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					Author                    Year              Title
                                     1995 Applying biodiversity gap analysis in a regional nature reserve design for the Edge of A
Stritthold, J. R., and Boerner R. E. J., 1995
                                     2007 J.R. Spence.
Brinda, J.C., L.R. Stark, J.R. Shevock, andAn annotated checklist of the bryophytes of Nevada, with notes on collecting histo
                                2007 Enhancing a landscape assessment with intensive data: A case study in the Upper
Hychka, K.C.,D. H. Wardrop, and R.P. Brooks.
Frescino, T.S.                    1998 Development and validation of forest habitat models in the Uinta Mountains, Utah
                                  2003 T.K. Van, and T.D. Center.
Pratt, P.D., D.H. Slone, M.B. Rayamajhi, Geographic Distribution and Dispersal Rate of Oxyops vitiosa (Coleoptera: Curculi
                                   2007 A simple S. Fall.
Alfieri, J.G., D. Niyogi, M.A. LeMone, F. Chen, and reclassification method for correcting uncertainty in land use/land cover
                                  2005 Feral
Rabe, M.J., S.S. Rosenstock, and D.I. Nielsen. africanized honey bees (Apis Mellifere) in Sonoran desert habitats of southw
Rubbo, M.J., and J.M. Kiesecker. 2005 Amphibian breeding distribution in an urbanized landscape.
Rasmussen, C.                     2006 Distribution of soil organic and inorganic carbon pools by biome and soil taxa in A
                                 2007
Dzialak, M.R., K.M. Carter, and M. Lack. Perch site selection by reintroduced peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus.
                                   1998 Regional land cover
Vogelmann, J.E., T.L. Sohl, P.V. Campbell, and D.M. Shaw. characterization using Landsat thematic mapper data and anc
Mawdsley, J.R.                    2001 Ecology, biogeography, and conservation of checkered beetles (Insecta: Coleopter
Conway, C.J., and C. Kirkpatrick. 2007 Effect of forest fire suppression on buff-breasted flycatchers.
                            2008,          Conserving
Grivet, D., V.L. Sork, R.D. Westfall, and R.W. Davis. the evolutionary potential of California valley oak (Quercus lobata Née
Strickland, B.K., and S. Demarais. 2008 Influence of landscape composition and structure on antler size of white-tailed de
                                  1997 and R.W. conservation reserves using species-covering models: adapting the ARC
Gerrard, R.A., R.L. Church, D.M. Stoms, Selecting Davis.
Thorne, J.H., D. Cameron, and J.F.2006 A conservation design for the central coast of California and the evaluation of mou
                                   Quinn.
                                   2004 Sex differences
Roth, J.E., J.P. Kelly, W.J. Sydeman, and M.A. Colwell. in space use of breeding common ravens in western Marin County
Rachlow, J.L., and L.K. Svancara. 2006 Prioritizing habitat for surveys of an uncommon mammal: a modeling approach a
Karlik, J. F., and E. D. Albertson. 2002 Field Assessment of the Gap Analysis Program Vegetation Database in BVOC "Hots
                                    and Environmental Challenges in an Expanding Urban World and the Role of Emerging
Castel-Branco, C. , F. Castro Rego,1997O. B. Freire.
                                  2008
Moen, R., C.L. Burdett, and G.J. Niemi. Movement and habitat use of Canada lynx during denning in Minnesota.
                                 2005 Regional vegetation R.G. Balice, W.H. Romme, J.H. Kastens, M.L. Floyd,
Breshears, D.D., N.S. Cobb, P.M. Rich, K.P. Price, C.D. Allen, die-off in response to global-change-type drought.J. Belnap, J.J
                                   M. D. Transnational gap analysis C. Parker.
Gonzalez-Rebeles, C., V. J. Burke, 1998 Jennings, G. Ceballos, and N. of the Rio Bravo/Rio Grande region.
                                   2001 Modeling viable mammal populations in gap analyses .
Allen C.R., L.G. Pearlstine, and W.M. Kitchens
Islas, C.G.-R.                     1996 A sensitivity test for species distribution models used for gap analysis in New Mex
Burrough, P. A.                   1986 Principles of geographic information systems for land resources assessment.
                                    2003
Karlik, J.F., Y.J. Chung, and A.M. Winer. Biogenic emission inventory development: field assessment of the GAP vegetation
                                  2005 Diefenbach.
Mattice, J. A., D. W. Brauning, and D. R. Abundance of Grassland Sparrows on Reclaimed Surface Mines in Western Pennsy
                                    2000
Crist, P.J., T.W. Kohley, and J. Oakleaf. Assessing land-use impacts on biodiversity using an expert systems tool.
                                 2007 Understanding the genetic
Vandergast, A.G., A. J. Bohonak, D.B. Weissman, and R.N. Fisher. effects of recent habitat fragmentation in the context o
                                  2004 Assessing fire risk T.S. Rupp.
Haight, R.G., D.T. Cleland, R.B. Hammer, V.C. Radeloff, andin the wildland-urban interface.
                                   2004 A vegetation map of Napa County using
Thorne, J.H., J.A. Kennedy, J.F. Quinn, M. McCoy, T. Keeler-Wolf, and J. Menke. the Manual of California Vegetation Classi
                                     2000
Abbitt, R.J.F., J.M. Scott, D.S. Wilcove Geography of Vulnerability: Incorporating species geography and human developme
                                     2008 Vegetation change over sixty years in the central Sierra Nevada, California, USA.
Thorne, J.H., B.J. Morgan, and J.A. Kennedy.
                                2008 Decay of Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) Wood in Moist and Dry Boreal, Tem
Gonzalez, G., W.A. Gould, A.T. Hudak, and T.N. Hollingsworth.
                                  2001 Detection of positional errors in systems utilizing small-format digital aerial imagery a
Abd-Elrahman, A., L. Pearlstine, B.A. Dewitt, and S.E. Smith
                                  2005 Canopy dynamics Kalkhan, and M.R. Campbell.
Manier, D.J., N.T. Hobbs, D.M. Theobald, R.M. Reich, M.A. and human caused disturbance on a semi-arid landscape in the
Jantz, P., and S. Goetz.          2008 Using widely available geospatial data sets to assess the influence of roads and bu
                                  1997 Landscape cover-type
Homer, C. G., R. D. Ramsey, T. C. Edwards, Jr., and A. Falconer. modeling using a multi-scene Thematic Mapper mosaic.
                                 2009 Landscape genetics of California J. Rodzen, J. Banks, E. Meredith, V.C. Bleich, R.J. S
Pease, K.M., A.H. Freedman, J.P. Pollinger, J.E. McCormack, W. Buermann,mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus): the roles of ec
Fraser, R.H.                      1998 Vertebrate species richness at the mesoscale: relative roles of energy and heterog
                                    2006 Analysis of genetic algorithm for rule-set production (GARP) modeling approach f
Adjemian, J.C.Z., E.H. Girvetz, L. Beckett, and J.E. Foley.
Homer, C.G., C. Huang, L. Yang, B.2004 Development of a 2001 National Land-cover database for the United States.
                                   Wylie, and M. Coan.
                                  1999 Lawton.
Prendergast, J. R., R. M. Quinn, and J. H.The Gaps between Theory and Practice in Selecting Nature Reserves.
Hoffman, J.D., and J.R. Choate.   2008 Distribution and status of the yellow-faced pocket gopher in Kansas.
Didier, K.A., and W.F. Porter.    1999 Large-scale assessment of potential habitat to restore elk to New York State.
                                 2009 Multiscale analysis of tree
Huang, C.-Y., G.P. Asner, R.E. Martin, N.N. Barger, and J.C. Neff. cover and above ground carbon stocks in pinyon-junipe
                                 2001 A landscape approach to conserving wetland bird habitat in the prairie pothole re
Naugle, D.E., R.R. Johnson, M.E. Estey, and K.F. Higgins.
Hoffman, J.D., S. Narumalani,D.R.2008 Predicting potential occurrence and spread of invasive plant species along the No
                                 Mishra, P. Merani, and R.G. Wilson.
McClain, B.J., and W.F. Porter.   2000 Using satellite imagery to assess large-scale habitat characteristics of Adirondack
                                 2009 Satellite optical
Ramsey, E., III, A. Rangoonwala, B. Middleton, and Z. Lu.and radar data used to track wetland forest impact and short-term
                                 2010 Effects of local and landscape variables on wetland bird habitat use during migrat
Webb, E.B., L.M. Smith, M.P. Vrtiska, and T.G. Lagrange.
                                   2007 Completion Larson, N. National McKerrow, Database for the Conterminous Unite
Homer, C.G., J. Dewitz, J. Fry, M. Coan, N. Hossain, C.of the 2001Herold, A. Land CoverJ.N. VanDriel, and J. Wickham.
                                  2003 Impact of stream management zones and road beautifying buffers on long-term fi
Zasada, M., C. J. Cieszewski, and R. C. Lowe.
Peterson, A.T., and D.A. Kluza. 2003 New distributional modelling approaches for gap analysis.
                                  1997 W.J. Emery, and a land surface
Oleson, K.W., K.L. Driese, J.A. Maslanik,The sensitivity ofW.A. Reiners. parameterization scheme to the choice of remote
Hopton, M.E., and A.L. Mayer.     2006 Using self-organizing maps to explore patterns in species richness and protection
                                  2003 A multispecies approach to ecological valuation and conservation.
Root, K.V., H.R. Akcakaya, and L. Ginzburg.
                              2006
Rodman, L.C., and R.K. Meentemeyer. A geographic analysis of wind turbine placement in Northern California.
                                   2006 LizLand: A geomorphic approach to lizard habitat modeling in the Mojave Desert.
Heaton, J.S., A.R. Kiester, and S.M. Meyers.
                                 2006 Land
Wolter, P.T., C.A. Johnston, and G.J. Niemi. use land cover change in the U.S. Great Lakes Basin 1992 to 2001.
Dark, S.J.                        2004
Strager, J.M., C. B. Yuill, and P. B. 2000 Landscape-based riparian habitat modeling for amphibians and reptiles using Arc
                                      Wood.
Cogan, C. B.                      2002 Biodiversity conflict analysis at multiple spatial scales.
                                    2002
Westrick, K.J., P. Storck, and C.F. Mass. Description and evaluation of a hydrometeorological forecast system for mountai
                                   2004 Testing a basic assumption of shrubland fire management: how important is fuel a
Moritz, M., J.E. Keeley, E.A. Johnson, and A.A. Schaffner.
Rink, G.R., and A.C. Cully.       2007 A checklist of the vascular flora of Yucca House National Monument and surround
Wardlow, B.D., and Egbert, S.L. 2003 A state-level comparative analysis of the GAP and NLCD land-cover data sets.
                                 2007 Occupancy rates by swift foxes (vulpes velox) in eastern Colorado.
Martin, D.J., G.C. White, and F.M. Pusateri.
Hanser, S.E., and N.J. Huntly.    2006 The biogeography of small mammals of fragmented sagebrush-steppe landscapes
                                  2005 American black bears and bee yard depredation at Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia.
Clark, J.D., S. Dobey, D.V. Masters, B.K. Scheick, M.R. Pelton, and M.E. Sunquists.
Love, J.W., and E.B. May.         2007 Relationships between fish assemblage structure and selected environmental fact
                                2000 Remote sensing and geographic information systems: charting Jeor.
Boone, J.D., KC. McGwire, E.W. Otteson, R.S. Debaca, E.A. Kuhn, P. Villard, P.F. Brussard, P.F. and S.C. St.sin nombre virus in
                                 2008 Long-distance dispersal of
Stoner, D.C., W.R. Rieth, M.L. Wolfe, M.B. Mecham, and A. Neville. a female cougar in a basin and range landscape.
Coops, N.C. and R.H. Waring.      2001 Assessing forest growth across southwestern Oregon under a range of current and
Lindell, C.A., D.G. McCullough, D. 2008 Factors Influencing Woodpecker Predation on Emerald Ash Borer.
                                   Cappaert, N.M. Apostolou, and M.B. Roth.
Matocq, M.D., and P.J. Murphy. 2007 Fine-scale phenotypic change across a species transition zone in the genus neotom
                             Using spatial analysis study of a national wildlife refuge in Indiana and Illinois (USA)
Clark, F. S. and R. B. Slusher, 2000        a case to drive reserve design
                                 1997 A
Ramesh B. R., S. M. Bawa, and S. Kamaljit vegetation based approach to biodiversity gap analysis in the Agastyamalai region,
                                   1999 A Classification of the natural vegetation of Kansas
Lauver C. L., K. Kindscher, D. Faber-Langendoen, and R. Schneider
                                     1997 A comparison of reserve selection algorithms B. Downs, R. terrestrial vertebrates in
Csuti, B., S. Polasky, P. H. Williams, R. L. Pressey, J. D. Camm, M. Kershaw, A.R. Kiester,using data on Hamilton, M. Huso, K. Sah
Duever, L. C., and R. F. Noss       1990 A computerized method of priority ranking for natural areas. Pages 22-33 in R.S. Mitc
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Driese K. L., W. A. Reiners, E. H. Merrill, and K. G.land cover map of Wyoming, USA: A tool vegetation analysis
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                                  2007 A gap
Sowa, S. P., G. Annis, M. Morey, D. Diamond analysis and comprehensive conservation strategy for rivering ecosystems of M
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Caicco S. L., J. M. Scott, B. Butterfield, and gap analysis of the management status of the vegetation of Idaho (USA)
                                   1994
Scott, J. M., and M. D. Jennings, editors A handbook for Gap Analysis
                                     1976 A Land Use and
Anderson, J. R., E. E. Hardy, J. T. Roach, and R. E. WitmerLand Cover Classification System for Use with Remote Sensor Data
Bahre. Conrad. J.                   1991 A legacy of change: Historic human impact on vegetation in the Arizona borderlands
Gergely K., J. M. Scott, D. Goble 2000 A new direction for the U.S. National Wildlife Refuges: the National Wildlife Refuge Sy
                                   and B. Csuti
Camm, J. D., S. Polasky, A. Solow, 1996 A note on optimal algorithms for reserve site selection
Baker, W. L                         1984 A preliminary classification of the natural vegetation of Colorado
Stoms, D. M., and J. E. Estes       1993 A remote sensing research agenda for mapping and monitoring biodiversity
Scott, J. M                         1999 A representative biological reserve system for the United States?
Baker, W. L                         1989 A review of models of landscape change
Larson B. D. and R. R. Sengupta     2004 A spatial decision support system to identify species-specific critical habitats based on
                                  1998 A F. W. Davis, and R. L. Church
Stoms, D. M., M. I. Borchert, M. A. Moritz,systematic process for selecting representative research natural areas
                                     1996 Adequacy of wildlife
Edwards, T. C., Jr., E. T. Deshler, D. Foster, and G. G. Moisen habitat relation models for estimating spatial distributions of ter
Graham, L. A                        1993 Airborne video for near real time natural resource applications
                                    1993 An application of geographical information systems for wildlife species. Challenges in
Scott, J. M., B Csuti, and F. W. Davis
                                    2003 Schneider, M. project for Wisconsin M. A. Lutz, K. Stensvold
Stewart, J. S., L. Wang, B. C. Scudder, M.An aquatic gap W. Diebel, C. R. Smith,streams. International Association for Great Lak
                                  1997 An
Wright, R. G., J. G. McCracken, and J. Hall ecological evaluation of proposed new conservation areas in Idaho. Evaluating pro
                                  1994 An
Wright R. G., J. C. Maccracken, and J. Hall ecological evaluation of proposed new conservation areas in Idaho: Evaluating pr
Lomolino, M. V                      1994 An evaluation of alternative strategies for building networks of nature reserves
Chavez, P. S                        1988 An Improved Dark-Object Subtraction Technique for Atmospheric Scattering Correcti
                                   2003 An Index of Biotic Integrity for Fish Assemblages in Ozark Highland Streams of Arkans
Dauwalter D.C., E. J. Pert, W.E. Keith
                                    1990 An information Scott
Davis, F. W., D. M. Stoms, J. E. Estes, J. Scepan, and J. M.systems approach to the preservation of biological diversity
Crist. P. J                         2000 Animal-distribution modeling in gap analysis: v
Thomas, K., and F. W. Davis         1996 Applications of Gap Analysis data in the Mojave Desert of California
Walsh, S. J., and F. W. Davis       1994 Applications of remote sensing and geographic information systems in vegetation sci
                                     R.R. Aquatic ecosystem protection and restoration: Advances in methods for assessment
Bain, M.B., A.L. Harig, D.P. Loucks,2000 Goforth, and K.E. Mills
                                     E. Strand
Cantú C., R. G. Wright, J. M. Scott,2004 Assessing biodiversity in Nuevo Leon, Mexico: Are nature reserves the answer?
                                    1998 Assessing
Edwards, T. C., Jr., G. G. Moisen, and D.R. Cutler map accuracy in a remotely sensed, ecoregion-scale cover map
                                      2002 C. R. Allen, W. M. Kitchens and J. Stenberg
Pearlstine L. G., S. E. Smith, L. A. Brandt, Assessing state-wide biodiversity in the Florida Gap analysis project
Williams B                          1996 Assessment of accuracy in the mapping of vertebrate biodiversity
                                     E. Strand
Cantú C., R. G. Wright, J. M. Scott,2004 Assessment of current and proposed nature reserves of Mexico based on their capac
Bishop, J. A., and W. L. Myers      2005 Associations between avian functional guild response and regional landscape propert
                                     1997 Atlas of Idaho's M. Scott
Groves, C. R., B. Butterfield, A. Lippincott, B. Csuti, and J.Wildlife: Integrating Gap Analysis and Natural Heritage information
                                    2001 Atlas of Oregon Wildlife, second edition
Csuti, B., T. A. O’Neil, M. M. Shaughnessy, E. P. Gaines, and J. C. Hak
                                  2004 Avian Nest Success in Midwestern Forests Fragmented by Agriculture
Knutson M. G., G. J. Niemi, W. E. Newton, M. A. Friberg
                                        Estes, and S. endangered species: An integrated conservation strategy for the preservation
Scott, J. M., B. Csuti, K. Smith, J. E.1988 BeyondCaicco
Groves, C                           1992 Beyond endangered species: Gap Analysis
                                    1992 Beyond the traditional vegetation map towards a biodiversity database
Stoms, D. M., F. W. Davis, P. A. Stine, and M. Borchert
Beattie, A. J                       1991 Biodiversity and bioresources: The forgotten connection
                                     1994 Biodiversity assessment: Remote sensing and GIS products for Gap Analysis
Falconer, A., T. C. Edwards, Jr., C. G. Homer, and J. M. Scott
                                     1994 Biodiversity Gap Analysis: Critical challenges and solutions.
Machlis, G. E., D. J. Forester, and J. E. McKendry
Stoms, D. M., and F. Davis          1995 Biodiversity in the southwestern California region
Fautin, R.W                         1946 Biotic communities of the northern desert shrub biome in western Utah
Smith, C. R., and S. K. Gregory     1998 Bird habitats in New York state
Bowns, J. E. and N. E. West         1976 Blackbrush (Coleognyne ramosissima Torr.) on Southwestern Utah Rangelands
Scott, J. M., and B. Csuti          1994 Bridging the gap
Ma, Z., and R. L. Redmond           1996 Building attribute tables for raster GIS files with ARC/INFO
                                      2008
Howell, J. E., J. T. Peterson, M. J. Conroy Building hierarchical models of avian distributions for the State of Georgia
                                   M. G. Can we and J. E. Buhnerkempe
Van Deelen, T. R., L. B. McKinney, 1997 Joselyn, restore elk to southern Illinois? The use of existing digital land-cover data to e
Smith, C. R                         1991 Challenges in the conservation of biological resources: An epilogue
                                    2009 Characterizing and A. T. Hudak
Falkowski, M. J., J. S. Evans, S. Martinuzzi, P. E. Gessler, Forest Succession with Lidar Data: an Evaluation for the Inland North
Scott, J. M., B. Csuti, and K. Smith 1990 Commentary: Playing Noah while paying the devil
                                      1996 Comparative utility of vegetation maps of different resolutions for conservation plann
Stine, P. A., F. W. Davis, B. Csuti, and J. M. Scott
Beardsley, K., and D. M. Stoms      1993 Compiling a digital map of areas managed for biodiversity in California
Cantú C, R. G. Wright, J. M. Scott 2003 Conservation assessment of current and proposed nature reserves of Tamaulipas sta
Csuti, B                            1991 Conservation corridors Countering habitat fragmentation. Introduction
Dietz, R. and B. Czech              2005 Conservation Deficits for the Continental United States an Ecosystem Gap Analysis
Noss, R. F                          1996 Conservation of biodiversity at the landscape scale
                                     1995 Conservation of biological Harris, J.B. Haufler, W. M. Healy, F. Knopf, O. Torgerson, a
Scott, J. M., E. D. Ables, T. C. Edwards, Jr., R. L. Eng, T.A. Gavin, L. D.diversity: Perspectives and the future for the wildlife profe
Burke, R. L                         1990 Conservation of the world's rarest tortoise
                                      1996 Conservation prioritization using GAP data
Kiester A. R., M. J. Scott, B. Csuti, R. F. Noss, B. Butterfield, K. Sahr and D. White
                                   2001 Braden, D. Ogurcak, E. accuracy assessment of land cover Beecher, R. Elliott, and
DeGloria, S. D., M. Laba, S. K. Gregory. J.Conventional and fuzzy Hill, E. Fegraus, J. Fiore, A. Stalter, J.maps at regional scale J.
                                   2002 Conventional Fegraus, accuracy assessment
Laba M., S. K. Gregory, J. Braden, D. Ogurcak, E. Hill, E.and fuzzy J. Fiore, S. D. DeGloriaof the New York Gap Analysis Project lan
Bock, C. E. and J. H. Bock          1993 Cover of perennial grasses in southeastern Arizona in relation to livestock grazing
                                   2004 Coverage Provided by the Global Protected-Area System: Is It Enough?
Brooks T. M., M. I. Bakarr, T. Bucher, G. A. B. Fonseca, C. Hilton-Taylor et al
                                    1997 Scott
Karl, J. W., N. Wright, P. J. Heglund, J. M.Craig Mountain Wildlife Management Area species of interest: Wildlife habitat relatio
                                 1994 Data
Ramsey, R. D., C. G. Homer, and T. C. Edwardspreparation for the Gap Analysis study
Bedford, B. L. and E. M. Preston 1988 Developing the scientific basis for assessing cumulative effects of wetland loss and de
                                      Krohn, R. B. Boone, and testing of a
Hepinstall, J. A., S. A. Sader, W. B. 2000 Development and R. I. Bartlett vegetation and land cover map of Maine
                                   1994 Distribution and conservation status of coastal sage scrub in southwestern California
Davis F. W., P. A. Stine, D. M. Stoms
Armstrong, D. M                    1972 Distribution of mammals in Colorado
Lomolino M. V. and G. A. Smith 2001 Dynamic Biogeography of Prairie Dog (Cynomys Ludovicianus) Near the Edge of their
Derge K. L., R. H. Yahner          2000 Ecology of Sympatric Fox Squirrels (Sciurus niger) and Gray Squirrels (S. carolinensis)
Dixon, J. A. and P. B. Sherman     1991 Economics of protected areas
                                  1998 Ecoregions as a level of ecological analysis
Wright, R. G., M. P. Murray, and T. Merrill
Bassett, S. D., and T. C. Edwards 2003 Effect of different sampling schemes on the spatial placement of conservation reserv
Dodd, C. K                         1990 Effects of habitat fragmentation on a stream-dwelling species, the flattened musk tur
Stoms, D. M                        1992 Effects of habitat map generalization in biodiversity assessment
                                2001 Effects of including non-breeding bird species on predicted bird distributions for cons
Thompson, B. C., M. A. Hughes, M. C. Anderson, 2001
                                   2007 Effects of Land Use and Soil Texture on Distributions of Pocket Gophers in Kansas
Hoffman J. D., J. R. Choate, and R.Channell
                                    S. A. Effects
Hepinstall, J. A., W. B. Krohn, and 2002Sader of niche width on the performance and agreement of avian habitat models
                                     1995
Noss, R. F., E. T. LaRoe, and J. M. Scott Endangered ecosystems of the United States: A preliminary assessment of loss and d
Department of Energy.              2005 Environmental assessment for the proposed withdrawal of public lands within and su
                                    1994 Scott
Falconer, A., T. C. Edwards, Jr., and J. M. Environmental data base products for decision-making: The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Se
                                   1993 Establishment of a computerized biodiversity/biotechnology network: The Brazilian
Canhos, V. P., D. L. Canhos and S. De Souza
                                      2005
Finley D. J., G. C. White, J. P. Fitzgerald Estimation of Swift Fox Population Size and Occupancy Rates in Eastern Colorado
                                 1998 Evaluating
Prior-Magee J. S., B. C. Thompson, and D. Daniel consistency of categorizing biodiversity management status relative to lan
Wright, R. G., J. M. Scott         1996 Evaluating the ecological suitability of lands for parks and protected areas using gap a
                                   2006 Evaluation of Osprey
Toschik P. C., M. C. Christman, B. A. Rattner, M. A. Ottinger Habitat Suitability and Interaction with Contaminant Exposure
                                    1996 J. S. Prior-Magee, floral heritage and management
Thompson, B. C., P. J. Crist, E. Muldavin, Examining natural R. A. Deitner, and D. L. Garber for biological diversity in New Me
Machlis, G. E., and D. Forester    1992 Extended Gap Analysis: A technique for biodiversity management of protected areas
                                   1999
Bain, M. B., M.S. Meixler, and T. A. Muir First International Symposium on Gis in Fishery Science
Burke, R. L                        1989 Florida gopher tortoise relocation: Overview and case study
                                      2002 Forest D. A. Dellasala
Heilman, G. E., J. R. Strittholt, N. C. Slosser, andFragmentation of the Conterminous United States: Assessing Forest Intactnes
Noss, R. F                         1991 From endangered species to biodiversity
                                     1994 Gap analysis and national parks: Adding the socioeconomic dimension
Machlis, G. E., D. J. Forester, and J. E. McKendry
Csuti, B                           1994 Gap Analysis approaches to mapping and managing biodiversity
Scott, J. M., and B. Csuti         1997 Gap Analysis for biodiversity survey and maintenance
                                 1993 Gap Analysis land cover map for the state of Utah: A hierarchical data base
Ramsey, R. D., C. G. Homer, and T. C. Edwards, Jr
                                          Peterson.
Maxell, B., M. Hart, P. Hendricks, and C. Gap Analysis models: a conservation tool for predicting the distribution of amphibian
Davis, F. W., and D. M. Stoms      1992 Gap Analysis of biodiversity in California. Pages 23-29 in H.M. Kerner, editor. Proceed
                                   2004 Gap Henderson, C. McCain
Lipow S. R., K. Vance-Borland, J. B. St Clair, J.analysis of conserved genetic resources for forest trees
                                        Estes, and S. Caicco
Scott, J. M., B. Csuti, K. Smith, J. E.1991 Gap analysis of species richness and vegetation cover an integrated biodiversity cons
                                    1995 I. Borchert, of A. actual vegetation of California - 1: The southwestern region
Davis, F. W., P. A. Stine, D. M. Stoms, M.Gap Analysisandthe D. Hollander
                                   1998 M. Cassidy, of M. P. Murray
Stoms D. M., F. W. Davis, K. L. Driese, K. Gap analysisandthe vegetation of the Intermountain Semi-Desert ecoregion
Jennings, M. D.                    1995 Gap analysis today: A confluence of biology, ecology, and geography for managemen
Crist, P                           1995 Gap Analysis: A federal initiative for cooperative data development, analysis, and pla
                                    Jennings
Scott, J. M., E. T. LaRoe, and M.D. 1995 Gap Analysis: A geographic approach to planning for biological diversity
                                      1993 Butterfield, C. geographic approach to protection of biodiversity
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                                     1996 Gap
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                                   1992 Gap Analysis: A proactive approach to protection of biodiversity
Cassidy, K., K. Dvornich, and C. Grue
                                   1995
Csuti, B., L.A. Graham, and J.M. Scott Gap analysis: A spatial approach to identifying representative areas for maintaining b
Scott, J. M., B. Csuti, and F. Davis 1991 Gap Analysis: An application of geographic information systems for wildlife species
Scott, J. M., and B. Csuti         1997 Gap Analysis: Assessing landscape trends in diversity
Scott, J.M., B. Csuti, and S. Caicco 1991 Gap Analysis: Assessing protection needs
Scott, J. M., and B. Csuti         1992 Gap Analysis: Blueprint for proactive conservation.
                                      1993 Gap Analysis:A geographic approach for assessing national biological diversity
Edwards, T. C., Jr., J. M. Scott, C. G. Homer, and R. D. Ramsey
Stoms, D. M.                       2005 GAP management status and regional indicators of threats to biodiversity
                                    C. Edwards, Jr
Moisen, G. G., D. R. Cutler, and T. 1999 Generalized linear mixed models for analyzing error in a satellite-based vegetation m
                                        J. M. Geographic Information Systems analysis of biodiversity in California. Final Report - Y
Davis, F. W., J. E. Estes, B. C. Csuti,1991 Scott, D. Stoms, M. Painho, P. Stine, A. Hollander, R. Walker, M. Bueno, C. Cogan, and
D’Erchia F                         1995 Geographic information systems and remote sensing applications for ecosystem man
                                2002 Geospatial data in time: Limits and prospects for predicting species occurrences
Henebry, G. M., and J. W. Merchant
                                    1997 GIS applications Johnson, and and natural resource management in Texas
Parker, N. C., R. Sims, R. Estrada, C. B. Fedler, R. Leyva, J. in agricultural Y. Lan
                                      1994 GIS-based program aids wildlife habitat and timber management
Chang, K. T., D. L. Verbyla, J. J. Yeo and Z. X. Li
                                    S. J. Global Gap Analysis: Priority Regions for Expanding the Global D. C. Fishpool, Netwo
Rodrigues A. S. L., H. R. Akcakaya, 2004Andelman, M. I. Bakaar, L. Boitani, T. M. Brooks, J. S. Chanson, L.Protected-Area G. A. B.
                                      2005 Great Lakes aquatic GAP: development of a physical Geographic Information System
Bissell, E G., S. S. Aichele, and J. S. Stewart
Airola, D. A                       1988 Guide to California wildlife habitat relationships system
Noss, R. F., and B. Csuti          1997 Habitat fragmentation
                                  2000 Habitat-based approach to
Docherty, M., E. Hertz, C. Gesauldo, R. Dressler, and J. McPhedran open space planning
                                  1996 Hierarchical representation of species distribution for biological survey and monitorin
Stoms, D. M., F. W. Davis, and A. D. Hollander
                                   1994 Hierarchical representations of species distributions using maps, images, and sighting
Hollander, A. D., F. W. Davis, and D. M. Stoms
Hunter,L., J. Beal, and T. Dickinson2003 Human Dimensions of Wildlife
                                      2007 Human Plague P. Ettestad
Eisen R. J., R. E. Enscore, B. J. Biggerstaff, P. J. Reynolds,in the Southwestern United States, 1957–2004: Spatial Models of Elev
                                   1996 Identification of drained wetlands for wetland restoration in the Eel River watershed
Yang, X., P. W. Mausel, and F. Clark
                                   1995 Identifying conservation priorities in Mexico through geographic information systems
Bojorquez T. L., E. Ezcurra, and V.O. Flores
                                     1997 Identifying gaps
Flather C. H., K. R. Wilson, D. J. Dean, and W. C. McCombin conservation networks: Of indicators and uncertainty in geograph
                                     2004 Identifying historical and recent land-cover changes in Kansas using post-classification
Peterson D. L., S. L. Egbert, K. P. Price and E. A. Martinko
                                    Clark, M. E. Cartwright
Telesco R. L., F. T. V. Manen, J. D.2007 Identifying Sites for Elk Restoration in Arkansas
                                   2001 Identifying
Wright R. G., J. M. Scott, S. Mann and M. Murray unprotected and potentially at risk plant communities in the western USA
                                    1995 Impacts of citrus development on habitats of southwest Florida
Pearlstine, L. G., L. A. Brandt, W. M. Kitchens, and F. J. Mazzotti
                                    1992 Improved modeling of biological diversity with multitemporal vegetation index data
Walker, R. E., D. M. Stoms, J. E. Estes, and K. D. Cayocca
                                  2000 Incorporating biological information in
Theobald, D. M., N. T. Hobbs, T. Bearly, J. A. Zack, T. Shenk, and W. E. Riebsamelocal land-use decision making
                                      2009 Gould, A. Hudak
Martinuzzi, S., L. Vierling, K. Vierling, W. Incorporating remotely sensed tree canopy cover data into broad scale assessments
Noss, R. F                         1990 Indicators for monitoring biodiversity: A hierarchical approach
                                 2002 Influence of selected environmental variables on GIS-habitat models used for gap ana
Gonzalez-Rebeles, C., B. C. Thompson, and F. C Bryant
Csuti, B                           1989 Invertebrate conservation: The key to preserving biological diversity
Noss, R. F                         1992 Issues of scale in conservation biology
Peterson A. T                      2005 Kansas Gap Analysis: The Importance of Validating Distributional Models before Usin
Gorenflo L. J., Brandon K          2006 Key Human Dimensions of Gaps in Global Biodiversity Conservation
                                    D. M. Leslie Jr.
McConnell, S., T. J. O'Connell, and2008 Land cover associations of nesting territories of three sympatric Buteos in shortgrass
                                   1996 Landscape
Scott, J. M., M. Jennings, R. G. Wright, and B. Csuti approaches to mapping elements of biodiversity
                                   1997 Landscape cover-type
Homer, C. G., R. D. Ramsey, T. C. Edwards, Jr., and A. Falconer modeling using a multi-scene Thematic Mapper mosaic
Burke, V. J                        2000 Landscape ecology and species conservation
Lawler, J. J., and T. C. Edwards, Jr 2002 Landscape patterns as predictors of nesting habitat: Building and testing models for f
Scott, J. M., and M. D. Jennings   1998 Large-area mapping of biodiversity
Edwards, T. C., Jr.                1996 Letters: Data defensibility and Gap Analysis
                                      2008 Martinuzzi, and R. Clawges
Vierling, K. T., L. A. Vierling, W. Gould, S.Lidar: Shedding new light on habitat characterization and modeling
Csuti, B., J.M. Scott, and J. Estes 1987 Looking beyond species-oriented conservation
Desender, K. and H. Turin          1989 Loss of habitats and changes in the composition of the ground and tiger beetle fauna
Blaisdell, J. P. and R. C. Holmgren 1984 Managing Intermountain rangeland-salt desert shrub ranges
                                  1998 Map-guided K. L. Driese, of regional land
Stoms, D. M., M. J. Bueno. F. W. Davis, K. M. Cassidy,classificationand J. S. Kagan cover with multi-temporal AVHRR data. Ph
Csuti, B                           1996 Mapping animal distribution areas for Gap Analysis.
                                 2002 Mapping forest and W. land
Helmer, E. H., O. Ramos, T. del Mar Lopez, M. Quiñones,type andDiaz cover of Puerto Rico, an island within the Caribbean bio
                                    A. Drost
Jacobs, S. R., K. A. Thomas, and C. 2001 Mapping land cover and animal species distributions for conservation planning: An o
                                 2007 Mapping Sajwaj, J. Kirby, E. Waller, over very large geographic areas within a collabo
Lowry, J., R. D. Ramsey, K. Thomas, D. Schrupp, T.moderate-scale land-coverS. Schrader,S. Falzarano, L. Langs, G. Manis, C. Wa
                                 M. M. Hart, and M. E. Jensen
Schumacher, J. V., R. L. Redmond,2000 Mapping patterns of human use and potential resource conflicts on public lands
                                    2009 Mapping L. Evan, A. Hudak, K. shrubs
Martinuzzi, S., L. Vierling, W. Gould, M. Falkowski,snags and understory Vierlingfor a LiDAR-based assessment of wildlife habit
Conroy M. J. and B.R. Noon         1996 Mapping species richness for conservation of biological diversity: Conceptual and me
                                   2001 Mapping the state of New York from Landsat TM - Labelled remotely sensed imagery
DeGloria, S. D., M. Laba, and S.K. Gregory
                                  2001
Ma, Z., M. M. Hart, and R. L. Redmond Mapping vegetation across large geographic areas: Integration of remote sensing an
Csuti, B., and J.M. Scott          1991 Mapping wildlife diversity for Gap Analysis
                                    1998 Merging regional forest inventory data with satellite-based information through non-
Moisen, G. G., T. C. Edwards, Jr., and D. Van Hooser
Boone, R. B., and W. B. Krohn      1999 Modeling the occurrence of bird species: Are the errors predictable?
                                   1992 Modeling vegetation
Walker, R. E., D. M. Stoms, F. W. Davis, and J. V. Wagtendonk cover types from a topographic gradient in the southern Sierra N
                                      Scott
Butterfield, B.R., B. Csuti, and J.M.1994 Modeling vertebrate distributions for Gap Analysis
                                      2001 Modelling
Frescino, T. S., T. C. Edwards, Jr., and G. G. Moisen spatially explicit forest structural variables using generalized additive mode
                                      1992 Scott
Noss, R. F., S. P. Cline, B. Csuti, and J. M. Monitoring and assessing biodiversity
Burley, F. W                       1988 Monitoring biological diversity for setting priorities in conservation
                                     Allen
LaBram, J. A., A. E. Peck, and C. R. 2007 Monitoring-based assessment of gap-analysis models
Hart, M. M                         1999 Montana gap analysis: a first approximation of wilderness contributions to wildlife co
                                    2006 Movements
Beck, J. L., K. P. Reese, J. W. Connelly, and M. B. Luciaand Survival of Juvenile Greater Sage-Grouse in Southeastern Idaho
                                     1990 Multiple-resource modeling as a tool for conservation: Its applicability in Mexico
Bojorquez-Tapia, L. A., P. F. Folliott and D. P. Guertin
Corbley K. P                       1996 National GIS fills "gaps" in biological diversity
Carpenter, R. A., editor           1983 Natural systems for development: What planners need to know
                                    2001 G. Wright, C. Groves, and J. Estes
Scott, J. M., F. W. Davis, R. G. McGhie, R.Nature reserves: Do they capture the full range of America’s biological diversity?
Scott, J. M., and B. Csuti         1996 Noah worked two jobs
                                    1999 Obtaining environmental measures to facilitate vertebrate habitat modeling
Karl, J. W., N. M. Wright, P. J. Heglund, and J. M. Scott
                                    2000 Owning up to our Scott, M. Schafale, A. owns lands important for biodiversity?
Groves, C.R., L. S. Kutner, D. M. Stoms, M. P. Murray, J. M.responsibilities: WhoS. Weakley, and R. L. Pressey
Joly, K., and W. L. Myers          2001 Patterns of mammalian species richness and habitat associations in Pennsylvania
                                    2002 Planning for M. L. Shaffer
Groves C. R., D. B. Jensen, L. L. Valutis, K. H. Redford, Biodiversity Conservation: Putting Conservation Science into Practice
                                   1996 Planning management activities to protect biodiversity with GIS and an integrated op
Church, R. L., D. M. Stoms, F. W. Davis, and B. J. Okin
                                    2002 Predicting Species Occurrences: Issues of Accuracy and Scale
Scott, J. M., P. J. Heglund, M. L. Morrison, eds
Schaefer, S. M., and W. B. Krohn 2002 Predicting vertebrate occurrences from species habitat associations: Improving the
                                    2005 Prediction of fish distributions in Great
PassinoReader, D. R., P. J. Steen, J. E. Mckenna, J. S. Stewart and S. S. Aichele Lakes streams from habitat variables using co
Scott, J. M                        1994 Preserving and restoring avian diversity: a search for solutions
Scott, J. M                        1990 Preserving life on earth: A new approach
Scott, J. M                        1990 Preserving life on earth: We need a new approach
                                    Hughes, J. C. Devos Detecting Band-Tailed Pigeons During Call-Broadcast Versus Auditory S
Kirkpatrick C., C. J. Conway, K. M. 2007 Probability ofJr
                                     1992 Protecting biodiversity (Letter)
Scott, J. M., B. Csuti, and E. T. LaRoe
Beatley, T                         1991 Protecting biodiversity in coastal environments: Introduction and overview
Noss, R. F                         1991 Protecting habitats and biological diversity: Design of regional reserve systems.
Griffin, C. R., and T. W. French   1992 Protection of threatened and endangered species and their habitats by state regulati
Edwards, T. C., Jr                 1995 Protection status of vegetation cover-types in Utah
Bueno, M.                          1992 Quantification of Cartographic Generalization in Land Cover Maps Using Spatial Patte
                                   1999 Quantitative delineation and characterization of hierarchical biophysical regions of M
Krohn, W. B., R. B. Boone, and S. L. Painton
Smith, V. J., and J. A. Jenks      2002 Ranked modeling of small mammals based on capture data
                                    1995 Griffith
Tear, T. H., J. M. Scott, P. H. Hayward, B.Recovery plans and the Endangered Species Act: Are criticisms supported by data?
                                      P. J. Regional approaches to
Scott, J. M., B. Csuti, R. G. Wright, 1999Crist, and M. D. Jennings managing and conserving biodiversity
                                    1992 Remote sensing for nongame wildlife habitat management
Scott, J. M., B. Csuti, D. Stoms, and F. Davis
                                   2001 Representation of natural Pressey
Scott, J. M., M. Murray, R. G. Wright, B. Csuti, P. Morgan, and R. L. vegetation in protected areas: Capturing the geographic ra
                                     H. Flather
Shriner, S. A., K. R. Wilson, and C. 2006 Reserve networks based on richness hotspots and representation vary with scale
                                   2009 Reserve selection and persistence: complementing the existing Atlantic Forest reserv
Pinto, M.P., and C. E. Viveiros Grelle
                                 1996 Reserve selection as a maximal covering location problem
Church, R.L., D.M. Stoms, and F.W. Davis
Wade, A. A., D. M. Theobald        2009 Residential Development encroachment on US Protected Areas
                                    1994 Restoration and
Scott, J. M., S. A. Temple, D. L. Harlow, and M. L. Shaffer management of endangered species
Stoms, D. M                        1994 Scale dependence of species richness maps
                                    1992
Bernardino, F. S. Jr. and G. H. Dalrymple Seasonal activity and road mortality of the snakes of the Pa-hay-okee wetland of Eve
                                   1996 Selecting biodiversity management areas
Davis, F. W., D. M. Stoms, R. L. Church, B. J. Okin, and K. N. Johnson
                                     2000 M. Scott, of species habitat-relationship
Karl, J. W., P. J. Heglund, E. O. Garton, J. SensitivityN. M. Wright, and R. L. Hutto model performance to factors of scale
                                   1992 Sensitivity of wildlife habitat models to uncertainties in GIS data
Stoms, D. M., F. W. Davis, and C. B. Cogan
Mahan C. G., T. J. O'Connell       2005 Small Mammal Use of Suburban and Urban Parks in Central Pennsylvania
                                     1995
Scott, J. M., T. H. Tear, and L. S. Mills Socioeconomics and the recovery of endangered species: Biological assessment in a
                                    1994 Spatial sampling to assess classification accuracy of remotely sensed dataand S.G. Sta
Moisen, G. G., T. C. Edwards, Jr., and D. R. Cutler
                                     2002 N. M. Wright, and J. M. Scott
Karl, J. W., L. K. Svancara, P. J. Heglund, Species commonness and the accuracy of habitat-relationship models
                                       1987 Species
Scott, J. M., B. Csuti, J. D. Jacobi, and J. E. Estes richness: A geographic approach to protecting future biological diversity
                                  2004 Species, data,
Brooks T., G. A. B. da Fonseca, and A. S. L. Rodrigues and conservation planning
Doak, D                            1989 Spotted owls and old growth logging in the Pacific Northwest
                                  G. B. Spread
Anable, M. E., M. P. McClaran and1992 Ruyle of introduced Lehmann lovegrass (Eragrostis lehmanniana Nees) in southern A
Comer P. J. and K. A. Schulz K.A   2007 Standardized Ecological Classification for Mesoscale Mapping in the Southwestern Un
                                     Nagel, J. S. Stewart, R. A. Goldmann, T. E. Simmons, J. W. Chipman, data: A. Tessar
Reese, H. M., T. M. Lillesand, D. E.2002 Statewide land cover derived from multiseasonal Landsat TM and P. A retrospective o
                                       1989 Status assessment of biodiversity protection
Scott, J. M., B. Csuti, J. E. Estes, and H. Anderson
                                     2006 Survey and Monitoring of Species at Risk at Camp Blanding Training Site, Northeaster
Gregory C. J., R. R. Carthy, L. G. Pearlstine
Ma, Z., and R. L. Redmond          1995 Tau coefficients for accuracy assessment of classification of remote sensing data
                                    2010 Terrestrial Reserve Networks Do Not Adequately Represent Aquatic Ecosystems
Herbert, M. E., P. B. McIntyre, P. J. Doran, J. D. Allan, R. Abell
Yahner, R. H                       2003 Terrestrial vertebrates in Pennsylvania: Status and conservation in a changing landsca
                                     1995 and C. B. Cogan
Machlis, G. E., J. M. Scott, D. J. Forester, The application of gap analysis to decision making in the U.S. National Wildlife Refuge
                                     1994 and C. B. Cogan
Machlis, G. E., J. M. Scott, D. J. Forester, The application of Gap Analysis to decision making in the U.S. National Wildlife Refug
Wright, G                          1996 The application of Gap Analysis to National Parks System planning
                                    2007 The application
Rodriguez, J. P., L. Brotons, J. Bustamante, J. Seoane of predictive modelling of species distribution to biodiversity conserv
Machlis, G.E                       1992 The contribution of sociology to biodiversity research and management
Altaba, C. R                       1990 The last known population of the freshwater mussel Margaritifera auricularia (Bivalvi
Colwell, B. N., editor             1983 The manual of remote sensing
                                   1998 Gorham
Rasberry, D. A., R. C. McCorkle, and J. N.The Mid-Atlantic Gap Analysis Project (Maryland, Delaware, and New Jersey)
Sowa, S., P. Haverland             1999 The Missouri Aquatic Gap Pilot Project: A multi-agency GIS tool for assessing Missou
Eve, M., and J. Merchant           1997 The Nebraska Gap Analysis Project
Feeney, A                          1989 The Pacific northwest's ancient forests: Ecosystems under siege.
Shaffer, M                         1996 The promise of Gap Analysis for understanding biodiversity
Brussard, P. F                     1991 The role of ecology in biological conservation
                                    2001 The spatial distribution of diversity between disparate taxa: Spatial correspondence
Allen, C.R., L.G. Pearlstine, D.P. Wojcik, and W.M. Kitchens
                                 2000 The state
Shinneman, D. J., J. Watson, and W. W. Martin of the Southern Rockies ecoregion: A look at species imperilment, ecosyste
                                  1992 T. C. Edwards, Jr
Ramsey, R. D., J. D. Born, C. Homer, and Thematic Mapper vegetation mapping for the state of Utah
                                   1998 Transnational gap analysis of the Rio
Gonzalez-Rebeles, C., V. J. Burke, M. D. Jennings, G. Ceballos, and N. C. ParkerBravo/Rio Grande region
                                    2003 Two-dimensional Gap Analysis: Arnberg, Olsson, and J. M. Roberge
Angelstam, P., G. Mikusinski, B. I. Rönnbäck, A. Östman, M. Lazdinis, W. A Tool forJ.Efficient Conservation Planning and Biodive
                                  2000 D. Stoms
Church, R., R. Gerrard, A. Hollander, andUnderstanding the tradeoffs between site quality and species presence in reserve site
Randhir, T. and P. Ekness          2009 Urbanization effects on watershed habitat potential: a multivariate assessment of th
                                     2004 Use of
Larsen P. F., S. Barker, J. Wright, C. B. Erickson Cost Effective Remote Sensing to Map and Measure Marine Intertidal Habitats
Edwards, T. C., Jr., and J. M. Scott 1994 Use of gap analysis as a tool for the management of biodiversity
                                  1999 Use of generalized linear models and digital data in a forest inventory of northern Uta
Moisen, G. G., and T. C. Edwards, Jr
                                     H. Ramsey, remote Price
Homer, C. G., T. C. Edwards, Jr., D.1993 Use ofand K. H.sensing methods in modeling sage grouse winter habitat
                                  2010 Using a Distribution and
Haines, A. M, M. Leu, L. K. Svancara, G. Wilson, and J. M. Scott Conservation Status Weighted Hotspot Approach to Identify
Hansen, M.H., and D. G. Wendt 2000 Using classified Landsat Thematic Mapper data for stratification in a statewide forest
                                2001 Using current KM, McAllister KR, assess conservation prioritie
Cassidy KM, Grue CE, Smith MR, Johnson RE, Dvornichprotection status toMattocks PW, Cassady JE, Aubry KB
                                    1995
Merrill T., R. G. Wright, and M. J. Scott Using ecological criteria to evaluate wilderness planning options in Idaho
                                 2010 Using Ecological Land Units for Conservation Planning in a Southwestern Ohio Waters
Zimmerman, C. L., and J. R. Runkle
Vickerman, S                        1996 Using Gap Analysis data for statewide biodiversity planning: Case studies of applied G
Wright, R. G. and P. D. Tanimoto 1998 Using GIS to prioritize land conservation actions: integrating factors of habitat diversi
                                    1993 Using C. Reed, and D. O. global
Brown, J. F., T. R. Loveland, J. W. Merchant, B. multisource data inOhlen land-cover characterization: concepts, requirements
                                        J. P. Using the spatial and spectral precision of satellite imagery to predict wildlife occurre
Laurent E. J., H. J. Shi, D. Gatziolis,2005 LeBouton, M. B. Walters, J. G. Liu
                                      1995 B. Csuti
O'Neil, T. A., R. J. Steidl, W. D. Edge, and Using wildlife communities to improve vegetation classification for conserving biodiv
Stoms, D. M                         1996 Validating large-area land cover databases with maplets
Thomas, K. A                        1996 Vegetation and floristic diversity in the Mojave Desert of California: A regional conse
Austin, M. P                        1991 Vegetation: data collection and analysis
Scott, J. M                         1999 Vulnerability of forested ecosystems in the Pacific Northwest to loss of area
                                       2001
Scott, J. M., R. J. F. Abbitt, C. R. Groves What are we protecting? The United States conservation portfolio
                                  1998 Wildlife Studio 508 class
Westerlund, F., and students of Interdisciplinary corridors and landscape linkages: An approach to biodiversity planning for Sp
                                     Scott
Jennings, M. D., B. Csuti, and J. M.1997 Wildlife habitat relationship models: Distribution and abundance
Crist, P.                           2003 A comparison of the effect of unit of analysis on the conservation status of terrestrial
                                 2009 Clark.
Thatcher, C.A., F.T. Van Manen, and J.D.A habitat assessment for Florida panther population expansion into central Florida.
Bolton, M. P., and B. L. Specht. 1983 A method for selecting nature conservation reserves.
                                    2002 and G. Wuerthner.
Noss, R.F., C. Carroll, K. Vance-Borland, A multicriteria assessment of the irreplaceability and vulnerability of sites in the great
                                  1997 and F. Davis.
Moritz, M., D. M. Stoms, M. I. Borchert,A proposed protocol for identifying potential research natural areas with gap analysis
Dumas, J.P.                         2005 A spatial decision support system utilizing data from the Gap Analysis Program and a B
                                      2010 Accuracy of gap analysis habitat models in predicting physical features for wildlife-hab
Boykin, K., B. Thompson, S. Propeck-Gray
                                      2001 An Hackman, and A. Iacobelli.
DellaSala, D.A., N.L. Staus, J.R. Strittholt, A. updated protected areas database for the United States and Canada.
Walker, R., and L. Craighead.       1997 Analyzing wildlife movement corridors in Montana using GIS
Enquist, C.A.F., and D. F. Gori.    2008 Application of an expert system approach for assessing grassland status in the U.S.-M
                                 2006
Teels, B.M., C.A. Rewa, and L. Myers. Aquatic condition response to riparian buffer establishment.
McCarthy, S.B.                      1998 Arizona terrestrial vertebrate species richness: an application of Arizona GAP GIS them
                                     Q. Meng, J.P. Siry, M. Zasada, and J. Zawadzki.
Lowe, R.C., C. J. Cieszewski, S. Liu,2009 Assessment of stream management zones and road beautifying buffers in Georgia bas
Noss, R. F                          1992 Biodiversity: Many scales and many concerns
Roberson, J.L.                      2008 Bird species prediction modeling: a comparison of multiple modeling techniques at Fr
                                    2009 Bird species prediction modeling: a comparison of multiple modeling techniques at Fr
Roberson, J.L., and J. A. Kupfer, J.A.
Jennings, M. D., and J. M. Scott    1993 Building a macroscope: How well do places managed for biodiversity match reality?
Hurley, P.T.                        2001 Conserving threatened habitat types in rural landscapes through land use planning: a
Hepinstall, J.A.                    2000 Creating spatially explicit predictions of bird presences in Maine: evaluating input data
                                   2007 B. and Grand.
Kleiner, K., Vogt, A., Mackenzie, M.D., J.Developing a decision-support tool for longleaf pine conservation in the Southeast.
                                     and Development and pilot application of the California Urban and Biodiversity Analysis (C
Landis, J. D., J. Monzon, M. Reilly. 1998C. Cogan.
                                    2008 Distribution
Trammell, E.J., K. Berry, S. Bassett, and D. W. Sada. and recovery of vegetational assemblages in Ash Meadows National Wild
King, D.T., and T.C. Michot.       2002 Distribution, abundance and habitat use of American White Pelicans in the delta r
                                    2009 and S. of supplemental food and experience on winter survival of transplanted wild t
Restani, M., R. O. Kimmel, J. R. Fieberg, EffectsL. Goetz.
Franklin, J.                       2002 Enhancing a regional vegetation map with predictive models of dominant plant specie
Dourojeanni, M. J.                 1990 Entomology and biodiversity conservation in Latin America.
                                   Miller, and E. Smith.
Mehaffey, M., R. Tankersley Jr., L.2009 Evaluating habitat vulnerability to hazardous air pollutants in the southeastern United
                                   2008 Federal lands and endangered species: The role of military and other federal lands in s
Stein, B.A., C. Scott, and N. Benton.
Chung, Y.J., and A. M. Winer.      1999 Field assessment of the California gap analysis program database for San Diego count
                                       2002 Field assessment of the California Gap Analysis Program GIS database in central Califo
Karlik, J.F., E. D. Albertson, Y. J. Chung, A. H. McKay, and A. M. Winer.
Jennings, M. D.                    2000 Gap analysis: concepts, methods, and recent results;
Jennings, M. D., and J. M. Scott   1993 Gap Analysis: Information for conserving biodiversity
Csuti, B                           1994 Gap analysis: Mapping biodiversity for conservation and management
Branson, F. A                      1966 Geographic distribution and factors affecting the distribution of salt desert shrubs in t
Jennings, M. D                     1995 Habitat assessments: Overview
Larrucea, E.S., and P. F. Brussard. 2008 Habitat selection and current distribution of the pygmy rabbit in Nevada and Californi
Park, S.                           2008 Harmonic analysis of long-term modis time-series data for vegetation dynamics in Haw
                                   2007 In situ gene conservation of six conifers in western Washington and Oregon.
Lipow, S.R., K. Vance-Borland, J. B. St. Clair, J. A. Henderson, and C. McCain.
Peterson, E.B.                     2008 Invasion of the exotic grasses: mapping their progression via satellite.
Martinez, L.A., and S. Penland.    2009 Land cover changes of the Lake Ponchartrain Basin: 1982-2005.
                                   2004 Landscape
Singleton, P.H., W.L. Gaines, and J.F. Lehmkuhl. permeability for grizzly bear movements in Washington and southwestern
Theobald, D.M.                     2001 Land-use dynamics beyond the American urban fringe.
                                  2006 Linking
Overton, C.T., R. A. Schmitz, and M. L. Casazza. landscape characteristics to mineral site use by band-tailed pigeons in western
                                    2005 Location and Success of Lesser Prairie-Chicken Nests in Relation to Vegetation and Hu
Pitman J. C., C. A. Hagen, R. J. Robel, T. M. Loughin, and R. D. Applegate
McKerrow, A.                       2007 Mapping and monitoring plant communities in the coastal plain of North Carolina: a b
Kepner, W., and K. G. Boykin.      2009 Modeling landscape-scale ecosystem services relative to biodiversity in the Upper San
Heathman, G. C., and M. Larose. 2006 Modeling streamflow using SWAT with different soil and land cover geospatial data se
                                    2007 Niche partitioning D. Applegate.
Hagan, C.A., J. C. Pitman, R. J. Robel, T. M. Loughin, and R. by lesser prairie-chicken Tympanuchus pallidicinctus and ring-necke
Csuti, B., and J.M. Scott          1991 Northwestern biodiversity initiative
Boone, R .B., and W. B. Krohn      2000 Partitioning sources of variation in vertebrate species richness
                                    2006 Farnham, W. Fryer, P. Montazer, J. Pickens, flow and N. Bryant, C. Miller, J. model o
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Pages                  Editors                 Book                    Publisher
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139-156
1101-1108
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137-148
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           29-41                   E. Levine                                             Comstock Publishing Associates
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           198-201                                          Raster imagery in Geographic Information Systems
                                   S. Morain and S. Lopez Baros                      OnWord Press
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               886-894
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           81-90                   W.E. Hudson                                         Island Press
                                                              Landscape linkages and biodiversity
               1478-1488
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                                   R.C. Szaro and D.W. Johnston                      Oxford University Press
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269-304                                       Principles of conservation biology. Second edition
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71-88               R. I. Miller                                        Chapman and Hall
                                              Mapping the diversity of nature
145-157
530–537
                                                                       South GIS & Water Sensing: Research, Develo
                                              Geoinformatics '96 Proceedings: FloridaRemoteManagement District
215-231
531-542
105–118
1393-1403
97-106
1020-1032
562-571                                                                 Technical papers of the 1992 annual meeting of
35-45
335-68
355-364
639-651                                       Predicting species         Island Press,
                    J.M. Scott, P.J. Heglund, M.L. Morrison et al occurrences: Issues of accuracy and scale
18-20
239-250                                                                   theory and practice
                    P.L. Fiedler and S.K. Jain, Conservation biology: TheChapman and Hall of nature conservation, pre
230–236
723-31
708 -716
77-78
59-67
1-3
233-245
34-47
75-77
90–98
             4
277-294
                                                                   USDA Forest Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep.INT-163: Inter
831-838
135-145                                      Gap Analysis: A landscape approach to landof Photogrammetry and Remo
                 Scott, J. M., T. H. Tear, and F. W. Davis (Eds.)    American Society management issues
165-183
159-72                                       Proceedings Stuart,        FRESC Conference of Research on the Colorado
                 C. van Riper III, K. A. Thomas, and M. A.of the Fifth BiennialReport Series USGS FRESC/COPL/2001/2
59-63
127-137
2533-2546
763-773
76-79
295-307
13-18
123-129          T. Ranchin and L. Wald                            SEE/URISCA
                                           Fusion of earth data: Merging point measurements, raster maps, and rem
835-848
794-803                                                            Proceedings of GIS/LIS'92
53-68            R.I. Miller                                        Chapman and Hall
                                          Mapping the diversity of nature
15-26
67-85            E. Lykke                                          Belhaven concept
                                          Achieving environmental goals: The Press and practice of environmenta
227-230          Editor E. O. Wilson      Biodiversity
633-656
            53
1070–1078
317-324
50-53
                                                                    New York
999-1007
1255-1257
357-365
275-97                                          J.S. Adams              The of biodiversity in the United States
                   B.A. Stein, L.S. Kutner, andPrecious heritage: The status Nature Conservancy and Oxford University
253-260
499–512
                                                                        National Center for Geographic Information and
                                              Proceedings of the Third International Conference/Workshop on Integrat
                                                                         Island Press
419-427                                       Predicting species         Island Issues
                   J.M. Scott, P.J. Heglund, M.L. Morrison et al. occurrences: Press of accuracy and scale
146-147
340-348
1-2
13-14
231–237
              21
1-?
                                                                         National Audubon Society


463-464                                         Our living resources      National Biological Service
                   E. T. LaRoe, G.S. Farris, C.E. Puckett, P.D. Doran, and M.J. Mac
                                                                         Department of Geography, University of Californ
139-164
441-445                                        M. Morrison, M. Raphael, Island Press accuracy
                                                                         J. Haufler, and
                   J. M. Scott, P. J. Heglund, Predicting species occurrences: Issues of B. Wall and scale
182-195
55-70                                          and J.B. approaches to the conservation of biological diversity
                   R.K. Baydack, H. Campa III,Practical Haufler         Island Press
134-140                                       Transactions of the 56th North American Wildlife and Natural Resources C
1297-1301
            1660
957-968
105-112
151-161
531-539            T. A. Bookhout                                  The Wildlife Society
                                              Research and management techniques for wildlife and habitats
346-358
71-75
1503-1528          H.M. Kerner                                        University of Report to Congress, vol. for Wate
                                              Sierra Nevada Ecosystem Project: Final California-Davis, Centers II, Assess
1690-1705
843-850
307–314
214-216
159-176                                     Environmental information management and analysis; Ecosystem to glob
                   W.K. Michener, J.W. Brunt, , and S.G. Stafford   Taylor & Francis.
573-80                                        Predicting species        Island Press
                   J.M. Scott, P.J. Heglund, M.L. Morrison et al occurrences: Issues of accuracy and scale
782-788
1682-1688
389-396
181-188
324–335
              224
85-87
473–498
435-439
1002-1011
343-360
566-574                                                                Wildlife Management Institute
                                              Transactions of the 59th North American Wildlife and Natural Resources C
66-74                                                                  Wildlife Management Institute
                                              Transactions of the 59th North American Wildlife and Natural Resources C
187-194                                          F. Davis
                    J. M. Scott, T. H. Tear, andGap Analysis: A landscape approach to biodiversity planning
243-251
161-170
271-286
                                                                        American Society of Photogrammetry
188-194             G.D. Therres                                        diversity: A key to the restoration of the Chesa
                                              Conservation of biologicalMaryland Department of Natural Resources


1,5                                                                     Center for Grassland Studies
93-153              W. J. Chandler                                     Academic
                                              Audubon Wildlife Report 1989/1990 Press, Inc
                                              Gap Analysis: A landscape approach to biodiversity planning
            5-Mar J.M. Scott, T.H. Tear, and F. Davis


453-464
 17(1)                                                                                          2
148-157             J.D. Greer                                       ASPRS
                                              Remote sensing and natural resource management
1115-1118
527–534
157-167
88-101
225–242
82-86               I.D. Thompson             Proceedings,              International Union of Game Biologists, XXI Con
164-182
78-84
170-182
20-27                                                                   U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, N
                                              First Annual Forest Inventory and Analysis Symposium. General Technical
1 pp 1-20
815-825
27-38
195-208                                           F. Davis                approach to biodiversity planning
                     J. M. Scott, T. H. Tear, andGap Analysis: A landscapeAmerican Society for Photogrammetry and Rem
38-44
977- 987
249-262
1482-1491
87-95
                                              Ph.D. dissertation         University of California
37-41                                          Nature conservation: cost effective biological surveys and data analysis
                     C. R. Margules and M. P. Austin, eds              Australia CSIBO
33-42                                         Forest J. Wisniewski,    Brill
                     J.A. Rochelle, L.A. Lehmann, andfragmentation: Wildlife and management implications
18-19
                                                                        University of Washington, Department of Urban
1271-1272
                                                                         University of Idaho.
918-925
            Jan-32
895-908


                                                                        Mississippi State University.
2769-2775
124-135
                                               Proceedings of the 1997 ESRI User Conference.
414-428
927-935
                                                                        University of Arizona.
91-100
17-22                H. Kerner                                        Wildlands Resources Center, University of Califo
                                              Proceedings of the symposium on biodiversity of northwestern California
                                                                         University of South Carolina.


16-20
                                                                         University of Oregon.
                                                                         University of Maine.
                                                                        ESA/SER Joint Meeting.
                                                                         ESRI Users Conference.
326-334
410-416
366-377

88-93
150-157
339-347
187-198
99-114
21-33
40-41
            40182
                                                                           BLM Salt Desert Shrub Symposium
461-462                                           E. Puckett, P. D. Doran, and M. J. Mac
                    E. T. LaRoe, G. S. Farris, C. Our living resources       National Biological Service
691-699


176-187
33-39                                                                     U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service,
                                               Shrublands under fire: disturbance and recovery a changing world.
37-47
90-103
544-564
38-46
1259–1269
                                                                           North Carolina State University.



34-41


457-470
                                                                           Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture.
1047-1054
63-74
141-151
471-482
864-873
17-32                                                                    Environmental Modelling for Development Sym
                                               International Association of Science and Technologyand Simulation Confer
260-268
1211-1217
                                                                           Clemson University.
                                                                       University of Wyoming.
                    M. E. Soule, ed.                                   Sinauer Associates, and
                                               Conservation biology: the science of scarcityInc., diversity.
1119-1139
48-56
364-372
221-238                                       F.W. Davis             American Society for Photogrammetry
                    J.M. Scott, T.H. Tear, andGap Analysis. A Landscape Approach to Biodiversity Planning. and Re
170-182
275-295
999-1011
Location            Keywords                  URL                     Abstract
                                                                      A biodiversity gap
                    BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY OLD-GROWTH FOREST            analysis is a method,
                                                                      A checklist of the 310
                    Nevada, bryoflora, checklist, biodiversity, biogeography.
                    Assessment, Juniata River, landscape, monitoringbryophyte taxa (two scale, wetlands
                                                                      A multi-level approach to wetland assessment
                                                                       multi-level approach,
                                            http://etd.lib.ttu.edu/theses/available/etd-10272008-312950111922
                                                                    A significant question currently facing environ
                                              http://www.cnr.usu.edu/quinney/htm/collections/theses-dissertatio
                                            http://tame.ifas.ufl.edu/pdfs/research/Project%205.pdf.
                                                                     postrelease evaluation,
                    Oxyops vitiosa, Melaleuca quinquenervia, spread,################ impact.
                                             sites.google.com/site/jgalfieri/Alfieri_etal_asimplereclassification.pdf
                    Land use, land cover, land surface modeling, NDVI, land-surface characteristics, surface heterog
                                                                     Abstract—With
                                                                     increasing honeybees, hybrids between (A. m
                                                                     Africanized
                    Africanized honeybees, hybrid bees, African (Apis mellifera scutellata, western European Afric
                                           ftp://ftp.manomet.org/Water/For_DEP/Literature/amphibian_urban_
                                                                    wetlands.
                    Keywords:species richness, urbanized landscape,Amphibians commonly use wetlands for breedin
                                                                   Arid systems represent an important
                    SOC, SIC, STATSGO data. https://www.soils.org/publications/sssaj/articles/70/1/256.compon
                                            http://www.haydenwing.com/documents/Perchsiteselectionbyreintr
                                                                     As part of wildlife reintroduction
                    behaviour, Falco peregrinus, perch selection, post-fledging, a program to recover the peregrine
                    Plant cover; Characterization; Landsat satellite; Remote sensing; Land Use; United States; Class
                                                                       As part of the activities of the Multi-Resolution L
                                                                  Aspects of the ecology, biogeography, and con
                    entomology, ecology, biogeography, and conservation biology, checkered beetle species, (Insec
                                                                      probability, Empidonax fulvifrons, fire suppre
                    buff-breasted flycatcher, burn severity, detectionBuff-breasted flycatchers (Empidonax fulvifro
                                              http://www.fs.fed.us/psw/publications/westfall/psw_2007_westfall0
                                                                        California valley oak (Quercus lobata Informati
                    allelic richness, canonical trend surface analysis, colonization, gene flow, Geographic Née) is a s
                                                                        Cause for spatial variation in phenotypic quali
                    antler size, habitat, land use, Mississippi, Odocoileus virginianus, pine forest, vegetation type, w
                                             http://www2.bren.ucsb.edu/~fd/fd/pubs/gerrard_et_al97.pdf.
                                                                       ################
                    gap analysis, reserve selection, species models, gis .
                    regional conservation plan .                        Conservation planners use several methods to
                                                                        Despite their likely ecological importance, the
                                                                   Determining occurrence and Geography; Lago
                    America; North America; United States; Vertebrata; Mammalia; Idaho; Models;distribution is an
                                          http://adsabs.harvard.edu//abs/2002AGUFM.B21A0709K.
                                                                   Emission inventories of biogenic volatile orga
                    Biosphere/atmosphere interactions, Pollution: urban and regional.
Lisbon, Portugal,   Gap Analysis,                                 Environmental concerns facing the developme
                    biodiversity greeways. Positioning System telemetry, habitatwhether conditions areMinnesota
                    Canada lynx, den, Global                      Establishing use, Lynx canadensis, suitable f
                                             http://www.pnas.org/content/102/42/15144.full.
                                                                     Future drought is
                    tree mortality, vegetation dynamics, climate change impacts, woodlands, Pinus edulis.
                                                                     projected to occur Southwestern U.S.; Mexi
                                                                     Gap analysis is a GIS
                    Rio Grande Valley; geographic information systems; species diversity;approach to biodiversity
                                             http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/ncfwrustaff/16/
                                                                        Gap
                     biodiversity conservation gap analysis species richness.analysis is an approach to conserving biolog
Lubbock, TX,        species modeling, gap, conservation, modeling, species distributions. is a landscape-level evalu
                                                                        Gap Analysis Program
London, U.K.                                                      Geographical
                                           http://www.igeo.pt/servicos/CDI/biblioteca/pdf/AMB_27_7.pdf.
                                                                  information systems Gap Analysis Program
                                                                  Given the key survey;
                    Biogenic hydrocarbons; BVOC; Emission inventory; Vegetation role played by biogenic volatile
                                        http://www.fs.fed.us/psw/publications/documents/psw_gtr191/Asil
                    Ammodramus henslowii, Ammodramus, savannarum, Grasshopper Sparrow, grassland birds, g
                                                               Grassland songbird populations have experienc
                                                                   Habitat alteration, in the form of land-use dev
                    animal behavior biodiversity conservation decision support environmental planning expert s
                    habitat loss, fragmentation, genetic variability.   Habitat loss and fragmentation due to urbaniz
                                                 distribution, housing density, Michigan, population density, wildland-
                                                                         Identifying areas of the wildland-urban
                    fire risk, fire regime, fuelhttp://nrs.fs.fed.us/pubs/jrnl/2004/nc_2004_haight_001.pdf . interfa
                                               map, GAP, CalVeg, DOQQ, riparian, serpentine. California
                                                                      In 1995, the Manual of
                    vegetation classification,http://imaps.dfg.ca.gov/references/ds201/ds201.pdf. Vegetation in
                                                                       In any country, the geography of species needin
                    Conservation planning; Endangered species; Peripheral populations; Hotspots; Human population g
                                             http://harvard.academia.edu/BrianMorgan/Papers/138593/Vegetati
                                                                       In California, the Vegetation Type Map (VTM)
                    Climate change, conifer loss, historical maps, land cover change, Sierra Nevada, VTM Project.
                                             http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/32463.
                                                                     In this study, we set up
                    aspen, Populus tremuloides Michx., decay, fragmentation, decompositiona wood decomposition
                                                                     Integration of small-
                                                                     format Attitude
                    Accuracy; Aerial photography; Area-based image matching; aerial (Flight dynamics); Digital came
                                             http://www.asprs.org/a/publications/pers/2001journal/july/2001_jul_82
                                                                     Invasion of grasslands by woody effects, Piño
                    Land cover change, Disturbance, Fire suppression, Forest expansion, Management plants has be
                                                       http://www.whrc.org/resources/publications/pdf/JantzetalNAJ.08.pd
                                                                               Land development pressures
                              connectivity, conservation, graph theory, landscape ecology, roadless areas. that threaten ha
                                                     URL http://www.gis.usu.edu/~doug/pubs/PE&RS%2863%291-59.pd
                                                                              Landscape ecological applications modeling.
                              Landscape ecological applications, remote sensing, land cover, Gap Analysis, Utah, of remotely se
                                                                              Landscape genetics is an
                              landscape genetics; niche modelling; mule deer; mtDNA; microsatellites. emerging discipline t
                                                                                 Macroscale patterns
                              Species richness, diversity, vertebrates, energy, habitat heterogeneity.of vertebrate species rich
                                                      http://www.geog.ubc.ca/courses/geog570/presentations/species_dis
                              Yersinia pestis, GARP, models                 ################
                              mapping, land cover .  http://www.mrlc.gov/pdf/July_PERS.pdf.Land Characterization 2001 (M
                                                                             Multi-Resolution
                                                     .
                              Nature Reserves, Gap analysis, site selection. Over the last three decades a great deal of resea
                                                     Geomys bursarius, habitat preferences, Kansas, distribution,yellow-fac
                                                                              Previous research suggests that the conserva
                              Cratogeomys castanops, https://ojs.lib.byu.edu/ojs/index.php/wnan/article/view/2/634.
                                                                               Recent public density, satellite imagery, scale
                              Cervus elaphus, elk, habitat model, New York, restoration, road interest in restoring elk (Cervus
                                                                             Regional, analyses, North American vegetati
                              AVIRIS, ETM+, Juniperus osteosperma;, Landsat, multiscalehigh-resolution mapping ofCarbon P
                                                                              Resource managers confronted with preservin
                              habitat fragmentation - landscapes - nongame - Prairie Pothole Region - small wetlands - South
                                                       http://www.wssajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1614/IPSM-07-048.1?journ
                                                                               Riparian River, MAXENT, riparian habitat.
                              Invasive species, predictive habitat modeling, North Plattehabitats are important components o
                                                                            Satellite imagery is a useful tool habitat analy
                              Adirondack Park; Habitat assessment; Odocoileus virginianus; Satellite imagery; for large-scal
                              habitat recovery,                                 Satellite Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and R
                                                                               Staging areas and migratory stopovers of wetl
                              habitat use, migration, Nebraska, playas, Rainwater Basin, wetland birds.
                                                     http://www.asprs.org/publications/pers/2007journal/april/highligh
                              Mapping, land cover, NLCD.                   ################
           New Orleans, LA,                             http://nrs.fs.fed.us/pubs/gtr/gtr_wo069/gtr_wo069_041.pdf. and ro
                                                                                  Streamside management zones (SMZs)
                              Buffer, riparian areas, forestry, forest inventories.
                                                       analysis, GARP models. Synthetic products based on biodiversity infor
                              distribution models, gap http://specify5.specifysoftware.org/Informatics/bios/biostownpeters
                              remote sensing, land cover, modeling, climate,    The characteristics of satellite-derived landco
                                                                              The combination of species distributions with
                              Conservation - Gap analysis - Landscape metrics - Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) - Species richne
                                                      United States; California; Habitat suitability;ecosystems focuses on qu
                                                                              The conservation of Habitat; Environment ev
                              America; North America;http://life.bio.sunysb.edu/ee/akcakayalab/Multispecies.pdf.
                                                    http://gis.uncc.edu/publications/windturbine-article.pdf.
                              Wind turbines; Geography; Spatial analysis.   ################
                                                    http://spacewardbound.nasa.gov/docs/Mojave8.pdf.
                                                                            The macro-habitat tigris; Callisaurus conspicu
                              Mojave Desert; Geomorphic landforms; Habitat model; Aspidoscelispreferences of threedracono
                                                       http://glei.nrri.umn.edu/default/documents/Pubs/Wolterl_2006.pdf.
                                                                                The
                              Great Lakes, Landsat, land use, land cover, indicators. pace of Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) chan
                                                                                The spatial distribution of invasive alien plant
                              Biogeography, biological invasions, California, GIS, spatial autocorrelation, spatial autoregressi
a Gap Analysis Project                                                           The
                              modeling, gap analysis, species distribution mapping. West Virginia Gap Analysis Project is curr
                                                       http://proceedings.esri.com/library/userconf/proc00/professional/papers
           Washington, D.C.                                             This chapter presents a biodiversity model wh
                              BIOTIC communities, ENDANGERED species, HABITAT (Ecology) -- Modification, HABITAT sur
                                                      United States; Washington; Mountain; Streamflow; Rivers; an automa
                                                                            This paper describes and evaluates
                              America; North America;http://www.prism.washington.edu/lc/westrick_et_al.pdf. Comparati
                              Fire, land cover,                                 This year's catastrophic wildfires in southern
                                                                               County, rare plants, Yucca House National spe
                              biological inventory, Colorado, flora, Montezuma Two hundred and sixty-one vascular plant Mo
                                                     http://www.asprs.org/publications/pers/2003journal/december/20
                                                                              maps; accuracy; Landsat; mapping efforts, the
                              North America; Space remote sensing; land coverTwo nationwide land-covergrasslands; Pixel; cl
                                                                              We conducted
                              conservation planning, mark recapture, habitat conservation, a rigorous monitoring program
                                                                              We sampled small matrix habitat, sagebrush
                              habitat fragmentation, Idaho, island biogeography, isolation, kipuka,mammals of fragmented sa
                                                      http://www.bearbiology.com/fileadmin/tpl/Downloads/URSUS/Vol_
                                                                               We studied American black bears (Ursus ame
                              American black bear, apiary, bees, damage, electric fencing, Florida, Georgia, habitat, Okefenoke
                                                                               We surveyed little-known ray-finned fish asse
                              fish assemblages, Maryland, species-habitat relationships.
                                                       http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2640872/pdf/10827
                              Sin Nombre virus, gis, epidemiology .             We tested
                                                                                environmental data
                                                       http://www.cougarfund.org/downloads/cougarfund_27.pdf. Rocky M
                                                                                We used Great Positioning concolor,
                              connectivity, cougar, dispersal, Global Positioning System, GlobalBasin, Puma System technolog
                              climate change, photosynthetic radiation, physiological modelling, regional analysis.
                                                                               With improvements in
                                                                               mapping regional
                                                     http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_6924/is_2_159/ai_n28519596/
                                                                               Woodpeckers downy woodpecker, Picoides p
                              Keywords, IFMAP, woodpeckers, predation, Emerald ash borer,are the most important biotic so
                                                                                   Zones of secondary contact population geneti
                                   Contact zones, Neotoma, phenotypic variation, phylogenetic autocorrelation, between closely re
                                                                                      Our refuge design strategy involves a landscape
                                   conservation biology gap analysis geographic information system landscape ecology reserve design
                                                                                         Protected areas in India have historically been e
                                   biodiversity, gap analysis, ecology.                  We present the first hierarchical classification sy
                                                                                         We compare the number of species represented
            Albany, New York.      Albany, New York.
                                   Artemisia tridentata , GIS, grassland-shrubland transition, Great Plains, Landsat, remote sensing, Ro
                                                                                       A Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) based digital l
                                                                                         This digitized hierarchy has been developed for
                                                                                      North America harbors an ecosystem proportio
                                   mapping methods, conservation, crayfish, distributions, mussels, biodiversity, astounding classificat
                                   BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY CONSERVATION                     We compiled a 1:500,000-scale map of the actu
            Moscow, Idaho.
al Survey Professional Paper 964                                                         The framework of a national land use and land c
             Tucson, AZ            ecology/flora/rural development/natural forces/theory
                                                                                         The National Wildlife Refuge System began as a
                                                                                     A coverage problem
                                   reserve site selection; integer programming; maximalrecent note by Underhill (Biol. Conserv., 70, 85
                                                                                         A classification of the natural vegetation of Colo
                                                                                         There is an urgent need to inventory and monito
                                   design, diversity, forest, landscape, large scale patterns, productivity, satellite data, species richness


                                   models, landscape change, review                      Models of landscape change may serve a variety
                                                                                    The Gap Analysis Program (GAP) is a nationwide
                                   GAP, spatial decision support systems, minimum viable population (MVP)
                                                                                         Prioritizing sites as potential Research Natural A
                                                                                         In Gap Analysis potential distributions of terrest


            Boulder, Colorado.
                                   aquatic environments, streams, gap analysis, ecology, species distributions, stream classifications, f


                                                                                         Four areas in the state of Idaho, U.S.A., have bee
                                                                                        The species density
                                   biodiversity, design, island biogeography, reserve, sloss,challenge to maintain biodiversity with limit
                                                                                         Digital analysis of remotely sensed data has bec
                                                                                         We developed an Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) fo
                                                                                      Recently, there has been a revolution in the ava
                                   biodiversity; conservation; protected areas; databases; geographic information system (GIS); endan
                                   Biodiversity Conservation Ecology Environmental Sciences.
            Bethesda, Maryland.


                                                                                Many methods and criteria are available to asse
                                   ecosystem management; Impact assessment; Aquatic ecology; Community analysis; River restoratio
                                   conservation planning GAP gap analysis nature reserves
                                                                                     Landscape- and ecoregion-based sample design
                                   accuracy assessment, Gap Analysis, cluster sampling, cover-maps, relative efficiency, conservation e
                                                                                        The Florida Gap (Fl-Gap)
                                   biodiversity land cover classification habitat modeling gap analysis program project provides an ass
                                                                                       The
                                   biodiversity; map accuracy; vertebrate species richnes recognition of geographic patterns in biodiv
                                                                           Mexico
                        . conservation planning GAP gap analysis nature reserves. currently has 144 nature reserves cover
                                                                            This project facilitates
                        Functional guilds, Gap analysis, Habitat fragmentation, Species richness. a regional approach to co
Boise, Idaho.
Corvallis.
                                                                             We studied how forest-bird nest success varied
                        agriculture, Driftless Area, forest fragmentation, functional group, landscape, midwestern United St



San Jose, CA
                        species diversity


Moscow, Idaho.
Washington, D.C.


Ithaca, New York.       Ithaca, New York.
Logan Utah.             Logan Utah.


Santa Fe, New Mexico.
                        GAP analysis (Planning), land zones, modeling.       To predict the distributions of breeding birds in
                        Cervus elaphus, elk, GIS, habitat modeling, Illinois, reintroduction
                                                  http://www.jstor.org/stable/378373
Boulder, Colorado.
                                                                             Quantifying forest structure is important for sus
                        Lidar, forest succession, forest structure, random forests, Wildlife
                                                   http://www.jstor.org/stable/20167199
New York.
                                                                             To determine how well the biological diversity o


Washington, D.C.
                                                                 Few attempts have NATURE conservation BIOD
                        Key Words: ECOSYSTEM management ENVIRONMENTAL management been made to analyze the st
New York.


                        ecology/species diversity/tortoise/livestock
                                                                             Data collected by the Gap Analysis program in th
Amsterdam.
                                                                            The accuracy of a Mapper, Landsat, land map
                        space remote sensing, quality, errors, frequency, polygons, Thematic regional-scale thematiccover o
                        species diversity/grass/USA/livestock                Tolerance of particular grasslands to the activitie
                                                                            Protected-area targets of 10%
                        protected areas, biodiversity, gap analysis, conservation,World Parks Congress of a biome, of a c
Moscow, ID
Bethesda, Maryland.
                                                                        The incongruity between the regional and nation
                        Cumulative impact assessment, wetlands, landscapes, functional grouping, temporal and spatial sca
                                    Gap analysis, GIS, landscape, remote sensing         A landscape-based characterization of vegetatio
             Lawrence, Kansas       Lawrence, Kansas3 41pp.
                                    area, biogeography, black-tailed prairie dog, conservation, Cynomys ludovicianus , endangered spec
                                                                                        Despite the broad and relatively stable distribut
                                                                                         We compared abundance, habitat use and diurn
                                    economics, government policy, protected areas        Although there is widespread agreement on the
                                                                                         There have been many attempts to classify geog
                                                                                        We evaluated the effect three different samplin
                                    Reserve designation, Gap Analysis, Utah, Spatial placement of reserves
                                                                                          The flattened musk turtle Sternotherus depressu
                                    ecology, species diversity, agriculture, industry, water development, habitat loss, ecosystem stress,
                                                                                         Species richness is being mapped as part of an in
                                                                                           There has been uncertainty in the national gap a
                                    biodiversity, birds, gap analysis, GIS, habitat association, habitat relationships, migrant birds, model
                                                                                         Research on the distributions of 2 species of poc
             Washington, D.C.
            Washington D.C.                                                              We report estimates of declines of natural ecosy
ment of Energy.
ns Environment Programme Series No; 22
                                                                                         Information technology plays an increasingly vit
                                    Colorado, detection probability, mark-recepture, monitoring, occupancy estimation, program MARK
                                                                                      The status of the swift fox (Vulpes velox) becam
                                                                                         The gap analysis process provides an overview o
            Cambridge, Massachusetts.
                                                                                        Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) haliaetus, water cl
                                    Delaware Bay, habitat, hatching success, land use, nest density, osprey, Pandionhave been the focu


            Caracas, Venezuela
                                    gap analysis, gis [geographic information system], spatial models, species distributions, water qualit
                                    gopher tortoise, habitat loss, management            Gopher tortoise Gopherus polyphemus populati
                                                                                         Forest fragmentation can be measured and mon
             Washington, D.C.



             Washington, D.C.
            Bethesda, Maryland.
                                    Gap Analysis, modeling, reptiles, amphibians, distribution.
            Berkeley, California.                                                     Most conservation vegetation mapping
                                    geographic information system, Wildlife-Habitat Relationships System, efforts in California are cond
                                                                                      We developed a gap analysis approach to evalu
                                    Biodiversity Conservation Ecology Environmental Sciences.
             Washington, D. C.


                                                                                     A conservation GAP analysis
                                    gap analysis, land cover, land management, conservation assessment, alliance was conducted for



             Washington, D.C.
                                                                               The conventional approach to maintaining biolo
Bethesda, Maryland.


Bethesda, MD.                Bethesda, MD.
Boulder, Colorado.
Sunderland, Massachusetts.
Washington, D.C.
Moscow.
                                                                               The global concern with reduction in biodiversit
                           Gap Analysis, Ecology, biodiversity.                Conservation assessment requires quantitative c
Chelsea, Michigan.                                                             With the increasing demand for broad-scale veg
Santa Barbara, California.
Wisconsin
Washington, D.C.             868 pp.
Minneapolis, Minnesota
                           fauna/management/habitat loss
                                                                               Protected areas are the single protected areas
                           conservation planning, conservation priorities, global gap analysis, irreplaceability,most important c
                             remote sensing, GIS (Geographical Information Systems) rivers / lakes water quality Great Lakes
Rancho Cordova, CA
Sunderland, Massachusetts.


Ft. Collins, Colorado
London.                    London.
                             Keywords, Conservation, Diversity, Settlement, CONSERVATION of natural resources,GAP analysis (
                                                                                Plague is rare but features
                           plague, Yersina pestis, flas, geographical information system,alandscapehighly virulent ßea-borne zo
West Palm Beach, Florida
                                                                                assessments, assessments of GLM
                           biodiversity, conservation priorities, environmental Environmentalgap analysis, GIS,regional develop
                                                    disclosure of uncertainty; Mapping of biodiversity elements to conservatio
                                                                                 cartography and error propagation; expose gap
                           biodiversity mapping and p://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=105 1-0761%28199705%297%3A2%3C53 1%3A
                                                                              Statewide land-cover change detection analysis
                           remote sensing, change detection, land use, land cover
                           Arkansas, conflict, Cervus elaphus , elk, habitat model, wildlife restoration, Mahalanobis distance
                                                                                We used spatial data to identify potential areas
                                                                           We analysed the conservation status of 73 vege
                           nature reserves conservation planning plant community gap analysis.
                                                                               Examining resource management needs at the l
Albuquerque, New Mexico
                                                                               Human
                           collaborative design, conservation planning, GIS, land use settlement is a formidable agent of chan
                                                                             Remote sensing provides critical information for
                           species distribution model, National Land Cover Database, avian habitat, GAP, horizontal vegetation
                                                                               Biodiversity is presently a minor consideration in
Washington, D.C.


New York.
                                                                                          Maps of vertebrate distributions resulting from
                                                                                        The conservation of global protected increasin
                                     biodiversity conservation, conservation planning, gap analysis, human context,biodiversityarea
                                                                                          Three species of Buteo hawks nest sympatrically


                                                                                          Landscape ecological applications of remotely se
                                                                                          SWANCC terrestrial no matter
                                      amphibian, herpetofauna, isolated wetland, reptile,A wetland ,ecosystem,corridor how small or i
                                                                                            The ability to chickadee, northern flicker, red-na
                                     classification trees, habitat models, nest-site selection, mountainpredict species occurrences quickl
                                                                                          The age of discovery, description, and classificat


                                                                                          Ecologists need data on animal–habitat associat


                                                                                            habitat loss, given fragmentation
                                     species diversity, tiger beetles, Europe, agriculture, An analysis ishabitatof the changes in occurrence
            Ogden, Utah
                                                                                          Cartographers often need to use information in
            Bethesda, Maryland.       Bethesda, Maryland.
                                                                                          The Caribbean is one of the world’s centers of b
                                                                                      The Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Program w
t Series USGS FRESC/COPL/2001/24. gap analysis, biodiversity, Southwest, Arizona, remote sensing, vegetation, land cover, wildlife habit
                                                                                    Land-cover mapping efforts mapping, Vegetatio
                                     Large-area mapping, Meso-scale mapping, Moderate scale mapping, Land-coverwithin the USGS Gap
                                                                                          Focusing on a 2.2 million hectare area surroundi
                                                                                       The structures; depicting forest three-dimensi
                                     LiDAR metrics; Wildlife habitat; Woodpeckers; Keystonelack of mapsSpecies distribution modeling; F
                                                                                           Biodiversity GIS, landscape modeling, mapping,
                                     biological diversity, conservation, decision theory, gap analysis, mapping (e.g., the Gap Analysis Pro


                                                                                          A two-stage classification process for mapping la


            Nice, France.                                                                 Recent emphasis has been placed on merging fo
                                                                                       Typical assessments of models where many spe
                                     bird species occurrence, habitat models, assessment, incidence, logistic model, Maine, species occu
            San Jose, California
            London.
                                                                                        We modelled forest composition and structural
                                     AVHRR, forest attribute models, generalized additive models, Geographical Information Systems, La
            London.
            Washington, D.C.         species diversity/methods/theory
                                     DIVERSITY VERTEBRATES                                Gap-analysis models of vertebrate species richn
                                     Gap Analysis, Conservation, mapping, techniques.
                                                                                       Low junevile survival, power-line collisions, pred
                                     Centrocercus urophasianus, greater sage-grouse, Idaho, recruitment has been suggested as a prima
                                                                                     The
                                     Mexico, government policy, protected areas, modeling current Mexican environmental law provide


                                    Key                                                The book is a collaborative effort of authors from
             MacMillan Publishing Co. Words: interdisciplinary/all levels of diversity/human population/economic activity/governmen
                                                                                         Less than 6% of the coterminous United States i
                                     biodiversity, coterminus United States, elevation, endangered species, gap analysis,land use, nature
                                                                                               Published literature generally lacks habitat infor
                                         GIS, habitat, literature search, wildlife habitat modeling
            New York.                    New York.
                                                                                             Landscape variables species richness
                                         biodiversity, gap analysis, habitat associations, mammalian distribution,were employed as indices o


            Santa Barbara, California.
            Washington, D.C.
             Washington, D.C.
                                         Key Words: gap analysis, fish distributions, habitat, land cover, modeling, ecology.




                                         Arizona, band-tailed pigeons, call-broadcast, Columbidae, detection probability, Patagioenas fasciat
                                                                                            Estimates of population trend for the interior su


                                                                                            Much less attention has been
                                         biodiversity, endangered species, habitat protection, sustainable development paid in recent yea
             New York.


             Washington, D.C.
            Santa Barbara                                                                     This thesis presents a methodology for detectin
                                                                                              Natural resource managers and researchers are
             Washington, D.C.
                                                                                              To address recent criticisms of the recovery pro
            Washington, D.C.
an Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference (1991).
                                                                                            Current conservation strategies, reserve and an
                                         biodiversity conservation, ecology, enviornmental sciences, conservation strategies for plant selecti
                                                                                             While the importance of spatial
                                         biodiversity, conservation planning, hotspots, reserve selection, species richness. scale in ecology
                                                                                             This irreplaceability, primates, simulated anneal
                                         Brazilian Atlantic forest, complementarity, gap analysis, study is an exercise to check the efficiency o
                                                                                            Many alternative approaches have
                                         reserve selection; operations research; optimization; integer programming; California been propos
                                                                                              Conservation of ecological processes and biodiv
            Bethesda, Maryland.
                                         scale, gap analysis, Idaho, GIs, biodiversity.
                                         snakes/USA/tourism/management                        The composition and activity of the snake comm
             Davis, California.                                                               Here we present and evaluate a conservation st
                                                                                              Researchers have come
                                         avian habitat; bird counts; GIS; Idaho; species habitat-relationship models to different conclusions
                                                                                            Decision statistcs, cartography, land use, sensiti
                                         Georaphical Information System, reliability, models, habitat, makers need to know the reliability of
                                                                                              To assist land managers responsible for park ma



             Washington, D.C.
                                  environmental diversity, biological diversity, reserve selection, gap analysis, bodiveristy.
                                                                                    Northern Spotted Owls, Strix occidentalis caurin
                                  Key Words: ecology/birds/habitat loss/habitat fragmentation/management/theory
                                  species diversity/grass/USA/species introduction/habitat loss
                                                                                       Standardized ecological classification units form
                                  Gap Analysis, land cover, remote sensing, mapping.Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data were the b


                                                                                       We studied the presence and distribution of 19
                                                                                       The Kappa coefficient is generally used to assess
                                                                                    Protected areas are a cornerstone conservation
                                  fish conservation, freshwater conservation, groundwater, insect conservation, molluskof conservati
                                                                                    In this paper, I review major historical conservat
                                  vertebrate populations, animal populations, animals -- habitations, wildlife management, biodiversi
            Washington, D.C.
            Washington, D.C.
            Bethesda, Maryland.
                                  Biodiversity, conservation biology, conservation planning, ecological data, environmental cartograp
                                                                                       As the loss of biodiversity is a serious ecological
                                  ecology/species diversity/aquatic/mussel/fisheries In 1985 a population of Margaritifera auricularia
            Falls Church, Va
partment of Natural Resources     Annapolis.
                                  mapping methods, conservation, crayfish, distributions, mussels, biodiversity, ecosystem classificat


            San Diego, CA         Key Words: temperate/forestry/habitat fragmentation
            Bethesda, Maryland.
                                                                                    The emerging
                                                            http://www.jstor.org/stable/1941843 science of conservation biology re
                                                                                      Gap Analysis takes a proactive landscape-level a
                                  ants, biodiversity, Florida, Gap Analysis, mammals, scale, spatial analysis, spatial correspondence, sp
            Ann Arbor, MI                                                           The
                                  Conservation Protected land, Restoration, Techniques. Southern Rockies Ecoregion contains a rich
           Bethesda, Maryland.
                                                                                       Gap analysis is a GIS approach to biodiversity cu
                                                                                       The maintenance of biodiversity by securing rep
                                                                                     A number of optimization models have been de
                                  forecast model, site selection,nature reserve,maximization, biodiversity, species richness, hHabitat,
                                                                                    A watershed-based
                                  watershed ecosystem, urbanization, habitat, thresholds, interactions assessment is used to assess
                                                                                       Reliable estimates of the habitat areas of major
            Halifax, Canada       Volume 1
                                                                                   Forest inventories, stratification, satellite image
                                  AVHRR, generalized additive model, GIS, map accuracy, sample survey,like those conducted by the F
                                                                                       Populations of Rich County, Utah sage grouse (C
                                                                                       Identification of biodiversity hotspots (hereafter
            St. Paul, MN                                                               The 1998 Indiana/Illinois forest inventory (USDA
                                  GAP ANALYSIS WASHINGTON VEGETATION.                  Several recent studies base assessment of conse
                                  biodiversity, wilderness, planning, GIS, gap analysis Legally designated wilderness areas are acknow
                                  GAP ANALYSIS BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY SOUTHERN INDIANA FOREST,
Bethesda, Maryland.
                                                                                Public land management agencies and conserva


                                                                                  We investigated the potential of using unclassif
                           Landsat, forest, birds, habitat, prediction, GAP, wildlife occurrence, Michigan, NDVI, SWIR, multiple
                                                                                Determining which vegetation types organisms
                                                                                Point sampling methods traditionally used for as
Santa Barbara, California.
East Melbourne., AU
Leiden, The Netherlands.


Seattle, Washington


Moscow, ID. Dissertation.
                                                                              One of the goals of the Florida panther (Puma r
                           Caloosahatchee River, Florida panther, habitat evaluation, Mahalanobis distance, Puma concolor , co


                                                                                We conducted a systematic conservation assess
                                                                                In this paper we propose a protocol for identifyi
Mississippi State, MS.                                                          With increased degradation of natural resources
                                                                                Despite accuracy assessment
                           habitat modeling, gap analysis, wildlife-habitat associations,widespread and long-standing efforts to


San Diego, CA                                                                   We delineated landscape routes offering the be
                                                                                Grasslands around the world have experienced d
                                                                           Although riparian of Biotic Integrity, along strea
                           Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program, fish assemblage, Index buffers establishednorthern Vi
Tucson, AZ.
                                                                           Stream buffer; best zones (SMZs) and road bea
                           riparian zone; stream management zones; road beautifyingmanagementmanagement practices; sus
Berkeley, California.
Columbia, SC.                                                                   There have been many studies that try to determ



Eugene, OR.
Orono, ME.
San Jose, CA
San Diego, CA.
                                                                            Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Nye Co.
                                                   http://en.scientificcommons.org/20796440.
                                                                            ################
                           Aerial surveys, American White Pelican, Gulf of Mexico coast, habitat use, Louisiana, Mississipp
                                                                                Wildlife biologists have provided supplemental f
                                                                               Mediterranean&hyphen, vegetation plots surve
                           Classification tree, Landscape simulation modeling, Data from more than 900 type ecosystem, Mode
                           other biological science/species diversity/invertebrates/Latin America
San Diego, CA.                                                                Long term protection and maintenance of ecolo
                                                      URL: http://proceedings.esri.com/library/userconf/proc97/proc97/to150
                                                                                       The US government natural heritage
                                    endangered species, biodiversity, federal lands, Department of Defense,hasmultiple responsibilities



                                                                                        analysis
                                    biodiversity, conservation, large-area mapping, gap Rapid progress is being made in the conceptual,



             Cedar City, Utah.                                                          Four previously published classifications of inter
ogical Service                      RESERVE SELECTION, BIODIVERSITY,DIVERSITY, IDAHO, MANAGEMEN,T VEGETATIOn, LANDSCAPE,S
                                                                                       Basin, pygmy rabbit, remote camera, sagebrush
                                    Artemisia tridentata, Brachylagus idahoensis, GreatWe surveyed the historic range of pygmy rabbits
             Portland, OR.                                                              Long-term MODIS vegetation index records wer
                                                                                       conservation was conducted to evaluate the ex
                                    Genetic resources, gene conservation, gap analysis,A gap analysis planning
             Cedar City, UT.                                                             Several restoration, grass species are invading
                                    wildland shrubs, disturbance, recovery, fire, invasive plants,exotic annualecology, microorganisms
                                    Change detection analyses, habitat, land use        Describing the nature and extent of land resourc
                                                                                         connectivity, meta-population, North Cascades
                                    grizzly bear, habitat modeling, highways, landscape Providing opportunitiesf or grizzly bears (Ursus a
                                      agriculture, exurbia,land use, sprawl, urbanizationA deficiency common to both the historical deba
                                     band-tailed pigeon, multi-scale analysis, Oregon, Patagioenas fasciata Say, wildlife-habitat relatio
                                                                                       Mineral sites are scarce resources of high ion co
                                                                                         lesser prairie-chicken, nest vegetation, nest suc
                                     anthropogenic impacts, Artemisia filifolia, Kansas,Lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinct
             Raleigh, NC.            change detection, mapping, vegetation              The most effective tool for conservation of biod
                                                                                        It is widely understood that human condition is
                                      SWAT,                                         The integration
            St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands. Hydrologic modeling, GIS, SSURGO, STATSGO, NASS, GAP of geographical information syst
                                                                                         We conducted this 2-year study to determine if
                                    lesser prairie-chickens, niche partitioning, Phasianus colchicus, ring-necked pheasant, southwestern


                                                                                        Aim To explore biogeographic patterns of terres
             Nye County, Nevada.                                                        The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National
                                                                                         Many animal surveys to estimate populations r
                                    accuracy, band-tailed pigeon, bias, counts, Pacific Northwest, Patagioenas fasciate , precipitation,or
                                                                                    Spatially explicit landscape-scale ranges, specie
                                    fragmentation, heterogeneous landscapes, patch occupancy, predicted distributions,models that pr
                                                                                       In recent years, the focus on issues reach sensit
                                    Pontchartrain Basin, Amite River, fluvial geomorphology, environmental, water quality,regarding wa
                                                                                          Aim To determine if U.S.A., woody plants
                                    transition zone, birds, vegetation, range limits, richness gradient, Maine,vegetation complexity asso
                                                                                        Potential source populations of forest-breeding
al Modelling and Simulation Conference.                                             The integration of geographic information syste
                                                             http://wolfweb.unr.edu/homepage/tcroth/Roth%20et%20al.%20200
                                                                                    ################
                                     bird feeders, Cooper’s Hawks, home range, predator-prey interactions, radio-tracking, raptors,
                                                                                       analysis, in the Rodentia, geographic richness a
                                    data bases, Oregon, digital simulation, Monte CarloVariation errors,distribution of species informati
            Clemson, SC
            Laramie, WY.
            Sunderland, Mass.       protected areas.
                                                                                       Anthropogenic features human urbanization, ro
                                    abiotic interaction, anthropogenic disturbance, ecological human footprint, such as footprint, huma
                                    black bear, GIS, habitat selection, landcover/landuse, Ursus americanuslayers can be used to map sp
                                                                                        Landcover/landuse
                                                                                            Although widespread throughout the interior fo
                                    chaparral, digger pine, fire severity, foothill pine, gray pine, Kaweah, Kern, meta-populations
            Bethesda, MD.
                                                  ################
biodiversity hotspots, wildlife conservation, avian conservation.
                                                    Landscape landscape stressors
conservation priorities, species of greatest conservation need, scale conservation planning efforts h
                                                Quantifying landscape dynamics use
natural landscapes, landscape dynamics, human modification, land use change, roadis a central goa
            orange=in xml with abstract, green = in XML w/out abstract

 approach to wetland assessment and monitoring has been developed to incorporate information from multiple spatial scales and v
question currently facing environmental managers is how to accurately and efficiently quantify forest diversity and resources. Num



honeybees, hybrids between African (Apis mellifera scutellata) and western European (A. m. mellifera) and eastern European (A. m.
ommonly use wetlands for breeding habitat, and given the concern about their ongoing global declines, the effects of urbanization on the
represent an important component of the global soil C budget in that they cover 12% of the global land area and contain nearly 20%
 rogram to recover the peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus in the southeastern U.S. we recorded perching behaviour with the objectiv
 activities of the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Interagency Consortium, an intermediate-scale land cover data set is being
e ecology, biogeography, and conservation biology of 57 checkered beetle species (Insecta: Coleoptera: Cleridae, subfamilies Tillina
d flycatchers (Empidonax fulvifrons) are rare in the United States due to a >90% reduction in breeding distribution. Previous autho
ley oak (Quercus lobata Née) is a seriously threatened endemic oak species in California and a keystone species for foothill oak ecosystem
atial variation in phenotypic quality of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations is of great interest to wildlife manage


n planners use several methods to select conservation target areas. These include the use of umbrella species for large area requirem
 likely ecological importance, the basic biology of Cooper’s (Accipiter cooperii) and Sharp-shinned (A. striatus) Hawks remains poo
 occurrence and distribution is an essential 1st step in conservation planning for rare species. Spatial habitat models can be used to
entories of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) require an accurate spatial description of plant species or plant communiti
 al concerns facing the development pressure in southern Lisbon Metropolitan area raised the need to review the network of existin
whether conditions are suitable for reproduction would help determine if immigration is necessary for Canada lynx (Lynx canadens


 is a GIS approach to biodiversity currently employed throughout the continental United States to determine how well native biodiv
s an approach to conserving biological diversity that maps species richness and identifies sites that ought to be protected but are not in co
Program is a landscape-level evaluation of plant communities and animal richness and is useful in wildlife conservation. Models to predic


y role played by biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) in tropospheric chemistry and regional air quality, it is critical to gene
ngbird populations have experienced some of the most severe declines of any migratory songbird guild in North America and are continui
ation, in the form of land-use development, is a leading cause of biodiversity loss in the U.S. and elsewhere. Although statutes in the
and fragmentation due to urbanization are the most pervasive threats to biodiversity in southern California. Loss of habitat and frag
reas of the wildland-urban interface (WUI) that are prone to severe wildfire is an important step in prioritizing fire prevention and
Manual of California Vegetation introduced a quantitatively based method for classifying and mapping vegetation in California. We u
y, the geography of species needing protection is central to the development of conservation strategies. In this study we mapped the dist
 the Vegetation Type Map (VTM) project of the 1930’s has provided valuable historical vegetation data. Albert Wieslander led this e
 we set up a wood decomposition experiment to i) quantify the percent of mass remaining, decay constant and performance strengt


rasslands by woody plants has been identified as a key indicator of changes in ecosystem structure and function in arid and semi-ar
pment pressures that threaten habitat core areas and connectivity are intensifying across the nation and extending beyond urbanize
ological applications of remotely sensed data are needed over increasingly larger areas and at finer spatial scales. Within the framework o
enetics is an emerging discipline that utilizes environmental and historical data to understand geographic patterns of genetic divers
 atterns of vertebrate species richness have been related to a variety of climatic and historical influences. However, within North Am


 ion Land Characterization 2001 (MRLC 2001) is a second-generation Federal consortium designed to create an updated pool of nation-w
three decades a great deal of research, money, and effort have been put into the development of theory and techniques designed to make
earch suggests that the yellow-faced pocket gopher (Cratogeomys castanops) occupies a restricted range in western Kansas that is s
c interest in restoring elk (Cervus elaphus) to eastern states has created the need to assess habitat suitability over large landscapes
h-resolution mapping of vegetation cover and biomass is central to understanding changes to the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle, espec
 nagers confronted with preserving ecosystems for prairie wetland birds in fragmented landscapes require landscape studies that d
itats are important components of an ecosystem; however, their hydrology combined with anthropogenic effects facilitates the esta
gery is a useful tool for large-scale habitat analysis; however, its limitations need to be tested. We tested these limitations by varyin
dsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and RADARSAT-1 (radar) satellite image data collected before and after the landfall of Hurricane Katrin
s and migratory stopovers of wetland birds can function as geographic bottlenecks; common dependence among migratory wetland


management zones (SMZs) and road beautifying buffers (RBBs) in Georgia have had an unknown impact on the available wood supp
oducts based on biodiversity information such as gap analysis depend critically on accurate models of species’ geographic distributi
 ristics of satellite-derived landcover data for climate models vary depending on sensor properties and processing options. To bette
 tion of species distributions with abiotic and landscape variables using Geographic Information Systems can prioritize areas for bio
ation of ecosystems focuses on evaluating individual sites or landscapes based on their component species. To produce a map of con


abitat preferences of three conspicuous and widely distributed species of lizards (Aspidoscelis tigris, Callisaurus draconoides, and Uta stan
Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) change in the Great Lakes, particularly in urban and suburban areas, far exceeds that predicted by pop
istribution of invasive alien plants has been poorly documented in California. However, with the increased availability of GIS softw
 ginia Gap Analysis Project is currently mapping the predicted distribution of native wildlife species in the state. While most species
 presents a biodiversity model where the scale dependencies are reduced and the integration of a wide range of incompatible data i
escribes and evaluates an automated riverflow forecasting system for the prediction of peak flows during the cool season of 1998–9
atastrophic wildfires in southern California highlight the need for effective planning and management for fire-prone landscapes. Fir
d and sixty-one vascular plant species were documented for Yucca House National Monument and surrounding lands including seve
ide land-cover mapping efforts, the GAP Analysis Program (GAP) and the USGS National Land Cover Data (NLCD) program, address the ne
 d a rigorous monitoring program to develop appropriate conservation plans for swift foxes (Vulpes velox). We set 20 cage traps on
small mammals of fragmented sagebrush steppe on the Snake River Plain, Idaho, and compared the effects of habitat isolation on th
American black bears (Ursus americanus), on the northwest periphery of Okefenokee Swamp in southeast Georgia, to assess landow
 little-known ray-finned fish assemblages from Maryland's coastal bays in order to establish species-habitat relationships for comm


bal Positioning System technology to document distance, movement path, vegetation, and elevations used by a dispersing subadult


s are the most important biotic source of mortality of EAB identified to date in the U.S. In some trees, woodpeckers have removed u
ondary contact between closely related species provide a rare opportunity to examine evidence of evolutionary processes that reinf
 sign strategy involves a landscape approach formulated to complement existing management efforts and employ restoration in the heav
as in India have historically been established on an ad hoc basis with little attention to the conservation value of an area. This study focus
he first hierarchical classification system of the existing natural vegetation of Kansas. Sixty vegetation community types are recognized in
the number of species represented and the spatial pattern of reserve networks derived using five types of reserve selection algorithms on


ematic Mapper (TM) based digital land cover map has been created for the state of Wyoming, USA, at moderate spatial (1-km<sup>2</sup
hierarchy has been developed for classifying information, particularly with regard to mapping, for the ecosystems of North America. First
a harbors an astounding proportion of the world's freshwater species, but it is facing a freshwater biodiversity crisis. A first step to slowin
a 1:500,000-scale map of the actual vegetation of the state of Idaho from existing vegetation maps, LANDSAT MSS satellite imagery, and


rk of a national land use and land cover classification system is presented for use with remote sensor data. The classification system has b


Wildlife Refuge System began as a series of ad hoc executive and legislative actions that created a diverse group of lands dedicated to the
 by Underhill (Biol. Conserv., 70, 85-7, 1994) points out the need for the use of optimization models and a closer working relationship wit
n of the natural vegetation of Colorado is presented. This classification, which uses the Plant Association as the basic unit, was developed
gent need to inventory and monitor indicators of biological diversity, such as species richness. Remotely-sensed data provide a means to


dscape change may serve a variety of purposes, from exploring the interaction of natural processes to evaluating proposed management
ysis Program (GAP) is a nationwide effort to find areas of suitable habitat in the US, which if protected from habitat degradation, may help
es as potential Research Natural Areas to represent a set of target vegetation types is a complex planning problem in which competing ob
is potential distributions of terrestrial vertebrate species are based on the synthesis of wildlife habitat relation data and then modelled us



tributions, stream classifications, fish communities.


the state of Idaho, U.S.A., have been proposed by various interest groups to be designated as national parks. The four areas average 220,
 to maintain biodiversity with limited funding and personnel puts a premium on building reserve networks that maximize species number
s of remotely sensed data has become an important component of many earth-science studies. These data are often processed through a
d an Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) for wadeable Ozark Highland streams in Arkansas by using fish-assemblage data from 96 stream sites. Al
re has been a revolution in the availability of information and in the development and application of tools for managing information. Infor




ds and criteria are available to assess aquatic ecosystems, and this review focuses on a set that demonstrates advancements from commu


nd ecoregion-based conservation efforts increasingly use a spatial component to organize data for analysis and interpretation. A challenge
ap (Fl-Gap) project provides an assessment of the degree to which native animal species and natural communities are or are not represen
on of geographic patterns in biodiversity is of considerable interest to biologists and natural resource managers. A key component is the m
ntly has 144 nature reserves covering approximately 9.1% of its land area. These reserves were established for a variety of reasons—often
acilitates a regional approach to conservation planning in Pennsylvania based on avian breeding habitat selection. The objectives were to:



ow forest-bird nest success varied by landscape context from 1996 to 1998 in an agricultural region of southeastern Minnesota, southwes




e distributions of breeding birds in the state of Georgia, USA, we built hierarchical models consisting of 4 levels of nested mapping units of



orest structure is important for sustainable forest management, as it relates to a wide variety of ecosystem processes and services. Lidar d



 how well the biological diversity of a region is protected, one must know the locations of all managed areas and the level of managemen



 have been made to analyze the status of conservation efforts at a continental scale, mainly because of the lack of high-quality data sets a




d by the Gap Analysis program in the state of Idaho (U.S.A,) are used to prioritize the selection of locations for conservation action and res


of a regional-scale thematic map of land cover was assessed using conventional and fuzzy methods. The mapping process integrated Land
particular grasslands to the activities of domestic livestock may depend on their historic association with native grazing animals. Southwes
 a targets of 10% of a biome, of a country, or of the planet have often been used in conservation planning. The new World Database on Pr



ty between the regional and national scales at which wetland losses are occurring, and the project-specific scale at which wetlands are re
based characterization of vegetation has been developed for southwestern California using satellite imagery, air photos, existing vegetatio


road and relatively stable distribution of the black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) throughout much of the Pleistocene and Holo
d abundance, habitat use and diurnal activity patterns of sympatric populations of fox squirrels (Sciurus Niger) and gray squirrels (S. Caroli
 e is widespread agreement on the importance of maintaining natural areas and their associated flora and fauna, the total amount of area
een many attempts to classify geographic areas into zones of similar characteristics. Recent focus has been on ecoregions. We examined h
 the effect three different sampling schemes used to organize spatially explicit biological information had on the spatial placement of con
 musk turtle Sternotherus depressus has disappeared from more than half of its former range because of habitat modifications to stream
ess is being mapped as part of an inventory of biological diversity in California (i.e., gap analysis). Species distributions are modeled with a
en uncertainty in the national gap analysis program about including non-breeding birds in distribution models because of concerns that dis
he distributions of 2 species of pocket gopher in Kansas, the plains pocket gopher (Geomys bursarius) and the yellow-faced pocket gophe


timates of declines of natural ecosystems in the United States, provide a rationale for ecosystem-level conservation, discuss decline and t



echnology plays an increasingly vital role in bioindustrial development and in the establishment of biodiversity conservation and sustainab
the swift fox (Vulpes velox) became a subject of controversy when a petition was submitted in 1992 to have it listed under the provisions
 sis process provides an overview of the distribution and conservation status of several components of biodiversity. Lands are categorized


dion haliaetus) have been the focus of conservation efforts since their dramatic population decline attributed to dichlorodiphenyltrichloro



 species distributions, water quality, habitats.
 se Gopherus polyphemus populations are greatly reduced from former numbers. Relocation is one technique currently being used to pro
entation can be measured and monitored in a powerful new way by combining remote sensing, geographic information systems, and anal




ation efforts in California are conducted at local to sub-regional scales, and focus on species or communities of special concern. Currently
ed a gap analysis approach to evaluate whether the genetic resources conserved in situ in protected areas are adequate for conifers in we



n GAP analysis was conducted for theA conservation gap analysis was conducted for the Intermountain Semi-Desert ecoregion to assess t
onal approach to maintaining biological diversity generally has been to proceed species by species and threat by threat. We suggest that p




ncern with reduction in biodiversity has generated responses in the United States, such as the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Although the
assessment requires quantitative criteria for evaluating the relative degree of threat faced by species or ecological communities. Identify
easing demand for broad-scale vegetation maps for ecosystem management and conservation planning comes the need for flexible tools




as are the single most important conservation tool. The global protected-area network has grown substantially in recent decades, now oc
 lakes water quality Great Lakes




of natural resources,GAP analysis (Planning),GEOGRAPHIC information systems,HABITAT (Ecology) -- Modification,HABITAT (Ecology) -- M
e but highly virulent ßea-borne zoonotic disease causedbythe Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis Yersin. Identifying areas at high risk


al assessments of regional development projects have been used in Mexico to determine where conflicts between conservation of biodive
odiversity elements to expose gaps in. conservation networks has become a common strategy in nature-reserve design. We review a set
d-cover change detection analysis provides a useful tool for conservation planning and environmental monitoring and addresses issues of
ial data to identify potential areas for elk (Cervus elaphus) restoration in Arkansas. To assess habitat, we used locations of 239 elk groups
the conservation status of 73 vegetation cover types distributed across a 1.76 million km2 region in 10 states of the western USA. We fou
ource management needs at the landscape level has become critical for the conservation of ecosystems and the preservation of species.


ment is a formidable agent of change affecting fundamental ecological processes. Decisions governing these land-use changes occur almo
ng provides critical information for broad scale assessments of wildlife habitat distribution and conservation. However, such efforts have
 presently a minor consideration in environmental policy. It has been regarded as too broad and vague a concept to be applied to real-wo
ebrate distributions resulting from the Kansas Gap Analysis were compared with maps based on ecological-niche modeling of primary poin
 tion of global biodiversity increasingly relies on a network of protected areas, such as national parks and other types of reserves, to help e
 of Buteo hawks nest sympatrically in the southern Great Plains of the United States. Dietary overlap among them is broad and we tested


 ological applications of remotely sensed data are needed over increasingly larger areas and at finer spatial scales. Within the framework o
 osystem, no matter how small or isolated, includes biotic and abiotic features that interact to promote biodiversity at larger landscape sc
 predict species occurrences quickly is often crucial for managers and conservation biologists with limited time and funds. We used measu
 covery, description, and classification of biodiversity is entering a new phase. In responding to the conservation imperative, we can now s


ed data on animal–habitat associations in terrestrial and aquatic environments to design and implement effective conservation strategies


 given of the changes in occurrence since 1950 of carabid species in Denmark, The Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg, the last two co


 s often need to use information in existing landcover maps when compiling regional or global maps, but there are no standardized techniq


n is one of the world’s centers of biodiversity and endemism. As in similar regions, many of its islands have complex topography, climate a
st Regional Gap Analysis Program will build upon previous gap analysis programs conducted in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, an
 apping efforts within the USGS Gap Analysis Program have traditionally been state-centered; each state having the responsibility of imple
 2.2 million hectare area surrounding the Lolo National Forest in western Montana, USA, a GIS method for predicting patterns of human u
 aps depicting forest three-dimensional structure, particularly as pertaining to snags and understory shrub species distribution, is a major l
mapping (e.g., the Gap Analysis Program [GAP]), in which vegetative features and categories of land use are mapped at coarse spatial scale


 lassification process for mapping land cover across large geographic areas from digital imagey, such as Landsat ~ ~ p r o d u c tiss ,d escrib


 asis has been placed on merging forest inventory data with satellite- based information to improve the efficiency of estimates of forest po
 ments of models where many species occurrences are predicted (e.g., from species-habitat matrices or Gap Analyses) report overall omis



 forest composition and structural diversity in the Uinta Mountains, Utah, as functions of satellite spectral data and spatially-explicit envir



models of vertebrate species richness are primarily created based on literature and expert review to predict individual species' occurrence


 ent has been suggested as a primary factor contributing to declines in greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations. We e
Mexican environmental law provides the legal basis for comprehensive land use planning. Under the law, development of natural ecosyste


 collaborative effort of authors from Asia, the Pacific, and the USA, and was produced under the auspices of the East-West Centre's Enviro
 of the coterminous United States is in nature reserves. Assessment of the occurrence of nature reserves across ranges of elevation and so
 rature generally lacks habitat information needed to adequately model the habitats of most wildlife species at large scales (>1:100,000). W


 riables were employed as indices of habitat heterogeneity, fragmentation, and human influence on the environment to characterize cons




              image classification.
modeling, ecology.




population trend for the interior subspecies of band-tailed pigeon (Patagioenas fasciata) are not available because no standardized survey


 ention has been paid in recent years to the threats to coastal and marine biodiversity, compared to biodiversity in more terrestrial habita




esents a methodology for detecting potential errors in vegetation maps developed by interpretation of remotely sensed imagery. Land co
 rce managers and researchers are often faced with the issue of how to subdivide large landscapes into smaller, homogeneous units for an


 cent criticisms of the recovery process of the U.S. Endangered Species Act and to search for ways to improve recovery efforts, we evaluat



ervation strategies for plant and animal species rarely address the need to protect the species throughout its geographic range thereby ca
portance of spatial scale in ecology is well established, few studies have investigated the impact of data grain on conservation planning ou
 n exercise to check the efficiency of the existing reserve system, and to show how systematic conservation planning—using information a
 tive approaches have been proposed for setting conservation priorities from a database of species (or communities) by site. We present a
 of ecological processes and biodiversity may require development of a conservation system consisting of protected "cores" surrounded b



 ion and activity of the snake community of the Pa-hay-okee wetlands of Everglades National Park is described. The study was conducted i
 ent and evaluate a conservation strategy whose objective is to represent all native plant communities in areas where the primary manage
have come to different conclusions about the usefulness of habitat-relationship models for predicting species presence or absence. This di
 ers need to know the reliability of output products from GIS analysis. For many GIS applications, it is not possible to compare these produ
 managers responsible for park management, we conducted a pilot study to examine small mammal assemblages at 7 riparian parks in su
ap analysis, bodiveristy.
 tted Owls, Strix occidentalis caurina, require large tracts of old-growth conifer forest to survive and reproduce. Much of this forest has be


 ecological classification units form the foundation for effective data collection, assessment, and reporting on         ecosystems. Attemp
matic Mapper (TM) data were the basis in production of a statewide land cover data set for Wisconsin, undertaken in partnership with U.S


he presence and distribution of 19 species at risk in northeastern Florida at the Camp Blanding Training Site (CBTS) during 2000-2001, seve
 efficient is generally used to assess the accuracy of image classifications. We introduce the Tau coefficient, which measures the improvem
 as are a cornerstone of conservation and have been designed largely around terrestrial features. Freshwater species and ecosystems are
 I review major historical conservation events, changes in landscape (cover types) patterns, and agency (state and federal) inventory and m




 ical data, environmental cartography, global change, invasive species, modelling, reserve design, surveys
 biodiversity is a serious ecological problem, biodiversity research and management are important components of current conservation b
 ulation of Margaritifera auricularia was found in the lowe Ebro river and adjoining channels in Catalonia, Spain. This species once lived in



 biodiversity, ecosystem classifications, aquatic ecosystems, environmental management, gap analysis, riverine ecosystems, ecological cla




  science of conservation biology represents an intersection of elements of ecology, genetics, biogeography, and many traditional applied
 takes a proactive landscape-level approach to conserving native species by identifying nodes of high biological diversity. It uses vertebrate
 Rockies Ecoregion contains a rich diversity of native plants, animals, and natural communities. However, the ecoregion has not escaped h


 s a GIS approach to biodiversity currently employed throughout the continental United States to determine how well native biodiversity i
 nce of biodiversity by securing representative and well-connected habitat networks in managed landscapes requires a wise combination
 optimization models have been developed for natural reserve design and reserve site selection. The most common approach seeks to ma
 based assessment is used to assess the effect of urbanization on vertebrate habitat potential in Westfield River Watershed in Massachuse
mates of the habitat areas of major marine producer groups were needed in support of an ecosystem modeling effort in the macrotidal Co


 ories, like those conducted by the Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis Program (FIA) in the Rocky Mountain Region are under inc
 f Rich County, Utah sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) have been declining in recent years. Because loss of winter habitat is a susp
 of biodiversity hotspots (hereafter, hotspots) has become a common strategy to delineate important areas for wildlife conservation. How
 ana/Illinois forest inventory (USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA)) used Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data for strat
 t studies base assessment of conservation priorities primarily on the current protection status of vertebrate species and vegetation comm
 ated wilderness areas are acknowledged to be an important element in strategies to conserve biological diversity in United States. Howe
 SITY SOUTHERN INDIANA FOREST, Green County, Forest, vegetation, landscape, ecosystem
anagement agencies and conservation organizations often are interested in purchasing or acquiring conservation easements on small land


ted the potential of using unclassified spectral data for predicting the distribution of three bird species over a ~400,000 ha region of Mich
which vegetation types organisms perceive similarly and classifying these types into groups that function as similar habitats are necessary
g methods traditionally used for assessing accuracy of small-area thematic maps are less suitable for large-area, lower resolution maps. M




als of the Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi ) recovery plan is to expand panther range north of the Caloosahatchee River in central Flo


d a systematic conservation assessment of the 10.8-million-ha Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), integrating three basic approaches t
we propose a protocol for identifying and evaluating candidate sites for the U. S. National Forest's Research Natural Area (RNA) program.
 d degradation of natural resources due to land use decisions and the subsequent loss of biodiversity across large spatial scales, there is a
spread and long-standing efforts to model wildlife-habitat associations using remotely sensed and other spatially explicit data, there are re


d landscape routes offering the best chance of success for wildlife moving among the three large core protected areas in the Northern Ro
ound the world have experienced dramatic decline for more than a century. The spatial extent and condition of grasslands in many region
rian buffers established along streams in agricultural landscapes are expected to provide water-quality functions similar to natural ecosys


gement zones (SMZs) and road beautifying buffers (RBBs) are voluntary in Georgia and have an unknown extent and impact on the state's


een many studies that try to determine what environmental variables are important to bird species for habitat selection. This is commonl




s National Wildlife Refuge, Nye Co., Nevada, is a small oasis in the northern Mojave Desert. Changes in use of land through irrigated agricu


gists have provided supplemental food during winter to improve post-release survival of Wild Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) transplanted
ore than 900 vegetation plots surveyed in the evergreen shrublands of southern California were used to develop predictions of the distribu


otection and maintenance of ecological communities and populations must consider the effect of atmospheric pollutants in addition to st
nment hasmultiple responsibilities for the protection of endangered species,many of themstemming fromits role as the nation’s largest la



 s is being made in the conceptual, technical, and organizational requirements for generating synoptic multi-scale views of the earth's surf



ly published classifications of intermountain shrub vegetation and a new classification based on maximum salt tolerances and water relat
MEN,T VEGETATIOn, LANDSCAPE,S FUTURE, BIODIVERSITY DIVERSITY IDAHO VEGETATION
the historic range of pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis) in Nevada and California using infrared-triggered cameras to determine the s
ODIS vegetation index records were used to extract regularly-repeating seasonal and interannual greenness cycles in Hawaiian ecosystem
s was conducted to evaluate the extent to which genetic resources are conserved in situ in protected areas for six species of conifers in th
 annual grass species are invading the Intermountain West. After disturbances including wildfire, these grasses can form dense stands wit
e nature and extent of land resources and changes over time has become increasingly important, especially in rapidly growing metropolita
 ortunitiesf or grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) to move between blocks of habitat is important or the long-termc onservation of grizzly bear po
ommon to both the historical debates over loss of agricultural land and the current discussions of urbanization and sprawl is a limited und
are scarce resources of high ion concentration used heavily by the Pacific Coast subpopulation of band-tailed pigeons. Over 20% of all kno
-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) populations have declined rangewide, and one of the principal causes is thought to be low nest suc
 ctive tool for conservation of biodiversity is high quality information on the extent and status of species and their habitats. To guide that
derstood that human condition is tightly linked to environmental condition and the services it provides. Ecosystem services, i.e. "services
on of geographical information systems (GIS) and hydrologic models provides the user the ability to simulate watershed scale processes w
d this 2-year study to determine if lesser prairie-chickens Tympanuchus pallidicinctus and ring-necked pheasants Phasianus colchicus used


 e biogeographic patterns of terrestrial vertebrates in Maine, USA using techniques that would describe local and spatial correlations with
artment of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) initiated the Underground Test Area (U
surveys to estimate populations or index trends include protocol prohibiting counts during rain but fail to address effects of rainfall prece
cit landscape-scale models that predict species distributions, where patches of habitat are shown as having potential to be occupied or un
 s, the focus on issues regarding water quality has shifted from a local site-specific view of a problem toward a holistic view where the hea
mine if vegetation complexity associated with transition zones may be a contributing factor affecting bird species distributions in Maine, U
rce populations of forest-breeding Neotropical migrant birds may be threatened by anthropogenic changes that increase brood parasitism
on of geographic information systems (GIS) and hydrologic models provides the user with the ability to simulate watershed-scale processe


he distribution of species richness as a result of introduced errors of omission and commission in the Gap Analysis database for Oregon wa




 c features such as urbanization, roads, and power lines, are increasing in western United States landscapes in response to rapidly growing
nduse layers can be used to map species’ distributions as a potential indicator of habitat selection. We used this approach to assess habita
espread throughout the interior foothills of central and northern California, Pinus sabiniana Dougl. has a disjunct distribution in the south
ale conservation planning efforts have been in place for the past several decades to maintain biodiversity. Objectives of past efforts have
andscape dynamics is a central goal of landscape ecology, and numerous metrics have been developed to measure the influence of human
 rom multiple spatial scales and varying levels of effort. In this approach, wetland condition is evaluated in an intensive assessment
rest diversity and resources. Numerous studies have demonstrated the use of modem spatial analytical tools, such as geographical i



era) and eastern European (A. m. caucasica, A. m. carnica, and A. m. ligustica) subspecies are widely distributed in urban areas of th
, the effects of urbanization on the breeding distribution of amphibians need to be
  land area and contain nearly 20% of global soil C stocks, both organic (SOC) and inorganic (SIC). The objectives of this study were
ching behaviour with the objective of characterizing perches used in the reintroduction area. We used a siteattribute design and log
te-scale land cover data set is being generated for the conterminous United States. This effort is being conducted on a region-by-region ba
tera: Cleridae, subfamilies Tillinae and Clerinae) in southeastern Arizona were studied using commercial Geographic Information S
ding distribution. Previous authors have implicated fire suppression in montane woodlands as the underlying cause of population d
e species for foothill oak ecosystems. Urban and agricultural development affects a significant fraction of the species’ range and predicted
 great interest to wildlife managers. Relating phenotypic variation of populations to large-scale land-use patterns may provide insig


lla species for large area requirements, site-specific locations of important biodiversity elements, and indications of ecosystem heal
 (A. striatus) Hawks remains poorly understood. This is particularly true during the winter, when even basic information on the spa
ial habitat models can be used to increase efficiency of field surveys and to improve understanding about factors influencing anima
 plant species or plant communities. Because it is species-specific, the Gap Analysis Program (GAP) geographic information system
d to review the network of existing conservation areas. Gap Analysis and Greenway conceps and methods have been tried to assist
 y for Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) to persist at the southern edge of the species range. We located den sites and monitored repro


determine how well native biodiversity is represented in the network of conservation lands. Here, we describe an effort to apply gap
ht to be protected but are not in conservation networks. Gap analyses based on species richness may have high error rates when species
life conservation. Models to predict species distributions are fundamental for Gap analysis to assess animal richness patterns. Basic mode


nal air quality, it is critical to generate accurate BVOC emission inventories. Indeed, formulating effective air quality attainment strat
 in North America and are continuing to disappear from portions of their historic ranges. Habitat loss and degradation have been implicate
 ewhere. Although statutes in the U.S. may require consideration of biodiversity in local land-use planning and regulation, local gove
 alifornia. Loss of habitat and fragmentation can lower migration rates and genetic connectivity among remaining populations of na
n prioritizing fire prevention and preparedness projects. Our objective is to determine at a regional scale the relative risk of severe w
ping vegetation in California. We used this method to develop a classification of vegetation types for Napa County, which we then us
s. In this study we mapped the distribution of restricted-range birds and butterflies not listed as threatened or endangered under the Enda
data. Albert Wieslander led this effort to survey the forests of California in the 1930’s. His crews surveyed over 150,000 km2, drawi
 onstant and performance strength of aspen stakes (Populus tremuloides) in dry and moist boreal (Alaska and Minnesota, USA), tem


e and function in arid and semi-arid rangelands throughout the world. We investigated changes in the balance between woody and h
 n and extending beyond urbanized areas in the form of rural residential development. This is particularly true in the temperate fore
 tial scales. Within the framework of the National Biological Service Gap Analysis program, 36 Utah cover types were modeled from a state
graphic patterns of genetic diversity. Niche modelling has added a new dimension to such efforts by allowing species-environmenta
 ences. However, within North American and Britain, empirical evidence suggests that climatic energy is most significant. In this an


 reate an updated pool of nation-wide Landsat 5 and 7 imagery and derive a second-generation National Land Cover Database (NLCD 200
 and techniques designed to make conservation more efficient. Much of the recent emphasishas been on methods to identify areas of high
 range in western Kansas that is surrounded by the range of the plains pocket gopher (Geomys bursarius), which is regarded as a su
 suitability over large landscapes. Our objectives were to identify the areas in New York, a landscape of 126,000 km2 with the highe
 errestrial carbon (C) cycle, especially in the context of C management. The third most extensive vegetation type in the United States
 require landscape studies that direct conservation efforts over broad geographic regions. We investigated the role of local and land
pogenic effects facilitates the establishment and spread of invasive plant species. We used a maximum-entropy predictive habitat m
ested these limitations by varying the methods of a habitat evaluation for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the Adirond
er the landfall of Hurricane Katrina in the Pearl River Wildlife Management Area on the Louisiana-Mississippi border, USA, were app
ndence among migratory wetland bird species on these sites has major implications for wetland conservation. Although 90% of play


mpact on the available wood supply in the state. We used Forest Inventory and Analysis data, Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery, Ga
s of species’ geographic distributions that simultaneously minimize error in both overprediction and omission. We compared curren
 and processing options. To better understand the first order effects of differences in landcover data on a land surface parameteriza
 stems can prioritize areas for biodiversity protection by identifying areas of high richness, although the number of variables and co
 species. To produce a map of conservation values, we developed a method to weight habitat-suitability maps for individual species


 llisaurus draconoides, and Uta stansburiana) were examined across four geomorphic landforms (sandy wash, rocky wash, alluvial plain, a
far exceeds that predicted by population growth alone. Thus, quantification of LULC and change through time may be a key factor in
ncreased availability of GIS software and spatially explicit data, the distribution of invasive alien plants can be explored. Using biore
 s in the state. While most species are mapped using land cover maps from remotely sensed imagery, certain reptiles and amphibian
wide range of incompatible data is allowed. During the study, in which the author used the county as the area of analysis, sites of po
 during the cool season of 1998–99 over six watersheds in western Washington. The forecast system is based on the Pennsylvania S
ent for fire-prone landscapes. Fire frequency analysis of several hundred wildfires over a broad expanse of California shrublands re
surrounding lands including seven new records for Montezuma County. This work was part of a biological inventory throughout the
ta (NLCD) program, address the need for intermediate-scale land-cover information to support a diverse user community. The data sets a
 s velox). We set 20 cage traps on 51 grids to estimate rates of occupancy in eastern Colorado. Every 50th grid was selected systema
 e effects of habitat isolation on their diversity, abundance, and species composition in 2 landscapes, kipukas, which are patches of s
utheast Georgia, to assess landowner attitudes toward bears, estimate the extent of damage to commercial honey bee operations by
es-habitat relationships for common species. From 1996–1999, 5 sites were sampled monthly with otter trawls in the coastal bays o


ns used by a dispersing subadult female cougar (Puma concolor) through the fragmented habitat of the Intermountain West, USA. O


es, woodpeckers have removed up to 95% of EAB larvae (Cappaert et al., 2005b), but our understanding of factors affecting woodpe
evolutionary processes that reinforce species boundaries and/or promote diversification. Here, we report on genetic and morpholo
 nd employ restoration in the heavily degraded Kankakee River watershed in northeastern Indiana and northwestern Illinois. The watershe
n value of an area. This study focuses on a set of protected areas in the Agastyamalai region of the Western Ghats (WG), India. We examin
ommunity types are recognized in classes of forest, woodland, shrubland, and herbaceous vegetation, with most of the types classified as
 of reserve selection algorithms on a set of vertebrate distribution data for the State of Oregon (USA). The lgorithms compared are: richn


moderate spatial (1-km<sup>2</sup> minimum mapping unit) and high typal (41 land cover types) resolution as part of the Wyoming Gap
 cosystems of North America. First level ordering refers to one of two generalized types of formations, upland or wetland. The second lev
iversity crisis. A first step to slowing the loss of biodiversity involves identifying gaps in existing efforts to conserve biodiversity and priorit
 NDSAT MSS satellite imagery, and aerial photography. An accuracy assessment showed 92.7% of the polygons to be correctly classified. T


ata. The classification system has been developed to meet the needs of Federal and State agencies for an up-to-date overview of land use


 se group of lands dedicated to the conservation of specific wildlife populations or habitat. The informal nature of the designation process
d a closer working relationship with mathematicians for the solution of biological management problems such as the reserve site selectio
 n as the basic unit, was developed by sorting data in the scientific literature, supplemented by field research. The classification uses a stan
 y-sensed data provide a means to accomplish part of this task, but there has been no comprehensive scientific framework to guide its eff


evaluating proposed management treatments. These models can be categorized as either whole landseape models, distributional landsca
 rom habitat degradation, may help to preserve the native animal and plant biodiversity. In recent years, the GAP protocols used to analyz
 ng problem in which competing objectives must be satisfied simultaneously, including suitability and efficiency. We describe a general pr
relation data and then modelled using a vegetation cover map derived from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery. Using long-term spe




parks. The four areas average 220,000 ha and contain important biological, scenic, recreational, and geological resources. However, the b
orks that maximize species number per area. Here I compare two alternative strategies suggested by the SLOSS debate (accumulating natu
data are often processed through a set of preprocessing or “clean-up” routines that includes a correction for atmospheric scattering, ofte
blage data from 96 stream sites. All sites were classified as reference or non-reference based on both subjective and objective informatio
ols for managing information. Information needs for biodiversity are many and varied. Any database that deals with biodiversity informat




 trates advancements from community analyses to methods spanning large spatial and temporal scales. Basic methods have been extende


ysis and interpretation. A challenge particular to remotely-sensed cover-maps generated from these efforts is how best to assess the accu
 mmunities are or are not represented in existing conservation lands. Those species and communities not adequately represented in areas
 anagers. A key component is the mapping of biodiversity, which combines cartographic procedures for vegetation mapping with biologic
hed for a variety of reasons—often unrelated to the protection of biodiversity. In 2000 in response to a growing concern about the lack o
 selection. The objectives were to: (1) determine the sensitivity of spatial pattern in avian diversity to changing thresholds of intra-guild sp



southeastern Minnesota, southwestern Wisconsin, and northeastern Iowa. Nest success was 48% for all nests, 82% for cavity-nesting spec




4 levels of nested mapping units of decreasing area: 90,000 ha, 3,600 ha, 144 ha, and 5.76 ha. We used the Partners in Flight database of



tem processes and services. Lidar data have proven particularly useful for measuring or estimating a suite of forest structural attributes su



areas and the level of management being provided at each. In this paper we outline some of the problems confronting cartographers in c



f the lack of high-quality data sets at this scale. Given that land management agencies want to prioritize conservation efforts and spend lim




ons for conservation action and research. Set coverage and integer programming algorithms provide a sequence of localities that maximiz


e mapping process integrated Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data with expert knowledge to map land cover for a 12 million-ha area. Acc
h native grazing animals. Southwestern grama (Bouteloua) grasslands are floristically allied to the North American Central Plains but lie ou
ng. The new World Database on Protected Areas shows that terrestrial protected-area coverage now approaches 12% worldwide. Does th



cific scale at which wetlands are regulated and studied, has become obvious. This article presents a synthesis of recent efforts by the US E
 gery, air photos, existing vegetation maps, and field data. Distribution maps of nine dominant coastal scrub species and 13 species assem


 t much of the Pleistocene and Holocene, anthropogenic activities have reduced the current range of this native grassland species and its a
 Niger) and gray squirrels (S. Carolinensis) in forest-farmland interfaces in a four-county area of Pennsylvania from August 1995 to Octobe
 nd fauna, the total amount of area given protected status is frequently less than desirable, and the level of funding provided for managem
 een on ecoregions. We examined how well the boundaries of the most commonly used ecoregion classifications for the US matched the b
 ad on the spatial placement of conservation reserves in Utah, USA. The three sampling schemes consisted of a hexagon representation de
 of habitat modifications to stream and river channels in the Warrior River Basin, Alabama. Only 6·9% of its probable historic range contain
 s distributions are modeled with a GIS on the basis of maps of each species' preferred habitats. Species richness is then tallied in equal-ar
models because of concerns that distributions of migrant and winter birds are difficult to predict and are not necessary to assess biodivers
and the yellow-faced pocket gopher (Cratogeomys castanops), revealed large tracts of land within their distributions that neither species o


conservation, discuss decline and threat as criteria for conservation, and relate ecosystem losses to endangerment at species and populat



 iversity conservation and sustainable management of the environment. Recognizing the need and importance of local and regional datab
 have it listed under the provisions of the Endangered Species Act. Colorado is believed to have 1 of the largest remaining populations of t
 biodiversity. Lands are categorized relative to management status, the degree to which an area is managed to maintain biodiversity. This


 buted to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and related chemicals in the 1960s. Several recent studies of ospreys nesting in the United Stat




 hnique currently being used to protect tortoises on land being developed. Previous relocations have generally been poorly documented a
phic information systems, and analytical software.




 nities of special concern. Currently lacking is an overview of the protection status of species and communities both statewide and in the w
 eas are adequate for conifers in western Oregon and Washington (U.S.A.). We developed geographic information system layers that detai



n Semi-Desert ecoregion to assess the representation of land-cover types within areas managed primarily for hiodiversity objectives. Map
threat by threat. We suggest that piecemeal approaches are not adequate by themselves to address the accelerating extinction crisis and,




 red Species Act (ESA). Although the ESA has had some effect, the species-by-species approach presents a problem because it does not con
or ecological communities. Identifying appropriate criteria for communities is complicated because the species inhabiting them can have m
g comes the need for flexible tools to assess thematic accuracy of these maps. In this paper, we use a generalized linear mixed model (GLM




 tantially in recent decades, now occupying 11.5% of Earth’s land surface, but such growth has not been strategically aimed at maximizing




 odification,HABITAT (Ecology) -- Management.
 Yersin. Identifying areas at high risk of human exposure to the etiological agent of plague could provide a useful tool for targeting limited p


 ts between conservation of biodiversity and resource extraction are likely to occur. Species-rich areas have been acknowledged as a prior
 e-reserve design. We review a set of critical assumptions and issues that influence the interpretation and implementation of gap analysis
monitoring and addresses issues of habitat fragmentation and urban sprawl. Furthermore, land-cover data offer a historical and recent pe
 e used locations of 239 elk groups collected from helicopter surveys in the Buffalo National River area of northwestern Arkansas, USA, fro
 states of the western USA. We found that 25 vegetation cover types had at least 10% of their area in nature reserves. These were genera
ms and the preservation of species. Geographic information systems (GIS) that allow for the integration of spatially referenced databases a


 these land-use changes occur almost exclusively at the local level and, as a result, they are made at many different locations and times. Co
 ation. However, such efforts have been typically unable to incorporate information about vegetation structure, a variable important for e
 a concept to be applied to real-world regulatory and management problems. This problem can be corrected if biodiversity is recognized a
 cal-niche modeling of primary point-occurrence information. The latter maps were considerably more predictive of independent sets of t
 d other types of reserves, to help ensure the survival of selected plants and animals. Recent research identified gaps in this network—occ
mong them is broad and we tested the hypothesis these species partition their breeding habitat spatially. We compared land cover and to


 tial scales. Within the framework of the National Biological Service Gap Analysis program, 36 Utah cover types were modeled from a state
 biodiversity at larger landscape scales. Isolated wetlands, in particular, harbor a significant portion of regional fauna and are often critica
ed time and funds. We used measured associations with landscape patterns to build accurate predictive habitat models that were quickly
servation imperative, we can now supplement the essential work of systematics with spatially explicit information on species and assemb


 t effective conservation strategies. Habitat characteristics used in models typically incorporate (1) field data of limited spatial extent and/


m and Luxembourg, the last two countries being treated as one area. The faunas of these three areas were studied in three independent p


 t there are no standardized techniques for using such data effectively. An iterative, "map-guided" classification approach was developed t


 ave complex topography, climate and soils, and ecological zones change over small areas. A segmented, supervised classification approac
 Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah to provide products that are consistent among areas of this large geographic region. The progr
e having the responsibility of implementing a project design for the geographic area within their state boundaries. The Southwest Regiona
 for predicting patterns of human use on public lands is illustrated. Potential for impacts on fish and wildlife species are highlighted. Data i
 ub species distribution, is a major limitation for managing wildlife habitat in forests. Developing new techniques to remotely map snags an
 are mapped at coarse spatial scales, has been proposed as a reliable tool for land use decisions (e.g., reserve identification, selection, and


 Landsat ~ ~ p r o d u c tiss ,d escribed. Stage I involves a two-pass, unsupervised classification designed to capture patterns evident in a co


 efficiency of estimates of forest population totals, to produce regional maps of forest class and structure, and to explore ecological relati
r Gap Analyses) report overall omission and commission errors. Yet species' attributes suggest that we may predict a priori that some spe



 ral data and spatially-explicit environmental variables through generalized additive models. Measures of vegetation composition and stru



 edict individual species' occurrences and overall richness of vertebrates. Such models need validation based on empirical data to assess th


us urophasianus) populations. We evaluated movements and survival of 58 radiomarked juvenile greater sage-grouse from 1 September (
w, development of natural ecosystems must combine goals, policies, and practice towards the sustainable use of natural resources and the


es of the East-West Centre's Environment and Policy Institute (EAPI), Honolulu, Hawaii. It is organised around ecosystems and environmen
 s across ranges of elevation and soil productivity classes indicates that nature reserves are most frequently found at higher elevations an
ecies at large scales (>1:100,000). We searched in primary and secondary literature for occurrence of several potentially useful habitat me


 environment to characterize constituent units of a 635 km 2 grid covering the state of Pennsylvania. Species richness was determined by o




le because no standardized survey method exists for monitoring the interior subspecies. We evaluated 2 potential band-tailed pigeon sur


diversity in more terrestrial habitats. The tremendous biodiversity at risk and the severity and magnitude of the pressures being exerted o




remotely sensed imagery. Land cover maps derived by photo interpretation of remotely sensed satellite imagery suffer from analyst-dep
smaller, homogeneous units for analytical or administrative purposes. We used data in a Geographic Information System and cluster ana


prove recovery efforts, we evaluated all recovery plans approved by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Marine Fisheries S



ut its geographic range thereby capturing potential genetic and ecological variation. We examined the degree that existing protected are
 grain on conservation planning outcomes. In this study, we compared species richness hotspot and representation networks developed a
tion planning—using information available and the complementarity concept—can improve the basis for decisions and minimize costs. W
communities) by site. We present a model based on the premise that reserve selection or site prioritization can be structured as a classic c
of protected "cores" surrounded by "buffer zones" that effectively expand and connect the cores. Nevertheless, residential development



scribed. The study was conducted in February and March 1986 and from February 1987 to January 1989. A total of 1172 individuals of 16
n areas where the primary management goal is to sustain native biodiversity. We refer to these areas as Biodiversity Management Areas
pecies presence or absence. This difference frequently stems from a failure to recognize the effects of spatial scales at which the models a
t possible to compare these products to an independent measure of truth . Sensitivity analysis offers an alternative means of estimating r
semblages at 7 riparian parks in suburban/urban landscapes and at 1 riparian site in mature forest, all located in central Pennsylvania. Spe
roduce. Much of this forest has been or is being cut by commercial logging operations, with uncertain consequences for the owls. In this p


 ng on          ecosystems. Attempts at regional land cover mapping often falter on this point or struggle along inefficiently. Over the pas
 ndertaken in partnership with U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Gap Analysis Program (GAP). The data set contained seven classes compar


Site (CBTS) during 2000-2001, seven years after the first major baseline surveys of CBTS were conducted. Much of the training conducted
ent, which measures the improvement of a classification over a random assignment of pixels to groups, and we compare its performance
water species and ecosystems are highly imperiled, but the effectiveness of existing protected areas in representing freshwater features i
(state and federal) inventory and monitoring programs to help explain trends in terrestrial vertebrate populations in Pennsylvania. I then




ponents of current conservation biology. This paper describes how sociology can contribute to biodiversity research and management. Bi
ia, Spain. This species once lived in large rivers over most of Western Europe and Morocco, but overfishing for its shell and pearls, and wi



 riverine ecosystems, ecological classifications.




 phy, and many traditional applied disciplines such as wildlife management and forestry. Its major concern is providing a valid scientific ba
ological diversity. It uses vertebrate species richness as an index of overall biological diversity. However, it remains unknownwhether or no
er, the ecoregion has not escaped human-caused biological degradation. Several species native to the Southern Rockies have been extirpa


mine how well native biodiversity is represented in the network of conservation lands. Here, we describe an effort to apply gap analysis to
apes requires a wise combination of protection, management, and restoration of habitats at several scales. We suggest that the integrati
ost common approach seeks to maximize the number of individual species that occur among chosen sites. A number of heuristics and mat
eld River Watershed in Massachusetts, USA. A spatial analysis is used to develop urban indicators and habitat potential for each subbasin i
odeling effort in the macrotidal Cobscook Bay, ME. Results needed to be comprehensive, synoptic, objective, affordable, and on a suitabl


cky Mountain Region are under increased pressure to produce better information at reduced costs. Here, we describe our efforts in Utah
 use loss of winter habitat is a suspected factor, we used Landsat Thematic Mapper data to model structural and compositional attributes
 reas for wildlife conservation. However, the use of hotspots has not often incorporated important habitat types, ecosystem services, anth
ematic Mapper (TM) data for stratification. Classified images made by the National Gap Analysis Program (GAP) stratified FIA plots into fo
brate species and vegetation communities. Our objective was to compare prioritization using current protection status alone with prioritiz
al diversity in United States. However, because of the restrictions on consumptive uses in wilderness, their establishment is normally con
nservation easements on small land parcels. Time and money limitations, however, often make it difficult to evaluate the ecological impo


 over a ~400,000 ha region of Michigan’s Upper Peninsula using Landsat ETM+ imagery and 433 locations sampled for birds through point
 n as similar habitats are necessary steps toward expanding the focus of conservation strategies from single species to ecosystems. Theref
 rge-area, lower resolution maps. Maplets, or detailed maps of small areas, are proposed here as an alternative source of independent ref




 Caloosahatchee River in central Florida. Our objective was to evaluate the potential of that region to support panthers. We used a geogra


ntegrating three basic approaches to conservation planning: protecting special elements, representing environmental variation, and secur
 arch Natural Area (RNA) program. The approach is explicit and repeatable and consists of the five following steps: 1) Vegetation Target Ty
 ross large spatial scales, there is a need for a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) which showcases the impacts of developments on te
 r spatially explicit data, there are relatively few evaluations of the performance of variables included in predictive models relative to actua


protected areas in the Northern Rockies -- the Salmon-Selway, Northern Continental Divide, and Greater Yellowstone Ecosystems. Using A
 dition of grasslands in many regions of the world are poorly understood because they lack conservation priority relative to other ecologic
 functions similar to natural ecosystems, few studies have documented specific changes in the condition of aquatic resources resulting fro


wn extent and impact on the state's forest production. We describe analyses of these buffers, including an estimation of their potential are


 habitat selection. This is commonly determined using various forms of species distribution modeling. The goal of this research was to det




use of land through irrigated agriculture and associated pumping of groundwater, as well as mining peat moss, altered the environment p


 Meleagris gallopavo) transplanted north of their ancestral range in Minnesota. We evaluated the effectiveness of this action by monitorin
  develop predictions of the distributions of eight dominant shrub species for a 3880 km2 region. The predictions, based on classification t


 spheric pollutants in addition to stressors that occur on the ground. We describe a technique for identifying species ranges and ecosystem
omits role as the nation’s largest landowner. To explore how endangered and imperiled species are distributed across the federal estate,



multi-scale views of the earth's surface and its biological content. Using the spatially comprehensive data that are now available, research



um salt tolerances and water relationships are presented. Maps show that the geographic range of salt desert shrub species far exceeds t


ggered cameras to determine the species' current distribution and habitat selection. Areas with potential habitat were mapped using geo
ness cycles in Hawaiian ecosystems using harmonic analysis. With two vegetation indices, NDVI and EVI, the MODIS system provided an o
 eas for six species of conifers in the Pacific Northwest. The gap analysis involved producing a geographic information system (GIS) detailin
 grasses can form dense stands with fine fuels that then shorten fire intervals. Thus invasive annual grasses and wildfire form a positive fe
 ially in rapidly growing metropolitan areas. In this study, two Landsat satellite image scenes were examined to identify land use and land
ermc onservation of grizzly bear populations. W hile the particulars of grizzly bear habitat selection during long-distance movements are p
nization and sprawl is a limited understanding of land-use dynamics beyond the urban fringe. Data aggregated at the county level poorly c
 tailed pigeons. Over 20% of all known mineral sites used by band-tailed pigeons in western Oregon, including all hot springs, have been a
auses is thought to be low nest success. Little is known about the relationship of vegetation structure and human intrusion to lesser prairi
s and their habitats. To guide that conservation, the National Gap Analysis Program (GAP) has been working to develop thematically rich l
 . Ecosystem services, i.e. "services provided to humans from natural systems" have become a paramount issue of this century in resource
ulate watershed scale processes within a spatially digitized computer based environment. Soil type and land cover data are essential GIS d
 heasants Phasianus colchicus used the same habitats where their ranges overlapped in southwestern Kansas. Telemetry locations of 50 t


 local and spatial correlations with the environment. Location Maine, USA. Methods We delineated the ranges within Maine (86,156 km2
ated the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project to assess and evaluate the effects of the underground nuclear weapons tests on groundw
 to address effects of rainfall preceding the count. Prior research on Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeons (Patagioenas fasciata monilis) docum
 ving potential to be occupied or unoccupied, are increasingly common. To successfully use such data, one should understand how these p
ward a holistic view where the health and hydrologic functionality of entire watersheds are of concern. One measure of watershed health
rd species distributions in Maine, USA, and in increased numbers of bird species at about 45° north latitude in northeastern North Americ
nges that increase brood parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) and nest predation in heavily forested breeding areas. In
simulate watershed-scale processes within a spatially digitized computer-based environment. Soil type and land use data are essential GIS


ap Analysis database for Oregon was evaluated using Monte Carlo simulations. Random errors, assumed to be independent of a species' d




apes in response to rapidly growing human populations. However, their spatial effects have not been evaluated. Our goal was to model th
used this approach to assess habitat selection by a small population of black bears (Ursus americanus) in the Trans-Pecos of Texas. We co
a disjunct distribution in the southern Sierra Nevada, where it is abundant in the Kern River and Tule River watersheds, but is absent from
ty. Objectives of past efforts have been to identify areas to create reserves based on species diversity, land ownership, and landscape con
to measure the influence of human activities on natural landscapes. Composite scores that characterize human modifications to landscap
 uated in an intensive assessment through detailed, on-site measurement of physical and biological condition, and is inferred in a lan
 tical tools, such as geographical information systems (GIS), remote sensing devices, and statistical models for predicting the distrib



 y distributed in urban areas of the southwestern USA. However, little is known about their distribution in rural regions. We collecte


The objectives of this study were to quantify SOC and SIC stocks in Arizona biomes, using Arizona as a model system for arid lands. B
 sed a siteattribute design and logistic regression to compare characteristics between used and non-used perches. Peregrines used p
 onducted on a region-by-region basis using U.S. Standard Federal Regions. To date, land cover data sets have been generated for Federal R
mercial Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software. Clerid beetles previously investigated in this region are known to be restric
 underlying cause of population declines and range contraction. We examined the effect of fire suppression on population declines o
of the species’ range and predicted climate change is likely to dislocate many current populations. Here, we explore spatial patterns of mul
 d-use patterns may provide insight into why populations exhibit spatial variation and elucidate how management can influence pop


and indications of ecosystem health. We tested the adequacy of using an umbrella species to represent finer-scale biodiversity elem
even basic information on the spatial ecology of these species is largely unknown. Thus, we characterized the home range size and h
g about factors influencing animal distributions. We used a modeling approach to identify and prioritize potential habitat for survey
  geographic information system database may be a valuable resource for developing a statewide BVOC emission inventory for Calif
methods have been tried to assist the identification of areas for biodiversity conservation.
 d den sites and monitored reproduction of radiocollared lynx in Minnesota from 2004 to 2006. Movement rates of denning females


 we describe an effort to apply gap analysis to the Rio Bravo/Lower Rio Grande region of Mexico and the United States. Implementat
 ave high error rates when species models are based solely on species-habitat associations, because patches too small to support populat
 imal richness patterns. Basic models combine species' locality, together with their vegetation associations (base variables). Additional en


 ective air quality attainment strategies for formation of ozone, fine particles, and other secondary air pollutants may depend in som
nd degradation have been implicated as primary causes of these declines. However, intensive surface coal mining and subsequent
 anning and regulation, local governments lack the data, resources, and expertise to routinely consider biotic impacts that result fro
mong remaining populations of native species, reducing genetic variability and increasing extinction risk. However, it may be difficul
  scale the relative risk of severe wildfire in WUI areas and the numbers of people and houses in high-risk areas. For a study area in
 r Napa County, which we then used to attribute the polygons of a new vegetation map. The new map was produced by on-screen dig
 ned or endangered under the Endangered Species Act in the conterminous United States, as well as measures of projected increases in h
 rveyed over 150,000 km2, drawing detailed vegetation maps, taking 3000 photos and 17,000 vegetation plots. We developed a tech
 (Alaska and Minnesota, USA), temperate (Washington and Idaho, USA), and tropical (Puerto Rico) forest types, and ii) determine the


 the balance between woody and herbaceous components of a semi-arid landscape in western Colorado (USA) using historical aerial
cularly true in the temperate forests of the northeastern United States. We used a suite of nationally available data sets derived fro
er types were modeled from a state-wide Landsat TM mosaic created from *4 scenes at 30-metre resolution (219,883 sq km). The state w
y allowing species-environmental associations to be projected into the past so that hypotheses about historical vicariance can be ge
ergy is most significant. In this analysis, I examine mesoscale patterns of vertebrate species richness within the U.S. State of Wyomi


 l Land Cover Database (NLCD 2001). The objectives of this multi-layer, multi-source database are two fold: first, to provide consistent lan
n methods to identify areas of high conservation interest and to design efficient networks of nature reserves. Reserve selection algorithms
 sarius), which is regarded as a superior competitor. To determine whether the plains pocket gopher has encroached on the range o
pe of 126,000 km2 with the highest potential to support elk and to determine whether restoration to these areas was biologically fea
getation type in the United States is pinyon–juniper (P–J) woodland, yet the spatial patterns of tree cover and aboveground biomas
estigated the role of local and landscape factors affecting habitat suitability by integrating remotely sensed wetland and land-cover d
 um-entropy predictive habitat model, MAXENT, to predict the distributions of five invasive plant species (Canada thistle, musk this
oileus virginianus) in the Adirondack Park, New York, USA, utilizing harvest data to create and validate the assessment models. We u
Mississippi border, USA, were applied to the study of forested wetland impact and recovery. We documented the overall similarity i
nservation. Although 90% of playa wetlands in the Rainwater Basin (RWB) region of Nebraska, USA, have been destroyed, the area


sat Thematic Mapper imagery, Gap Analysis Program and other geographic information system data to estimate the potential impac
nd omission. We compared current gap methodologies, as exemplified by the distributional models used in the Maine Gap Analysis p
 a on a land surface parameterization scheme (VBATS), stand-alone model runs were performed for two adjacent 2.8° by 2.8° GCM g
gh the number of variables and complexity of the relationships between them can prove difficult for traditional statistical methods.
bility maps for individual species by species-specific extinction risks. The value of a particular site reflects the importance and mag


y wash, rocky wash, alluvial plain, and alluvial deposit) in the southern Mojave Desert, California. All three species were non-randomly dis
rough time may be a key factor in understanding the near-shore ecology of this system. The work described in this paper is part of
ants can be explored. Using bioregions as defined in Hickman (1993), I compared the distribution of invasive alien plants (n= 78) an
ry, certain reptiles and amphibians rely on wetland or riparian habitat features that cannot be readily mapped from imagery. A sepa
as the area of analysis, sites of potential conflict between biodiversity and predicted urbanization were forecast. It has been general
m is based on the Pennsylvania State University–National Center for Atmospheric Research (Penn State–NCAR) fifthgeneration Mes
panse of California shrublands reveals that there is generally not, as is commonly assumed, a strong relationship between fuel age a
ological inventory throughout the National Park Service as part of the Natural Resource Challenge, a legislative and administrative m
se user community. The data sets are comparable, but have different objectives, classification systems, and methodologies. A comparative
 y 50th grid was selected systematically with a randomly selected starting grid from a list of 2,566 grids ranked by percentage of sho
s, kipukas, which are patches of sagebrush-steppe habitat that were isolated by late-Pleistocene and early-Holocene lava flows, and
 mercial honey bee operations by bears, and evaluate methods to reduce bear depredations to apiaries. We collected 8,351 black be
h otter trawls in the coastal bays of Maryland. Anchoa mitchilli (bay anchovy) constituted nearly 50% of the catch for each year, and


f the Intermountain West, USA. Over the course of 1 year, female number 31 moved 357 linear km, but an actual distance of 1,341 k


nding of factors affecting woodpecker predation of EAB is limited. Here, we present exploratory analyses investigating factors that c
e report on genetic and morphological variation in two sister species of woodrats, Neotoma fuscipes and N. macrotis, across a 30-km
northwestern Illinois. The watershed historically contained an approximately 400,000 ha wetland (Grand Marsh), a diverse riverine system
 tern Ghats (WG), India. We examine forest loss and land-use changes in the study area from the early 1900s to 1960 and from 1960 to 19
with most of the types classified as herbaceous plant communities. One community type, chalkflat mixed prairie, is unique to Kansas and 1
The lgorithms compared are: richness-based heuristic algorithms (four variations), weighted rarity-based heuristic algorithms (two variatio


 ution as part of the Wyoming Gap Analysis Program (WGAP). This map presents opportunities for regional characterization of land cover,
upland or wetland. The second level refers to formations within these two types, e.g. tundra, forests, woodlands, scrublands, grasslands,
 o conserve biodiversity and prioritizing opportunities to fill these gaps. In this monograph we detail two separate, but complementary, co
olygons to be correctly classified. The map was digitized as a layer in a Geographic Information System (GIS) using ARC/INFO software. Lan


an up-to-date overview of land use and land cover throughout the country on a basis that is uniform in categorization at the more genera


l nature of the designation process produced a widely diverse set of management requirements that is only partially reflected in the diver
ms such as the reserve site selection problem. In this note we give the mathematical formulation of what he terms ‘the more realistic’ ver
earch. The classification uses a standardized nomenclature. Citations are given for the literature from Colorado and adjoining states for ea
cientific framework to guide its effective application. Here we propose a remote sensing research agenda designed to improve the quality


eape models, distributional landscape models, or spatial landscape models, depending on the amount of detail included in the models. Dis
s, the GAP protocols used to analyze habitat data have become more scale and species dependent. This research describes the creation o
fficiency. We describe a general process for identifying and siting potential Research Natural Areas that is based on a systematic descriptio
(TM) imagery. Using long-term species lists from eight National Parks in Utah, we evaluated the adequacy of the Gap Analysis-generated w




ological resources. However, the biological resources that would be protected by these proposals have received relatively little considera
e SLOSS debate (accumulating nature reserves from small-to-large (STL) or large-to-small (LTS) to the best possible network of reserves. T
on for atmospheric scattering, often called haze. Various methods to correct or remove the additive haze component have been develope
ubjective and objective information, and we used uni- and bivariate statistics to examine 39 potential IBI metrics. Seven metrics were cho
at deals with biodiversity information has to be geographically based, and able to predict where new populations of endangered species w




 Basic methods have been extended by incorporating taxa sensitivity to different forms of stress, adding measures linked to system funct


forts is how best to assess the accuracy of the cover-maps, especially when they can exceed 1,000s km2 in size. Here we develop and desc
ot adequately represented in areas being managed for native species constitute ‘gaps’ in the existing network of conservation lands. The
 vegetation mapping with biological models to predict biodiversity. An important example is the gap analysis project of the National Biolo
a growing concern about the lack of organized conservation reserve planning to protect the important threatened biological and physical f
hanging thresholds of intra-guild species richness and (2) relate change of spatial pattern in avian diversity with landscape characteristics



l nests, 82% for cavity-nesting species, and 42% for cup-nesting species. Mayfield-adjusted nest success for five common species ranged f




 the Partners in Flight database of point counts to generate presence and absence data at locations across the state of Georgia for 9 avian



ite of forest structural attributes such as canopy height, basal area, and LAI. However, the potential of this technology to characterize fore



ems confronting cartographers in compiling digital maps of managed areas. These problems involve the classification of management leve



e conservation efforts and spend limited resources wisely, we recognized the need to undertake a national gap analysis. We developed the




sequence of localities that maximize the number of species or vegetation classes represented at each step. Richness maps of vegetation c


 cover for a 12 million-ha area. Accuracy assessment was based on a stratified random sample of 113 sampling areas. Paired observed an
h American Central Plains but lie outside the historic range of the plains' principal ungulate grazer, Bison bison. We compared perennial gr
pproaches 12% worldwide. Does this mean that the establishment of new protected areas can cease? This was the core question of the “



thesis of recent efforts by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Ecosystems Research Center at Cornell University to bring we
crub species and 13 species assemblages that were identified by divisive information analysis have been analyzed to quantify spatial patte


is native grassland species and its associated biotic community to <5% of its historic range (approximately 1800-Miller et al. 1990, 1994).
vania from August 1995 to October 1996. The mean number of fox squirrels observed was significantly less (F = 21.34, P < 0.001) than tha
el of funding provided for management is almost always inadequate to do the job. A major reason for this is that the benefits to society fr
ifications for the US matched the boundaries of existing vegetation cover mapped at three levels of classification, fine, mid- and coarse sc
ted of a hexagon representation developed by the EPA/EMAP program (statistical basis), watershed boundaries (ecological), and the curre
 its probable historic range contains relatively healthy populations, and most populations are fragmented by extensive areas of unsuitabl
 richness is then tallied in equal-area sampling units. A GIS sensitivity analysis examined the effects of the level of generalization of the ha
e not necessary to assess biodiversity patterns. New Mexico gap analysis included migrant and non-breeding birds assuming that distributi
 distributions that neither species occupies. We hypothesized that habitat and land-use practices in these tracts exclude pocket gophers. T


 angerment at species and population levels. Ecosystems are defined generally and at various spatial scales and include vegetation types,



ortance of local and regional database developments, the Tropical Data Base is establishing an interactive biodiversity/biotechnology info
 largest remaining populations of the species due to significant amounts of short-grass prairie habitat suitable for occupancy. In 1995, we
aged to maintain biodiversity. This study examines how various socio-politicalgroups interpret and apply the management status codes us


 ospreys nesting in the United States have indicated improved reproduction. However, the density of breeding ospreys varies greatly amo




nerally been poorly documented and the usefulness of relocation for tortoise conservation is unclear. In this study, 85 tortoises were relo




unities both statewide and in the western U.S. This paper describes a GIS-based Gap Analysis of biodiversity that is part of a national prog
formation system layers that detail the location of protected areas and the distribution and abundance of each tree species (noble fir [Ab



ly for hiodiversity objectives. Mapped distributions of plant communities were summarized by land-management status categories. The t
e accelerating extinction crisis and, furthermore, they contribute to an unpredictable ecological and economic environment. Here, we des




 a problem because it does not consider the broad ecological principles of biodiversity including the need for balance between different s
species inhabiting them can have many different responses to land uses and other forms of environmental stress. The Gap Analysis Progra
eneralized linear mixed model (GLMM) to explore the relationship between thematic accuracy in the blackbrush cover-type of a satelliteb




n strategically aimed at maximizing the coverage of global biodiversity. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the global network is fa




 a useful tool for targeting limited public health resources and reduce the likelihood of misdiagnosis by raising awareness of the disease. W


 ave been acknowledged as a priority for conservation. However, biological information is incomplete and biased toward accessible sites,
nd implementation of gap analysis, including: (1) the assumption that a subset of taxa can be used to indicate overall diversity patterns, a
 ata offer a historical and recent perspective on landscape dynamics. To this end, the first alliance level land-cover map of Kansas (Kansas
of northwestern Arkansas, USA, from 1992 to 2002. We calculated the Mahalanobis distance (D²) statistic based on the relationship betwe
ature reserves. These were generally plant communities located at higher elevations and thus more commonly associated with national p
of spatially referenced databases are a powerful tool that can be used by resource managers to examine potential impacts and develop st


ny different locations and times. Consequently, it is difficult for ecologists to provide needed scientific support for these choices. We built
 ructure, a variable important for explaining the distribution of many wildlife species. We evaluated the consequences of incorporating re
ected if biodiversity is recognized as an end in itself, and if measurable indicators can be selected to assess the status of biodiversity over
predictive of independent sets of test data than were the Gap maps, further supporting the idea that the method of Gap wildlife-habitat m
 entified gaps in this network—occurrences of key species not covered by protected areas—along with priority locations for creating new
 y. We compared land cover and topography around 224 nests of the three species breeding in shortgrass prairie in 2004 and 2005. Red-ta


er types were modeled from a state-wide Landsat TM mosaic created from 24 scenes at 30-metre resolution (219,883 sq km). The state w
egional fauna and are often critical habitats for maintaining herpetofaunal biodiversity in southern wetlands. Long-term research on isola
e habitat models that were quickly and easily applied (i.e., required no additional data collection in the field to make predictions). We used
nformation on species and assemblages of species. This is possible because of recent conceptual, technical, and organizational progress in


 data of limited spatial extent and/or (2) remote sensing data that do not characterize the vertical habitat structure. Remote sensing tools


ere studied in three independent projects covering a century. The results are given for all species occurring in the entire investigated area


fication approach was developed to compile a spatially and thematically consistent, seamless land-cover map of the entire Intermountain


 , supervised classification approach using Landsat TM imagery enabled us to develop the most detailed island-wide map of Puerto Rico’s
 arge geographic region. The program will develop new land cover, vertebrate species distributions, and land stewardship data layers usin
 oundaries. The Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project (SWReGAP) was the first formal GAP project designed at a regional, multi-state s
dlife species are highlighted. Data inputs include human population count (derived from the 1990 Census), roads and trails, and the predic
chniques to remotely map snags and understory shrubs is therefore an important need. To address this, we first evaluated the use of LiDA
eserve identification, selection, and design). This implicitly assumes that species richness data collected at coarse spatio-temporal scales p


to capture patterns evident in a color composite, followed by a merging of pixels into raster polygons based on spectral similarity Stage 2


re, and to explore ecological relationships. There are numerous ways in which forest class and structure variables can be modeled as func
may predict a priori that some species are more likely to be modeled correctly than others. Because the likelihood of modeling species co



of vegetation composition and structural diversity were available from existing forest inventory data. Satellite data included raw spectral d



 ased on empirical data to assess their accuracy. We describe and apply a new technique for assessing the accuracy of spatially explicit mo


er sage-grouse from 1 September (≥10 weeks of age) to 29 March (≥40 weeks of age) during 1997-1998 and 1998-1999 in lowland and mo
 le use of natural resources and the protection of biological diversity. Thus, ecosystem manipulation must be able to counter fragmentatio


round ecosystems and environmental consequences and emphasizes that conservation and development must be essentially linked if hum
ently found at higher elevations and on less productive soils. The distribution of plants and animals suggests that the greatest number of s
everal potentially useful habitat measures for 20 species of interest to the Idaho Department of Fish and Game. We found adequate infor


ecies richness was determined by overlaying the distributions of all 60 terrestrial mammalian species found within the state. All landscape




 2 potential band-tailed pigeon survey methods (auditory and call-broadcast surveys) from 2002 to 2004 in 5 mountain ranges in southern


de of the pressures being exerted on coastal habitats suggest the need for much greater attention to be focused here by both the policy a




 e imagery suffer from analyst-dependent cartographic errors such as over-generalization, poor boundary placement and misclassification
nformation System and cluster analyses to divide Maine into broad-scale regions based on elevation, slope, two measures of species richn


 nd the National Marine Fisheries Service as of August 1991. As expected with rare species, we found an overall lack of detailed biological



degree that existing protected areas in the western United States satisfied this goal for four widespread vegetation cover types. We used
presentation networks developed at five grain sizes. We used species distribution maps for mammals and birds developed by the Arizona
or decisions and minimize costs. We verified the performance, in number of cells and primate species representation, of the existing Atla
tion can be structured as a classic covering problem commonly used in many location problems. Specifically, we utilize a form of the maxi
ertheless, residential development near protected areas may threaten de facto protected areas and hinder development of an official con



9. A total of 1172 individuals of 16 taxa were observed, with Thamnophis sauritus, T. sirtalis, Nerodia fasciata pictiventris and Agkistrodon
 s Biodiversity Management Areas (BMAs), which we define as specially designated public or private lands with an active ecosystem mana
 patial scales at which the models are applied. We examined the effects of model complexity, spatial data resolution, and scale of applicat
n alternative means of estimating reliability. In this paper, we present a GIS-based statistical procedure for estimating the sensitivity of wi
ocated in central Pennsylvania. Species richness and diversity were lowest in parks containing manicured habitats and surrounded by hum
consequences for the owls. In this paper I present simulation models of owl population change over the next 100 years, assuming a variet


gle along inefficiently. Over the past decade, NatureServe has worked with the Gap Analysis Program and others to map existing vegetatio
et contained seven classes comparable to Anderson Level I and 24 classes comparable to Anderson Level II/III. Twelve scenes of dual-date


 d. Much of the training conducted at CBTS deals with light infantry exercises, but the site is also used for mining, silviculture, hunting, fish
 and we compare its performance with that of Kappa and percentage agreement. Not only does Tau better adjust percentage agreement
representing freshwater features is poorly known. Using the inland waters of Michigan as a test case, we quantified the coverage of four
populations in Pennsylvania. I then give recommendations for the long-term conservation of terrestrial vertebrates within the context of a




 sity research and management. Biodiversity is, like all scientific and environmental issues, partially a socially constructed problem. Case s
hing for its shell and pearls, and widespread destruction of freshwater habitats, accounted for its almost total extinction. Since its rediscov




ern is providing a valid scientific basis for actions that will slow or stop the accelerating loss of biological diversity worldwide. Ecology's ma
, it remains unknownwhether or not the spatial distribution of vertebrate diversity correspondswith the diversity of other taxa. We tested
outhern Rockies have been extirpated and hundreds more are considered to be of conservation concern, including at least 20 species liste


be an effort to apply gap analysis to the Rio Bravo/Lower Rio Grande region of Mexico and the United States. Implementation of the study
ales. We suggest that the integration of natural and social sciences in the form of "Two-dimensional gap analysis" is an efficient tool for th
es. A number of heuristics and mathematical programming algorithms have been applied to solve this problem. Although attaining maxim
abitat potential for each subbasin in the watershed. It is observed that threshold effect of urbanization on habitat potential of vertebrates
ective, affordable, and on a suitable spatial scale. We chose to address these goals by applying accepted procedures utilizing existing Land


re, we describe our efforts in Utah to merge satellite-based information with forest inventory data for the purposes of reducing the costs
tural and compositional attributes of sage grouse winter habitat over a 2,548-km² area in Rich County, 1989-90. Of the 7 shrub and 1 no-s
 tat types, ecosystem services, anthropogenic activity, or consistency in identifying important conservation areas. The purpose of this stud
m (GAP) stratified FIA plots into four classes (nonforest, nonforest/ forest, forest/nonforest, and forest) based on a two pixel forest edge
 otection status alone with prioritization using more traditional methods. We mapped land cover of Washington State at a 100 ha minimu
heir establishment is normally contentious. Criteria for establishment have typically been associated with opportunity and aesthetic and e
ult to evaluate the ecological importance of such lands. This paper presents one method to objectively measure and rank the ecological im


ns sampled for birds through point count surveys. These species, Black-throated Green Warbler, Nashville Warbler, and Ovenbird, were kn
ngle species to ecosystems. Therefore, the methods used to determine these habitat classifications are crucial to the successful design an
ernative source of independent reference data for accuracy assessment. As a land cover census instead of a sparse sample of points, map




upport panthers. We used a geographic information system and the Mahalanobis distance statistic to develop a habitat model based on la


environmental variation, and securing habitat for focal species (grizzly bear [ Ursus arctos ], wolf [ Canis lupus ], and wolverine [ Gulo gulo
wing steps: 1) Vegetation Target Type Identification, 2) Quantification of Environmental Variation, 3) Calculation of Site Suitability, 4) Site
the impacts of developments on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The Gap Analysis Program (GAP) and a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN
 predictive models relative to actual features on the landscape. As part of the National Gap Analysis Program, we specifically examined ph


r Yellowstone Ecosystems. Using ARC/GRID and Montana Gap Analysis data, we derived habitat suitability models for three umbrella spec
n priority relative to other ecological systems. We developed a simple, yet broadly applicable rapid assessment expert system approach th
n of aquatic resources resulting from buffer establishment. In 2000 the Commonwealth of Virginia, USA, began an extensive cooperative v


an estimation of their potential areas and volumes, and their distributions in different forest cover types under an assumption of their ful


he goal of this research was to determine whether readily available models derived from the South Carolina GAP Analysis Program (GAP)




t moss, altered the environment prior to its designation as a refuge in 1984. We evaluated relationships between land use, land cover, an


tiveness of this action by monitoring overwinter and annual survival of 140 transplanted turkeys on three supplemental food and three co
 edictions, based on classification tree (CT) models, were validated using independent field data collected during a vegetation survey cond


fying species ranges and ecosystems across the landscape where there could be potential effects from air toxics releases. We modified th
 tributed across the federal estate, we carried out a geographic information system (GIS)-based analysis using natural heritage species occ



 a that are now available, researchers, land managers, and land-use planners can, for the first time, quantitatively place landscape units –



  desert shrub species far exceeds the distribution of mappable communities in which these shrubs are dominants. Species differ in their c


 al habitat were mapped using geographical information system coverages for elevation, big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) vegetation,
 I, the MODIS system provided an opportunity to combine the two measures and create a hybrid approach to the leaf phenology study in a
 ic information system (GIS) detailing the location of protected areas and the distribution and abundance of tree species, as inferred from
 sses and wildfire form a positive feedback mechanism that threatens native ecosystems. Chief among these within Nevada are Bromus te
mined to identify land use and land cover changes for the Lake Pontchartrain Basin between 1982 and 2005. Classification accuracies were
 ing long-distance movements are poorly understood, some landscape characteristics such as road density and land cover type are correla
 egated at the county level poorly capture the fine-grained pattern of land-use change beyond the dynamic urban-rural interface. Further
 luding all hot springs, have been abandoned. Prior investigations have not analyzed stand or landscape level habitat composition in relati
 nd human intrusion to lesser prairie-chicken nest location and success. We conducted our study from 1997 to 2002 in southwestern Kansa
 rking to develop thematically rich land cover that can be used to assess the conservation status of native plant communities and as a basi
unt issue of this century in resource management, conservation, human well-being, and environmental decision analysis. Mapping and qu
  land cover data are essential GIS data layers used in a wide array of government and private sector activities, including inventory, manag
Kansas. Telemetry locations of 50 transmitter-equipped lesser prairie-chickens and 28 pheasants were used to monitor habitat use by the


e ranges within Maine (86,156 km2) of 275 species using literature and expert review. Ranges were combined into species richness maps,
 nuclear weapons tests on groundwater beneath the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and vicinity. The framework for this evaluation is provided in A
Patagioenas fasciata monilis) documented declines in use of mineral sites during rainfall. We hypothesized that prior precipitation was ass
one should understand how these predicted distributions are created and how their relative accuracies are assessed. Geographic ranges, d
  One measure of watershed health is fluvial geomorphology. The goal of this project was to map the morphology of the streams of the Am
 tude in northeastern North America. Location Maine, USA; North America north of Mexico. Methods We delineated the ranges within M
 heavily forested breeding areas. In south-central Indiana, corridors of agriculture and rural development, ranging from <50 m to several t
 and land use data are essential GIS data layers used in a wide array of government and private sector activities, including resource invent


 d to be independent of a species' distribution, and boundary errors, assumed to be dependent on the species' distribution, were simulate




 valuated. Our goal was to model the human footprint across the western United States. We first delineated the actual area occupied by an
 n the Trans-Pecos of Texas. We compared the accuracy of the Gap Analysis Program (GAP) landcover/landuse layer and a second derived
 ver watersheds, but is absent from the Kaweah River watershed between 36° and 37°N. This gap in the pine’s distribution has long intrigu
and ownership, and landscape context. Risk analysis has not often been included in these spatial analyses. Datasets such as the Southwes
e human modifications to landscapes have gained widespread use. A parsimonious alternative is to estimate the proportion of a cover typ
 condition, and is inferred in a landscape assessment from a wetland's landscape setting characterized with available spatial data. T
 models for predicting the distribution of dominant vegetation cover types. This study examines the ability of generalized additive m



ution in rural regions. We collected bees at 54 sites in a <tex-math>$5,350\text{-km}^{2}$</tex-math> study area in the Sonoran D


s a model system for arid lands. Biome distribution was extracted from the Arizona Gap Analysis Project spatial vegetation dataset
n-used perches. Peregrines used pines Pinus spp. exclusively, while pines comprised 78% of available trees. Perches were larger tha
 have been generated for Federal Regions 3 (Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware) and 2 (New York and New Je
his region are known to be restricted to certain well-defined vegetation types. For the 57 species in this study, published distributio
pression on population declines of buff-breasted flycatchers by comparing both presence and abundance of flycatchers in areas wit
we explore spatial patterns of multivariate genotypes and genetic diversity throughout the range of valley oak to determine whether ong
w management can influence population phenotype. We used an information-theoretic approach to relate average antler size of 20


sent finer-scale biodiversity elements on 45,205 km(2) of the central coast of California. A network of core and linkages for mountai
 erized the home range size and habitat chosen by these species as part of a larger study on wintering Accipiter hawks. We also com
ritize potential habitat for survey efforts for an uncommon mammal, the pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis), for which detailed
 VOC emission inventory for California. However, it is important to conduct field validations of GAP to assess its accuracy and overa


ovement rates of denning females measured with Global Positioning System collars were similar to movement rates of lynx elsewhe


d the United States. Implementation of the study was preceded by establishment of an agreement between the Mexican National Co
tches too small to support populations are still considered to be potential habitat. We incorporated information on the home range and d
ons (base variables). Additional environmental variables (filter variables) are used for further adjustment and to represent particular hab


air pollutants may depend in some regions upon the strength of biogenic emissions, requiring the geolocated characterization of pla
oal mining and subsequent
ider biotic impacts that result from permitted land uses. We hypothesized that decision support systems could aid solution of this p
n risk. However, it may be difficult to separate the effects of recent anthropogenic fragmentation from the genetic signature of prehi
gh-risk areas. For a study area in northern lower Michigan, we first develop a spatial database of WUI areas (both intermix and inter
ap was produced by on-screen digitizing over USGS Digital Orthophoto Quarter Quads (DOQQ’s) with the aid of ancillary digital map
easures of projected increases in human population and development. Areas with both restricted-range species and high growth rates we
etation plots. We developed a technique to digitize the Placerville 309 quadrangle VTM,rendering it to a Geographic Information Sys
 orest types, and ii) determine the effects of fragmentation on wood decomposition rates as related to fragment size, forest age (and


rado (USA) using historical aerial photography. Aerial photographs from 937, 1965–67, and 1994 were sampled at matched locatio
lly available data sets derived from satellite imagery to identify core habitat areas of the northeastern United States, including impe
ution (219,883 sq km). The state was subset into three ecoregions for classification, with cover-type association to spectral classes defined
out historical vicariance can be generated and tested independently with genetic data. However, previous approaches have primaril
ss within the U.S. State of Wyoming. I test the generality of the species-energy hypothesis in explaining richness at this scale using h


fold: first, to provide consistent land cover for all 50 States, and second, to provide a data framework which allows flexibility in developin
erves. Reserve selection algorithms, gap analysis, and other computerized approaches have much potential to transform conservation pla
er has encroached on the range of the yellow-faced pocket gopher in the past 35 years and to better understand the geographic rela
to these areas was biologically feasible. We assessed habitat suitability for elk in 2 stages. Stage 1 used low-resolution data to elimin
e cover and aboveground biomass (AGB) of P–J systems are poorly quantified. We developed a synoptic remote-sensing approach to
 sensed wetland and land-cover data with wetland bird habitat models. We linked habitat models with locations of easement and fe
 pecies (Canada thistle, musk thistle, Russian olive, phragmites, and saltcedar) along the North Platte River in Nebraska. Projections
date the assessment models. We used two classified images, one with a large minimum mapping unit but high accuracy and one wit
 cumented the overall similarity in the radar and optical satellite mapping of impact and recovery patterns and highlighted some un
A, have been destroyed, the area still provides essential stopover habitat for up to 10 million waterfowl each spring. Our objectives


 a to estimate the potential impact of SMZs and RBBs in the current and future Georgia forest inventories. The analyzed scenarios ar
 used in the Maine Gap Analysis project, with an alternative approach, the geographic projections of ecological niche models develo
 r two adjacent 2.8° by 2.8° GCM gridcells in Wyoming using landcover from two satellite-derived maps (AVHRR, TM) and a global la
r traditional statistical methods. The use of these methods, which commonly assume linearity and low correlation between indepen
 reflects the importance and magnitude of the threats facing the component species of the ecological community. We applied this ap


ree species were non-randomly distributed across the four geomorphic landforms. The goal of this study was to develop less ecologically
described in this paper is part of a larger effort called the Great Lakes Environmental Indicators Project (GLEI), whose goal was to d
of invasive alien plants (n= 78) and noninvasive alien plants (n= 1097). The distribution of both categories of alien plants was simila
dily mapped from imagery. A separate model of riparian habitats is necessary to map these species. We created a model of these ha
were forecast. It has been generally seen that analysis of clashes between biodiversity and urbanization needs various data collected
 State–NCAR) fifthgeneration Mesoscale Model (MM5) and the University of Washington Distributed-Hydrology-Soil-Vegetation Mo
 g relationship between fuel age and fire probabilities. Instead, the hazard of burning in most locations increases only moderately w
 a legislative and administrative mandate. The study area is in the Montezuma Valley, where most land is in private or tribal owners
and methodologies. A comparative analysis of
grids ranked by percentage of shortgrass prairie. We trapped 31 August 2004–12 February 2005, with each grid trapped 3 nights. U
 d early-Holocene lava flows, and remnant patches of sagebrush steppe that remain within recently developed agricultural areas. Sp
 ries. We collected 8,351 black bear radiolocations and identified 51 bee yards on our study area. Twenty-seven of 43 home ranges
0% of the catch for each year, and species composition was largely similar across years, with some differences likely related to varia


 but an actual distance of 1,341 km from the Oquirrh Mountains, Utah to the White River Plateau, Colorado, constituting the farthes


nalyses investigating factors that could potentially influence levels of woodpecker predation on EAB. Identification of such factors co
es and N. macrotis, across a 30-km transition zone in the Sierra Nevada of California. We assessed whether these lineages readily hy
 d Marsh), a diverse riverine system, oak savanna, and prairie. Today only fragments of these habitats remain. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife S
1900s to 1960 and from 1960 to 1990. We use GIS to perform a biodiversity gap analysis of the protected areas in the study site. We prod
ed prairie, is unique to Kansas and 11 other types are known to occur in only one other state. The purpose of the vegetation classification
 d heuristic algorithms (two variations), progressive rarity-based heuristic algorithms (11 variations), simulated annealing, and a linear pro


onal characterization of land cover, especially vegetation, and for examination of ecological phenomena that manifest themselves over lar
woodlands, scrublands, grasslands, or desert lands. The third level refers to one of the four world climatic zones: arctic-boreal, cold tempe
 o separate, but complementary, conservation planning efforts—a Gap Analysis (GAP) and a State Wildlife Action Plan (WAP)—for Missour
 GIS) using ARC/INFO software. Land ownership was also digitized from existing maps. Ownership tracts were assigned a protection level b


 categorization at the more generalized first and second levels and that will be receptive to data from satellite and aircraft remote sensors


 only partially reflected in the diversity of titles attached to the lands: wildlife refuges, wildlife ranges, game ranges, wildlife management
at he terms ‘the more realistic’ version of the reserve selection problem, namely, the problem of maximizing the number of species prese
 olorado and adjoining states for each Association. The classification includes a total of 403 Plant Associations, with 28 Angiosperm Forest
 da designed to improve the quality and quantity of information available for testing scientific hypotheses, monitoring, and conservation p


 f detail included in the models. Distributional models, while widely used, exclude spatial detail important for most landscape ecological re
s research describes the creation of a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) that applies species-specific parameters of Individual Area R
 is based on a systematic description of vegetation and environmental variation in the region, analysis of patterns of vegetation ownershi
acy of the Gap Analysis-generated wildlife habitat relations (WHR) data in predicting species distributions at landscape scales. Omission an




 received relatively little consideration. We used the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Gap Analysis Project databases to evaluate the vegeta
 est possible network of reserves. The best network was determined by a computer program (BEST) which considered all possible combina
 ze component have been developed, including the widely used dark-object subtraction technique. A problem with most of these methods
BI metrics. Seven metrics were chosen for the IBI. They were percent (of individuals) as algivorous/herbivorous, invertivorous, and piscivo
opulations of endangered species with a limited known range might be expected, indicating potential hot spots. An important tool for mo




 g measures linked to system function, synthesizing multiple faunal groups, integrating biological and physical attributes, spanning large sp


 2 in size. Here we develop and describe a methodological approach for assessing the accuracy of large-area cover-maps, using as a test ca
 etwork of conservation lands. The United States Geological Survey Gap Analysis Program is a national effort and so, eventually, all 50 stat
nalysis project of the National Biological Service (Scottet al., 1993), which seeks to map the spatial distribution of vertebrate species richne
hreatened biological and physical features of Mexico, the Mexican Commission for Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity (CONABIO) propos
sity with landscape characteristics of bird Atlas blocks. Two state-wide spatial data layers, based on Landsat satellite data were constructe



s for five common species ranged from 23% for the American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla) to 43% for the Eastern Wood- Pewee (Contopu




oss the state of Georgia for 9 avian species: Acadian flycatcher (Empidonax virescens), brown-headed nuthatch (Sitta pusilla), Carolina wr



this technology to characterize forest succession remains largely untested. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of lidar data



 classification of management levels, selection of a minimum mapping unit, integration of maps from multiple sources, and the maintenan



nal gap analysis. We developed the most detailed national vegetation cover map feasible to analyze the degree of representation of ecos




tep. Richness maps of vegetation cover class diversity, terrestrial vertebrate species diversity ("hot spot analysis"), endangered, threatene


ampling areas. Paired observed and predicted land cover types for 9745 polygons for conventional accuracy and 933 polygons for fuzzy ac
n bison. We compared perennial grassland cover and species composition on eight sites transected by the boundary fence of a 3160-ha 22
This was the core question of the “Building Comprehensive Protected Area Systems” stream of the Fifth World Parks Congress in Durban,



er at Cornell University to bring wetland science and regulation into alignment with the reality of the cumulative effects of wetland loss an
n analyzed to quantify spatial patterns of species co-occurrence. Three general distribution patterns are identified that suggest the Diegan


ely 1800-Miller et al. 1990, 1994). We studied the biogeography of the black-tailed prairie dog along the southeastern edge of its geograp
 less (F = 21.34, P < 0.001) than that of gray squirrels. Fox squirrel abundances were significantly greater in spring than in summer or fall (F
his is that the benefits to society from protected areas are often grossly underestimated, and the immediate costs of protection appear la
ssification, fine, mid- and coarse scale. We analyzed ecoregions in Idaho, Oregon and Washington. The results were similar among the tw
undaries (ecological), and the current county boundaries of Utah (socio-political). Four decision criteria were used to estimate effects, inc
ed by extensive areas of unsuitable habitat. Turtles in the best remaining habitats continue to be vulnerable to disease and human-relate
he level of generalization of the habitat map on the predicted distribution of species richness in the southern Sierra Nevada. As the habita
eding birds assuming that distributions could be predicted using habitat associations, and that excluding non-breeding bird habitat from av
se tracts exclude pocket gophers. To test this hypothesis, we compared the relative frequencies of soil-texture and land-cover types withi


ales and include vegetation types, plant associations, natural communities, and habitats defined by floristics, structure, age, geography, c



ve biodiversity/biotechnology information resource. The system is linked to major international networks and information centres, and is
uitable for occupancy. In 1995, we initiated a survey in eastern Colorado to determine swift fox population size and presence or absence
y the management status codes used to categorize land tracts in gap analysis. A key finding is the considerable variation among individual


reeding ospreys varies greatly among locations, with some areas seemingly habitable but not occupied. Because of concerns about pollut




n this study, 85 tortoises were relocated from a development site to a county park 25 km away where tortoises had been extirpated. Two




 rsity that is part of a national program being coordinated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service."Gap Analysis" is the evaluation of the prot
 of each tree species (noble fir [Abies procera Rehd.] and Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menzeisii Mirb.]). Distribution and abundance were inf



anagement status categories. The total amount ofland permanently protected in the ecoregion is <4%, and most types that are characteri
onomic environment. Here, we describe a methodology called Gap Analysis, which identifies the gaps in representation of biological diver




ed for balance between different species and their combined influence on a given habitat. There is an implicit assumption that national pa
ntal stress. The Gap Analysis Program (GAP) uses summary data on the proportion of the community that is protected as an estimate of it
ackbrush cover-type of a satellitebased vegetation map of Utah and various topographical and heterogeneity components of that map Be




 rated that the global network is far from complete, even for the representation of terrestrial vertebrate species. Here we present a first a




raising awareness of the disease. We created logistic regression models to identify landscape features associated with areas where human


nd biased toward accessible sites, so species-rich areas cannot be depicted directly from current biological knowledge. An alternative app
 dicate overall diversity patterns, and (2) the impact of uncertainty and error propagation in reserve design. We focus our review on speci
land-cover map of Kansas (Kansas Vegetation Map) recently completed by the KARS Program was compared to Küchler's Potential Natura
tic based on the relationship between those elk-group locations and a suite of 9 landscape variables to evaluate winter habitat in Arkansa
mmonly associated with national parks and wilderness areas. All but three of the remaining 48 cover types occurred with sufficient area o
ne potential impacts and develop strategies for regional planning. We applied a landscape-level approach to examine the potential impact


 upport for these choices. We built an information system designed to support conservation decisions at local scales by offering data over
 consequences of incorporating remotely sensed information about horizontal vegetation structure into current assessments of wildlife h
sess the status of biodiversity over time. Biodiversity, as presently understood, encompasses multiple levels of biological organization. In t
he method of Gap wildlife-habitat modeling has little analytical power. In general, the Kansas Gap maps were untested and unchecked, th
priority locations for creating new protected areas to fill the gaps. In this study we examine human demographics, land cover, and agricul
ass prairie in 2004 and 2005. Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) nested almost exclusively in riparian timber surrounded by prairie (95%


ution (219,883 sq km). The state was subset into three ecoregions for classification, with cover-type association to spectral classes define
lands. Long-term research on isolated wetlands reveals that two terrestrial habitats contiguous with the wetland—the terrestrial periphe
field to make predictions). We used classification trees (a nonparametric alternative to discriminant function analysis, logistic regression,
ical, and organizational progress in generating synoptic views of the earth's surface and a great deal of its biological content, at multiple s


tat structure. Remote sensing tools that directly characterize three-dimensional (3-D) habitat structure and that provide data relevant to o


ring in the entire investigated area but special attention is paid to species common to all areas. An attempt is made to explain the occurre


er map of the entire Intermountain Semi-Desert ecoregion from a set of semi-independent subregional maps derived by various methods


d island-wide map of Puerto Rico’s extremely complex natural vegetation cover. Many Caribbean forest formations that are not spectrally
d land stewardship data layers using a cooperative approach and similar methods across the five states. The three data layers will be seam
 esigned at a regional, multi-state scale. The project area comprises the southwestern states of Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, a
us), roads and trails, and the predicted distributions of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and 41 terrestrial vertebrates of special concern
 , we first evaluated the use of LiDAR data for mapping the presence/absence of understory shrub species and different snag diameter cla
 at coarse spatio-temporal scales provide a first-order approximation to community and ecosystem representation and persistence. This a


based on spectral similarity Stage 2 involves a supervised classification to label each raster polygon according to cover type (or other class


e variables can be modeled as functions of remotely sensed variables, yet little work has been done to determine which statistical tools ar
e likelihood of modeling species correctly is related to species incidences in surveys, a method was created that ranked the 183 avian spec



atellite data included raw spectral data from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), a GAP Analysis classified TM, and a vegetation index bas



he accuracy of spatially explicit models. We evaluated the accuracy of South Carolina gap-analysis vertebrate models of predicted occurre


8 and 1998-1999 in lowland and mountain valley study areas in southeastern Idaho, USA. Juvenile sage-grouse captured in the mountain v
ust be able to counter fragmentation of natural ecosystems and isolation of natural reserves, while providing for human needs. Assessmen


ent must be essentially linked if human health and welfare are to be improved and sustained throughout the world. The starting point for
gests that the greatest number of species is found at lower elevations. A preliminary assessment of the occurrence of mapped land cover
d Game. We found adequate information for modeling only the habitats of certain game species and species of special interest. We sugge


ound within the state. All landscape variables investigated were correlated with species richness. Areas with high topographic variation an




4 in 5 mountain ranges in southern Arizona, USA, and in mixed-conifer forest throughout the state. Both auditory and call-broadcast surv


e focused here by both the policy and scientific communities. The threats to coastal biodiversity are numerous and include air and water p




 ry placement and misclassification. Image interpretation is subjective and generally inconsistent among maps prepared by different inter
ope, two measures of species richness, and three weather variables. The locations and numbers of these biophysical regions were affected


n overall lack of detailed biological information presented in recovery plans. Information on species' distributions was most common, bein



d vegetation cover types. We used latitude and longitude to stratify the distribution of these types into 16 cells, each of which was furthe
nd birds developed by the Arizona and New Mexico Gap Analysis Programs (GAP) to produce l-km2, 100-km2, 62~-km2, 2500-km2., and 1
epresentation, of the existing Atlantic Forest (Brazil) reserve network with a quarter-degree resolution grid, with 1,884 cells. We used occ
cally, we utilize a form of the maximal covering location model to identify sets of sites which represent the maximum possible representa
 der development of an official conservation system in the United States. We identified potential conservation cores based on existing pro



sciata pictiventris and Agkistrodon piscivorus representing 89.2% of the total sample. The seasonal activity of the snakes was closely relat
ds with an active ecosystem management plan in operation whose purpose is to contribute to regional maintenance of native genetic, sp
ta resolution, and scale of application on the performance of bird habitat relationship (BHR) models on the Craig Mountain Wildlife Mana
for estimating the sensitivity of wildlife habitat models to uncertainties in input data and model assumptions. The approach is demonstra
 d habitats and surrounded by human-modified landscapes. However, parks managed for passive recreation supported mammalian assem
 next 100 years, assuming a variety of scenarios for habitat destruction and fragmentation. My analysis differs from previous models by in


nd others to map existing vegetation using the US National Vegetation Classification (US-NVC). US-NVC is a system of hierarchical structure
el II/III. Twelve scenes of dual-date TM data were processed with methods that included principal components analysis, stratification into


or mining, silviculture, hunting, fishing, emergency logistical support, and entertainment purposes. CBTS contains more than 2000 species
etter adjust percentage agreement than Kappa, but it is also easier to calculate and interpret. For these reasons, we believe that Tau is a b
we quantified the coverage of four key freshwater features (wetlands, riparian zones, groundwater recharge, rare species) within conserva
vertebrates within the context of a future changing landscape in the Commonwealth. In Pennsylvania, the amount of forest has remained




 cially constructed problem. Case study and comparative multinational data suggest that the causes of biodiversity decline are largely soci
t total extinction. Since its rediscovery, the freshwater mussels in the channels have been destroyed and the remaining individuals in the




 l diversity worldwide. Ecology's major contributions to conservation biology so far include the equilibrium theory of island biogeography a
e diversity of other taxa. We tested whether landscape-level diversity patterns corresponded between a vertebrate and an invertebrate ta
 n, including at least 20 species listed as Threatened and Endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). To address this problem, w


tates. Implementation of the study was preceded by establishment of an agreement between the Mexican National Commission for the K
p analysis" is an efficient tool for the implementation of biodiversity policies. The tool links biologically relevant "horizontal" ecological iss
problem. Although attaining maximum overall species representation is important, the relative quality of representation [which could be a
 on habitat potential of vertebrates is at 10 to 12 percent impervious cover. Amphibian habitat is influenced by available open space and l
d procedures utilizing existing Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery and a computer-generated unsupervised classification. Unsupervised cla


 he purposes of reducing the costs of estimates of forest population totals and providing spatial depiction of forest resources. We illustrat
 1989-90. Of the 7 shrub and 1 no-shrub classes delineated from the Thematic Mapper, sage grouse preferred 3, avoided 3, and demonstr
tion areas. The purpose of this study was to identify hotspots to improve avian conservation efforts for Species of Greatest Conservation
 ) based on a two pixel forest edge buffer zone. Estimates based on twophase sampling for stratification were made at the county level. Th
 shington State at a 100 ha minimum mapping unit using 1991 Landsat satellite thematic mapper imagery, and modeled the distributions
 th opportunity and aesthetic and experiential values. Biological data have not normally played a major role in guiding wilderness establish
measure and rank the ecological importance of specific land parcels. Our method is based on a detailed habitat diversity map derived from


lle Warbler, and Ovenbird, were known to be associated with forest understory features during breeding. We examined the influences of
 crucial to the successful design and implementation of these conservation strategies. Typically, this process has been accomplished throu
 of a sparse sample of points, maplets can provide information on the composition, heterogeneity, and accuracy of individual map units, o




evelop a habitat model based on landscape characteristics associated with panther home ranges. We used cross-validation and an indepe


 lupus ], and wolverine [ Gulo gulo ]). Existing protected areas encompass 27% of the GYE but fail to capture many biological hotspots of t
 lculation of Site Suitability, 4) Site Selection, and 5) Ground Truth. We also describe a prototype case study using this approach for Mixed
nd a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) were used to assess the impacts of an impoundment in the Bienville National Forest, Smith County, M
ogram, we specifically examined physical site features at randomly selected sample locations in the Southwestern U.S. to assess degree of


lity models for three umbrella species, which we combined with road density information to create kilometer-scale cost surfaces of move
essment expert system approach that can be used to assess these aspects of grassland status for improved conservation planning and man
A, began an extensive cooperative venture under the Chesapeake Bay Initiative to establish riparian buffers on agricultural lands, primarily


es under an assumption of their full implementation. We base this analysis on Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery and var


 olina GAP Analysis Program (GAP) data are sufficient for predicting bird species distributions at Francis Marion National Forest in coastal S




 s between land use, land cover, and groundwater in Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge from 1948 to 2004. Recovery of land cover w


ee supplemental food and three control study areas in 2004 and 2005. Both winters of study were mild relative to historic snowfall levels
ed during a vegetation survey conducted in the 1930s. Presence and absence were correctly predicted an average of 75% of the time for t


air toxics releases. We modified the ranking equations for hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from the Chemical Scoring and Ranking Assessm
 using natural heritage species occurrence data. In this 10-year update of a previous analysis, we found that the Department of Defense a



 ntitatively place landscape units – from general categories such as lsquoForestsrsquo or lsquoCold-Deciduous Shrubland Formationrsquo



 dominants. Species differ in their capacity to tolerate soil osmotic stress, but variable results from measurements of osmotic stress in 20 d


 (Artemisia tridentata) vegetation, and loamy soils. Within this region random sites and field-selected sites with sagebrush islands (promin
ach to the leaf phenology study in a diversity of Hawaiian ecosystems. Despite data noise caused by variable meteorological conditions, th
 e of tree species, as inferred from data on potential plant association groups, actual plant associations, and actual land cover type. The GI
 hese within Nevada are Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass), Bromus rubens (red brome), and Schismus barbatus (Mediterranean grass). These
005. Classification accuracies were based upon ground truth data obtained by global positioning system field collection and photo interpr
 ity and land cover type are correlated with grizzly bear habitat use at various scales. We compiled digital maps of roads, human populatio
amic urban-rural interface. Furthermore, current urban-based definitions are poorly suited to delineate these areas, and low-density, exur
 level habitat composition in relation to band-tailed pigeon use of mineral sites. We used logistic regression models to evaluate the influe
 997 to 2002 in southwestern Kansas, USA, on 2 sand-sagebrush (Artemisia filifolia) prairie areas managed for livestock production. We de
ve plant communities and as a basis for modeling the predicted distributions of species. In this research our goal was to integrate method
 decision analysis. Mapping and quantifying ecosystem services have become a strategic interest in regard to integrating ecology with eco
tivities, including inventory, management, monitoring, and modeling. This investigation was conducted to evaluate the use of SSURGO an
used to monitor habitat use by the two species. Additionally, vegetation characteristics at 39 nest sites of lesser prairie-chickens were com


mbined into species richness maps, and compared to geomorphology, climate, and woody plant distributions. Methods were adapted that
k for this evaluation is provided in Appendix VI, Revision No. 1 (December 7, 2000) of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (F
zed that prior precipitation was associated with a short-term increase in use of mineral sites following rain. We conducted weekly counts
 are assessed. Geographic ranges, defined upon observations (e.g., atlases), literature review, and expert review, are a primary data layer.
 orphology of the streams of the Amite watershed of the Pontchartrain Basin using a reach sensitivity index (RSI). The classification scale is
We delineated the ranges within Maine (86,156 km2) of 186 bird species and 240 woody plants using literature and expert review. Maps s
nt, ranging from <50 m to several thousand meters in width, penetrate interior portions of the heavily forested landscape. These corridor
 ctivities, including resource inventory, land management, landscape ecology, and hydrologic modeling. This investigation was conducted


 pecies' distribution, were simulated using ten rodent species. Error rates of omission and commission equal to 5 and 20 percent were use




ated the actual area occupied by anthropogenic features, the physical effect area. Next, we developed the human footprint model based
anduse layer and a second derived landcover/landuse layer (derived) from LANDSAT images. We then determined habitat selection using
 pine’s distribution has long intrigued botanists and ecologists and has elicited a number of hypotheses for this anomalous biogeographica
ses. Datasets such as the Southwest Regional Gap Analysis (SWReGAP) are now available as are processes that allow risk analysis to be vie
mate the proportion of a cover type (i.e. natural) within a spatial neighborhood to characterize both compositional and structural aspects
 zed with available spatial data. This study assessed a comprehensive set of landscape metrics to improve an existing landscape ass
e ability of generalized additive models (GAMs) to delineate structural diversity in forested ecosystems (specifically the Uinta Moun



ath> study area in the Sonoran Desert of southwestern Arizona. We used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis of individual worke


roject spatial vegetation dataset (GAP), while soil C data were extracted from the Arizona State Soil Geographic Dataset (STATSGO)
ble trees. Perches were larger than non-used trees in more advanced stages of decay (2.561.5 and 1.5 6 1.1 (index)), and usually dom
ware) and 2 (New York and New Jersey). Classification work is currently under way in Federal Region 4 (the southeastern United States),
 this study, published distribution records and label data from specimens in four major institutional collections were combined in a
ndance of flycatchers in areas with and without evidence of recent fire in 9 mountain ranges in southern Arizona, USA. We also repli
lley oak to determine whether ongoing and future patterns of habitat loss could threaten the evolutionary potential of the species by erad
o relate average antler size of 203 deer populations to composition and structure of the habitat occupied by those populations. We


 of core and linkages for mountain lion (Puma concolor [Kerr]) was developed and 22,069 km2, or 49\% of the region, was selected
ing Accipiter hawks. We also compared our findings of bird feeder use by Cooper’s Hawks to our previously published study on Sha
us idahoensis), for which detailed habitat data are limited. A base map of potential habitat in Idaho was defined using vegetation typ
 to assess its accuracy and overall utility for biogenic emissions modeling. Nine polygons were selected in BVOC "hotspots" (in term


 movement rates of lynx elsewhere. Female lynx with kittens used different habitat types in predenning, denning, and postdenning


between the Mexican National Commission for the Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity (CONABIO) and the U.S. Geological Survey. Th
ormation on the home range and dispersal distances of the mammals of Florida to estimate minimum critical areas (MCA) to support mini
ent and to represent particular habitat associations. However, there is a need to know the contribution that filter variables provide to the


geolocated characterization of plant species and their areal coverages. Vegetation databases developed through remote sensing met


stems could aid solution of this problem. We developed a pilot biodiversity expert systems tool (BEST) to test that hypothesis and l
om the genetic signature of prehistoric fragmentation due to previous natural geological and climatic changes. To address these cha
 UI areas (both intermix and interface) using housing data from the 2000 US Census and 1994 vegetation data from the Gap Analysi
 th the aid of ancillary digital maps. We identified the distribution of 56 landcover types, 48 dominated by natural vegetation, at the
e species and high growth rates were identified as “hot spots of vulnerability” — areas vulnerable to future species loss. These hot spots o
t to a Geographic Information System (GIS). The map covers 2408.8 km2 of the west slope of the Sierra Nevada. In this area VTMcre
d to fragment size, forest age (and/ or structure) and climate at the macro- and meso-scales. Fragment sizes represented the landsca


were sampled at matched locations within overlapping photographs. We modeled change in spatial pattern and heterogeneity acros
ern United States, including impervious cover and forest cover. These were augmented with road network extent and density. We
ociation to spectral classes defined using a two-step modeling approach. Steps included post-classification correlation of 1,758 state-wid
evious approaches have primarily utilized DNA sequence data to test inferences about historical isolation and may have missed ver
 ning richness at this scale using high-resolution environmental datasets and geographic information system (GIS). Results provide


hich allows flexibility in developing and applying each independent data component to a wide variety of other applications. Components i
ntial to transform conservation planning, yet these methods are used only infrequently by those charged with managing landscapes. We b
er understand the geographic relationships of these species, we trapped pocket gophers in western Kansas and collected soil texture
 sed low-resolution data to eliminate approximately 98,800 km2 (78%) of the state's land area that was predominantly agricultural
optic remote-sensing approach to scale up pinyon and juniper projected cover (hereafter “cover”) and AGB field observations from
with locations of easement and fee-title wetlands to evaluate spatial location and extent of protected, suitable habitat. We also simu
 te River in Nebraska. Projections for each species were highly accurate. Elevation and distance from river were most important var
nit but high accuracy and one with no minimum mapping unit but slightly lower accuracy, to test the sensitivity of the evaluation to
patterns and highlighted some unique differences that could be used to provide consistent and relevant ecological monitoring. Satel
rfowl each spring. Our objectives were to determine local (within wetland and immediate watershed) and landscape-scale factors in


 tories. The analyzed scenarios are based on long-term simulations of wood supply in the State under various assumptions of regula
of ecological niche models developed using the Genetic Algorithm for Rule-Set Prediction (GARP). Point-occurrence data were used
maps (AVHRR, TM) and a global landcover data set commonly used in GCMs. Substantial differences in prescribed landcover were fo
 low correlation between independent variables, can obscure even strong relationships and patterns. Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) is
al community. We applied this approach to a set of species from the California Gap Analysis Project. The resulting map of multispec


dy was to develop less ecologically generalized habitat models (LizLand) than the vegetation-based wildlife–habitat relationship models i
oject (GLEI), whose goal was to develop and refine environmental state indicators for the U.S. near-shore zone of the Great Lakes. H
tegories of alien plants was similar with the exception of a higher concentration of invasive alien plants in the North Coast bioregion
. We created a model of these habitats using GRID with stream hydrology, elevation, and slope. Species distributions were modeled
ation needs various data collected at several spatial scales. Planning for urban areas requires data such as endangered species locati
ed-Hydrology-Soil-Vegetation Model (DHSVM). The control simulation used the forecasts produced by the University of Washington
 ons increases only moderately with time since the last fire, and a marked age effect of fuels is observed only in limited areas. Result
land is in private or tribal ownership, and opportunities for plant surveys are limited. The flora includes three species tracked by th


with each grid trapped 3 nights. Upon capture, we marked individual foxes with a unique identifier, and determined gender prior to
y developed agricultural areas. Species richness decreased with increasing isolation in both lava and agricultural landscapes, and Pe
 wenty-seven of 43 home ranges contained ≥ 1 bee yard, averaging 11.3 and 5.1 bee yards/home range of males (n = 7) and females
differences likely related to variation in recruitment. For example, Clupea harengus (Atlantic herring) was particularly abundant du


Colorado, constituting the farthest dispersal yet documented for a female cougar. This cougar successfully negotiated 4 major rivers


B. Identification of such factors could improve the accuracy of models predicting the spread of EAB populations and suggest strateg
whether these lineages readily hybridize, and whether their morphology suggests ecological interactions favoring phenotypic diver
 emain. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service developed a preliminary project proposal (PPP) during the summer of 1996 to protect and restor
ed areas in the study site. We produce a detailed map of existing floristic types and use it to generate layers corresponding to floristic spec
ose of the vegetation classification system is to support the efforts of the Kansas Natural Heritage Inventory of the Kansas Biological Surve
mulated annealing, and a linear programming-based branch-and-bound algorithm.The linear programming algorithm provided optimal sol


a that manifest themselves over large areas. Using the digital land cover data, we describe Wyoming vegetation and examine positions of
 c zones: arctic-boreal, cold temperate, warm temperate, or tropical-subtropical. The fourth level refers to a subcontinental biome unit. T
 fe Action Plan (WAP)—for Missouri that address this first step. The goal of the Missouri Aquatic GAP Project was to identify riverine ecosy
s were assigned a protection level based on opportunities provided for management for conservation of biological diversity. We then com


atellite and aircraft remote sensors. The proposed system uses the features of existing widely used classification systems that are amenab


 ame ranges, wildlife management areas, waterfowl production areas, and the like. Congress added to this diversity with a series of statut
mizing the number of species preserved given a fixed budget for reserve sites. We also discuss some straight-forward data reduction schem
 ations, with 28 Angiosperm Forests/Woodlands, 2 Mixed Angiosperm–Gymnosperm Forests/Woodlands, 114 Gymnosperm Forests/Woo
 es, monitoring, and conservation planning. Biodiversity should be more fully incorporated into ongoing Earth system science and global ch


 nt for most landscape ecological research. Spatial models require substantial data, now more readily available, via remote sensing, and m
 ic parameters of Individual Area Requirement (IAR) (Vos et al., 2001), Minimum viable population (MVP), and Reach (Allen et al., 2001) to
of patterns of vegetation ownership and management, and optimal site selection based both on vegetational and environmental criteria.
ns at landscape scales. Omission and commission error rates were estimated for major taxonomic groups and for each National Park. Dep




 t databases to evaluate the vegetation types contained in each proposal. The scale of analysis was an ecoregion with the proposals falling
 ch considered all possible combinations of reserves and then selected the subset that satisfied a specified selection criterion. Here, the se
oblem with most of these methods is that the haze values for each spectral band are selected independently. This can create problems be
 ivorous, invertivorous, and piscivorous; percent with black spot or an anomaly; percent green sunfish Lepomis cyanellus, bluegill L. macro
 ot spots. An important tool for monitoring biodiversity is a geographic information system (GIS), which accommodates large varieties of s




hysical attributes, spanning large spatial scales, and enabling simulations through time. These tools can be customized to meet the needs


area cover-maps, using as a test case the 21.9 million ha cover-map developed for Utah Gap Analysis. As part of our design process, we fir
 ffort and so, eventually, all 50 states will have completed it. The objective of Fl-Gap was to provide broad geographic information on the s
 bution of vertebrate species richness and to identify gaps in the protection of species richness. This paper describes cartographic and mod
  of Biodiversity (CONABIO) proposed the establishment of 151 new reserves for Mexico covering 51,429,500 ha. We compiled a GISanalys
 dsat satellite data were constructed for this study. These regional landscape data were compared to Breeding Bird Atlas data from 1983 t



 he Eastern Wood- Pewee (Contopus virens). Nest success was lowest for open-cup nesters, species that reject Brown-headed Cowbird (M




 uthatch (Sitta pusilla), Carolina wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus), indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea), northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinal



was to evaluate the use of lidar data for characterizing forest successional stages across a structurally diverse, mixed-species forest in Nort



multiple sources, and the maintenance of data on rapidly changing land ownership. We demonstrate how these problems were resolved fo



 e degree of representation of ecosystem analysis units (an initial representation of ecosystem types) in the network of conservation lands




t analysis"), endangered, threatened, and candidate species diversity, and unprotected vertebrate species diversity (gap analysis), when p


uracy and 933 polygons for fuzzy accuracy were collected. Overall map accuracies using conventional methods ranged from 74% to 42% fo
 he boundary fence of a 3160-ha 22-year-old livestock exclosure in a gramma grassland in southeastern Arizona. Total grass canopy cover
h World Parks Congress in Durban, South Africa, in 2003. To answer it requires global gap analysis, the subject of the special section of Bio



 mulative effects of wetland loss and degradation on entire landscapes and regions. The synthesis is drawn from the other articles in this v
e identified that suggest the Diegan, Venturan and Riversidian Associations identified by other workers. Vegetation data have also been re


e southeastern edge of its geographic range with 3 primary objectives: to assess the status of the species in this region and identify trends
r in spring than in summer or fall (F = 6.1, P < 0.01). Habitat use by fox squirrels and gray squirrels was differentiated primarily by the dista
diate costs of protection appear large in comparison. As a result of this "market failure," government investment in protection is usually r
results were similar among the two ecoregion classifications. For both ecoregion delineations and all three vegetation classifications, the
were used to estimate effects, including amount of area, length of edge, lowest number of contiguous reserves, and greatest number of
rable to disease and human-related disturbance, collecting and habitat modification. These factors lead to population declines and abnor
uthern Sierra Nevada. As the habitat map was generalized, the number of habitat types mapped within grid cells tended to decrease with
g non-breeding bird habitat from avian richness projections potentially underestimates community types important to birds. We compare
texture and land-cover types within unoccupied tracts with those in surrounding tracts where pocket gophers occur. Our results indicated


istics, structure, age, geography, condition, and other ecologically relevant factors. The methodology for this report consisted of a literatu



rks and information centres, and is based on a workstation system and personal computers. All software was developed to attend specific
tion size and presence or absence on 724.8 × 6.4 km2 grids trapped with 20 live traps. We drew trapping grids from a stratified random sa
derable variation among individuals in their application of the status codes. This shows a large degree of uncertainty about the land tracts


. Because of concerns about pollution in the highly industrialized portions of the Delaware River and Bay, USA, we evaluated contaminant




tortoises had been extirpated. Two years after release, 35 tortoises remained in the park, an apparently stable population. The presence o




alysis" is the evaluation of the protection status of plant communities and vertebrate species by GIS overlay of biological distribution data
stribution and abundance were inferred from available spatial data showing modeled potential and actual vegetation. We stratified the d



and most types that are characteristic of the region have <10%. Of 48land·cover types, 20 were found to be particularly vulnerable to pote
n representation of biological diversity (biodiversity) in areas managed exclusively or primarily for the longterm maintenance of populatio




mplicit assumption that national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, and other protected areas provide for conservation needs. However, these ar
 at is protected as an estimate of its vulnerability. Management status from a gap analysis of California was compared with three ecologic
eneity components of that map Because of the difficulty in accessing many rugged areas of this State, two strata were defined based on p




e species. Here we present a first attempt to provide a global framework for the next step of strategically expanding the network to cover




ssociated with areas where humans have acquired plague from 1957 to 2004 in the four-corners region of the United States (Arizona, Colo


 ical knowledge. An alternative approach to predicting species-rich areas is presented in this article. It is based on the gap analysis techniq
sign. We focus our review on species diversity patterns and use data from peer-reviewed literature or extant state-level databases to test
pared to Küchler's Potential Natural Vegetation map and the 1993 Kansas Land Cover Patterns map. The post-classification change detect
evaluate winter habitat in Arkansas. We tested model performance in the Buffalo National River area by comparing the D² values of pixel
pes occurred with sufficient area on publically owned lands in the region to imply that transforming land management intent on these lan
ch to examine the potential impacts of citrus development on habitats and species in southwest Florida. We developed GIS models for pa


at local scales by offering data over the Internet.We collaborated with local stakeholders (e.g., developers, planners, politicians, land owne
o current assessments of wildlife habitat distribution and conservation. For this, we integrated the new NLCD tree canopy cover product i
evels of biological organization. In this paper, I expand the three primary attributes of biodiversity recognized by Jerry Franklin--compositi
 were untested and unchecked, thus being heterogeneous, unreliable, and of little use for further analyses
mographics, land cover, and agricultural suitability in the priority gap locations to assess their potential for hosting some form of biodivers
 timber surrounded by prairie (95% prairie land cover around nests) and disproportionately used areas with greater topographic relief wit


sociation to spectral classes defined using a two-step modeling approach. Steps included post-classification correlation of 1,758 state-wid
e wetland—the terrestrial periphery and terrestrial corridors that connect isolated wetlands—are vital for much of the animal community
nction analysis, logistic regression, and other generalized linear models) to model nesting habitat of red-naped sapsuckers (Sphyrapicus nu
its biological content, at multiple scales of thematic as well as geographic resolution. The development of extensive spatial data on specie


 and that provide data relevant to organism–habitat interactions across a hierarchy of scales promise to improve our understanding of ani


mpt is made to explain the occurrence of species present in these countries taking into account biological characteristics and ecological p


 maps derived by various methods. A multi-temporal dataset derived from AVHRR data was classified using the subregional maps as train


 formations that are not spectrally distinct had distributions approximately separable using climatic zone, geology, elevation, and rainfall.
 The three data layers will be seamless across the five state region, and detailed in resolution and content. The data layers will be used in
, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. The land-cover map/dataset was generated using regionally consistent geospatial data (Lands
 rial vertebrates of special concern. Because results highlight areas where conflicts between humans and resources may occur, they are o
 es and different snag diameter classes important for birds (i.e. ≥ 15 cm, ≥ 25 cm and ≥ 30 cm) in a 30,000 ha mixed-conifer forest in North
resentation and persistence. This assumption may be false because (1) species abundance distributions and species richness are poor sur


 rding to cover type (or other class feature). The second stage takes place in a GIs environment, after spectral and biophysical attributes a


determine which statistical tools are best suited to the tasks given multiple objectives and logistical constraints. Here we discuss our ongo
 ted that ranked the 183 avian species known to be breeding in Maine as to how likely they would be to occur in surveys. Attributes (e.g.,



ed TM, and a vegetation index based on raw spectral data from an advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR). Environmental pre



ebrate models of predicted occurrence for reptile, amphibian, and mammal species on the Savannah River Site, SC, by comparing the agre


grouse captured in the mountain valley area moved an average of 2.2 km (20%) farther (x̄ = 13.0 km, SE = 1.2 km) from autumn to winter
viding for human needs. Assessments of the potential of natural ecosystems and management impacts are required. Multiple resource sim


 t the world. The starting point for each chapter is a concern or problem facing planners who wish to avoid loss of productivity from renew
occurrence of mapped land cover types indicates that ;60% of mapped cover types have ,10% of their area in nature reserves. Land owne
pecies of special interest. We suggest that many more researchers could collect simple habitat information regarding vegetation composit


with high topographic variation and low road density had the highest species richness. Species sensitive to habitat fragmentation were al




h auditory and call-broadcast surveys produced low numbers of cooing pigeons detected per survey route ($\bar{x} \leq 0.67$) and had r


merous and include air and water pollution; over exploitation and harvesting; the introduction of exotic species; the dramatic loss of habi




g maps prepared by different interpreters. The mapping process represents a great simplification of the spatial and spectral information in
e biophysical regions were affected by variable selection, cell size (and sampling), and euclidean distances used to terminate clustering. W


tributions was most common, being mentioned in 88% of the original recovery plans, while information on species' abundance, populatio



 16 cells, each of which was further stratified by up to five elevation classes. While protection of some vegetation types was high in parts
0-km2, 62~-km2, 2500-km2., and 10000-km2 grid cell resolution distribution maps. We used these distribution maps to generate species r
 grid, with 1,884 cells. We used occurrence data of 20 endemic primate species, and the maps of 237 existing reserves. Reserve networks
 the maximum possible representation of specific species. An example application is given for vertebrate data of Southwestern California
rvation cores based on existing protected areas, and using a spatially explicit model of housing densities, we quantified how residential de



vity of the snakes was closely related to fluctuations in the water table. Periods of greatest snake activity coincided with the periods of gr
 maintenance of native genetic, species and community levels of biodiversity, and the processes that maintain that biodiversity. Our purp
 the Craig Mountain Wildlife Management Area and on the Idaho portion of the U.S. Forest Service’s Northern Region. We constructed an
ptions. The approach is demonstrated in an analysis of habitat associations derived from a GIS database for the endangered California con
ation supported mammalian assemblages that were similar in richness and diversity to our mature riparian forest site. The mature riparian
s differs from previous models by incorporating patchy territory distribution and random environmental fluctuations. Fragmented and pat


 s a system of hierarchical structure and rules that are designed to provide a national classification of existing vegetation. Experience has d
 onents analysis, stratification into spectrally consistent units, separate classification of upland, wetland, and urban areas, and a hybrid su


S contains more than 2000 species of plants and animals in 14 natural communities, each impacted to various degrees by past and curren
 reasons, we believe that Tau is a better measure of classification accuracy for use with remote sensing data that either Kappa or percenta
 arge, rare species) within conservation lands and compared these with representation of terrestrial features. Wetlands were included wit
the amount of forest has remained relatively constant since the 1970s, while the extent of early successional, grassland, and wetland/ripa




biodiversity decline are largely socio-economic, and solutions will require interdisciplinary approaches. Sociology can make several contrib
 d the remaining individuals in the river itself are threatened by pollution, hydraulic works, diversion and uncontrolled collecting. No youn




um theory of island biogeography and the theoretical relationship between population size and persistence time. In the future ecologists
a vertebrate and an invertebrate taxon, mammals and ants, across the southern half of the Florida peninsula, USA. Composite digital map
 (ESA). To address this problem, we used a Geographic Information System (GIS) and employed methods similar to those used by the U.S.


 can National Commission for the Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity (CONABIO) and the U.S. Geological Survey. The study will generate la
relevant "horizontal" ecological issues with "vertical" issues related to institutions and other societal issues. Using forest biodiversity as an
of representation [which could be affected by site attributes such as habitat value, adequate population size, presence of critical resource
nced by available open space and land use disturbance in the watershed. The reptile habitat is sensitive to impervious coverage and land
sed classification. Unsupervised classification of high and low tide Landsat TM images yielded coherent habitat maps that were supported


on of forest resources. We illustrate how generalized linear models can be used to construct approximately unbiased and efficient estima
 ferred 3, avoided 3, and demonstrated no preference for the remaining 2. To determine if the model could be extrapolated to other unsa
 Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN) in the state of Idaho, United States. We evaluated multiple approaches to define hotspots
n were made at the county level. This procedure differed from methods used in previous inventories where stratification was based on th
ery, and modeled the distributions of all breeding terrestrial vertebrates in the State using the land cover map. We determined the level o
 role in guiding wilderness establishment. We present four wilderness allocation options for those public lands considered suitable for wil
 habitat diversity map derived from a similarly detailed vegetation map. The land parcels evaluated were located in the Stehekin River Va


ng. We examined the influences of varying two spatially explicit classification parameters on prediction accuracy: 1) the window size used
ocess has been accomplished through best professional judgement. We used quantitative techniques to group vegetation types into habit
 accuracy of individual map units, on boundary locational accuracy, and the spatial pattern of errors in the large-area map. The technique




sed cross-validation and an independent telemetry data set to test the habitat model. We also conducted a least-cost path analysis to ide


pture many biological hotspots of the region or to represent all natural communities. Using a simulated annealing site-selection algorithm
udy using this approach for Mixed Evergreen Forest in Los Padres National Forest in central coastal California. This case study demonstrat
e National Forest, Smith County, Mississippi on landcovers, threatened and endangered species, species richness and fish populations. A t
thwestern U.S. to assess degree of concordance with predicted features used in modeling vertebrate habitat distribution. Our analysis co


 meter-scale cost surfaces of movement. For each of the three species -- grizzly bear, elk, and cougar -- we performed a least.cost.path an
ved conservation planning and management. Here we apply our approach to the semi-arid grasslands of the Arizona, New Mexico, and M
fers on agricultural lands, primarily through United States Department of Agriculture's Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP


matic Mapper Plus imagery and various sources of ancillary data, such as those from the Georgia Gap Analysis Program, the Forest Invento


Marion National Forest in coastal South Carolina or if more advanced techniques using data collected in situ provide better estimates of s




 to 2004. Recovery of land cover was documented following cessation of agricultural activities and pumping of groundwater. Land-use act


 relative to historic snowfall levels and temperature. Patterns of mortality during winter were consistent across years with most mortaliti
an average of 75% of the time for the eight species. At the same time, these models minimized false positives, so that presence was pred


 mical Scoring and Ranking Assessment Model (SCRAM) to come up with a weighted relative toxicity value. The model combines toxicity r
 that the Department of Defense and the USDA Forest Service harbor more species with formal status under the Endangered Species Act



 iduous Shrubland Formationrsquo to more categories such as lsquoPicea glauca-Abies balsamea-Populus spp. Forest Alliancersquo – in th



 surements of osmotic stress in 20 different plant communities indicate that additional factors must be important in determining species p


 tes with sagebrush islands (prominent clusters of sagebrush higher than the surrounding sagebrush) were surveyed for the presence of py
 iable meteorological conditions, the analysis effectively summarized the amplitudes and the frequencies of a series of sinusoidal harmoni
 and actual land cover type. The GIS also employed two schemes for stratifying the distribution of each species into genetic populations fo
batus (Mediterranean grass). These grasses have an early phenology for both green-up and senescence that can be detected from the diff
m field collection and photo interpretations. A postclassification change detection analysis was used to identify areas that have experience
 al maps of roads, human population density, land cover class, and topography to evaluate the resistance of the year 2001 landscape to gr
 these areas, and low-density, exurban land use is difficult to measure using existing land-cover databases. Urbanization and the conversio
ssion models to evaluate the influence of habitat types, identified from Gap Analysis Program (GAP) products at two spatial scales, on the
 ed for livestock production. We determined apparent nest success (26%) for 200 of 209 lesser prairie-chicken nests located. Nest sites ha
  our goal was to integrate methods for developing a high quality land cover map using change detection, as the basis for monitoring plant
ard to integrating ecology with economics to help explain the effects of human policies and the subsequent impacts on both ecosystem fu
 to evaluate the use of SSURGO and STATSGO soil classification systems and the National Agricultural Statistics Survey (NASS) and Gap Ana
 of lesser prairie-chickens were compared to those at 14 pheasant nest sites. Morisita's Index of niche overlap detected moderate similarit


 tions. Methods were adapted that compared richness of all vertebrate classes to each environmental correlate, rather than assessing a si
 y Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). Section 3.0 of Appendix VI ''Corrective Action Strategy'' of the FFACO describes the proce
 ain. We conducted weekly counts of band-tailed pigeons at 19 Pacific Northwest mineral sites in 2001 and 20 sites in 2002. Results from r
 rt review, are a primary data layer. A map of land cover is created, often from interpretation of satellite imagery or other remotely-sensed
ndex (RSI). The classification scale is based on stream geomorphology, hydrology, and ecological characteristics, where rank is given based
 erature and expert review. Maps showing species richness and numbers of range limits, at 324 km2 resolution, were developed for wood
 orested landscape. These corridors provide habitat for cowbirds and nest predators. We monitored breeding success of six species of Neo
  This investigation was conducted to evaluate the use of different combinations of Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) and State Soil Geogr


 qual to 5 and 20 percent were used in the simulations. Indications are that predictions of species richness within a Gap Analysis database




 the human footprint model based on the ecological effect area, the zone influenced by features beyond their physical presence, by combi
 etermined habitat selection using sighting data collected from 1901-2003 for both landcover/landuse layers. The derived landcover/landu
  for this anomalous biogeographical pattern. Here we propose a new hypothesis that couples unique features of the southern Sierra Neva
es that allow risk analysis to be viewed in a spatial context in relations to factors that affect habitats over broad scales. We describe a me
mpositional and structural aspects of natural landscapes. Here I extend this approach into a multi-scale, integrated metric and apply it to
mprove an existing landscape assessment using wetland condition measures from the Upper Juniata intensive assessment data. On-
tems (specifically the Uinta Mountain Range in Utah) using GIS tools and satellite spectral data, and analyzes the effect of including



NA) analysis of individual worker honeybees (10 per site) to assess genetics of colonies within the study area. Among collected bee


l Geographic Dataset (STATSGO) at a scale of 1:250 000, and the western Yavapai County Soil Survey Geographic Dataset (SSURGO)
1.5 6 1.1 (index)), and usually dominant in crown class (1.5 6 0.6 and 1.7 6 0.5 (index)). Perches were always on cliff plateaus and te
 (the southeastern United States), and land cover mapping activities have been started in Federal Regions 5 (the Great Lakes region) and
al collections were combined in a single database. Fifty-two of the collecting sites in this database could be identified on standard to
thern Arizona, USA. We also replicated previous survey efforts conducted in 1980–1983 and 1995–1996 to determine population tr
ary potential of the species by eradicating populations of distinctive genetic composition. This manuscript will address three specific ques
cupied by those populations. We used interspersion, edge, and diversity indices to represent habitat structure and percentage of ar


 49\% of the region, was selected. We analyzed network representation of a variety of biodiversity elements. The conservation netw
reviously published study on Sharp-shinned Hawks. During the winters of 1999–2004, we intensively radio-tracked 21 Sharp-shinn
 was defined using vegetation type and soil depth data. Documented locations (n = 164) were used to evaluate additional habitat va
ected in BVOC "hotspots" (in terms of model output) by California Air Resources Board staff for assessment. These "hotspots" occur


nning, denning, and postdenning periods. Landscape composition at the scale of the foraging radius around a den site contained mo


and the U.S. Geological Survey. The study will generate land-cover habitat and vertebrate distribution maps for an area that straddl
ritical areas (MCA) to support minimum viable populations for each mammal species. Incorporating MCA decreases the area occupied by
that filter variables provide to the models. This research evaluated model sensitivity to simplification of habitat associations in the model


 ped through remote sensing methods require calibration and validation from ground-based measurements to be reliably used for B


EST) to test that hypothesis and learn what additional scientific and technological advancements are required for broad implement
tic changes. To address these challenges, we examined the phylogenetic and population genetic structure of a flightless insect ende
etation data from the Gap Analysis Project of the Michigan Department of Natural Resources. Then, we develop a spatial database of
ated by natural vegetation, at the alliance or aggregated alliance level, in 28,456 polygons across 2042 km2. The effective minimum
ure species loss. These hot spots of vulnerability corresponded to many of the areas currently supporting large numbers of endangered s
erra Nevada. In this area VTMcrews identified 59 dominant plant species and eight genera or land cover classes and mapped their d
 ent sizes represented the landscape variability within a climatic region. Overall, the mean small fragments area ranged from 10-14


l pattern and heterogeneity across the entire landscape and found a small, net decrease in woody canopy cover; however means dis
network extent and density. We analyzed the influence of different types on unimproved roads and amount of forest cover on ident
tion correlation of 1,758 state-wide field training sites to spectral classes, and post-classification ancillary GIS modeling using ecological p
 olation and may have missed very recent episodes of environmentally mediated divergence. We type 15 microsatellite loci in Califo
on system (GIS). Results provide little evidence to support the hypotheses that mesoscale richness of vertebrates follows a linear re


 f other applications. Components in the database include the following: (1) normalized imagery for three time periods per path/row, (2)
d with managing landscapes. We briefly describe different approaches to identifying potentially valuable areas and methods for reserve s
 Kansas and collected soil texture and land cover data. We used ArcView 3.2 to map the distributions of these species in the study a
t was predominantly agricultural, urban, near a major roadway, or did not historically support native elk. Stage 2 used a habitat sui
and AGB field observations from plot to regional levels using fractional photosynthetic vegetation (PV) cover derived from airborne
ed, suitable habitat. We also simulated impacts of the loss of small wetlands on suitability of larger wetlands for mobile species that
m river were most important variables for each species. Saltcedar and phragmites appear to have restricted distributions in the stu
he sensitivity of the evaluation to these differences. We tested the utility of two methods of assessment, habitat suitability index mo
evant ecological monitoring. Satellite optical data transformed to a canopy foliage index (CFI) indicated a dramatic decrease in cano
ed) and landscape-scale factors influencing wetland bird abundance and species richness during spring migration at RWB playas. W


der various assumptions of regulatory constraints, expected harvesting, and intensities of management practices. The results are ex
Point-occurrence data were used to develop GARP models based on the same environmental data layers as were used in the gap pro
s in prescribed landcover were found between the three datasets. Despite these differences, the VBATS simulated surface fluxes we
ns. Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) is a heuristic statistical tool based on machine learning methods that can be used to explore pattern
t. The resulting map of multispecies conservation values identified the areas with the best habitat for the species most vulnerable to


dlife–habitat relationship models in the California Gap Analysis Program (CA-GAP). Conceptually, LizLand is a geomorphological approach
 -shore zone of the Great Lakes. Here we describe methodologies for using existing Landsatbased LULC maps to assemble consisten
lants in the North Coast bioregion. Spatial autocorrelation analysis using Moran’s I indicated significant spatial dependence for both
ecies distributions were modeled in ArcView using scripts that combine the individual species habitat requirement information, th
such as endangered species location, ecoregional information, and socioeconomic indicators using tools such as remote sensing whe
d by the University of Washington’s realtime MM5 forecasts system as input to the hydrologic model. A second set of simulations ap
 rved only in limited areas. Results indicate a serious need for a re-evaluation of current fire management and policy, which is based
ludes three species tracked by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program: Centaurium exaltatum (Griseb.) W. Wight ex Piper (desert c


, and determined gender prior to release. We centered a 6.4 by 8.0 km-rectangle over each grid trapped and calculated percentage o
 d agricultural landscapes, and Peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse) was the only species found on kipukas that were isolated by
ange of males (n = 7) and females (n = 20), respectively. From 1996 to 1998, we documented 7 instances of bears raiding bee yards
ng) was particularly abundant during 1996 and 1999 following their spawning season. We used canonical correspondence analysis


essfully negotiated 4 major rivers and one interstate highway while traversing portions of 3 states. Our data suggest that transient s


 populations and suggest strategies that would enhance woodpecker predation on EAB.
ctions favoring phenotypic diversification. We combined measurements of body size and 1 craniodental traits from nine populatio
mmer of 1996 to protect and restore habitat within the watershed by establishing the Grand Kankakee Marsh National Wildlife Refuge. Th
 yers corresponding to floristic species richness, zones of floristic endemism, floristically unique areas, and habitat distribution of represen
 tory of the Kansas Biological Survey and the Kansas Gap Analysis Project to identify and describe current native plant communities. Its use
 ng algorithm provided optimal solutions to the reserve selection problem, finding either the maximum number of species for a given num


getation and examine positions of three prominent physiognomic transitions in Wyoming: the elevation of upper and lower treeline, and
s to a subcontinental biome unit. The fifth level provides the principal plant-animal communities within the biome. The sixth level refers to
oject was to identify riverine ecosystems, habitats, and species not adequately represented (i.e., gaps) within existing conservation lands.
 f biological diversity. We then compared the vegetation and management status layers to assess the extent and degree of protection affo


sification systems that are amenable to data derived from remote sensing sources. It is intentionally left open-ended so that Federal, regi


 his diversity with a series of statutes opening refuges to a variety of non-wildlife uses. The increasing pressures on refuges to provide recr
aight-forward data reduction schemes which may reduce the solution time for these problems when they are solved using general off-the
ds, 114 Gymnosperm Forests/Woodlands, 100 Shrub Associations, 74 Grassland Associations, 38 Graminoid Associations, and 47 Herb Ass
 Earth system science and global change programmes, with remote sensing featured as a prominent data acquisition and analysis tool.


vailable, via remote sensing, and more easily manipulated, in geographical information systems. In spite of these technical advances, spat
P), and Reach (Allen et al., 2001) to determine critical habitats for animal species, thereby eliminating those areas that are effectively unu
 tional and environmental criteria. The approach is demonstrated with an application to siting Research Natural Areas to represent Mixed
ps and for each National Park. Depending on the taxonomic group, omission error ranged from 0% to 25% while commission error ranged




 coregion with the proposals falling within three of six ecoregions that encompass Idaho. Databases included vegetation type, land owner
ied selection criterion. Here, the selection criterion was that the subset included all target species in the smallest total area. In addition, I
dently. This can create problems because atmospheric scattering is highly wavelength-dependent in the visible part of the electromagneti
 epomis cyanellus, bluegill L. macrochirus, yellow bullhead Ameiurus natalis, and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus; percent invertivorou
 accommodates large varieties of spatial and aspatial (attribute) data. The information embedded in a GIS is used to target surveys and m




 be customized to meet the needs of a particular assessment and ecosystem. Two case studies are presented to show how new methods


 s part of our design process, we first reviewed the effect of intracluster correlation and a simple cost function on the relative efficiency of
ad geographic information on the status of terrestrial vertebrates, butterflies, skippers and ants and their respective habitats to address t
per describes cartographic and modelling features of gap analysis, and discusses some challenges that arise in assessing the accuracy of bi
9,500 ha. We compiled a GISanalysis using digital thematic maps of physical and biological features to examine how the existing and prop
eeding Bird Atlas data from 1983 to 1989 using a geographic information system. Breeding bird data were recorded from 4928 blocks tha



t reject Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) eggs, species that nest near forest edges, and Neotropical migrants. The proportion of fo




rthern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), prairie warbler (Dendroica discolor), yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus), white-eyed vireo (



verse, mixed-species forest in Northern Idaho. We used a variety of lidar-derived metrics in conjunction with an algorithmic modeling pro



w these problems were resolved for a managed areas map for the state of California. Characteristics of an ideal geographic information sy



the network of conservation lands for the continental United States. We combined The Nature Conservancy's ecoregions with the natura




ies diversity (gap analysis), when prioritized, show a rapid accumulation of species as more localities are chosen for terrestrial vertebrates


ethods ranged from 74% to 42% for maps with increasing taxonomic resolution. Fuzzy map accuracies were assessed at low and high taxo
Arizona. Total grass canopy cover was greatest on the ungrazed portion of each of the eight sites. Two short stoloniferous species (Hilaria
ubject of the special section of BioScience for which this article serves as an introduction.We also provide an overview of the extraordinar



wn from the other articles in this volume, the workshop that initiated them, and the scientific literature. It summarizes the status of our p
 Vegetation data have also been related to land ownership and management to assess the conservation status of upland plant communit


es in this region and identify trends in town coverage and mean town size over the past century, to test whether town persistence was as
differentiated primarily by the distance to a forest-farmland edge, with fox squirrels using areas closer to the forest edge. Habitat used by
nvestment in protection is usually required. Economics can play a key role in understanding why benefits are underestimated and how be
hree vegetation classifications, the patterns of existing vegetation did not correspond well with the patterns of ecoregions. Most vegetatio
 reserves, and greatest number of terrestrial vertebrate species covered. A fifth evaluation criterion was the effect each sampling scheme
d to population declines and abnormal population structure. Habitat fragmentation, especially in small populations, increases vulnerability
 grid cells tended to decrease with a corresponding decline in numbers of species predicted. Further, the ranking of grid cells in order of p
es important to birds. We compared biodiversity estimates including non-breeding birds (inclusive estimate - 324 species) to estimates inc
ophers occur. Our results indicated that the unoccupied tracts consisted largely of areas with fine-textured soils that are planted to crops


or this report consisted of a literature review and a survey of conservation agencies and professionals. The results of this preliminary stud



e was developed to attend specific needs and to cope with hardware limitations, making the system adequate to other developing countr
ng grids from a stratified random sample of grids plotted on 1:100,000 scale Gap vegetation maps of eastern Colorado. Of the grids sample
 f uncertainty about the land tracts and the status codes, and suggests the need to develop an objective and repeatable management cate


 y, USA, we evaluated contaminant exposure and productivity in ospreys nesting on the Delaware River and Bay in 2002. We characterized




y stable population. The presence of hatchlings demonstrated that successful reproduction was occurring. This study showed that it is pos




erlay of biological distribution data on a map of biological reserves. The biodiversity assessment for California is using existing digital geog
 ual vegetation. We stratified the distribution of each species into units for genetic analysis using seed and breeding zones and ecoregions



o be particularly vulnerable to potential loss or degradation because of low level of representation in biodiversity management areas and
 ngterm maintenance of populations of native species and natural ecosystems (hereinafter referred to as biodiversity management areas)




ervation needs. However, these areas have not necessarily been delineated on the basis of animal habitat zones or ecologically significant
was compared with three ecological indicators (permitted land uses, human population growth, and the spatial extent of road effects) tha
wo strata were defined based on proximity to roads. Vegetation type was recorded on heterogeneous linear clusters of sample points wi




lly expanding the network to cover mammals, amphibians, freshwater turtles and tortoises, and globally threatened birds.We identify unp




 of the United States (Arizona, Colorado,NewMexico, and Utah), andweextrapolated those models within a geographical information syste


 based on the gap analysis technique and involves the use of ordination analysis and generalized linear models integrated with a geograp
 xtant state-level databases to test specific predictions implied by these assumptions. Support for the biodiversity indicator assumption w
e post-classification change detection technique was used along with co-occurrence matrices to identify areas and directions of land-cove
y comparing the D² values of pixels representing areas with and without elk pellets along 19 fixed-width transects surveyed in March 200
d management intent on these lands could also increase their protection. We also analysed the level of protection afforded each cover ty
. We developed GIS models for panthers, Sandhill Cranes, and wading birds that reflect changes in potential habitats under a series of dev


ers, planners, politicians, land owners, environmental activists) to design the system. This collaboration produced several generalizations a
 NLCD tree canopy cover product into the US GAP Analysis database, using avian species and the finished Idaho GAP Analysis as a case stu
gnized by Jerry Franklin--composition, structure, and function--into a nested hierarchy that incorporates elements of each attribute at fou
for hosting some form of biodiversity conservation. Our results indicate that many gaps in the protected area network occur in settings co
 with greater topographic relief within prairie landscapes. Swainson's Hawks (B. swainsoni) commonly nested in low-relief areas dominate


tion correlation of 1,758 state-wide field training sites to spectral classes, and post-classification ancillary GIS modeling using ecological pa
for much of the animal community. The U.S. Supreme Court’s ruling on the SWANCC decision has severely threatened the continued exist
-naped sapsuckers (Sphyrapicus nuchalis), northern flickers (Colaptes auratus), tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), and mountain chickad
 of extensive spatial data on species distributions and vegetation types provides us with a framework for: (a) assessing what we know and


o improve our understanding of animal–habitat relationships. Laser altimetry, commonly called light detection and ranging (lidar), is a sou


cal characteristics and ecological preferences. The results show that especially carabid species of dry and poor grasslands and heath veget


 sing the subregional maps as training data. The resulting regional map attempted to meet the guidelines of the proposed National Vegeta


ne, geology, elevation, and rainfall. Classification accuracy of 26 land cover and woody vegetation classes was 71 % overall and 83 % after
ent. The data layers will be used in a gap analysis to evaluate the conservation status of natural habitats and vertebrate species within and
y consistent geospatial data (Landsat ETM+ imagery (1999–2001) and DEM derivatives), similar field data collection protocols, a standard
 d resources may occur, they are of potential use to land managers. This approach can be applied wherever data are available, and inputs
00 ha mixed-conifer forest in Northern Idaho (USA). We used forest inventory plots, LiDAR-derived metrics, and the Random Forest algori
s and species richness are poor surrogates for community/ecosystem processes, and are scale dependent; (2) species abundance and rich


pectral and biophysical attributes are calculated for each polygon in the image. Classification accuracy is assessed using fuzzy sets, and ind


 straints. Here we discuss our ongoing work comparing the relative performance of linear models, generalized additive models , classificat
o occur in surveys. Attributes (e.g., population level, niche width, aggregation) were used to model 79% of the variation in incidence within



meter (AVHRR). Environmental predictor variables included maps of temperature, precipitation, elevation, aspect, slope, and geology. Sp



ver Site, SC, by comparing the agreement between gap-analysis models with models derived from multi-year monitoring data. We determ


E = 1.2 km) from autumn to winter ranges than juvenile grouse captured in the lowland area (x̄ = 10.8 km, SE =1.2 km). Ten of 11 deaths o
are required. Multiple resource simulation is an assessment and land use planning tool that permits managers and decision makers to com


 oid loss of productivity from renewable resources or to remedy adverse impacts on the environment. The topics selected cover those env
area in nature reserves. Land ownership patterns show that areas of lower elevation and more productive soils are most often privately o
 ion regarding vegetation composition and structure, topographic features, soils, temperature, and distance to special landscape features


 e to habitat fragmentation were also associated with large forest patches and low road density. These landscape variables may be useful i




 ute ($\bar{x} \leq 0.67$) and had relatively high temporal variance in average number of cooing pigeons detected during replicate survey


c species; the dramatic loss of habitat due to urbanization, agricultural expansion, and other land use changes; and the potentially serious




e spatial and spectral information in the imagery. The hypothesis of this research is that spatial pattern indices derived from satellite imag
 ces used to terminate clustering. We present rationales, largely based on our intended uses of these regions, for selecting the seven varia


 n on species' abundance, population demographics, and dynamics (in descending order) was much less available. Biological information te



vegetation types was high in parts of their range, it was minimal to nonexistent in other parts. While it is yet to be shown that protecting a
 ibution maps to generate species richness and hotspot (95th quantile) maps for each taxon in each state. Species composition informatio
xisting reserves. Reserve networks were selected to represent primate species first considering no pre-existing reserves in Atlantic Forest,
 te data of Southwestern California, which is then compared to an iterative solution process used in previous studies. It is shown that the m
 s, we quantified how residential development has altered the structural context around cores nationally from 1970 to 2000 and forecaste



 ty coincided with the periods of greatest human visitation. Seventy-three percent of all snakes observed on the park's main road were eit
maintain that biodiversity. Our purpose in this chapter is to explore opportunities for siting BMAs in the Sierra Nevada region. The strategic
 orthern Region. We constructed and tested BHR models for 60 bird species detected on the study areas. The models varied by three level
 e for the endangered California condor. Alternative data sets were generated to compare results over a reasonable range of a assumption
 rian forest site. The mature riparian forest site contained four species of small mammals (eastern chipmunks [Tamias striatus], white-foot
l fluctuations. Fragmented and patchy habitat distributions are common problems for endangered organisms, but they have received littl


xisting vegetation. Experience has demonstrated the need to develop map units at conceptual scales intermediate between the narrowly
d, and urban areas, and a hybrid supervised/unsupervised classification called ‘‘guided clustering.’’ The final data had overall accuracies of


various degrees by past and current land management. Adaptive management plans for species may be ineffective without continual feed
 data that either Kappa or percentage agreement.
atures. Wetlands were included within protected areas more often than expected by chance, but riparian zones were underrepresented a
sional, grassland, and wetland/riparian habitats is declining. These trends, combined with direct human disturbance, degradation of wate




Sociology can make several contributions to biodiversity research and management, including (1) a better understanding and managemen
d uncontrolled collecting. No young individuals have been found. Based on low interpopulation phenotypic differentiation, inferred larval




ence time. In the future ecologists can contribute their skills to conservation biology in numerous ways; I suggest three in particular. These
 nsula, USA. Composite digital maps with a 30-m spatial resolution were produced for each taxon. Spatial correspondence between the ta
ds similar to those used by the U.S. GAP Analysis Program to assess the relationship between the ecoregion's land protection status (e.g.,


l Survey. The study will generate land-cover habitat and vertebrate distribution maps for an area that straddles the Rio Bravo/Lower Rio G
sues. Using forest biodiversity as an example, we illustrate how one can combine ecological and institutional aspects of biodiversity conse
n size, presence of critical resources, existence (or lack thereof) of exotic competitors, etc.] has been absent from most representation mo
e to impervious coverage and land use disturbance, and decreased with fragmentation. The habitat for birds is influenced by land use distu
habitat maps that were supported by reference data and independent habitat analyses. The high tide image revealed surface water patte


ately unbiased and efficient estimates of population totals while providing a mechanism for prediction in space for mapping of forest struc
ould be extrapolated to other unsampled areas, we tested model validity with 2 independent data sets from the northern and southern e
iple approaches to define hotspots and used a unique approach based on weighting species by their distribution size and conservation sta
here stratification was based on the stereoscopic examination of aerial photo plots. Changes in plot design, sampling intensity, and popula
er map. We determined the level of protection for each vertebrate species based on its current modeled distribution and for vegetation co
 c lands considered suitable for wilderness designation in Idaho. These options cover the span of choices presently available to wilderness
re located in the Stehekin River Valley of Washington, within the boundaries of Lake Chelan National Recreation Area, which is part of the


accuracy: 1) the window size used to average spectral values in signature creation and 2) the threshold distance required for bird detectio
o group vegetation types into habitats based on the occurrence of breeding wildlife species ( n = 420) in Oregon. After calculating faunal s
the large-area map. The techniques is illustrated by a case study for a wildlife habitat map of southern California, USA. Overall agreement




 ed a least-cost path analysis to identify potential habitat linkages and to provide a relative measure of connectivity among habitat patche


 annealing site-selection algorithm, combined with biological and environmental data based on a geographic information system and stat
 fornia. This case study demonstrates the usefulness of Gap Analysis data and GIS-based procedures in conjunction with applications outsi
 s richness and fish populations. A test impoundment site was chosen on Ichusa Creek and using GAP data, landcovers, species and species
abitat distribution. Our analysis considered hypotheses about relative accuracy with respect to 30 vertebrate species selected to represen


 we performed a least.cost.path analysis to locate broad potential corridor routes. From this first approximation we identified probable m
 f the Arizona, New Mexico, and Mexico borderlands. We specifically used a combination of expert input and field verification. The accura
serve Enhancement Program (CREP). Prior to CREP implementation, the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) developed a regio


nalysis Program, the Forest Inventory and Analysis large-scale forest survey, and various industrial forest ground inventories. We consider


n situ provide better estimates of species patterns. Specifically, I compared GAP species predictions based on observed land use and land




 ping of groundwater. Land-use activities from 1948 to 1980 reduced land cover by 1,141 ha, while later changes in land-use activities allo


nt across years with most mortalities occurring on control study sites. Turkeys that had been released in the prior year and survived until J
ositives, so that presence was predicted in the correct proportion of the cases for most species. The areal proportion of the landscape on w


lue. The model combines toxicity rankings from SCRAM, chemical ambient air concentration data from the Assessment System for Popula
under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) than other US agencies. The densities of ESA status species and imperiled species are at least thre



us spp. Forest Alliancersquo – in their large-area contexts. The National Gap Analysis Program (GAP) has developed the technical and orga



important in determining species present in different habitats. Data obtained by the use of a new method of measuring total soil moistur


ere surveyed for the presence of pygmy rabbits. Sites were measured for sagebrush height, surrounding sagebrush height, sagebrush cove
es of a series of sinusoidal harmonic terms based on 16-day vegetation index composite data. The amplitude of annual greenness quickly i
 species into genetic populations for analysis: seed zones and ecoregions. The results show that most seed zones and ecoregions contain a
 that can be detected from the difference in greenness between two well-timed satellite images, allowing grass cover to be geographically
dentify areas that have experienced conversions in land use or land cover. Comparisons of the land cover maps reveal that a steady grow
 e of the year 2001 landscape to grizzly bear movement in Washington State and adjacent portions of Idaho and British Columbia (BC). We
ses. Urbanization and the conversion of once-agricultural or other natural resource lands to other uses has traditionally been tracked usin
oducts at two spatial scales, on the odds of mineral site use in Oregon (n = 69 currently used and 20 historically used). Our results indicate
hicken nests located. Nest sites had taller grass, greater sand-sagebrush density, and higher visual obstruction than random locations in th
n, as the basis for monitoring plant communities and species habitats over time. We mapped the Ecological Systems of the Onslow Bight,
uent impacts on both ecosystem function and human welfare. This is especially imperative along the U.S-Mexico border where economics
 atistics Survey (NASS) and Gap Analysis Project (GAP) land cover geographic data sets in the watershed scale model referred to as the Soi
verlap detected moderate similarities of habitat mixes used by lesser prairie-chickens and pheasants, but location data showed that spati


orrelate, rather than assessing a single explanatory theory. We partitioned variation in species richness into components using tree and m
 ' of the FFACO describes the process that will be used to complete corrective actions specifically for the UGTA Project. The objective of th
and 20 sites in 2002. Results from regression analysis indicated higher counts ≤2 days after rain (11.31±5.00% [x̄±SE]) compared to ≥3 day
e imagery or other remotely-sensed data. Species/habitat associations are defined based upon a literature review and expert review, desc
teristics, where rank is given based on morphological complexity and associated wetlands. The RSI classification method used data from 1
 olution, were developed for woody plants and groups of breeding birds: forest specialists, forest generalists, and those that used barren
eeding success of six species of Neotropical migrants and one resident species near an agricultural corridor and in interior forest. We foun
hic (SSURGO) and State Soil Geographic (STATSGO) soil classification systems and the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS)


ess within a Gap Analysis database can be very sensitive to both types of errors with sensitivity to random error being much greater. Impl




d their physical presence, by combining seven input models: three models quantified top-down anthropogenic influences of synanthropic
ayers. The derived landcover/landuse layer was 40% more accurate than the GAP layer and there was only 44% agreement between the c
 atures of the southern Sierra Nevada topography with unique features of P. sabiniana’s response to fire. This low elevation pine is widely
er broad scales. We describe a method to include four spatial datasets to provide coarse scale delineation on areas to focus conservation
, integrated metric and apply it to national datasets on land cover, housing density, road existence, and highway traffic volume to measur
 a intensive assessment data. On-site measures of wetland state (n = 10) were compared with landscape metrics (n = 47) measured
d analyzes the effect of including different forms of satellite data in model construction (i.e., Landsat thematic mapper (TM), advanc



 study area. Among collected bees, 86.9% possessed African mtDNA. Western European, eastern European, and Egyptian (A. m. lam


ey Geographic Dataset (SSURGO) at a scale of 1:24 000. Soil data were converted from a polygonal vector format to a raster format,
ere always on cliff plateaus and tended to be situated in sites with a less even canopy (0.5 6 0.3 and 0.7 6 0.2 (index)) and fewer deci
ons 5 (the Great Lakes region) and 1 (New England). It is anticipated that a land cover data set for the conterminous United States will be
could be identified on standard topographic maps at an appropriate level of precision for use in the GIS portion of this study. The Ar
–1996 to determine population trajectory. Twenty-two (63%) of 35 survey routes had negative trends, and the average slope of the
ipt will address three specific questions: (i) What is the spatial genetic structure of the chloroplast and nuclear genetic markers? (ii) Wha
at structure and percentage of area in vegetation types to represent habitat composition. Landscape composition was a better pred


 elements. The conservation network contained between 8% and 27 % of five different endangered species locations in the region.
ely radio-tracked 21 Sharp-shinned Hawks and six Cooper’s Hawks in rural areas, and eight Cooper’s Hawks in urban areas. We fou
 to evaluate additional habitat variables to prioritize the potential habitat for surveys. We conducted field surveys to evaluate the p
 essment. These "hotspots" occurred in naturally vegetated areas dominated mostly by oaks, ranging from Ventura County in southe


s around a den site contained more lowland conifer, upland conifer, and regenerating forest than did home ranges or the area used b


ion maps for an area that straddles the Rio Bravo/Lower Rio Grande basin extending from Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua/ El Paso, Texa
CA decreases the area occupied by the highest levels of species richness, and alters the mapped spatial distribution of potential species ric
 f habitat associations in the model, by systematically removing selected filter variables. This was done to quantify indirectly the value add


urements to be reliably used for BVOC modeling. A recent GIS-based description of vegetation coverage in the natural areas of the U


re required for broad implementation of such a system. BEST uses data from the U.S. Geological Survey's Gap Analysis Program (GA
ructure of a flightless insect endemic to cismontane southern California, Stenopelmatus 'mahogani' (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatidae).
 we develop a spatial database of historic (pre-1900) fire regimes and current (1994) fuels to identify areas with high risk of stand-
042 km2. The effective minimum mapping unit is below one hectare. The methods used, the mapping classification system develope
ng large numbers of endangered species in the United States. Many of the restricted-range species identified, however, have existing ran
cover classes and mapped their distribution into 3422 polygons. They identified recently disturbed areas that covered 13.5% of the
agments area ranged from 10-14 ha, medium-sized fragments 33 to 60 ha, and large fragments 100-240 ha. We found that: i) aspen


canopy cover; however means disguised normal distributions of change that demonstrated offsetting increases and decreases. We d
d amount of forest cover on identification of the extent and configuration or roadless areas, and then assessed these core habitat ar
 ry GIS modeling using ecological parameters of elevation, slope, aspect, and location to further refine spectral classes representing multip
 pe 15 microsatellite loci in California mule deer and identify five genetic groupings through a Structure analysis that are also well p
 of vertebrates follows a linear relationship with climatic energy or a hump-shaped relationship with primary productivity. By con


 ee time periods per path/row, (2) ancillary data, including a 30 m Digital Elevation Model (DEM) derived into slope, aspect and slope pos
le areas and methods for reserve selection and then discuss the reasons they remain largely unused by conservationists and land-use plan
 ns of these species in the study area, as well as the kinds of soil and land cover found in their potential home ranges. Although the d
ive elk. Stage 2 used a habitat suitability model to evaluate remaining areas. We used food, cover, and habitat diversity relationships
(PV) cover derived from airborne imaging spectroscopy and Landsat satellite data. Our results demonstrated strong correlations (P
 wetlands for mobile species that use multiple wetlands. Lastly, we evaluated the efficacy of waterfowl habitat programs in preservi
restricted distributions in the study area, whereas Russian olive and thistle species were broadly distributed. Results from this stud
ment, habitat suitability index modeling, and pattern recognition modeling. We varied the scale at which the models were applied by
ated a dramatic decrease in canopy cover immediately after the storm, which then recovered rapidly in the Taxodium distichum (ba
pring migration at RWB playas. We surveyed 36–40 playas twice weekly in the RWB and observed approximately 1.6 million individ


ment practices. The results are expressed in the form of affected areas and volumes. Obtained results suggest that introducing only s
 ayers as were used in the gap project, and independent occurrence data used to test both methods. Gap models performed better in
BATS simulated surface fluxes were similar in the eastern gridcell for the two satellite data sets. In the western gridcell, the partition
 at can be used to explore patterns in large, complex datasets for linear and nonlinear patterns. Here we use SOM to visualize broad
 or the species most vulnerable to extinction. These methods are flexible and can accommodate the quantity and quality of data ava


 nd is a geomorphological approach to habitat modeling in arid environments. Specifically, LizLand is a series of spatially explicit habitat m
 ULC maps to assemble consistent LULC data for the U.S. portion of the Great Lakes basin for 1992 and 2001, as well as summarizing
 icant spatial dependence for both invasive and noninvasive alien plant species. I used both ordinary least squares (OLS) and spatial
bitat requirement information, the riparian habitat model, and species ranges.
 tools such as remote sensing where habitats are broadly surveyed. But a major problem in effective construction for biodiversity pl
el. A second set of simulations applied a correction scheme that reduced the long-term precipitation bias identified in the MM5 prec
gement and policy, which is based largely on eliminating older stands of shrubland vegetation. In many shrubland ecosystems expos
iseb.) W. Wight ex Piper (desert centaury), Penstemon breviculus (Keck) Nisbet & R.C. Jackson (shortstem beardtongue), and Penste


 pped and calculated percentage of shortgrass prairie using a GIS. We caught 136 swift foxes on 40 grids, including 12 recaptures; 71
on kipukas that were isolated by more than 400–800 m, suggesting that many native sagebrush-steppe species may decline or disap
 ances of bears raiding bee yards within our study area and 6 instances in adjacent areas. All but 1 of the 13 raided yards were enclo
 nonical correspondence analysis to determine how assemblages were related to temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), salinity, and


 Our data suggest that transient survival, and therefore total distance moved, may be enhanced when dispersal occurs during the sn
 dental traits from nine populations with genetic data to examine patterns of variation within and between species. We used phylog
Marsh National Wildlife Refuge. The Indiana and Illinois Gap Analysis projects provided the resources to move beyond the expert worksho
 nd habitat distribution of representative endemic faunal species. These layers are combined with a map of the protected area network to
nt native plant communities. Its use is recommended for those working on land management and conservation efforts in Kansas and the c
 number of species for a given number of sites or the minimum number of sites needed to represent all species. Where practical, we reco


n of upper and lower treeline, and the position of the biogeographic boundary between shrub-and grass-dominated vegetation. By area, t
 the biome. The sixth level refers to distinctive plant associations. The seventh level accomodates detailed measurement and assessment
within existing conservation lands. The goal of the freshwater component of the Missouri Wildlife Action Plan was to identify and map a s
xtent and degree of protection afforded to 71 vegetation and land-use categories. We identified six vegetation complexes with no protect


 t open-ended so that Federal, regional, State, and local agencies can have flexibility in developing more detailed land use classifications a


ressures on refuges to provide recreation and commodities in addition to wildlife habitat has caused concern that wildlife was again losin
ey are solved using general off-the-shelf optimization code as mentioned by Underhill.
noid Associations, and 47 Herb Associations.
 ta acquisition and analysis tool.


e of these technical advances, spatial modelling is poorly developed, largely because landscape change itself is poorly understood. To facil
hose areas that are effectively unusable because of size or inaccessibility. The utility of the SDSS, and the three algorithms contained with
 Natural Areas to represent Mixed Evergreen Forest types on Los Padres National Forest in the central coast of California. We envision thi
5% while commission error ranged from 4% to 33%. Error rates were highest in amphibians and reptiles and lowest for birds and mamma




 uded vegetation type, land ownership, and land protection status, which were analyzed using a geographic information system. Vegetatio
e smallest total area. In addition, I compared alternative strategies to a null model of randomly accumulated reserves
 visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum and the scattering values are correlated with each other. Therefore, multispectral data such
us punctatus; percent invertivorous; percent top carnivores; number of darter Etheostoma and Percina, sculpin Cottus, and madtom Notu
GIS is used to target surveys and monitoring schemes. Data on species and habitat distribution from different dates allow monitoring of th




ented to show how new methods were applied at the ecosystem scale for achieving practical management goals. One case used an asses


unction on the relative efficiency of cluster sample designs to simple random designs. Our design ultimately combined clustered and subsa
eir respective habitats to address the loss of biological diversity. To model the distributions and potential habitat of all terrestrial species o
 rise in assessing the accuracy of biodiversity maps. A conceptual model is given for assessment of vegetation and species richness maps p
examine how the existing and proposed reserves serve to protect the biodiversity and physical features of the country. Using a conservati
ere recorded from 4928 blocks that form a grid covering Pennsylvania. Correlation analysis reduced landscape variables to 12 originally de



pical migrants. The proportion of forest core area in a 5-km radius around the plot had a weakly negative relationship with daily survival r




 us americanus), white-eyed vireo (Vireo griseus), and wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina). At each location, we estimated hierarchical-lev



n with an algorithmic modeling procedure (Random Forests) to classify six stages of three-dimensional forest development and achieved a



 an ideal geographic information system (GIS) database of managed areas are also described. The California map is being produced at a sc



vancy's ecoregions with the natural land-cover types of the National Land Cover Data Set and examined the conservation status of each c




e chosen for terrestrial vertebrates and unprotected vertebrates. Gap analysis identifies four target areas ("gaps") that include 79 of the 8


were assessed at low and high taxonomic resolutions resulting in an improvement in map accuracy of 19% and 23%, respectively. The nat
 short stoloniferous species (Hilaria belangeri and Bouteloua eriopoda) were the only taxa substantially more abundant on grazed quadra
de an overview of the extraordinary data sets now available to allow global gap analysis and, based on these, an assessment of the degre



e. It summarizes the status of our present scientific understanding, discusses means by which to actualize the existing potential for match
 n status of upland plant communities. A large proportion of the mapped distribution of species and vegetation types is on private land, an


  whether town persistence was associated with area and isolation of towns, and to assess the protection status of towns >10 ha by comp
 o the forest edge. Habitat used by fox squirrels was also characterized by fewer short shrubs compared to available habitat. Habitat used
 ts are underestimated and how benefit estimation can be improved. This information can, in turn, be used to justify increasing the extent
 erns of ecoregions. Most vegetation types had a small proportion of their total area in a given ecoregion. There was also no dominance b
 s the effect each sampling scheme had on the ability of the modeled conservation reserves to cover the six major ecoregions found in Uta
populations, increases vulnerability to human-caused catastrophes and demographic accidents, and could lead to eventual extinction. The
 e ranking of grid cells in order of predicted numbers of species changed dramatically between levels of generalization. Areas predicted to
mate - 324 species) to estimates including only breeding birds (breeding bird estimate - 257 species) in terms of estimated patterns of spec
ured soils that are planted to crops. The crops, mainly corn, wheat, and grain sorghum, were harvested and disked annually, and even the


The results of this preliminary study indicated significant losses of biodiversity at the ecosystem level in the United States. The most subst



 equate to other developing countries.
 stern Colorado. Of the grids sampled, 54% were from areas with 75% short-grass habitat. We captured 241 swift foxes (117 male, 121 fem
e and repeatable management categorization process


 and Bay in 2002. We characterized habitat in the coastal zone of Delaware, USA, and the area around the river in Pennsylvania, USA, usin




ng. This study showed that it is possible to relocate and reintroduce gopher tortoises fairly successfully. It does not support the suggestion




 fornia is using existing digital geographical data sets on land ownership, topography, species ranges and locations of threatened and enda
and breeding zones and ecoregions. Most strata contained at least 5000 reproductive-age individuals in protected areas, indicating that ge



 iodiversity management areas and the impact of expected land-use activities. Gap analysis data and findings will be useful in providing a r
as biodiversity management areas). Once identified, gaps are filled through new reserve acquisitions or designations, or through changes




tat zones or ecologically significant units. Gap Analysis is an evaluation method providing a systematic approach for assessing the protect
e spatial extent of road effects) that more directly represent impacts on biodiversity. The classification of management status appears to
 linear clusters of sample points within the "off-road" strata, and on randomly distributed sample points within the "road" strata on selec




y threatened birds.We identify unprotected areas of the world that have remarkably high conservation value (irreplaceability) and are un




 n a geographical information system to predict where plague cases are likely to occur within the southwestern United States disease focus


 models integrated with a geographic information system. This approach was used for locating species-rich areas in the Mexican states of
iodiversity indicator assumption was varied. Patterns of diversity as reflected in species counts, coincidence of hot spots, and representat
y areas and directions of land-cover change. Comparisons showed that the land cover of Kansas has changed drastically since European se
h transects surveyed in March 2002. Pixels with elk scat had lower D² values than pixels in which we found no pellets (logistic regression:
 protection afforded each cover type across its entire geographic distribution in the region. Most cover types that were at least minimally
ential habitats under a series of development scenarios. The models indicate that, under the maximum development scenario, 63% of pot


 produced several generalizations about effective design of information systems to support conservation. The most important of these is
ed Idaho GAP Analysis as a case study. We found: (1) a 15-68% decrease in the extent of the predicted habitat for avian species associated
s elements of each attribute at four levels of organization: regional landscape, community-ecosystem, population-species, and genetic. In
d area network occur in settings conducive to conservation, characterized by limited human presence, large contiguous tracts of conserva
nested in low-relief areas dominated by small-grain production agriculture but generally used habitats in proportion to availability. Most n


ry GIS modeling using ecological parameters of elevation, slope, aspect, and location to further refine spectral classes representing multip
 ely threatened the continued existence of such wetlands and their associated animals. Recognition that terrestrial habitats associated wi
eta bicolor), and mountain chickadees (Parus gambeli). We then tested the predictive capability of the models with independent data col
or: (a) assessing what we know and where we know it at meso-scales, and (b) stratifying the biological universe so that higher-resolution s


tection and ranging (lidar), is a source of geospatial data that can provide fine-grained information about the 3-D structure of ecosystems


nd poor grasslands and heath vegetation have decreased significantly in all areas investigated. Loss of habitats seems primarily responsible


es of the proposed National Vegetation Classification System for classification at the alliance level. The approach generally improved the s


es was 71 % overall and 83 % after combining forest successional stages within image mapping zones. In 1991-92, Puerto Rico had about 3
s and vertebrate species within and among all five states, and point out biotic elements needing further protection or management atten
 ta collection protocols, a standardized land-cover legend, and a common modeling approach (decision tree classifier). Partitioning of map
ever data are available, and inputs can be varied according to the topics of interest.
 rics, and the Random Forest algorithm to achieve classification accuracies of 83% for the understory shrubs and 86% to 88% for the differ
nt; (2) species abundance and richness data are unreliable because of unequal and unknown sampling probabilities and species-habitat m


s assessed using fuzzy sets, and individual GZS databases for adjacent images are virtually edge-matched, post-classification, to create sea


 ralized additive models , classification and regression trees , multivariate adaptive regression splines, and artificial neural networks in mee
 of the variation in incidence within the Maine Breeding Bird Atlas. Likelihood of Occurrence Ranks (LOORs) were assigned to each species



ion, aspect, slope, and geology. Spatially-explicit predictions were generated for the presence of forest and lodgepole cover types, basal a



 i-year monitoring data. We determined the species model agreement, commission and omission errors, and spatial correspondence in bo


m, SE =1.2 km). Ten of 11 deaths occurred from September to December. Fifty percent of deaths in the lowland population were attributa
anagers and decision makers to comply with the law, providing a flexible, user-oriented system that can meet the needs of managers, con


The topics selected cover those environmental and resource aspects of economic development that are significant (i.e. important to huma
ive soils are most often privately owned and already extensively converted to urban and agricultural uses. Thus any effort to establish a sy
ance to special landscape features such that current research expenses would not be increased significantly. We recommend that habitat


 andscape variables may be useful in identifying areas that are important for the conservation of these species. Associations between spec




 s detected during replicate surveys ($CV \geq 161%$). However, compared to auditory surveys, use of call-broadcast increased 1) the per


hanges; and the potentially serious effects of global climate change. These threats suggest the need for swift action at a number of jurisdic




 indices derived from satellite imagery and retained as polygon attributes help to preserve some of the original spatial and spectral inform
gions, for selecting the seven variables, a cell size (21.44 km2), and a euclidian cut-off (1.56). Thirteen biophysical regions, in fourteen unit


 available. Biological information tended to be sparsely distributed among taxonomic groups. We found that threatened and endangered



 s yet to be shown that protecting a given species throughout its geographic range is essential for its long-term existence, in the face of of
te. Species composition information at each grain size was used to develop two types of representation networks using the reserve select
existing reserves in Atlantic Forest, and then, considering the existing reserve system, taking into account the minimum area for viable po
vious studies. It is shown that the maximal covering model can quickly meet or exceed iterative models in terms of the coverage objective
 y from 1970 to 2000 and forecasted changes from 2000 to 2030. We found that residential housing development has likely occurred pref



 d on the park's main road were either injured or dead. Management recommendations are provided to minimize loss.
 Sierra Nevada region. The strategic goal is to design a BMA system that represents all major Sierran plant community types, which we use
s. The models varied by three levels of complexity (amount of habitat information) and three spatial data resolutions (0.09 ha, 4 ha, 10 ha
 reasonable range of a assumptions about several sources of uncertainty.
munks [Tamias striatus], white-footed mice [Peromyscus leucopus], deer mice [P. maniculatus], and wood-land jumping mice [Napeozapus
anisms, but they have received little attention from modelers. My results indicate that yearly fluctuations in breeding success have little im


termediate between the narrowly specific alliance (floristic) and the broadly generalized formation (physiognomic) levels of the US-NVC. N
final data had overall accuracies of 94% for Anderson Level I upland classes, 77% for Level II/III upland classes, and 84% for Level II/III wetl


 ineffective without continual feedback and the flexibility for change. Here we summarize and discuss the results of our surveys, compare


an zones were underrepresented across all (GAP 1–3) protected lands, particularly for headwater streams and large rivers. Nevertheless, w
 disturbance, degradation of water quality, and loss of critical habitat features have contributed to the endangered or threatened status o




ter understanding and management of habitat change; (2) improved research and decision-making methodologies; (3) development of a
ypic differentiation, inferred larval morphology, and congruent geographical and ecological distributions, it is hypothesized that the West




 I suggest three in particular. These are investigating the autecology and natural history of rare species, testing hypotheses concerning po
al correspondence between the taxa was determined by normalizing and then subtracting the composite maps. There were large areas o
gion's land protection status (e.g., national parks) and its major ecosystem types, in order to determine the relative level of ecosystem typ


traddles the Rio Bravo/Lower Rio Grande basin extendingfrom CiadadJuarez, Chihuahua/ El Paso, Texas to the Gulf of Mexico. Vertebrate
ional aspects of biodiversity conservation, thus facilitating environmentally sustainable regional development. In particular, we use region
sent from most representation models. Yet issues of site quality should be considered in order to have any assurance of long-term specie
birds is influenced by land use disturbance, human population densities, size of forest patch, and open space in the watershed. Mammal h
mage revealed surface water patterns that supported the existence of a large, Central Bay dipole eddy predicted by a numerical three-dim


n space for mapping of forest structure. We model forest type and timber volume of five tree species groups as functions of a variety of p
 from the northern and southern ends of the county. Model fit was excellent (P = 0.984). The successful development of this Geographic I
tribution size and conservation status to identify hotspot areas. All hotspot approaches identified bodies of water (Bear Lake, Grays Lake,
ign, sampling intensity, and population parameters between 1986 and 1999 make it impossible to attribute differences in sampling errors
d distribution and for vegetation communities based on their current mapped distribution. We also compiled subjective lists of vertebrate
s presently available to wilderness planners in the state and range from not establishing any new wilderness areas to the inclusion of all s
ecreation Area, which is part of the North Cascades National Park Complex. We overlaid the vegetation map with a grid of cells 16 m supe


 distance required for bird detections to be counted as present. Two accuracy measurements, proportion correctly classified (PCC) and Ka
n Oregon. After calculating faunal similarities among all regional vegetation types (n = 130), we used cluster analysis to group vegetation t
California, USA. Overall agreement between the maplet and the large-are map was 63%. However, the total area of map units in which th




connectivity among habitat patches. Variables in our model were paved road density, major highways, human population density, percen


aphic information system and static (habitat suitability) and dynamic ( population viability) modeling of focal species, we identified unpro
conjunction with applications outside GIS, such as vegetation classification and optimization programs. Results indicate that there are ofte
ata, landcovers, species and species richness were compared with those of Bienville National Forest, Smith County, Mississippi. For the aq
ebrate species selected to represent the spectrum of habitat generalist to specialist and categorization of site by relative degree of conser


ximation we identified probable movement routes and as well as critical barriers, bottlenecks, and filters where corridor routes intersecte
 t and field verification. The accuracy of the expert input was 71%–77%. Native grasses dominate nearly 50% of identified grasslands. How
 n Service (NRCS) developed a regionally tailored fish Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) for use as a watershed assessment technique in Norther


 t ground inventories. We considered stream data classified into trout, perennial, and intermittent streams, which we combined with elev


 ed on observed land use and land cover associations with distributions created using maximum entropy (Maxent) to determine if there a




r changes in land-use activities allowed recovery of 935 ha of land cover. Limited change in groundwater might have aided in recovery of l


n the prior year and survived until January of the current year had little mortality, regardless of supplemental food. The relative risk of dea
al proportion of the landscape on which the species were predicted to occur was in the same rank order, and of the same magnitude, as t


the Assessment System for Population Exposure Nationwide model, and species richness data from the Southeast Gap Analysis Project. T
 imperiled species are at least three times higher on military lands—2.92 and 3.77, respectively, per 100,000 hectares—than on any othe



s developed the technical and organizational capabilities necessary for the regular production and analysis of such information. This pape



 od of measuring total soil moisture stress in field samples show that the capacity of different species to remove soil moisture to different


g sagebrush height, sagebrush cover, and soil composition. Likelihood of pygmy rabbit occupancy at a site increased with the presence of
itude of annual greenness quickly increased with mean annual precipitation (MAP) up to a 1000-1500mm range and declined rapidly ther
eed zones and ecoregions contain at least 5,000 mature individuals in protected areas, indicating strong in situ conservation. Protection is
ng grass cover to be geographically modeled. The Nevada Natural Heritage Program is using imagery from Landsat and MODIS satellites to
er maps reveal that a steady growth in population and an increase in commercial and residential development have caused extensive cha
daho and British Columbia (BC). We developed habitat association and dispersal habitats uitability models based on published literature a
has traditionally been tracked using urban areas, as delimited in the U.S. census. Urban densities are typically defined as areas with more
 orically used). Our results indicated that the odds of current use were negatively associated with non-forested terrestrial and private land
ruction than random locations in the surrounding prairie. We recorded the distances from nests to 6 anthropogenic features (wellheads, b
gical Systems of the Onslow Bight, NC using Landsat TM satellite imagery and ancillary datasets (e.g., soils). We tested the application of d
S-Mexico border where economics and population growth present major challenges to both environmental management and natural reso
 scale model referred to as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Performance of the model was tested on the Cedar Creek Water
ut location data showed that spatial use of those habitats differed. Vegetation structure around nest sites of the two species differed sign


 into components using tree and multiple linear regression. Methods were used that allowed for useful comparisons between tree and lin
e UGTA Project. The objective of the UGTA corrective action strategy is to define contaminant boundaries for each UGTA corrective action
5.00% [x̄±SE]) compared to ≥3 days. Individual index counts conducted ≤2 days after rain were biased high, resulting in reduced ability to
ure review and expert review, describing associations for habitats derived from the cover map. Included as ancillary associations are how
 ification method used data from 18 field sites along with digital orthophoto quarter quadrangle 1-m resolution infrared aerial imagery, ga
alists, and those that used barren and urban habitats, early successional areas, and wetlands or open water. Two plant transition zones fo
dor and in interior forest. We found that nest survival was lower near the agricultural corridor for most of the species in the nestling stage
gricultural Statistics Service (NASS) and national Gap Analysis Project (GAP) land use data sets and their effects on modeled stream flow us


om error being much greater. Implications are that the inclusion of error modeling in applied GIS databases is critical to spatially explicit c




pogenic influences of synanthropic predators (avian predators, domestic dog and cat presence risk), and four models quantified bottom-u
only 44% agreement between the classifications from the two layers. The discrepancy resulted in different landocover/landuse selections
e. This low elevation pine is widely distributed in grassland and chaparral, and where it occurs with the latter vegetation, it is extremely vu
ion on areas to focus conservation including species numbers, key habitats, land management and factors that influence habitats. We use
d highway traffic volume to measure the dynamics of natural landscapes in the conterminous US. Roughly one-third of the conterminous U
scape metrics (n = 47) measured at multiple spatial scales using Pearson's correlation coefficients. Landscape metrics enhanced the
at thematic mapper (TM), advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR), and the GAP Analysis TM-classified map). Based on t



 uropean, and Egyptian (A. m. lamarckii) mtDNA was present in 5.6%, 4.1%, and 3.4% of collected bees, respectively. There was no


 vector format to a raster format, and a raster-based method used to estimate SOC and SIC stocks by biome. Statewide, STATSGO so
 0.7 6 0.2 (index)) and fewer deciduous stems (1.8 6 3.4 and 2.3 6 2.3 (stem density)) than nonused trees. These attributes depict se
onterminous United States will be completed by the end of 1999. A standard land cover classification legend is used, which is analogous to
e GIS portion of this study. The ArcView ® GIS software program was used to compare points representing these 52 sites with the A
 nds, and the average slope of the declines was −0.105 (10.5% annual decline). The number of buff-breasted flycatchers detected at
 nuclear genetic markers? (ii) What are the geographical trends in the distribution of chloroplast and nuclear genotypes? (iii) Is there any
pe composition was a better predictor of deer population antler size than was landscape structure. Percentages of the management


d species locations in the region. It captured 77 % of mapped serpentine rock, a surrogate for rare plants, 88 % of the old-growth re
 r’s Hawks in urban areas. We found that Sharp-shinned Hawks and Coo-per’s Hawks in rural areas used significantly larger areas th
ed field surveys to evaluate the predicted habitat attributes and document presence or absence of the species. Newly confirmed occ
ng from Ventura County in southern California to Mendocino County in northern California. Quantitative vegetation composition da


id home ranges or the area used by radiocollared lynx in Minnesota, USA. We used the spatial distribution of cover-type compositio


Juarez, Chihuahua/ El Paso, Texas to the Gulf of Mexico. Vertebrate modeling, based on habitat associations, will identify habitats po
distribution of potential species richness. For example, in St. Lucie and Okeechobee counties, Florida, the total area occupied by 15 or mo
to quantify indirectly the value added by these variables and to examine if the response pattern was consistent with expected model perfo


erage in the natural areas of the US is provided by the Gap Analysis Program (GAP) database. We conducted an assessment of this da


 rvey's Gap Analysis Program (GAP) and other data in a desktop GIS environment. The system provides predictions of conflict betwe
' (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatidae). Analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequence data suggest that diversification across southern Californ
tify areas with high risk of stand-replacing fires. High-risk areas historically supported jack pine (P. banksiana Lamb.) and mixed pi
 ng classification system developed, and the extents of landcover types mapped are presented. In a comparison with two previous d
ntified, however, have existing ranges in Mexico and Central and South America. The conservation of these peripheral populations in the U
d areas that covered 13.5% of the landscape. We compared the digital VTM quad to CALVEG, a satellite-derived vegetation map from
0-240 ha. We found that: i) aspen stakes decayed fastest in the tropical sites, and the slowest in the temperate forest fragments, ii) t


ng increases and decreases. We described a region of widespread canopy decline within piñon-juniper forests between 2300 and 26
 en assessed these core habitat areas in terms of land ownership and management. We also derived patch connectivity metrics usin
 pectral classes representing multiple cover types.Thirty-four of 36 cover-type classes were totally or partially identified using digital mod
 cture analysis that are also well predicted by environmental data. We project the niches of these five deer ecotypes to the last glacia
 ith primary productivity. By contrast, vertebrate richness within Wyoming is most strongly associated with variability in vegetatio


 ed into slope, aspect and slope position, (3) perpixel estimates of percent imperviousness and percent tree canopy, (4) 29 classes of land c
 conservationists and land-use planners. Our informal discussions with ecologists, conservationists, and land managers from Europe and
ntial home ranges. Although the distributions of the 2 species overlap, they are strictly parapatric. The apparent cause of this parap
 nd habitat diversity relationships to evaluate suitability based on 7 land-cover classes from satellite imagery classified by the New
monstrated strong correlations (P < 0.001) between field cover and airborne PV estimates (r2 = 0.92), and between airborne and sat
 owl habitat programs in preserving suitable habitat for nongame wetland bird species to recommend strategies for maximizing reg
 istributed. Results from this study hold promise for the development of proactive management approaches to identify and control
which the models were applied by using five separate sizes of analysis windows. Results showed that the presence of a large minimu
dly in the Taxodium distichum (baldcypress) and Nyssa aquatica (water tupelo) forest. Although CFI levels in early October indicate
 approximately 1.6 million individual migratory wetland birds representing 72 species during spring migrations 2002–2004. We tes


 ts suggest that introducing only some of the harvesting constraints would not drastically affect sustainable fiber supply in the State
 . Gap models performed better in avoiding omission error, but GARP better avoided errors of overprediction. Advantages of the poi
 the western gridcell, the partitioning of net radiation into sensible and latent heat fluxes was affected by the relative proportions of
 e we use SOM to visualize broad patterns in species richness by taxonomic group (birds, mammals, reptiles, and amphibians) and 7
e quantity and quality of data available for each individual species in both the development of the habitat-suitability maps and the e


 series of spatially explicit habitat models that define and predict habitat for A. tigris, C. draconoides, and U. stansburiana in Joshua Tree N
 and 2001, as well as summarizing salient LULC results. Between 1992 and 2001, 2.5% (798,755 ha) of the U.S. portion of the Great L
 y least squares (OLS) and spatial autoregressive (SAR) models to assess the relationship between alien plant species distribution e


 e construction for biodiversity planning is the integration of data assessed over multiple spatial and temporal scales. Thus the mod
 n bias identified in the MM5 precipitation field. A third set of simulations used only those observations that are available in real tim
many shrubland ecosystems exposed to extreme fire weather, large and intense wildfires may need to be factored in as inevitable ev
ortstem beardtongue), and Penstemon lentus Pennell (handsome beardtongue).


 grids, including 12 recaptures; 71% of captures were in grids with >50% shortgrass prairie. We estimated the proportion of 4.8 by
eppe species may decline or disappear from fragmented sagebrush steppe. Density of small mammals increased with isolation on th
 of the 13 raided yards were enclosed by electric fencing. In the 12 cases of damage to electrically fenced yards, however, the fences
solved oxygen (DO), salinity, and land-use variables during summer (June–September) and throughout the rest of the year. A gradie


 en dispersal occurs during the snow-free season due to low hunting pressure and greater access to high elevation habitats. Long-di
between species. We used phylogenetic autocorrelation methods to estimate the degree to which phenotypic variation in our datase
o move beyond the expert workshop approach to a data-driven method for initial reserve design. Using visual analysis of various Gap Anal
 p of the protected area network to highlight areas of high conservation value excluded from adequate protection. Deforestation rates are
ervation efforts in Kansas and the central Great Plains.
 l species. Where practical, we recommend the use of linear programming algorithms for reserve network selection. However, several sim


 s-dominated vegetation. By area, the three leading land cover types in Wyoming are Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis sagebrush (3
 led measurement and assessment of quantitative structure, composition, density, and other species. Use of the last level is designed for i
on Plan was to identify and map a set of conservation-opportunity areas (COAs) that holistically represent all riverine ecosystems, habitats
 etation complexes with no protection and five vegetation complexes for which protection is less than 1000 ha each. An additional 18 veg


e detailed land use classifications at the third and fourth levels in order to meet their particular needs and at the same time remain compa


 ncern that wildlife was again losing out to economics. In October, 1997, the President signed the National Wildlife Refuge Improvement A




 itself is poorly understood. To facilitate further development of landscape models I suggest (1) empirical multivariate studies of landscape
 e three algorithms contained within it (i.e., core area, core area growth and aggregate), is demonstrated by creating distribution maps of
coast of California. We envision this process as a preliminary step that would precede more detailed ground survey and administrative rev
s and lowest for birds and mammals. In general, error rate declined as the size of the park increased. The Utah WHR models performed w




 phic information system. Vegetation types were used as surrogates for information on the distribution of other biological resources (ie., b
 lated reserves
 Therefore, multispectral data such as from the Landsat Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner must be corrected with haze values t
 , sculpin Cottus, and madtom Noturus species; and number of lithophilic spawning species. Trophic metrics contributed most to IBI scores
 erent dates allow monitoring of the location and the extent of change. This paper discusses issues related to (a) the need for biodiversity




ment goals. One case used an assessment of biotic structure to demonstrate how enhanced river flows can improve habitat conditions and


 tely combined clustered and subsampled field data stratified by ecological modelling unit and accessibility (hereafter a mixed design). We
 al habitat of all terrestrial species of mammals, breeding birds, reptiles, amphibians, butterflies, skippers and ants in Florida, natural land
 tation and species richness maps produced in gap analysis. Several measures of map accuracy are identified, and their strengths and limit
 of the country. Using a conservation target of placing a minimum of 12% of the land area of each important biophysical feature in nature
dscape variables to 12 originally derived from forest, urban, roads, streams, and topographic data. Avian functional response guilds were



ve relationship with daily survival rate of nests for all species pooled and for medium or high canopy nesters, species associated with inter




tion, we estimated hierarchical-level-specific habitat measurements using the Georgia GAP Analysis18 class land cover and other Geograp



orest development and achieved an overall accuracyN95%. The algorithmic model presented herein developed ecologically meaningful cl



ornia map is being produced at a scale of 1:100,000 with a minimum mapping unit of 200 ha for uplands and 80 ha for wetlands. Mapping



d the conservation status of each combination. The majority of ecosystem analysis units have a small percentage of their total area residin




as ("gaps") that include 79 of the 83 vertebrate species not currently protected. Accumulation of vegetation cover classes and endangere


9% and 23%, respectively. The nature, magnitude, and frequency of errors associated with mapping land cover types for large land areas
 more abundant on grazed quadrats overall. Among these and eight taller bunchgrasses, there was a strong positive correlation between
these, an assessment of the degree to which existing protected-area systems represent biodiversity. Coverage varies geographically, but



ze the existing potential for matching the scales of research and regulation with the scales at which effects are observed, and provides gu
 etation types is on private land, and several taxa show less than 4% of mapped distribution in nature reserves. The analysis highlights the


on status of towns >10 ha by comparing locations of extant towns to those of protected public lands. Prairie dog towns in this region now
d to available habitat. Habitat used by gray squirrels was farther from the edge and had fewer understory trees and logs and a greater bas
sed to justify increasing the extent of publicly supported protected areas and providing larger budgets for management. The major benef
 n. There was also no dominance by one or more vegetation types in any ecoregion and contrary to our hypothesis, the level of congruenc
e six major ecoregions found in Utah. Of the three sampling schemes, county boundaries covered the greatest number of species, but also
uld lead to eventual extinction. The threats facing fragmented populations of this turtle probably parallel those affecting many other strea
 generalization. Areas predicted to be of greatest conservation value on the basis of species richness may therefore be sensitive to GIS da
erms of estimated patterns of species richness. Inclusive and breeding bird richness estimates agreed about general locations of some spe
and disked annually, and even the roadside ditches adjacent to the cropland were plowed and planted. We concluded that pocket gopher


 the United States. The most substantial losses were summarized by listing ecosystems as critically endangered (>98% decline), endangere




 241 swift foxes (117 male, 121 female, and 3 undetermined) on 51 (71%) of the grids. We estimated a mean capture probability per night



the river in Pennsylvania, USA, using data we collected as well as extant information provided by state and federal sources. We characteri




 It does not support the suggestions of previous workers that social structure determinants such as sex and size, gravidity, or on-site penn




d locations of threatened and endangered species. An up-to-date statewide vegetation map is being produced using digital Thematic Map
 protected areas, indicating that genetic resources were well protected in situ throughout most of the study region. Strict in situ protectio



dings will be useful in providing a regional perspective in project impact assessment and future consetvation planning within this ecoregio
 designations, or through changes in management practices. The goal is to ensure that all ecosystems and areas rich in species diversity a




approach for assessing the protection afforded biodiversity in a given area. It uses geographic information systems to identify "gaps" in bi
of management status appears to provide a crude first approximation of these three indicators. Public and private lands that are not form
s within the "road" strata on selected USGS quadrangle maps. A binary response (correctly classified / incorrectly classified) was modeled




 value (irreplaceability) and are under serious threat. These areas concentrate overwhelmingly in tropical and subtropical moist forests, p




western United States disease focus. The probability of an area being classiÞed as high-risk plague habitat increased with elevation up to


rich areas in the Mexican states of Guerrero and Oaxaca, where a regional forestry development project was proposed. Baseline informat
ence of hot spots, and representativeness were not generally concordant among different taxa, with the degree of concordance dependin
anged drastically since European settlement. Over 48% of the land is now cultivated and native vegetation types such as tallgrass and sho
und no pellets (logistic regression: Wald χ² = 24.37, P < 0.001), indicating that habitat characteristics were similar to those selected by the
 types that were at least minimally protected in total across the region were also at least minimally protected in most areas of their occur
development scenario, 63% of potential panther habitat, 66% of potential Sandhill Crane habitat, and 67% and 33% of potential wading b


 n. The most important of these is the idea that ecological data and analysis must be understood by those who will be affected by the dec
habitat for avian species associated with specific tree canopy conditions, (2) a marked decrease in the species richness values predicted at
population-species, and genetic. Indicators of each attribute in terrestrial ecosystems, at the four levels of organization, are identified for
large contiguous tracts of conservation-compatible habitat, and low agricultural potential. Detailed studies of gap locations, using local da
n proportion to availability. Most nest sites of Ferruginous Hawks (B. regalis) were in prairie (78% prairie land cover around nests), but som


pectral classes representing multiple cover types. Thirty-four of 36 cover-type classes were totally or partially identified using digital mod
t terrestrial habitats associated with isolated wetlands are essential elements for enhancing biodiversity could garner support from regula
models with independent data collected in the field the following year. The models built for the northern flicker, red-naped sapsucker, an
universe so that higher-resolution surveys can be more efficiently implemented, covering, for example, geographic adequacy of specimen


ut the 3-D structure of ecosystems across broad spatial extents. In this review, we present a brief overview of lidar technology, discuss rec


abitats seems primarily responsible for the decrease of so many species, especially those which are stenotopic. All endangered species in


approach generally improved the spatial properties of the regional mapping, while maintaining the thematic detail of the source maps. Th


n 1991-92, Puerto Rico had about 364,000 ha of closed forest, which covered 41.6 % of the main island. Unlike previous island-wide mapp
r protection or management attention. The program will also provide region-wide digital map and database products that allow land man
tree classifier). Partitioning of mapping responsibilities amongst the five collaborating states was organized around ecoregion-based “map


rubs and 86% to 88% for the different snag diameter classes. Second, we evaluated the use of LiDAR data for mapping wildlife habitat sui
probabilities and species-habitat models of doubtful reliability; (3) mapped species richness data may be inherently resistant to "scaling u


d, post-classification, to create seamless outputs across multiple scenes. We found that, by storing and analyzing data from separate scen


nd artificial neural networks in meeting multiple forest inventory objectives.
ORs) were assigned to each species based upon the modeled incidences to reflect how likely the species are to be observed in future surv



 and lodgepole cover types, basal area of forest trees, percent cover of shrubs, and density of snags. The maps were validated using an ind



s, and spatial correspondence in both single-species and richness models, and spatial correspondence of nodes of high richness. Average s


 lowland population were attributable to human-related mortality including power-line collisions and legal harvest, while 33% and 17% o
 meet the needs of managers, conservationists, and researchers. A multiple-resource model and an example of how it can be applied to m


e significant (i.e. important to human health and welfare, often irreversible, and urgently needing attention). Its nine chapters are: (1) Con
es. Thus any effort to establish a system of nature reserves that captures the full geographical and ecological range of cover types and spe
antly. We recommend that habitat data be consistently reported in peer-reviewed literature or deposited into a central data repository. T


species. Associations between species distributions and landscape variables were substantiated by published habitat associations. Species




call-broadcast increased 1) the percentage of replicate surveys on which ≥ 1 cooing pigeon was detected by an average of 16%, and 2) the


 swift action at a number of jurisdictional and governmental levels. Major components of such an effort are identified and described. Thes




original spatial and spectral information, and can be used to detect cartographic errors due to misclassification, boundary misplacement a
 iophysical regions, in fourteen units, were delineated and characterized; the regions were hierarchically arranged in five levels. Five of the


 that threatened and endangered species were at risk of extinction, yet differentiation between threatened and endangered species' stat



ng-term existence, in the face of often unpredictable environmental changes, it seems a prudent course to follow. Our results suggest that
 networks using the reserve selection software MARXAN. Reserve selection analyses were restricted to Arizona birds due to considerable
nt the minimum area for viable population of the larger species (Northern muriqui Brachyteles hypoxanthus). Reserve selection was carri
 in terms of the coverage objective and automatically satisfies a complementarity objective. Refinements to the basic model are also prop
velopment has likely occurred preferentially near some cores, and if encroachment near cores continues at projected rates, the amount o



o minimize loss.
nt community types, which we use as a coarse surrogate for ecosystems and their component species. We consider a community type to
ta resolutions (0.09 ha, 4 ha, 10 ha). We tested these models at two levels of analysis: the site level (a homogeneous area ,0.5 ha) and cov


od-land jumping mice [Napeozapus insignis]), and Spring Creek Nature Park, a park managed to promote natural and native habitats, cont
ns in breeding success have little impact on owl populations, but that spatial structure is quite important and should be considered in plan


ysiognomic) levels of the US-NVC. NatureServe defined over 630 ‘‘mesoscale’’ vegetation-based units that are described across the lower
 lasses, and 84% for Level II/III wetland classes. Classification accuracies for deciduous and coniferous forest were 95% and 93%, respectiv


he results of our surveys, compare these results with those of past surveys, identify differences between the surveys, and discuss the imp


ms and large rivers. Nevertheless, within strictly protected lands (GAP 1–2), riparian zones were highly represented because of the contrib
 endangered or threatened status of 31 vertebrate species in the state. Based on two major databases, the Pennsylvania Breeding Bird Su




thodologies; (3) development of a theoretical synthesis; and (4) analysis of the social organization of conservation and conservation biolo
ns, it is hypothesized that the Western European sturgeon Acipenser sturio Linnaeus, 1758, an anadromous bottom-feeder, is probably th




 testing hypotheses concerning population viability with carefully designed laboratory and field experiments, and working to establish an
te maps. There were large areas of spatial correspondence – indicating that richness between mammals and ants was similar over much o
 the relative level of ecosystem type protection. We then examined the ecosystem type content of the ecoregion's remaining unprotecte


 to the Gulf of Mexico. Vertebrate modeling, based on habitat associations, will identify habitats potentially important to vertebrate life c
 pment. In particular, we use regional gap analysis for identification of focal forest types, habitat modelling for ascertaining the functional
any assurance of long-term species persistence in a reserve system. Here we present a multiobjective optimization model that addresses
space in the watershed. Mammal habitat is influenced by human population density, land use disturbance, and fragmentation. A watersh
predicted by a numerical three-dimensional circulation model. Classification of the low tide image resulted in 14 intertidal and water habi


roups as functions of a variety of predictor variables in the northern Utah mountains. Predictor variables include elevation, aspect, slope,
l development of this Geographic Information System model demonstrates the future capability of remote sensing/Geographic Informatio
es of water (Bear Lake, Grays Lake, and American Falls Reservoir) as important hotspots for Idaho avian SGCN, but we found that the weig
bute differences in sampling errors entirely to this change in methods. The stratified sample estimates based on TM data provided good e
mpiled subjective lists of vertebrate species most at risk from human activities and vertebrate species most well-adapted to human activit
rness areas to the inclusion of all suitable lands in wilderness. All options are evaluated using spatial biological data from the National Bio
 map with a grid of cells 16 m super(2). For each grid cell, a habitat diversity value was determined by summing the number of different h


 on correctly classified (PCC) and Kappa, of maps predicting species’ occurrences were calculated with ground data not used during classifi
uster analysis to group vegetation types into wildlife habitats. We classified the original 130 vegetation types into 30 wildlife habitat types
 total area of map units in which the label agreed with the majority maplet class was 84%. This result suggests that much of the "error" wa




 human population density, percentage of the area permanently or semipermanently flooded, and percentage of the area in natural land c


  focal species, we identified unprotected sites within the GYE that are biologically irreplaceable and vulnerable to degradation. Irreplacea
 Results indicate that there are often complex trade-offs between efficiency (i.e, covering the most types with the least sites) and suitabili
 ith County, Mississippi. For the aquatic analysis, a BBN model was developed for each fish so that population probabilities could be calcul
 of site by relative degree of conservation emphasis accorded to the site. Overall comparison of 19 variables observed at 382 sample sites


 rs where corridor routes intersected with high.risk habitat. This analysis is being used to identify priority areas for wildlife management to
y 50% of identified grasslands. However, over two-thirds of these grasslands have experienced a moderate level of shrub encroachment. T
 d assessment technique in Northern Virginia. Using this regional IBI framework, we evaluated the effects of recently established riparian b


ams, which we combined with elevation and slope information to assess buffer widths consistent with Georgia's Best Management Practi


 y (Maxent) to determine if there are significant differences in the areas that bird species are predicted to be present. GAP models were c




 r might have aided in recovery of land cover, although no relationship was established between depth-to-groundwater and land cover.


mental food. The relative risk of death estimated from proportional hazards models for turkeys at supplemental food sites relative to those
 r, and of the same magnitude, as their frequency (proportion of plots in which they occurred) within the field data sets. Predictive maps o


e Southeast Gap Analysis Project. The final output was a 30-m pixel grid of potential vulnerability to HAP exposures. We found that the mo
 0,000 hectares—than on any other agency’s lands. Defense installations in Hawaii are especially significant; more than one-third of all ESA



 ysis of such information. This paper provides a brief overview of concepts and methods as well as some recent results from the GAP proje



o remove soil moisture to different maximum stresses appears to determine the kinds of plants that occupy different habitats. Total soil m


 te increased with the presence of sagebrush islands, increasing sagebrush cover, and decreasing surrounding sagebrush height. Additiona
mm range and declined rapidly thereafter. In wetter environments, where MAP was higher than 2000mm, NDVI values became saturated a
g in situ conservation. Protection is less complete, however, for western white pine in the Puget lowlands, where populations are heavily i
 om Landsat and MODIS satellites to map annual grass invasion, and has completed a map of annual grass cover for the State of Nevada. T
opment have caused extensive changes to critical habitats throughout the basin. The maps also indicate that the loss of coastal wetlands,
 els based on published literature and used geographic information system (GIS) weighted-distance and least-cost analysis techniques to e
 pically defined as areas with more than 1,000 people per square mile, or 1.6 people per acre (U.S. Census Bureau 2000). Assuming an ave
 orested terrestrial and private land area around mineral sites. Similarly, the odds of current mineral site use were positively associated wi
 thropogenic features (wellheads, buildings, improved roads, unimproved roads, transmission lines, center-pivot irrigation fields) to deter
oils). We tested the application of decision tree modeling for mapping 6 forested systems and used image objects map managed evergree
ental management and natural resource planning. Wildlife habitat provides a keen example of an ecosystem service which can be categor
 s tested on the Cedar Creek Watershed in northeastern Indiana, one of twelve benchmark watersheds in the U.S. Department of Agricultu
 tes of the two species differed significantly indicating selection of different habitat for nesting birds, and lesser prairie-chickens nested far


 l comparisons between tree and linear regression results. For both methods we partitioned variation into broad-scale (spatially autocorre
 es for each UGTA corrective action unit (CAU) where groundwater may have become contaminated from the underground nuclear weapo
high, resulting in reduced ability to accurately estimate population trends. Models of band-tailed pigeon visitation rates throughout the su
d as ancillary associations are how species relate to physical features, where appropriate, such as elevation and hydrography. The three la
 solution infrared aerial imagery, gap analysis program land cover data, and digital elevation models generated from light detection and ra
water. Two plant transition zones for Maine were identified previously, with the north–south transition zone mapped across eastern North
 of the species in the nestling stage, but no consistent difference in nest survival was detected during the egg stage. Levels of cowbird par
 effects on modeled stream flow using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT2005). Performance of the model was tested on the Ced


 ases is critical to spatially explicit conservation recommendations.




d four models quantified bottom-up anthropogenic influences on habitat (invasion of exotic plants, human-caused fires, energy extraction
ent landocover/landuse selections and different predictions of black bear occurrence depending on which layer was used. We recommend
 latter vegetation, it is extremely vulnerable to high intensity wildfires. Under these conditions, meta-populations persist over time in refu
ors that influence habitats. We used the SWReGAP management status dataset to identify management categories for long-term intent o
hly one-third of the conterminous US (2.6 million km 2) in 1992 was classified as human-dominated. By 2001 this expanded by 80,800 km 2
 Landscape metrics enhanced the existing landscape assessment if they were correlated with condition metrics not correlated with
 is TM-classified map). Based on the assumption that vegetation composition, as well as structural diversity, is a function of environ



bees, respectively. There was no apparent relationship between the percentage of bees having African mtDNA and distance to agric


by biome. Statewide, STATSGO soil C stocks indicate Arizona contains 0.5 and 1.5 Pg of SOC and SIC, respectively, with 27% of the SO
d trees. These attributes depict selection of perches that provide unobstructed flight paths, good visibility, and a capacity to detect a
 gend is used, which is analogous to and compatible with other classification schemes. The primary MRLC regional classification scheme c
esenting these 52 sites with the Arizona Gap Analysis Project's digital vegetation map of Arizona. The vegetation type(s) present at
-breasted flycatchers detected at a survey point was positively associated with severity of recent fires, and flycatchers were particu
uclear genotypes? (iii) Is there any part of the species’ range where allelic diversity in either the chloroplast or nuclear genomes is particu
Percentages of the management unit in agriculture, pasture, and pine forest were variables commonly found in the region-specific s


 plants, 88 % of the old-growth redwood (Sequoia sempervirens [(D. Don) EndI.]), 55 % of the The Nature Conservancy conservatio
s used significantly larger areas than did Cooper’s Hawks in urban areas, and that adult hawks generally used smaller areas than im
the species. Newly confirmed occurrences (n = 112) and absences (n = 139) were used to assess accuracy in predicting habitat prio
 tative vegetation composition data gathered through field surveys were compared to the species listings in GAP database. The spec


 ibution of cover-type composition around known den sites to predict and map potential denning habitat in northeastern Minnesota


ociations, will identify habitats potentially important to vertebrate life cycles and areas of high biodiversity. A map of land managem
he total area occupied by 15 or more species was 30,448 ha under simple mammal-habitat association models, but only 7820 ha under m
nsistent with expected model performance.


onducted an assessment of this database in central California through quantitative ground-based vegetation surveys in 18 polygons


vides predictions of conflict between proposed land uses and biotic elements and is intended for use at the start of the development
sification across southern California began during the Pleistocene, with most haplotypes currently restricted to a single population.
P. banksiana Lamb.) and mixed pine forests with stand-replacing fire rotations less than 100 years and currently support upland con
 comparison with two previous digital vegetation maps for the area, the US Forest Service’s CalVeg and the Gap Analysis Program’s
hese peripheral populations in the United States becomes even more important given that adjacent countries do not have legislation that
ellite-derived vegetation map from 1996. Land cover change for California Wildlife Habitat Relationship (WHR) vegetation types had
 temperate forest fragments, ii) the percent of mass remaining was significantly greater in dry than in moist forests in boreal and te


iper forests between 2300 and 2600 m (7500–8500 feet) and a region of predominant increase at lower elevations, between 1800 a
d patch connectivity metrics using a graph theory approach, making use of cost surfaces that accounted for the above variables and
artially identified using digital modeling, with five of 36 classes requiring both digital and analog methods. This methodology provides a fr
ve deer ecotypes to the last glacial maximum (LGM) and show they overlap to a much greater extent than today, suggesting that vica
 ated with variability in vegetation and other aspects of environmental heterogeneity over a range of sampling grains. This result u


 ree canopy, (4) 29 classes of land cover data derived from the imagery, ancillary data, and derivatives, (5) classification rules, confidence
d land managers from Europe and the United States suggested that the main reason for the low level of adoption of these sophisticated too
The apparent cause of this parapatric relationship is differential tolerance of soil textures. The distribution of the yellow-faced pock
te imagery classified by the New York Gap Analysis Project. We used a road-density relationship to explore the influence of human a
2), and between airborne and satellite PV estimates (r2 = 0.61). Field data also indicated that P–J AGB can be estimated from canop
end strategies for maximizing regional landscape connectivity. Regional databases constructed for this study indicate that easemen
proaches to identify and control areas of high abundance and prevent further spread of invasive plants along the North Platte River
at the presence of a large minimum mapping unit eliminates important details of the habitat. Window size is relatively unimportant
FI levels in early October indicated rapid foliage recovery, the abnormally high radar responses associated with the cypress forest s
ng migrations 2002–2004. We tested a priori hypotheses about whether local and landscape variables influenced overall species ric


stainable fiber supply in the State, even in the presence of increased future harvesting. The cumulative impact of obligatory SMZs, R
prediction. Advantages of the point-based approach, and strategies for its incorporation into current gap efforts are discussed.
ted by the relative proportions of wet cover types (i.e. inland water and irrigated crop) prescribed by the two satellite data sets. Thi
s, reptiles, and amphibians) and 78 habitat, landscape and environmental variables using data from the Gap analysis project for Wes
 abitat-suitability maps and the estimation of the extinction risks. Additionally, the multispecies conservation value can accommoda


d U. stansburiana in Joshua Tree National Park and the Marine Air Ground Task Force Training Command, Marine Corp Air Ground Comba
 ) of the U.S. portion of the Great Lakes watershed experienced change. Transitions due to new construction included a 33.5% (158,
alien plant species distribution effects; elevation, road density, and native plant species richness. The SAR model for noninvasive al


nd temporal scales. Thus the model presents a consistent use of multi-scale data and analysis that helps to reveal the underlying sca
tions that are available in real time for forcing the hydrologic model. The various MM5–DHSVM forecasts are also compared with th
 to be factored in as inevitable events.



 timated the proportion of 4.8 by 6.4 km-grids in eastern Colorado occupied by swift foxes to be ψ ˆ = 0.711 (SE = 0.069, 95% CI 0.57
 als increased with isolation on the agricultural patches, but decreased with isolation on kipukas; however, increased densities were
enced yards, however, the fences were not active because of depleted batteries. Based on compositional analysis, bear use of areas 8
hout the rest of the year. A gradient correlated with temperature and DO significantly structured assemblages throughout most of th


o high elevation habitats. Long-distance movements by both sexes will be required for the recolonization of vacant habitats, and thu
 henotypic variation in our dataset arose from independent evolution within populations versus phylogenetic history. Although no c
 visual analysis of various Gap Analysis data layers, we established 'Focus Areas' that formed the basis for the Environmental Assessment
protection. Deforestation rates are high in the study region and several areas of high biodiversity value are excluded from the highest leve


 rk selection. However, several simple heuristic algorithms provided near-optimal solutions for these data. The nearoptimality, speed and


ta ssp. wyomingensis sagebrush (33.4 %), mixed grass prairie (17.5 %) and Pinus contorta forest (6.5 %). Average upper-treeline elevation
se of the last level is designed for intensive studies in limited areas. Plates are provided for 89 communities.ADDITIONAL ABSTRACT:The d
 nt all riverine ecosystems, habitats, and species in Missouri. Since conservation planning is a geographical exercise, both efforts utilized g
 000 ha each. An additional 18 vegetation types have total protection in the ranges between 1001-5000 ha and 5001-10,000 ha. Most of t


nd at the same time remain compatible with each other and the national system. Revision of the land use classification system as present


nal Wildlife Refuge Improvement Act into law. We have reviewed the major provisions of this new statute to gauge their effect on future




al multivariate studies of landscape change, (2) modelling of individual landscape processes, (3) explicit study of the effect of model scale
ed by creating distribution maps of usable habitat for five species (i.e., alligator, black bear, bobcat, gray fox and wild turkey) commonly fo
ound survey and administrative review procedures as currently practiced. It could also be adapted to similar programs of regional conserv
he Utah WHR models performed well when used to predict presence or absence of terrestrial vertebrates in eight national parks in Utah a




 of other biological resources (ie., biodiversity). A conservation strategy was evaluated that would preserve at least 10% of each vegetatio


                                         relative atmospheric scattering model to predict the haze values for all the spectral bands from
ust be corrected with haze values that are spectral band dependent. An improved dark-object subtraction technique is demonstrated tha
trics contributed most to IBI scores, and metrics were most often correlated with chloride, nutrient, land use, road density, and sediment
ted to (a) the need for biodiversity information and databases, (b) the importance of national information strategies, and (c) the applicatio




can improve habitat conditions and restore a diverse fish fauna reflective of a healthy riverine ecosystem. In the second case, multitaxono


 lity (hereafter a mixed design). We next outline estimation formulae for simple map accuracy measures under our mixed design and repo
rs and ants in Florida, natural land cover was mapped to the level of dominant or co-dominant plant species. Land cover was classified fro
 ified, and their strengths and limitations are discussed. Assessment of map accuracy is described in terms of the influence of landscape h
ortant biophysical feature in nature reserves, we found that the 144 existing nature reserves covering 18 million ha (9% of the country) on
an functional response guilds were used to analyze associations between breeding bird data and landscape variables. Functional response



sters, species associated with interior and edge habitats, opencup nesters, and nests located between 75 and 199 m from an edge. The pr




class land cover and other Geographic Information System sources. We created candidate, species-specific occupancy models based on pr



 veloped ecologically meaningful classifications based upon lidar metrics quantifying mean vegetation height and canopy cover, among ot



s and 80 ha for wetlands. Mapping has been completed for the Southwestern California Ecoregion, and the results and lessons learned are



ercentage of their total area residing in lands that are managed to support biodiversity. The median percentage of area conserved on stat




ation cover classes and endangered, threatened, and candidate species is much slower. Sweep analysis is used to determine bow well pri


nd cover types for large land areas at different levels of taxonomic resolution are reported, and two accuracy assessment methods are com
rong positive correlation between potential height and response to release from grazing, with the three tallest species showing the greate
overage varies geographically, but is less than 2% for some bioregions, and more than 12% of 11,633 bird, mammal, amphibian, and turtle



ects are observed, and provides guidelines for building a stronger scientific base for landscape-level assessments of cumulative effects. It
eserves. The analysis highlights the need to extend current conservation planning efforts into the northern part of the region to encompas


rairie dog towns in this region now represent only 1% of presettlement estimates and continue to decline in total acreage because of adva
ry trees and logs and a greater basal area of snags compared to available habitat. Gray squirrels were more active in the morning compar
 or management. The major benefits and costs associated with protected areas are identified, and examples of quantitative and qualitativ
 hypothesis, the level of congruence of vegetation patterns with ecoregion boundaries decreased as the level of classification became mo
reatest number of species, but also created the longest length of edge and greatest number of reserves. Watersheds maximized species c
el those affecting many other stream-dwelling species throughout the southeastern United States.
ay therefore be sensitive to GIS data resolution.
bout general locations of some species-rich areas and the most species-poor areas in the state, but were less comparable for intermediat
 We concluded that pocket gophers are unable to inhabit these areas because land-use practices have destabilized the habitats, eliminati


angered (>98% decline), endangered (85-98% decline), and threatened (70-84% decline). We identified more than 30 critically endangere




mean capture probability per night of an individual fox, weighted by number of grids and number of trapping occasions for each grid, as 0



and federal sources. We characterized habitat based on locations of occupied osprey nests in Delaware and Pennsylvania. We evaluated w




 and size, gravidity, or on-site penning before release, may influence the success rate




oduced using digital Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data. The vegetation map is used in conjunction with the California Wildlife Habitat R
study region. Strict in situ protection was limited, however, for noble fir in the Willapa Hills of southwestern Washington. An in situ geneti



vation planning within this ecoregion.
 nd areas rich in species diversity are represented adequately in biodiversity management areas. We believe this proactive strategy will el




on systems to identify "gaps" in biodiversity protection that may be filled by the establishment of new preserves or changes in land-use p
and private lands that are not formally protected were susceptible to extensive land use conversion or resource extraction in both rural a
ncorrectly classified) was modeled as a function of both fixed and random effects accounting for spatially autocorrelated observations an




cal and subtropical moist forests, particularly on tropical mountains and islands. The expansion of the global protected-area network in th




at increased with elevation up to 2,300mand declined as elevation increased thereafter, and declined with distancefromkeyhabitat types


ct was proposed. Baseline information consisted of geo-referenced collection sites of terrestrial vertebrates. Thirty-two species assemblag
 e degree of concordance depending on the measure of diversity used, the taxa examined, and the scale of analysis. Simulated errors in pr
ion types such as tallgrass and shortgrass prairie have been reduced dramatically in area. There are, however, millions of ha of these vege
re similar to those selected by the aerially surveyed elk. Our D² model indicated that the best elk habitat primarily occurred in northern a
 tected in most areas of their occurrence. Our results show that there is a realistic opportunity to design a system of biodiversity reserves
67% and 33% of potential wading bird nesting and foraging habitats could be lost. In addition, the habitat that would remain would be sev


 se who will be affected by the decisions. Also, planning for conservation is a process that uses scientific data, but that ultimately depends
pecies richness values predicted at the Landsat pixel scale, but not at coarser scales, (3) a modified distribution of biodiversity hotspots, a
 of organization, are identified for environmental monitoring purposes. Projects to monitor biodiversity will benefit from a direct linkage
dies of gap locations, using local data and incorporating input from key stakeholders, will allow conservation actions that are appropriate
e land cover around nests), but some were in areas that were at least partially agricultural. Ferruginous Hawks had at least two times mor


artially identified using digital modeling, with five of 36 classes requiring both digital and analog methods. This methodology provides a fr
 y could garner support from regulators, resource managers, and the general public in strengthening wetlands protection.
rn flicker, red-naped sapsucker, and tree swallow were relatively accurate (84%, 80%, and 75% nests correctly classified, respectively) com
geographic adequacy of specimen collections, population abundance, reproductive success, and genetic dynamics. The land areas involve


iew of lidar technology, discuss recent applications of lidar data in investigations of animal–habitat relationships, and propose future appl


notopic. All endangered species in the area are listed.


matic detail of the source maps. The methods described may be useful in many situations where mapped information exists but is incomp


 Unlike previous island-wide mapping, this map better identifies the spatial distributions of forest formations where certain groups of end
base products that allow land managers, planners, scientists, and policy makers to make better informed land use decisions.
 ized around ecoregion-based “mapping zones”. Over the course of 21/2 field seasons approximately 93,000 reference samples were colle


ata for mapping wildlife habitat suitability using four avian species (one flycatcher and three woodpeckers) as case studies. For this, we int
e inherently resistant to "scaling up" or "scaling down": and (4) decision-making based on mapped species richness patterns may be sensi


 analyzing data from separate scenes in separate databases, large geographic areas can be processed relatively quickly and eficiently.



s are to be observed in future surveys. The occurrence of birds on areas with species checklists were then modeled and compared to the



e maps were validated using an independent set of field data collected from the Evanston ranger district within the Uinta Mountains. Wit



of nodes of high richness. Average species agreement (accuracy) between models was 63%, with similar commission and omission error ra


egal harvest, while 33% and 17% of deaths were attributable to mammalian predators and unknown cause, respectively. All deaths in the
ample of how it can be applied to meet planning needs is presented for discussion.


tion). Its nine chapters are: (1) Conservation of species and habitats: a major responsibility in development planning (D. Muller-Dombois,
ogical range of cover types and species must fully engage the private sector.
ed into a central data repository. This will not only help fill the gaps in our current knowledge of wildlife but also place it in a format that i


 ished habitat associations. Species with extremely limited distributions were not associated with landscape variables and represent speci




ed by an average of 16%, and 2) the number of cooing pigeons detected per survey route by an average of 29%, with this difference being


 are identified and described. These include the need for comprehensive management approaches, the expansion of parks and protected




 fication, boundary misplacement and excessive generalization. The approach involves establishing a distribution of by-class pattern index
y arranged in five levels. Five of the seven variables used in the final clustering were abiotic versus biotic, suggesting that regions relate to


ened and endangered species' status in the wild and their recovery goals was not evident. Based on criteria developed by Mace and Lande



 to follow. Our results suggest that if full range protection is a conservation goal, the existing network of protected areas may be inadequ
 Arizona birds due to considerable computation requirements. We used MARXAN to create best reserve networks based on the minimum
nthus). Reserve selection was carried out using the complementarity concept implemented by a simulated annealing algorithm. Primate s
nts to the basic model are also proposed to address additional objectives such as irreplaceability and flexibility.
es at projected rates, the amount of buffer zone will have been reduced by a total of 12% by 2030, with much of this change occurring dir




 We consider a community type to be represented if some pre-defined fraction of its mapped distribution occurs in one or more BMAs. W
homogeneous area ,0.5 ha) and cover-type level (an aggregation of many similar sites of a similar land-cover type), using correspondence


e natural and native habitats, contained five species (short-tailed shrews [Blarina brevicauda], eastern chipmunks, white-footed mice, me
nt and should be considered in planning forest preservation. The simulations suggest that for all reasonable parameter values the propose


hat are described across the lower 48 United States. These mesoscale classification units, which we term ‘‘terrestrial ecological systems,’’
orest were 95% and 93%, respectively, and forest species’ overall accuracies ranged from 70% to 84%. Limited availability of acceptable im


en the surveys, and discuss the importance of systematic protocols and study design for CBTS environmental managers.


represented because of the contribution of the national Wild and Scenic Rivers Program. Representation of areas of groundwater recharg
 the Pennsylvania Breeding Bird Survey and the Pennsylvania Breeding Bird Atlas, bird species occupying early successional, grassland, or w




 nservation and conservation biology.
mous bottom-feeder, is probably the main host for this unionoid. This fish is also endangered and may be already extinct in the Ebro. The p




ments, and working to establish and implement a national policy for the protection of biological diversity on United States public lands.
 s and ants was similar over much of southern Florida. However, spatial correspondence occurred where the richness of both taxa was low
 ecoregion's remaining unprotected roadless lands, to determine what conservation values these areas might hold. We also examined slo


 tially important to vertebrate life cycles and areas of high biodiversity. A map of land management practices relevant to biodiversity cons
 ling for ascertaining the functional connectivity of "green infrastructures", as tools for the horizontal gap analysis. For the vertical dimens
optimization model that addresses the issue of balancing species presence with habitat quality. One type of interesting alternative yields m
nce, and fragmentation. A watershed-based assessment is useful to identify critical areas of high urban influence. Threshold values and na
 ted in 14 intertidal and water habitat classes being defined. Overall accuracy of the classification was 86%. Good agreement in habitat are


es include elevation, aspect, slope, geographic coordinates, as well as vegetation covertypes based on satellite data from both the Advanc
 ote sensing/Geographic Information System applications to model structural and compositional attributes of wildlife habitat over large sp
 SGCN, but we found that the weighted approach produced more congruent hotspot areas when compared to other hotspot approaches.
 based on TM data provided good estimates and greatly reduced costs by eliminating the need for thousands of aerial photos and manual
most well-adapted to human activities, and we used information about potential vegetation and historic conditions to determine past anth
ological data from the National Biological Survey's Gap Analysis Project. A conservation strategy that would protect a minimum of 10% of
umming the number of different habitat types located within a 1-ha super(2) area of the cell. This analysis was repeated for each grid cell


round data not used during classification. Maps were validated for all three species with Kappa values >0.3 and PCC >0.6. However, PCC p
 types into 30 wildlife habitat types that we believe function similarly. We tested this classification to assess whether vegetation types cou
ggests that much of the "error" was actually generalization rather than misclassification.




entage of the area in natural land cover. Our model clearly identified habitat typical of that found within panther home ranges based on m


nerable to degradation. Irreplaceability scores were assigned to 43 megasites (aggregations of planning units) on the basis of nine criteria
es with the least sites) and suitability (i.e., choosing the most ecologically appropriate sites) of solutions, even in a simple case such as the
ulation probabilities could be calculated using a given configuration of available habitats and compared to current fish population.
 bles observed at 382 sample sites indicated ≥60% concordance for 12 variables. Directly measured or observed variables (slope, soil com


y areas for wildlife management to improve the connectivity between the core protected ecosystems in the Northern Rockies.
ate level of shrub encroachment. These areas may be restorable to open grassland with use of prescribed fire. Non-native perennial grass
ts of recently established riparian buffers on aquatic condition. Within the geographic scope of the regional IBI, we evaluated all buffer se


Georgia's Best Management Practices rules. Our results indicate that minimum width 12.2-m SMZ buffers would occupy about 4.01% of th


to be present. GAP models were created using 2001 NLCD land use land cover data for the entire state. Maxent models were created usi




 to-groundwater and land cover.


emental food sites relative to those at control sites during winter was 5.0 in 2004 and 9.7 in 2005. Estimates of relative risk for newly rele
he field data sets. Predictive maps of species presence were overlaid and combined with an existing regional vegetation map. The shrub sp


P exposures. We found that the model, in general, resulted in a circular pattern around major urban areas with vulnerability decreasing w
cant; more than one-third of all ESA status species on military lands are Hawaiian. These findings highlight the continued importance of pu



  recent results from the GAP projects. Clearly, new frameworks for biogeographic information and organizational cooperation are needed



 cupy different habitats. Total soil moisture stresses for 14 plant communities sampled ranged from 19 to more than 90 bars.


unding sagebrush height. Additionally, we surveyed 1,394 other sites across the species' historic range and found current activity of pygm
m, NDVI values became saturated and EVI records showed that the amplitude of annual and biannual greenness cycles decreased gradual
 ds, where populations are heavily impacted by urbanization and disease. These populations represent the highest priority for additional r
 ss cover for the State of Nevada. The models and final map were developed from 806 training sites, remotely sensed data for two season
e that the loss of coastal wetlands, combined with shoreline erosion, remains one of the most serious environmental problems facing the
 least-cost analysis techniques to evaluate landscape permeability for grizzly bear movement. Our analysis identified 5 blocks of potential
 us Bureau 2000). Assuming an average of 2.5 people per housing unit, this translates to roughly 0.7 units per acre, or approximately 1 uni
e use were positively associated with forested and special status (GAP stewardship codes 1 and 2) land area. The most important variable
 ter-pivot irrigation fields) to determine whether the features were related to nest location and success. Sand-sagebrush habitat around 5
 ge objects map managed evergreen stands. A total of 42 land cover classes were mapped with an overall accuracy of 77% and a kappa sta
 stem service which can be categorized in a variety of ways, i.e. supportive, regulating, provisioning, and cultural aspects of the environme
 in the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (USDA ARS) national Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP).
 d lesser prairie-chickens nested far from the outer edges of native prairie whereas pheasants nested nearer the outer edges. Despite the


 to broad-scale (spatially autocorrelated) and fine-scale (spatially uncorrelated) explained and unexplained components. By partitioning va
om the underground nuclear weapons tests. The contaminant boundaries are determined based on modeling of groundwater flow and co
n visitation rates throughout the summer showed increased mineral-site counts during both June and August migration periods, relative t
 tion and hydrography. The three layers of information (range, land cover, and associations) are merged, often using raster-based algebrai
nerated from light detection and ranging. In addition to mapping, issues related to watershed impairment and restoration were identified
 zone mapped across eastern North America. Patterns in bird distribution maps were compared to woody plant maps and to transition zon
he egg stage. Levels of cowbird parasitism were generally elevated near the agricultural corridor. Estimates of the number of fledglings pe
of the model was tested on the Cedar Creek Watershed in northeastern Indiana, one of 14 benchmark watersheds in the USDA Agricultura




man-caused fires, energy extraction, and anthropogenic wildland fragmentation). Using independent bird population data, we found bird a
 ch layer was used. We recommend managers use derived landcover/landuse layers along with sighting databases to aid management of
opulations persist over time in refugia in riparian areas and during fire-free intervals expand outwards re-colonizing shrubland dominated
nt categories for long-term intent of management for biodiversity. The New Mexico Department of Game and Fish identified a set of 290 S
2001 this expanded by 80,800 km 2, and forecasted residential growth by 2030 will potentially lead to an additional loss of up to 92,200 km
ition metrics not correlated with the existing landscape assessment. Finally, landscape metrics identified through the correlation an
diversity, is a function of environmental gradients, temperature, precipitation, elevation, aspect, slope, and geology were in



can mtDNA and distance to agricultural fields or elevation of the collection site. The preponderance of Africanized honeybees confir


, respectively, with 27% of the SOC in pinyon-juniper biomes (PJ), and 34% of SIC in creosotebush-bursage biomes (CB). A compari
sibility, and a capacity to detect and respond rapidly to stimuli.
LC regional classification scheme contains 23 land cover classes.
he vegetation type(s) present at each clerid collecting site was determined, and a simple habitat model was used to predict
res, and flycatchers were particularly associated with areas that had evidence of high-severity surface fire. However, we failed to de
plast or nuclear genomes is particularly high? We analysed six chlorop
only found in the region-specific set of best models. Model-averaged estimates of agriculture and pasture parameters were always p


 Nature Conservancy conservation portfolio areas, a surrogate for biodiversity, a majority of three types of oak woodlands, and 79\
erally used smaller areas than immature individuals. Habitat use by Cooper’s Hawks and Sharp-shinned Hawks in rural areas was n
curacy in predicting habitat priority ratings. Overall model accuracy was 65%. Eighty-four percent of the new occurrences were lo
istings in GAP database. The species listed in GAP for these polygons accounted from zero to 94% of the relative cover found. About


abitat in northeastern Minnesota. Techniques for identifying the spatial distribution of suitable denning habitat provide a biologica


diversity. A map of land management practices relevant to biodiversity conservation will precede a gap analysis, which will identify
models, but only 7820 ha under model conditions incorporating MCA. This reflects the fragmented



egetation surveys in 18 polygons, using a modified stratified randomized sampling design, to evaluate the use of GAP for developing


e at the start of the development review process. Key challenges were the development of categorization systems that relate nam
restricted to a single population. Patterns of genetic divergence correlate with contemporary urbanization, even after correcting f
and currently support upland conifer and hardwood forests. Analysis of the databases shows that 26% of the study area is
 and the Gap Analysis Program’s GAP maps, the MCV map had finer spatial and floristic resolution. The MCV map has 15 more veget
 ntries do not have legislation that protects endangered species. The methodology we present her
nship (WHR) vegetation types had occurred on 42.1% of the area. WHR types with the largest gains were: Montane Hardwood, Doug
n in moist forests in boreal and temperate fragments, while the opposite was true for the tropical forest fragments, iii) no effect o


lower elevations, between 1800 and 2250 m (5900–7400 feet). It remains unclear whether this shift was driven by climate or by hu
 nted for the above variables and associated landscape metrics. A case study linking suitable habitat for a keystone predator is
 ds. This methodology provides a framework to optimize landscape remote sen
nt than today, suggesting that vicariance associated with the LGM cannot explain the present-day genetic patterns. Further, we analy
 of sampling grains. This result underscores the benefit of protecting a maximum diversity of vegetation and habitat type


 (5) classification rules, confidence estimates, and metadata from the land cover classificat
 adoption of these sophisticated tools is simply that land managers have been unaware of them. Wh
 ribution of the yellow-faced pocket gopher in Kansas is limited to just 7 counties divided into 2 populations, both surrounde
 explore the influence of human access and potential exploitation (i.e., hunting or poaching) on habitat suitability
 GB can be estimated from canopy cover using a unified allometric equation (r2 = 0.69; P < 0.001). Using these multiscale cover–AG
 this study indicate that easement and fee-title tracts encompass 13.9% (1.2 million ha) of land area and protect 19.8% of the wet
 ants along the North Platte River.
 ow size is relatively unimportant if the data are averaged to a large resolution (i.e., township), but if the data are used a
 ociated with the cypress forest suggested a persistent poststorm difference in canopy structure. Impact and recovery mapping resu
bles influenced overall species richness and abundance of geese, dabbling ducks, diving ducks, and shorebirds. Wetland area had a p


 tive impact of obligatory SMZs, RBBs, and other anticipated factors, such as potential loss of forested land to urban expansion, could
 nt gap efforts are discussed.
 by the two satellite data sets. This emphasizes the importance of accurately estimating the proportion of wet cover types withi
m the Gap analysis project for West Virginia, USA. Soil and habitat variables demonstrated clear relationships with species richness;
 nservation value can accommodate specific conservation goals, such as preservation of local endemics, making it useful for


nd, Marine Corp Air Ground Combat Center. LizLand models resulted in higher resolution h
 struction included a 33.5% (158,858 ha) increase in low-intensity development and a 7.5% (140,240 ha) increase in road area. Agr
The SAR model for noninvasive alien plants resulted in the same significant effects as invasive alien plants. B


helps to reveal the underlying scale dependencies in the input data.
 ecasts are also compared with those issued by the NationalWeather Service Northwest River Forecast Center. Results showed that




ˆ = 0.711 (SE = 0.069, 95% CI 0.576–0.846), with no evidence of a decline from the 1995–1997 surveys. Resumen: Realizamos un pr
 owever, increased densities were entirely due to P. maniculatus. Diversity of small mammals on kipukas was highly correlated with
 ional analysis, bear use of areas 800-1,400 m from bee yards was disproportionately greater than use 0-800 m from bee yards. Bea
ssemblages throughout most of the year; during summer, the proportion of wetland habitat was important. We demonstrate that en


zation of vacant habitats, and thus inter-state management may be warranted where state boundaries do not coincide with effective
hylogenetic history. Although no current sympatry or hybridization was evident, craniodental morphology diverged in both lineage
or the Environmental Assessment and the Economic Impact Study required under the National Environme
 are excluded from the highest levels of protection. We offer this method as


ata. The nearoptimality, speed and simplicity of heuristic algorithms suggests that they are accept


 . Average upper-treeline elevation in Wyoming is 2947 m, and decreases with increasing latitude at an average
 ities.ADDITIONAL ABSTRACT:The development of a digital system of vegetatio
cal exercise, both efforts utilized geographic information systems (GIS
0 ha and 5001-10,000 ha. Most of these 29 vegetation types are shrub-steppe complexes or conifer/steppe m


use classification system as presented in U.S. Geological Survey Circular 671 w


ute to gauge their effect on future refuge management. The statute has three




 study of the effect of model scale on model behavior, and (4) ‘scaling-up’ results of stu
y fox and wild turkey) commonly found in the state of Arkansas. This kno
milar programs of regional conservation planning.Prioritizing sites as potential res
es in eight national parks in Utah and should provide valuable information for making conservation




erve at least 10% of each vegetation type in an ecoregion. Only 15% of the vegetatio


on for all the spectral bands from selected starting select a
ues technique is demonstrated thataallows the user toband haze value. The improved method normalizes the predicted haze values for th
nd use, road density, and sedimentation levels, which suggests that our IBI should be
on strategies, and (c) the application of GIS as a tool in monitoring biodiversity, and




m. In the second case, multitaxonomic integrity indicators were successful in distinguishing lake ec


s under our mixed design and report results for 8 major cover-types and the 3 ecoregions ma
ecies. Land cover was classified from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite
ms of the influence of landscape heterogeneity, indistinctness of ecotones, scal
8 million ha (9% of the country) only meet that target for elevation ranges >3000 m and areas wit
ape variables. Functional response guilds were created by grouping organisms ba



75 and 199 m from an edge. The proportion of forest core area was positively related to daily sur




cific occupancy models based on previously reported relationships, and fit these usi



eight and canopy cover, among others. This study highlights the utility of lidar



the results and lessons learned are reported here. For this 3-million-ha study region, 9.8% of the total l



centage of area conserved on status 1 and 2 lands (highest of four levels of protection) as d




 is used to determine bow well prioritizing on one component of diversity accumu


uracy assessment methods are compared with respect to information content and opportunities for improving map q
e tallest species showing the greatest increases on ungrazed treatments (Bouteloua c
rd, mammal, amphibian, and turtle species are wholly unrepresented. The global protected-area sy



essments of cumulative effects. It also provides the outlines for a synoptic
 ern part of the region to encompass areas where Salvia leucophylla is a frequent communi


 ne in total acreage because of advanced agricultural practices, systematic control me
more active in the morning compared to midday (P < 0.001), but activity of
mples of quantitative and qualitative analysis of these factors in protected areas in Asia,
 e level of classification became more general. The implications of these findings on the use o
s. Watersheds maximized species coverage using the least amount of area. Hexagons and watershe



 re less comparable for intermediate areas of bird occurrence. We found (50% agreement
 destabilized the habitats, eliminating both refugia and dispersal corridors. /// Investigac


 more than 30 critically endangered, 58 endangered, and more than 38 threatene




apping occasions for each grid, as 0.234 (SE = 0.022). Highest capture and detection probabi



 and Pennsylvania. We evaluated water clarity, water depth, land use and land cover, nest avail




 th the California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (WHR) System and digital specie
 tern Washington. An in situ genetic resource gap arguably occurred for Douglas-fir in
lieve this proactive strategy will eliminate the need to list many species as threatened or




preserves or changes in land-use practices. Gap Analysis has three primary layers:
resource extraction in both rural and urban settings. Some plant community types are more
lly autocorrelated observations and different covariance structures for the random effects. The mode




lobal protected-area network in these regions is urgently needed to prevent the loss of u




with distancefromkeyhabitat types (e.g., southernRockyMountainpin˜onÑjuniper[Pinus edul


ates. Thirty-two species assemblages were identified by the ordination analysis, as wel
e of analysis. Simulated errors in predicting the occurrence of individual species indic
wever, millions of ha of these vegetation types remaining in Kansas. Comparisons between the two rece
at primarily occurred in northern and western Arkansas and was associated wit
n a system of biodiversity reserves in this region that represent the full range of
at that would remain would be severely fragmented. Several key areas were identified that will be


c data, but that ultimately depends on the expression of human values. A majo
ribution of biodiversity hotspots, and (4) surprising results in conservation asse
y will benefit from a direct linkage to long-term ecological research and a
ation actions that are appropriate for their human context.
 Hawks had at least two times more sand sagebrush (Artemisia filifolia) around their


ds. This methodology provides a framework to optimize landscape remote s
etlands protection.
orrectly classified, respectively) compared to the models for the mountain chi
 c dynamics. The land areas involved are very large, and the questions, such as res


tionships, and propose future applications of this technology to issues




ed information exists but is incomplete, has been compiled by different methods, or is based on inc


ations where certain groups of endemic species occur. Approximately 5 % of Puerto Rico’s
ed land use decisions.
3,000 reference samples were collected directly, or obtained from other contemporary projects, for th


ers) as case studies. For this, we integrated LiDAR-derived products of forest structure
cies richness patterns may be sensitive to errors from unreliable data and models, resulting


elatively quickly and eficiently.



en modeled and compared to the LOORs. For five of six areas, the number of species correc



ct within the Uinta Mountains. Within the Evanston ranger district, model predictions



 commission and omission error rates. Where there was spatial correspondence in single-taxon analyses, up


 use, respectively. All deaths in the mountain valley population were attributed to avian or mammalian predators



 ent planning (D. Muller-Dombois, K. Kartawinata and L.L. Handley); (2) Understanding the role of f
e but also place it in a format that is readily accessible by the scientific community.


cape variables and represent special cases for conservation planners. Rare species, as defined by their limited geographical distribution, w




 of 29%, with this difference being greatest during the first 45 minutes of the morning survey period


e expansion of parks and protected areas, restoration and mitigation, multinational an




stribution of by-class pattern index values to detect outliers in the distribution. Resu
c, suggesting that regions relate to potential as well as current ecological


teria developed by Mace and Lande (1991) (and depending on choice of minimum criteria), populat



of protected areas may be inadequate for the task.
e networks based on the minimum area required to represent each species at least once and equal area networks
ted annealing algorithm. Primate species representation (at least one occurrence in the network


 much of this change occurring directly at core edges. Furthermore, development will have reduced t




on occurs in one or more BMAs. We use a multi-objective computer model to allocate a minimum of
cover type), using correspondence between model predictions and species detections to


chipmunks, white-footed mice, meadow voles [Microtus pennsylvanicus], and meadow jumping mice [Zapus hu
able parameter values the proposed U.S. Forest Service logging plans will lead to the


m ‘‘terrestrial ecological systems,’’ are described using multiple plant commun
 imited availability of acceptable imagery necessitated use of an early May date i


 ental managers.


n of areas of groundwater recharge was generally proportional to area of the reserve network
g early successional, grassland, or wetland/riparian habitats, in particular, have gen




 e already extinct in the Ebro. The proposed conservation measures include restrictions to collecting, protection of the fish hosts and key h




 y on United States public lands.
e the richness of both taxa was low or moderate, and areas with the highest species richness (highe
 might hold. We also examined slope, elevation, and known locations of rare and imperiled species occurre


ctices relevant to biodiversity conservation will precede a "gap analysis," which will identify pote
 p analysis. For the vertical dimension we suggest how the social sc
 e of interesting alternative yields more high quality representation at the price of some reduc
influence. Threshold values and nature of interactions between urbanization and habit
6%. Good agreement in habitat areas existed between the affordable and easily repeatable satel


 atellite data from both the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and The
utes of wildlife habitat over large spatial scales.
 ared to other hotspot approaches. To incorporate anthropogenic activity into hotspot analysis, we
sands of aerial photos and manual interpretation of several hundred thousand photo plots.
c conditions to determine past anthropogenic conversion of vegetation communities. We concluded
ould protect a minimum of 10% of the area occupied by each of 113 native veget
ysis was repeated for each grid cell in the study area, and each cell was assigned a habita


>0.3 and PCC >0.6. However, PCC provided little information other than a summary of sample
 sess whether vegetation types could be correctly classified into habitat types based on wildlife species composition. Discriminant analysis




 n panther home ranges based on model testing with recent telemetry data. We identified 4 potential translocation sites that may suppor


g units) on the basis of nine criteria corresponding to quantitative conservation
 , even in a simple case such as the one described here.
 to current fish population.
observed variables (slope, soil composition, rock outcrop) generally displayed high


 n the Northern Rockies.
 ed fire. Non-native perennial grasses are common to dominant on 12% of the study area. More than 67% of
 onal IBI, we evaluated all buffer segments planned between 2000 and 2003. Cumulatively du


ers would occupy about 4.01% of the total forested area in Georgia and would cover about 4.32% of


 . Maxent models were created using presence point counts for bird species found within t




mates of relative risk for newly released relative to experienced turkeys during w
 ional vegetation map. The shrub species ‘assemblages’ that resulted from this procedure had


eas with vulnerability decreasing with distance from the urban center. Those areas having high acreage o
ght the continued importance of public lands for the survival of America’s plant and animal



anizational cooperation are needed if we are to have any hope of documenting the full range



to more than 90 bars.


and found current activity of pygmy rabbits at 258 of these sites. We measured sagebrush cov
reenness cycles decreased gradually with MAP. MAP was also significantly correlated with the frequency of the first t
 he highest priority for additional research into the adequacy of conserved geneti
motely sensed data for two seasons from Landsat 5 TM and MODIS satellite sensors, and accessory geographi
 nvironmental problems facing the Pontchartrain Basin today. The postclassification change det
ysis identified 5 blocks of potential grizzly bear habitat in Washington and adjacent area
ts per acre, or approximately 1 unit per 1.6 acres. The analytical units used in th
area. The most important variable associated with the odds of mineral site us
 . Sand-sagebrush habitat around 5 of 6 features (all except unimproved roads) was avoid
all accuracy of 77% and a kappa statistic of .75. We then mapped the amount and type of la
d cultural aspects of the environment. In this study, deductive habitat models developed under the USGS
Effects Assessment Project (CEAP). Model performance of the annual and monthly stream flow response
earer the outer edges. Despite the modest amount of similarity in mixes of habitat


ned components. By partitioning variance, and using both tree and linear regression in analyses, we
deling of groundwater flow and contaminant transport. A summary of the FFACO corrective action process and th
ugust migration periods, relative to the July breeding period. Our research suppor
, often using raster-based algebraic statements that exclude unused habitats or pat
 nt and restoration were identified. Key anthropogenic impacts observed include sand an
dy plant maps and to transition zones. Results When the distributions of forest specialists were c
ates of the number of fledglings per nesting attempt indicated that seasonal productiv
watersheds in the USDA Agricultural Research Service Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP)




d population data, we found bird abundance of four synanthropic species to correlate positively with h
 databases to aid management of population when little data on species distribution and habitat use are avai
e-colonizing shrubland dominated slopes. The lack of such refugia in the very st p and narrow Kaweah drainage is hypothesized to explain
me and Fish identified a set of 290 Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN). Species occu
n additional loss of up to 92,200 km 2. Wetland cover types were particularly affected. The natural landscapes metric developed here prov
ntified through the correlation analysi
ope, and geology were in



e of Africanized honeybees confirms previous


-bursage biomes (CB). A comparison



odel was used to predict
ace fire. However, we failed to detect f


asture parameters were always pos


types of oak woodlands, and 79\% of
nned Hawks in rural areas was nearly identica
t of the new occurrences were lo
of the relative cover found. About one-t


nning habitat provide a biological basis


a gap analysis, which will identify pote




ate the use of GAP for developing BVO


ization systems that relate nam
nization, even after correcting f
26% of the study area is
The MCV map has 15 more vegetation type


s were: Montane Hardwood, Douglas-Fir, and
orest fragments, iii) no effect o


ift was driven by climate or by human-caused or natural distur
 at for a keystone predator is


 enetic patterns. Further, we analyse
 tation and habitat type




 pulations, both surrounde
bitat suitability
 Using these multiscale cover–AGB
 a and protect 19.8% of the wet


 if the data are used a
mpact and recovery mapping results sh
 shorebirds. Wetland area had a positive influence on go


 ed land to urban expansion, could have a


 tion of wet cover types withi
ationships with species richness; a
mics, making it useful for



 40 ha) increase in road area. Agricultural




 cast Center. Results showed that the observations-bas




veys. Resumen: Realizamos un programa
 pukas was highly correlated with absolute and pr
 use 0-800 m from bee yards. Bears disproport
mportant. We demonstrate that environmental gradie


 ries do not coincide with effective dispersal ba
phology diverged in both lineages near their d




es the predicted haze values for the different gain and offset parameters used by the imaging system. Examples of haze value differences
mproving map q
imited geographical distribution, were not associated with areas of high species richness (hotspots). The utility of species richness hotspo




a networks
otection of the fish hosts and key habitats, education, establishment of captive breeding colonies, repopulation, and water quality contro
composition. Discriminant analysis correctly classified 95% of the vegetation types into their wildlife habitat types, strengthening our con




ranslocation sites that may support a total of approxim
y of the first t




drainage is hypothesized to explain the absence of this pine in that area. To test this hypothesis, we studied the age-structure of P. sabini
capes metric developed here provides a simple, robust measure of landscape dynamics that has a direct physical interpretation related to
xamples of haze value differences between the old and improved methods for Thematic Mapper Bands 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 are 40.0, 13.0,
e utility of species richness hotspots for conser
opulation, and water quality control.
abitat types, strengthening our confidence in this approach. This approach for classifying habitat types allows consistent development of c
udied the age-structure of P. sabiniana in the area of the 2002 McNally Fire in the Kern drainage to compare age distributions of trees and
ct physical interpretation related to proportion of natural habitat affected at a location, represents landscapes as a gradient of conditions
s 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 are 40.0, 13.0, 12.0, 8.0, 5.0, and 2.0 vs. 40.0, 13.2, 8.9, 4.9, 16.7, and 3.3, respectively, using a relative scattering mod
allows consistent development of conservation strategies at coarse resolutions and aids in identifying vegetation types where additional b
pare age distributions of trees and tree skeletons along a gradient up sl
scapes as a gradient of conditions rather predicated on patch/matrix definition, and measures the spatial context of natural areas.
ely, using a relative scattering model of a clear atmosphere. In one Landsat multispectral scanner image the haze value differences for Ba
egetation types where additional biodiversity surveys are needed. Finally, this approach can be refined continuously as the precision of ve
ial context of natural areas.
e the haze value differences for Bands 4, 5, 6, and 7 were 30.0, 50.0, 50.0, and 40.0 for the old method vs. 30.0, 34.4, 43.6, and 6.4 for the
continuously as the precision of vegetation mapping and our understanding of organism-habitat associations improve.
vs. 30.0, 34.4, 43.6, and 6.4 for the new method using a relative scattering model of a hazy atmosphere.
ations improve.
e.

				
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