of the New Right, but had not
                   really thought of themselves as a Republican
             3. Populist Conservatives—those who believed that government
                   was run by hostile forces that controlled much of society
                   behind the scenes and unknown to the general public

      B. Reagan had a "magnetic personality", great sense of humor, very
           rugged (even though he served as President from age 70-78),
           had an attractive (but very influential and forceful) wife; was often
           called "Teflon Ron" by the press because nothing ever seemed to
           make him angry (at least not in public)

      C. Reagan's Domestic Policy
           1. had to do something about the economy
           2. introduced "Reaganomics" (aka: supply-side, or trickle down)
                  a. provide tax cuts to business and industry to create jobs
                  b. those jobs are filled by the unemployed
                  c. the unemployed are now employed with a paycheck
                  d. the employed spend that paycheck on consumable items
                          (food, clothes, household products)
                  e. the consumed items create a need for replacements
                  f. the replacements are paid for by increased profits to
                          businesses because more people are now buying
                          more stuff
                  g. it all works great—unless Part D does not happen
                  h. which it did not, at least not on the scale that Reagan
                          hoped for and that the country needed to really
                          help the economy
           3. As a result of less consumer spending, government had to
                  spend more, creating more debt, more deficit, and more
                  deficit spending
           4. Government refused to raise taxes or cut spending to reduce
                  the deficit
           5. Instead, they cut "discretionary spending" (food stamps, welfare
                  low income housing, Medicare, Medicaid, student loans,
                  education, transportation, infrastructure, etc.)
           6. The budget never was balanced, and deficit/debt/deficit
                  spending continued
                                  15

      7. Two scandals hurt Reagan's second term
            1. The Savings and Loan Scandal (S&L)
                   a. the government had allowed S&L to de-regulate
                          in the early 1980s
                   b. S&Ls became corrupt (think pay-day loans)
                   c. government had to step in to prevent major
                          losses
                   d. cost taxpayers more than 5,000,000,000
            2. Iran-Contra Affair
                   a. it was revealed in 1986 that the US government
                          had sold weapons to Iran in exchange for the
                          release of several Americans being held by
                          radical Islamic groups in the Middle East
                   b. the Iranians had then sold some of the weapons
                          to the Nicaraguan Contras who were trying
                          to get rid of a Marxist government in that
                          country
                   c. the Contras who were killed then had weapons
                          stolen by the Sandanistas (the Marxists) who
                          then used them to kill Americans trying to
                          help.
                   d. The White House was exposed for covert
                          military actions and secrecy (just like with
                          Nixon) that did serious damage to Reagan's
                          credibility

D. Reagan and Foreign Policy
     1. relations with the USSR continued to chill (almost freeze) in
            the first Reagan term
     2. RR was not a fan of SALT and proposed the Strategic
            Defense Initiative (SDI), the most expensive military
            program since WWII
            a. aka "Star Wars" Missile Defense system
            b. would allow the US the ability to destroy missiles in
                    space before they ever reached earth, or more
                    specifically, the US
     3. SDI began a new protest movement against nuclear weapons
            both in the US and in Europe
     4. The Reagan Doctrine began to support opponents of
            communism anywhere in the world even if those
            governments had no direct connection to the USSR (like
            in North Korea)
                                          16

             5. The End of the Cold War
                   a. Mikhail Gorbachev became Soviet premier in 1985
                   b. in order to improve the failing Soviet economy, he
                          introduced perestroika ("reform") in which limited
                          western (US) influence in Soviet business was
                          allowed (McDonald's, Levi's, and Hershey chocolate)
                   c. to improve morale of the people, he introduced
                          glasnost, a relaxing of the harsh control by the
                          government
                   d. 1987: began to reduce Soviet military commitments
                          in Europe and Asia (Poland and Afghanistan)
                   e. by 1989, most of eastern Europe had rid itself of a
                          communist government, including the destruction
                          of the Berlin Wall and the start of a reunification of
                          Germany
                   f. by 1991, communism was crumbling within the USSR
                   g. Gorbachev resigned as leader of the Communist Party
                          and they lost all power in the USSR, and the
                          country became known again as Russia

V. The Election of 1988
      A. Democrats ran Massachusetts Senator Michael Dukakis
      B. Republicans ran VP George H.W. Bush
      C. Bush won (very negative campaign; the "politics of personal destruction"
             against Dukakis)

      D. Bush I and foreign policy
           1. reached a new set of nuclear arms agreements with the Soviet Union
           2. The Gulf War
                  a. with the fall of Communism, the US was the only real
                          "superpower" left in the world.
                   b. August 2, 1990: the forces of Saddam Hussein invaded the
                          nation of Kuwait.
                  c. SH announces that he will annex Kuwait (and all of its oil), and
                          receives no initial response from the US.
                  d. after discussions in Washington about letting SH govern Kuwait
                          and its oil fields, the decision was made to remove SH fom
                          Kuwait.
                  d. by mid-September, GB had persuaded almost every influential
                          government to help out.
                  e. the US and its allies begin sending troops to the border between
                          Kuwait and Saudi Arabia
                  f. November 29: the UN votes on military action to remove Iraq
                          from Kuwait if Iraq did not leave by January 15, 1991
                  g. Iraq did not leave, and on January 16, 1991, "shock and awe"
                          began (bombing of Iraq by UN forces)
                                                         17

                           h. February 23: forces begin a massive ground attack
                           i. February 28: Iraq announced its agreement to the terms
                                 of a ceasefire

         E. Bush I and Domestic policy
               1. very few initiatives were proposed or put into place
               2. Bush I seemed very unconcerned with domestic issues
               3. the federal debt had grown substantially with RR, and the deficit
                      was out of control.
               4. had promised to reduce federal spending (as have most president's
                      since………well, John Adams) and pledged in the 1988 campaign,
                      "Read my lips! NO NEW TAXES"
               5. that pledge would come back to haunt him in 1992
               6. had a difficult time working with the Democrats in Congress because
                      of his lack of focus and their goals
               7. had to raise taxes in 1991 to help with the economy and the recession
                      because of high corporate (not personal) debt

         F. Election of 1992
                  1. Republicans ran Bush
                  2. Democrats ran Bill Clinton
                  3. Independent Parties together supported Ross Perot
                  4. Clinton won, and would serve two terms
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                            18

CHAPTER 34--The Age of Globalization

I. A resurgence of partisanship
       A. Clinton entered office with no clear mandate from the people
       B. Republicans were adversarial and opposed Clinton on most issues
       C. The Clinton Presidency--Domestic Policy
              1. problems began building early on
              2. Clinton attempted to end the ban on gays in the military
                     ("don't ask, don't tell)
              3. Clinton was forced to withdraw several key nominations for federal jobs
                     and cabinet positions due to Republican opposition
              4. The Whitewater Affair
                     a. Vince Foster, a Clinton family friend and White House lawyer
                             committed suicide
                     b. the feds launched an investigation
                     c. the investigation spread to include a real estate development in
                             Arkansas (Whitewater) that the Clinton's had been involved
                             with and whether they had profited and not reported the
                             earnings.
                     d. the appearance was that the White House and the Clinton's
                             were interfering in the investigation and attempting to cover
                             up.
              5. Clinton won a tough budget battle with significant tax increases on the
                     wealthy, reductions in unnecessary government spending, and tax
                     credits/deductions for the very poor.
              6. NAFTA
                     a. a significant trade agreement between the U.S., Canada, and
                             Mexico
                     b. reduced many trade barriers and lifted many restrictions so that
                             companies in those countries could trade easier with each
                             other.
              7. Health Care Reform
                     a. BC set up a committee to make recommendations to reform the
                             delivery of health care services in the U.S.
                     b. chairwoman was BC's wife, Hillary
                     c. wanted to guarantee health care coverage to all Americans
                     d. faced strong opposition from Republicans in Congress and the
                             health care delivery agencies
                     e. recommendations failed in Congressional committees in 1994
                                   19

D. Clinton and Foreign Policy
       1. Yugoslavia (Bosnia)
              a. communism collapsed in the Soviet Union and eastern Europe
                      between 1989 and 1991
              b. the former Yugoslavia (created after WWI) collapsed into
                      several "break away republics" each seeking independence
              c. a civil war erupted in Bosnia between Muslims and Christians
                      from neighboring Serbia
              d. U.S. ambassador Richard Holbrooke helped the countries reach
                      a peace agreement, and the U.S. sent in troops to enforce
                      the agreement
              e. the agreement was unstable, and soon the fighting began again
       2. Haiti
              a. the Haitian military overthrew their President Jean Bertrand
                      Aristide in 1991 and established military dictatorship
              b. the U.S. government got involved and began the efforts to get
                      rid of the military government and put Aristide back into
                      power.
              c. Clinton ordered the 82nd Airborne to get ready to invade and
                      bring Aristide back when the military government signed an
                      agreement which would restore Aristide.
              d. introduced the idea of "coercive diplomacy" into foreign policy
                      vocabularies
E. The Republican Resurgence
       1. in the mid-term elections of 1994, the Republicans gained the
              majority of seats in the House and Senate for the first time since
              the 1950s.
       2 Georgia representative Newt Gingrich was elected the Speaker of the
              House.
       3. He introduced the "Contract With America", which was the Republicans
              legislative agenda
       4. called for a balanced budget, tax cuts for the wealthy, and less
                      federal control over state issues.
       5. clashes between Congress and Clinton over budgets led the
              government to literally shutdown in early 1996.
       6. Republicans refused to give any concessions, and public opinion
              turned against the Republicans and Gingrich
       7. set up Clinton for a huge victory in 1996
F. The Election of 1996
       1. Democrats run Clinton; Republicans run Kansas senator Bob Dole
       2. Clinton won a second term because the economy was good and the
              federal deficit was in decline.
                                      20

G. Clinton: Triumphant and Setback
      1. Congress passed many bills raising the minimum wage, allowing
             individuals to transfer their health care coverage from one job to the
             next, and reforming welfare (McCain-Feingold Bill)
      2. Clinton's economic policies helped to balance the federal budget and
             create budget surpluses.
      3. However, personal scandal overshadowed political gain
             a. Gennifer Flowers, a former Playboy model, produced answering
                     machine messages she claim came from BC
             b. Paula Jones, a former Arkansas government employee, claimed
                     inappropriate sexual contact occurred in an Arkansas hotel
                     room while BC was still Governor of Arkansas
             c. Monica Lewinsky, a White House intern, suggested she and BC
                     had had an affair while she worked at the White House
             d. all three accusations led to more investigations, and the
                     appointment of a Special Prosecutor named Ken Starr
             e. through all of this, Clinton remained very popular (had a 79%
                     approval rating at the height of the Lewinsky drama), earning
                     him the nickname "Teflon Bill", and making Ken Starr and his
                     book, The Starr Report, look bad (Starr had been a personal
                     lawyer and friend of Ronald Reagan, so the Republicans
                     also looked bad)
      4. Ken Starr eventually recommended that Congress impeach Clinton and
             and remove him from office because his investigation revealed that
             Clinton had lied to a grand jury about the PJ and ML affairs.
      5. In December of 1998, the House of Representatives brought two
             charges against Clinton--lying to a grand jury and obstruction of
             justice.
      6. The Senate held the trial and acquitted Clinton on both charges and
             voted no on removal from office.
      7. The investigations into both Clintons led to a new political culture in
             the 1990s.
             a. the expanding role of personal and political scandal in politics
                     (even Newt Gingrich was forced to resign from Congress
                      after an investigation revealed he had violated
                     Congressional ethics laws)
             b. "the politics of personal destruction"--the idea of using a
                     politicians personal life and behavior to destroy their political
                     career and using that to benefit yourself and your political
                     career.
      8. As for foreign policy, Clinton continued to have to deal with the former
             Yugoslavian republics of Kosovo, Bosnia, and Serbia
      9. Clinton left office in 2000 as one of the most popular presidents in
             U.S. History, ranking him with Ronald Reagan, FDR, Eisenhower,
             and Teddy Roosevelt.
                                    21

G. The Election of 2000
     1. Democrats ran Clinton's VP, Al Gore of Tennessee; Republicans ran
             Texas Governor George W. Bush
     2. most Americans were not happy with either choice, and the campaign
             was generally dull and uninspiring.
     3. Gore won the popular vote, but neither candidate won the 270 electoral
             votes needed to become President.
     4. Ballot controversies in Florida prevented those electoral votes from
             being given to either candidate.
             a. "the butterfly ballot"
             b. voting machine issues in Palm Beach County
     5. Florida law requires a recount if the vote total in a national election is
             less than 500 votes; Bush and Gore were separated by 300 votes
     6. the recounts begin in Palm Beach, Miami/Dade, and Orange counties,
             but Republican Secretary of State Katherine Harris refused to
             certify the recount results and declared Bush the recipient of the
             disputed votes.
     7. Gore sued in the Florida State Supreme Court and they ordered KH to
             let the recounts continue, but set a deadline by which the recounts
             had to end.
     8. On that deadline day, Miami/Dade County and Palm Beach County
             were not finished, but KH took the results again and certified them
             declaring that Bush had won the electoral votes in Florida.
     9. Gore challenged again, and the U.S. Supreme Court was forced to
             decide.
     10. In one of the most contested decisions ever, the U.S. Supreme Court
             voted 5-4 to adhere to the deadline for the recounts and accept the
             certified results from KH, and Bush became the 43rd President of
             the U.S.
H. The Presidency of George W. Bush
     1. entered office in January, 2001 with very low approval/popularity
             ratings (probably the lowest since Herbert Hoover) and very ill
             prepared to be president.
     2. during his first eight months, he used all of the budget surplus for a
             "tax refund" from the government (literally, a check came in my
             mailbox from the Treasury Department), and worked with Congress
             on very controversial education reform (No Child Left Behind [which
             left children behind])
     3. a big blow to the Republicans and Bush came when Vermont Senator
             James (Jim) Jeffords announced he could no longer support the
             Republican partisanship in Congress or the "radical agenda of an
             ill-prepared President", and became an Independent who voted
             with the Democrats.
     4. This ended the Republican majority in the Senate and made it harder
             for the Republicans to pass their Bush-proposed agenda.
                                          22

II. Economic Boom: 1992-2001
       A. Stagflation to Growth (1970s-1990s)
             1. new business practices helped the nations economy grow
                     a. technology, specifically digital technology like cell phones,
                            personal computers, and cameras.
                     b. corporate mergers like ABC News and Disney Communications
                            working together, then adding the ESPN sports networks.
                     c. more energy efficient production plants and offices
                     d. a reduction in labor costs as business became less tolerant of
                            labor union demands and began moving jobs overseas
                            where there are few or no minimum wage laws and very
                            relaxed safety regulations (called "outsourcing")
             2. inflation and unemployment rates were both very low, and personal
                     income rates steadily increased between 1983 and 2001.
       B. Downturn begins
             1. in April, 2001, new tech companies called "dot coms" began to close
                     and go bankrupt, busting the "tech bubble" of the late 1990s.
             2. investors in these companies had greatly underestimated the
                     economic potential of the Internet, and began pulling money out
                     of these companies
             3. in addition, the Enron Company in Texas filed for bankruptcy because
                     it was discovered that company accountants had over-estimated
                     the companies profits (called "cooking the books") and the
                     company did not have the money on hand to pay investors what
                     they were owed.
             4. the income gap widened (a small minority of individuals controlled
                     the majority of income and spread liquid assets in a small circle
                     thus not allowing the majority of the population access to the
                     majority of the money), and poverty rates grew as well.
             5. import and export rates both grew, but imports exceeded exports by
                     2000 creating an unfavorable trade balance, especially with
                     countries like China.

III. Science and Technology in the New Economy
        A. Personal Computers
              1. the microprocessor allowed a large volume of information to be stored
                     on a very small piece of technology.
              2. the Apple Company introduced the Apple II along with IBM and the PC
                     in 1981.
              3. the technology quickly spread beyond the business and industry world
                     into homes, schools, newsrooms, and colleges/universities
        B. The Internet
              1. began in 1963 as a "Library of the Future", a plan to link computers
                     together to trade vast amounts of information.
              2. the Department of Defense withdrew from Internet use in the 1970s
                     due to security concerns, and that allowed the Internet to really
                                         23

                    grow and expand the technology to allow email.
             3. 1989--Geneva, Switzerland
                    the World Wide Web was created allowed to publish information
                    onto the Internet.
             4. the impact has been revolutionary
                    a. email
                    b. news websites
                    c. purchasing power for companies
                    d. educational research

IV. A Changing Society
      A. The Graying of America
            1. the national birth rate began to decline in the 1980s and 1990s.
            2. impacted government benefits for Social Security, the cost of health
                    care, and work force demographics like age.
      B. New Patterns of Immigration and Ethnicity
            1. surges in immigration of Hispanics and Asians has been seen since
                    the 1980s.
      C. The Black Middle Class
            1. progress was seen in closing the income gap with the white middle
                    class in the years immediately after the civil rights movement.
            2. "black flight" mirrored the white flight of the 1950s to the suburbs.
            3. college attendance rates jumped 350%, and black and white high
                    school graduation rates have steadily equaled out.
      D. Poor and Working Class Blacks
            1. a new term, "underclass", rather than "poor" was used to describe
                    people who made less than the poverty level.
            2. most remained in inner-city neighborhoods and declining cities.
            3. family structures crumbled
            4. the effects of the anger many underclass experienced as a result
                    of their economic conditions showed in:
                    a. the growth of rap music
                    b. urban clothing styles (FUBU and "sagging")
                    c. police brutality (Rodney King) and injustice (OJ Simpson)
      E. Drugs and Aids
            1. "crack" cocaine and other recreational drug use (pot and meth) rose
                    dramatically in the 1980s.
            2. HIV and AIDS were two diseases that resulted from the "free love and
                    free drugs" mentality of the 1980s.
            3. AIDS is an acronym for Auto-Immune Deficiency Syndrome.
            4. it destroys the bodies' immune system and victims become unable to
                    fight off other disease like cancer and pneumonia.
            5. it is spread through the exchange of body fluids, specifically blood
                    (which was on used drug needles shared with others) and semen
                    (which explains why AIDS is often called "The Gay Disease")
                                          24

      F. Decrease in Crime Rates
            1. a decline in unemployment helped ease anger and frustration that
                  leads to crime
            2. tougher sentencing guidelines, like California's "Three Strikes Laws"
                  even on smaller crimes like possession of marijuana, also helped.

IV. A Contested Culture
      A. Feminism and Abortion
            1. The Right to Life Movement began in the 1980s in response to the
                    Roe v. Wade decision by the Supreme Court.
            2. it is supported mainly by Catholics, Mormons, and Fundamentalist
                    Christians who are opposed to abortion in any circumstances.
            3. under President's Reagan and Bush I, federal funds sent to state
                    health departments and clinics was greatly reduced if those
                    clinics performed abortions.
            4. this limit was extended to state funds sent to clinics after the
                    Webster v. Reproductive Health Services (1989) court case.
            5. The Pro-Choice Movement responded by defending the "it's my body"
                    idea rather than the procedure of abortion itself.
            6. "If a man can tell a women she must have an abortion, then can a
                    woman tell a man he must have a vasectomy" became a popular
                    question asked by Pro-Choice supporters.
      B. Environmentalism
            1. protest movements centering on national issues in the 1960s and
                    70s (civil rights, war on Vietnam) turned more to state and local
                    issues in the 1980s
            2. the environment and awareness of environmental issues was one
                    such focus.
            3. oil spills in California and Exxon Valdez, toxic waste and nuclear
                    meltdowns (Three Mile Island) all gave the Environmentalists
                    more ammunition for their fight.
            4. some issues, like deforestation in the rainforest, became international
                    issues.
      C. Fragmentation of Mass Culture
            1. marketing became very target audience specific
            2. stores like The Gap expanding to include Baby Gap and Gap Kids;
                    Bath and Body Works, Dicks Sporting Goods, Bass Pro Shops
                    began to appear targeting a specific shopper.
            3. TV programs targeted audiences based on ethnicity (BET), age (MTV),
                    and religious beliefs/faith (EWTN and INSP).
            4. VCRs, DVDs, and satellite programming (24 hours news like CNN and
                    Fox) expanded viewer choices.
                                           25

      D. The Culture Wars
           1. multiculturalism developed in the 1980s and 1990s as a way to
                  expand American culture beyond the WASP and "White Man's
                  World" ideas that had dominated since the 1900s.
           2. "political correctness" became one way to attempt to include all
                  ("crippled" became "physically handicapped"; "retarded" became
                  "mentally challenged", etc.)

V. Perils of Globalization
      A. Opposition to Globalization
              1. not all in America welcomed globalization.
              2. many felt that the U.S. foreign policy moved to "economic defense"
                     rather than "national preservation"
              3. EXAMPLE: In the 1991 Gulf War, the US invaded Kuwait to drive out
                     the Iraqi forces. Was this done to protect the sovereignty of the
                     Kuwaitis, or to prevent Iraq from taking over Kuwaiti and
                     eventually Saudi oil fields?
              4. labor argued against globalization because of job loss and outsourcing.
      D. Defending Orthodoxy
              1. many people across the world began to experience economic divides
                     in their own countries, and believed the US helped that because it
                     would somehow profit us to do so.
              2. specifically, Islamic Fundamentalists in the Middle East and Southeast
                     Asia began to target "westerners" and "western ideologies"
                     through acts of terror.
              3. Terrorism has been around forever
                     a. The Crusades, The Jacobins during the French Revolution,
                             The Spanish Inquisition, and the Holocaust are just a few
                             examples.
              4. in the 1980s, terror attacks expanded and specifically targeted
                     Americans
                     a. the US Marine barracks in Lebanon in 1983
                     b. American Airlines flight over Lockerbie, Scotland in 1988 that
                             killed 215
                     c. The World Trade Centers underground parking decks in 1993
                     d. bombing of US embassies in Kenya and Tanzania in 1998
                     e. "homegrown terrorism" (acts against Americans committed by
                             Americans disgruntled with our governments policies) like
                             i. bombing of the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma
                                     City in 1995.
                             ii. school shootings at Columbine High School (Colorado),
                                     Pearl High School (Mississippi), and an elementary
                                     school in Jonesboro, Arkansas.
                     f. and finally, September 11, 2001.

VI. What's next? Only you will know because you are the future!!!

				
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