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									NANOTECHNOLOGY
INPUTS, PROCESSES, FORMS, AND PRODUCTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
SLIDE 1 – COVER
SLIDE 2 – TABLE OF CONTENTS
SLIDE 3 – INTRODUCTION TO REPORT
SLIDE 4 – A NOTE REGARDING THE RESEARCH METHOD
SLIDE 5 – INTRODUCTION TO INPUTS
SLIDE 6 – CARBON ATOM PROPERTIES
SLIDE 7 – CARBON ATOM APPLICATIONS
SLIDE 8 – GOLD ATOM PROPERTIES
SLIDE 9 - GOLD ATOM APPLICATIONS
SLIDE 10 - ALUMINUM ATOM PROPERTIES
SLIDE 11 - ALUMINUM ATOM APPLICATIONS
SLIDE 12 – TITANIUM ATOM PROPERTIES
SLIDE 13 – TITANIUM ATOM APPLICATIONS
SLIDE 14 – OXYGEN ATOM PROPERTIES
SLIDE 15 – OXYGEN ATOM APPLICATIONS
SLIDE 16 – SILVER ATOM PROPERTIES
SLIDE 17 – SILVER ATOM APPLICATIONS
SLIDE 18 – ZINC ATOM PROPERTIES
SLIDE 19 – ZINC ATOM APPLICATIONS
SLIDE 20 – MANGANESE ATOM PROPERTIES
SLIDE 21 – MANGANESE ATOM APPLICATIONS
SLIDE 22 – CALCIUM ATOM PROPERTIES
SLIDE 23 – CALCIUM ATOM APPLICATIONS
SLIDE 24 – HYDROGEN ATOM PROPERTIES

SLIDES _ THROUGH _ - BIBLIOGRAPHY
INTRODUCTION TO REPORT
This report on Nanotechnology: Inputs,       The report will start with a survey of commonly
Processes, Forms and Products, is intended   used atomic elements, but will ultimately focus
to introduce the reader or audience member   on the elements that have proven most useful
to the growing field of nanotechnology.      to aerospace applications.

This report will cover four topics within    Whereas much literature focuses on investing
nanotechnology.                              opportunities, or the pure science of
                                             nanotechnology, this report will restrict itself to
Those are Inputs, Processes, Forms, and      aerospace applications.
Products.
                                             However, this report does not assume a
The Inputs are atomic elements and the       general knowledge of nanotechnology on the
machines that manipulate them.               part of the reader or audience member.

The Processes are the acts of manipulation   A wide introduction to nanotechnology, with its
themselves.                                  many inputs, processes, forms, and products,
                                             will be necessary to understand what is
The Forms are the immediate output from      possible.
these processes.

The Products are the end-use services and
devices that will demonstrate what is
possible due to these advancements.
A NOTE REGARDING THE RESEARCH METHOD
 The most common research tool for this report
 was the Internet, with Google being the starting
 point.

 As anyone who has done research on the
 Internet should well know, verification of
 information, and knowing for certain that what
 one is reading is correct, is a challenge.

 Knowing this, and having spent over half of my
 college education with Google as a tool, I've
 only used this search engine as a means to
 find sources that I doubt many people would
 have issues with.

 All sources are noted in the Bibliography.

 Web sources have the URL and date
 accessed.

 I humbly submit this report knowing full well
 that I am not scientist in this field, and have
 great respect those whose work I've cited.
                                               Netoholic
INTRODUCTION TO INPUTS
Inputs are the first topic that will be
presented.

Inputs include both atomic elements and the
machines that researchers and industrialists
use.

Among the atomic elements that exist, I
have focused among the most commonly
used elements in this field.

Those are carbon, gold, aluminum, titanium,    Kristian Molhave
oxygen, silver, zinc, manganese, calcium,
and hydrogen.

Typical machines used in nanotechnology
are the atomic force microscope, the
scanning tunneling microscope, chemical
vapor deposition device, molecular beam
epitaxy machine, lithography tools,
diffraction tools, scanning electron
microscope, the transmission electron
microscope, and the near-field scanning
optical microscope.
CARBON ATOM PROPERTIES                          Lee Kwok-san and Tong Shiu-sing
The carbon atom is one of the most studied
atoms in the world. It has a whole field of
chemistry devoted to it – organic chemistry.
Carbon exists in more compounds than any
other element1.

Carbon forms stable bonds with other
atoms, including other carbon atoms, with its
four outer-shell electrons2. These stable
bonds are called covalent bonds.

Often mined in coal, carbon usually exists in
three different kinds of structures. These
are called allotropes. The three allotropes
                                                Saperaud               Oak Ridge National Laboratory
are amorphous, graphite, and diamond3.

A fourth, recently discovered allotrope, is
known as the buckminsterfullerene, also
known as C604. Its name comes from the
allotrope's resemblance to the architecture
of Buckminster. The C60 allotrope has 60
atoms arranged to form its shape.
CARBON ATOM APPLICATIONS
                                               Timmymiller (both)
Most research regarding carbon and
nanotechnology has been the development
and refinement of the carbon nanotube5.
The nanotube is a variant on the bucky ball,
and retains the same chemical bonding
pattern.

Among its abilities are superior tensile
strength and electrical conduction. It can
even substitute silicon for use in
semiconductors6. There would seem to be
no limit to what the nanotube can do at its
scale.

Nanotubes have been proposed as a means
to store hydrogen. The weight ratio of
carbon to hydrogen is twelve-to-one, which
suggests a hydrogen storage capacity of
7.7% by weight7.

Carbon atoms use only three of their outer
orbital electrons to bond with other carbon
atoms, to form the nanotube8. That leaves
one free electron to bond with hydrogen.
GOLD ATOM PROPERTIES                              USGS
No metal is more malleable or ductile than
gold. It can also retain its shape and
maintain its appearance longer than many
other metals, which helps to explain in
historical value9.

Gold forms different bonds from that of
carbon. It forms metallic bonds10. There are
so many electrons that they are exchanged
easily with other metal element atoms11.
                                                  Greg Robson
This phenomenon of electron exchange
makes metals such as gold excellent
conductors of electricity.

Gold exists naturally in an unadulterated
state12, and can be sorted from sands and
gravel through a process known as panning.
Its pure state is so soft that to add strength,
gold is alloyed with other elements13.

Gold can be plated onto particles, and can
covert light into heat. This has proven useful
as a cancer treatment in tests conducted at
Rice University14. Gold's biological inertness
contributed to its usefulness.
GOLD ATOM APPLICATIONS
                                                Georgia Tech (both)
Gold nanoparticles have been shown to be
effective for both detecting and treating
cancer15. Researchers at Georgia Tech
University determined that “absorption and
scattering of electromagnetic radiation” is
enhanced with the use of noble metals such
as gold. This is possible because at the
nanoscale, noble metals can increase their
absorption of visible-to-ultraviolet light16.

Gold nanoparticles can be bound to
antibodies which then attach themselves to
malignant cancer cells17. In this particular
example, light near the infrared spectrum is
used to locate the nanoparticles.
Continuous exposure to a red laser can
destroy the malignant cancer cells18.

The benefits of laser therapy and gold
nanoparticles for the treatment of cancer are
localized damage to the cancer cells
themselves (leaving other, desirable cells
unharmed), the biological inertness and
stability of gold, and gold’s absorptive
properties19.
ALUMINUM ATOM PROPERTIES
                                               USGS
Aluminum is a common metal found on
Earth. However, unlike gold, aluminum is
rarely found unadulterated. Aluminum
occurs most often naturally in a compound
known as bauxite20.

Aluminum does not form bonds like carbon.
Even though aluminum has three outer shell
electrons, it does not seek to acquire five
more electrons necessary for a closed
shell21. Most of its compounds only acquire
three electrons.

Aluminum does not rust like iron does,
because the byproduct of oxidation, alumina,
adheres readily to the aluminum surface22.
However, the byproduct of oxidation of iron
does not adhere to the iron surface.

Aluminum’s low melting point (1220˚F, or
660˚C) makes it simple to recycle.
Extracting aluminum from alumina requires
more energy, by comparison23.
ALUMINUM ATOM APPLICATIONS
                                               The NEST Laboratory – University of Dayton
Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory
are interested in aluminum nanoparticles for
propellants and hydrogen storage24. Current
research emphasizes making stable, non-
agglomerating aluminum nanoparticles. The
increase in surface area as the size of the
particles decrease means that greater
amounts of hydrogen can be stored.

For years, anodizing aluminum in sulphuric
acid has resulted in a nanoporus coating,
which prevents corrosion25. This material      Cellular Solids Research Group - MIT
has been applied to the architectural and
decorative markets.

Stable cellular aluminum has been patented
by Austria-based Metcomb26. Cellular
aluminum has the primary advantage of
being able to absorb impacts27. It has a
regular structure that contains air bubbles,
whose surface walls are coated with an
oxide skin, which is a byproduct of the gas
from the company's patented process.
TITANIUM ATOM PROPERTIES
                                                   Amethyst Galleries' Mineral Gallery
Titanium is a common element found not
only on Earth, but also on the Moon29. It is
found in igneous (resulting from lava) rocks,
iron ore, plants, and in humans. Pure
titanium does not occur naturally.

It burns in air, and is the only element that
burns in nitrogen. It is also resistant to many
kinds of acids and solutions, and like gold, is
inert in humans30.

Also like gold, titanium is part of the metallic
group of elements. Titanium bonds with
other metallic elements by sharing electrons
freely. However, titanium does not conduct
electricity as well as gold does31.

Electrical conductivity results from the ability
of electrons to move between two orbitals of
a given atomic element, the valence orbital
and the conductive orbital. The amount of
energy required for electrons to move
between these two orbitals must be very
small32.
TITANIUM ATOM APPLICATIONS
                                                  Lifecore Biomedical
Titanium nanotechnological applications
have seen broad market and scientific uses.

Titanium has been studied for use as
orthopedic implants33. The titanium
promotes bone-forming cell cohesion by
mimicing the nanostructure surface
topography of the original bone. The
titanium was chemically modified to create
                                                  Germes Online
the desired topography.

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been used to
separate proteins for analysis34. TiO2
creates hydroxyl radicals when exposed to
UV light. Hydroxyl radicals are short-lived,
so the use of the UV light controls the
protein separation process.

Titanium and TiO2 have been used in sun
screen, wood protection, paint additives with
protective or aesthetic qualities, and to break
down nitrous oxides that cars and power
plants emit35.
OXYGEN ATOM PROPERTIES
                                                Oracle ThinkQuest
Oxygen is a gas at room temperature, and is
essential for plant and animal life. The
oxygen molecules that we breath are O2,
whose oxygen atoms are bonded together
with a double bond36. A double bond
between two atoms is the sharing of two
pairs of electrons37.

Oxygen atoms exist in four allotropes:
atomic oxygen, oxygen molecules (what we
breath), ozone, and tetraoxygen38.

Atomic oxygen does not exist on earth, but it
does in space. It causes damage to              Crosstek
spacecraft to oxygen's high reactivity.

Ozone is O3. It exists in the atmosphere as
a by-product of the sun's energy acting upon
O2.

Tetraoxygen (O4) is a recent discovery, and
so far only exists as a laboratory product.
OXYGEN ATOM APPLICATIONS
                                                  Hewlett-Packard Laboratories
Oyxgen, due to its low boiling point
temperature, is often paired with other
elements when used in nanotechnology.
Otherwise, loose oxygen atoms tend to form
either O2 or O3.

Oxygen has been used to convert
hydrocarbons (molecules that contain
hydrogen and carbon atoms) into organic
compounds, which contain oxygen
molecules39.

Oyxgen may also be used for molecular
switches40. The atom would act as a rotor,
which would turn in response to electric
charges41. The switch can be turned
(written) to an on-position or an off-position,
and also be detected (read)42.

It is the writing and reading of switches at
on/off positions that establishes the basis of
electronic computing. With molecular
switches, electronic computing can continue
its quickly increasing speeds and storage
capacities.
SILVER ATOM PROPERTIES
                                                    Stirling Silver Jewelery 4 You
Silver and gold are similar. Both conduct
heat and electricity very well43 and bond
metallically. However, there are important
differences.

Silver does react biologically, though only
when consumed in very large amounts44.
Some individuals may experience contact
allergies, while others after extensive             SilverMedicine.org
exposure may develop permanent
discoloration of the eyes and skin45. The
EPA regulates the concentration of silver in
drinking water46.

Silver has many alloys, and has found
extensive use in several industries. Alloys
have been used in photographic film
development, batteries, as well as dental
fillings. When polished, silver is the best
reflector of visible light, though it reflects UV
light poorly47.
SILVER ATOM APPLICATIONS
                                                  JR Nanotech, PLC
Silver is sold as having same or similar
positive health affects at the nanoscale as it
does at larger scales48. The element works
as an antimicrobial agent49. Silver removes
chemical compounds from the larger cell
against which the silver is supposed to kill50.

Silver's affects have been incorporated into
clothing to kill bacteria and other deleterious
microorganisms51. There exists a potential
for coatings, that have silver nanoparticles,
to be applied to surfaces that the public
regularly touches, such as hospital furniture,
hand rails, and mass transit vehicles52.
                                                  IoP Publishing
Researchers at the Korean Research
Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology
(KRIBB) have demonstrated a method to
convert silver nanoparticles into gold
nanoparticles53. The potential health
treatment of gold nanoparticles have already
been discussed.
ZINC ATOM PROPERTIES
Zinc is a common element found on Earth,
and is present in foods and water54. It is
also sold as a supplement. There are
relatively minor negative health affects due
to overconsumption of zinc55.

Zinc is the first element discussed so far that
exhibits a property called superplasticity56.
Superplasticity is the ability to stretch or
deform without breaking. It is commonly
added to alloys to enhance their ability to
molded into desired shapes57.

Zinc is a metal58. Therefore, it conducts
electricity, but not as well as other metal       Superb Herbs   Kobelco
elements59. However, it also reacts with
oxygen and other non-metals, as well as
acids60.

Like silver, zinc is touted as having many
positive health affects61. Whereas silver has
specific antimicrobial uses, zinc consumption
affects many areas on the human body,
being linked to many improvements and
preventative treatments62.
ZINC ATOM APPLICATIONS
                                              Georgia Institute of Technology
Zinc oxide has been researched for its
electrical conductive properties at the
nanoscale63. Zinc oxide nanowires and
nanobelts have been manipulated to create
simple electrical components such as
transistors, diodes and sensors64. The zinc
oxide nanocomponents demonstrate
semiconducting and piezoelectric
properties65.
                                              T. Yildirim/NIST

When a material demonstrates piezoelectric
phenomena by changing its dimensions66.
An electric charge results in a mechanical
change. The opposite is also true67.
Mechanical change results in an electrical
charge.

Zinc nanocages have the ability to store
hydrogen68. The zinc is arranged with
oxygen to form a metal-organic framework69.
Hydrogen storage efficiency can be as high
as 10% of the weight of the nanocage70.
MANGANESE ATOM PROPERTIES                         Yinon Bentor
Manganese occurs naturally adulterated with
other elements71, much like aluminun. Also
like aluminum, it is often alloyed with other
metals72. Whereas aluminum adds flexibility
and ductility to metals, manganese adds
toughness, hardness, and stiffness73.

It is quite reactive, and will dissolve in
water74. It is an added component to
explosive material75. It also reacts
biologically76.
                                                  International Manganese Institute
It is essential to human health77, and
overconsumption from natural sources is
difficult78. However, it is a regulated element
when in use in laboratories. Its presence in
drinking water is also regulated.

When consumed in very high amounts in
mining, industrial, or field-use environments,
it can create a chronic neurological disorder
known as manganism79.
MANGANESE ATOM APPLICATIONS                    Sinha, et al.
Manganese can be used to clean air of
volatile organic compounds (VOCs)80. Gold
nanoparticles are sprayed onto a
manganese oxide, and together they allow
compounds to adhere to the surface81. The
compounds then break down, cleaning the
air.

Manganese is part of chain of elements
including calcium and oxygen that make up
a cluster that breaks down water into its
component parts – hydrogen and oxygen82.       Nature
Researchers in Germany have found the
geometric arrangement of manganese,
calcium, and oxygen that promotes the
breakdown of water. The goal is to enable
hydrogen production with the manganese-
calcium-oxygen cluster, water, and
sunlight83.

Manganese oxide has been used to build
nanotubes84. The potential applications for
this kind of nanotube include more efficient
fuel cells and cathodes85.
CALCIUM ATOM PROPERTIES
Calcium is a metallic element86, like most of
the elements discussed so far. Also like
aluminum and manganese, is does not
occur in nature by itself. It is often found in
limestone and gypsum deposits. Despite
being one of the most abundant metals, its
highly reactive nature delayed its discovery
as a single element87.

Calcium is a well-known element, existing
either naturally in many foods, or as an
additive or supplement. It is the most
common mineral in the human body, and is
found predominantly in teeth and bones88.         University of Washington
Overconsumption of calcium from diet and
supplements is very uncommon89.

When exposed to air, calcium attracts
oxygen and nitrogen to form a protective
coating90. Calcium exposed to water reacts
to produce calcium hydroxide plus
hydrogen91. At least one university (Ohio
State in Columbus) is researching ways to
refine the hydrogen production process
using calcium compounds92.
CALCIUM ATOM APPLICATIONS                      Fujihara, et al.
Calcium carbonate nanoparticles have been
shown to deliver drugs for the treatment of
cancer93. Two different calcium compounds
are stirred together with drug to create
nanoparticles containing the calcium
compound and drug94. The nanoparticle has
been demonstrated to be stable for up to a
week inside the body.
                                               Netzsch Feinmahltechnik
Calcium carbonate composite nanofibers
have been studied for use in guided bone
reconstruction membranes95. Results have
been positive for cell attachment to the
membrane96. Calcium carbonate is also
used as a bone-filling material itself97.

Calcium phosphate nanoparticles have been
shown to be effective gene carriers98. Until
recently, DNA would degrade before it could
have an affect upon the cancer cell99. The
calcium and the phosphorous need to be
carefully balanced in order for their
nanoparticle to function correctly.
HYDROGEN ATOM PROPERTIES
Hydrogen is the most common element in            Dr. Rita Maria Sambruna
the universe, and has one of the simplest
atomic structures. It consists of one electron
in orbit around one proton100, making it the
smallest atomic element. Hydrogen's light
weight keeps it from remaining in the earth's
atmosphere101.

Hydrogen occurs mostly on earth in water102.
Therefore, it occurs in all plants, animals and
humans. It also occurs in hydrocarbons,
which makes up fossil fuels.
                                                  MSN Encarta

Hydrogen occurs not only in compounds, but
in distinct forms and isotopes. All elements
have isotopes, but hydrogen presents the
opportunity to explain them the simplest way
possible.

All atoms have a fixed amount of protons,
which are bound to neutrons, at the center of
the atom103. While the number of protons
does not change for a given element, the
number of neutrons can change104. The
isotopes of hydrogen are proving useful.
HYDROGEN ATOM APPLICATIONS
Hydrogen's role in nanotechnology is mostly
that of a byproduct, rather than an actual
nanoparticle affecting change at the           moleculartorch.com
nanoscale. Much research focuses on
extracting hydrogen from other compounds.

Hydrogen can be extracted from ammonia,
which is NH3105. A metal iridium surface can
have a finely textured surface to which
ammonia particle adhere106. The surface
permits the breakdown of ammonia,              CNRS
releasing nitrogen and hydrogen gases.

Hydrogen can be stored in nanotubes,
though a French research team has found
that storing hydrogen on carbon nanohorns
may be more effective107. The team found
the nanohorns to be more stable than
nanotubes, because hydrogen the bonding
strength between the nanohorns is greater
than that of the nanotubes108.

The problem with all current technologies is
that storage methods are too expensive
and/or do not meet expected benchmarks.
HOW THE ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPE (AFM)WORKS
Atomic force microscopy is a type of              Binnig, et al.
scanning probe technique109. Scanning
probe microscopes are used to measure
distances at the micro-scale and smaller110.
These microscopes use a cantilever-
mounted tip which scans across a material
surface, and the distance at which the tip
moves vertically as it scans is measured111.

The resolution of the AFM extends down to
10 picometers112 (one trillionth of a meter).
                                                  Meyer, Gehard and Amer, Nabil M.
The resolution detail is controlled by the
conditions in which the AFM is used, such as
use in a vacuum chamber and ambient
temperature (lower is better)113. There
exists different methods of detecting
cantilever deflection.

One method is to use a laser to focus light
onto a mirror which is placed on top of the
cantilever114. The mirror reflects the light to
a position sensitive detector (PSD)115.
Phase-sensitive detection measures the
output from the PSD116.
HOW THE AFM IS USED
The AFM is used to study a wide range of             Austrian Academy of Sciences
properties for many materials. “The
materials being investigating include thin and
thick film coatings, ceramics, composites,
glasses, synthetic and biological
membranes, metals, polymers, and
semiconductors. The AFM is being applied
to studies of phenomena such as abrasion,
adhesion, cleaning, corrosion, etching,
friction, lubrication, plating, and polishing”117.
                                                     Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich
AFMs operate in three modes: contact, non-
contact, and tapping mode118. Contact
mode has a DC feedback amplifier
controlling the distance between the sample
to be analyzed, and the cantilever119. The tip
makes physical contact with surface in this
mode. Non-contact mode images surfaces
by detecting the forces that attract the tip120.
Tapping mode has the cantilever oscillate,
having the tip come into contact with the
sample quickly and repeatedly121.

Of the three methods, contact is the most
common, followed by tapping and non-
contact122.
HOW THE SCANNING TUNNELING MICROSCOPE (STM)WORKS
The scanning tunnelling microscope is the        Binnig, et al.
ancestor of the AFM. STM “measures a
weak electrical current flowing between tip
and sample as they are held a very distance
apart”123. The use of this kind of microscope
is limited to materials that can conduct
electricity124.

Electrically conductive elements have a
large cloud of electrons that surround the
nucleous, relative to non-conductive             Binnig, et al.
elements. The STM has a tip like the AFM,
only the STM's tip does not come into direct
contact with the examined material. Instead,
when brought close to the material, an
electric current can flow between the
material and the tip due to the interaction of
electrons between the tip and the
material125.

An image of the material is produced by
measuring the amount of vertical
displacement needed to keep the current
                                                   Gold, measured with an STM.
constant126.
HOW THE STM IS USED                            Crommie Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
The inventions of the Scanning Tunneling
Microscope and the Atomic Force
Microscope opened up a new way of
observing and controlling matter at the
atomic scale127. Both machines are used
concurrently128. The STM allowed
researchers to learn more about the function
of semiconductors, and how different metals
react, at the atomic scale, when they are
juxtaposed129.

The STM can also manipulate the placement
of atoms. The tip of the STM moves atoms
by having it be positioned over the atom to
be moved, and having the electric current
match the adsorptive strength of the overall
sample material130. The atom can then be
guided to a new position without the atom
detaching fully from the surface material.

While current positioning is done either
manually or with computer assistance, the
National Institute of Standards and
Technology is working on an Automated
Atomic Assembler131.
HOW CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION (CVD) WORKS
Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) converts          Michigan Tech Yap Lab
gaseous material into a solid and deposits it
onto another solid132. A gas delivery system
moves the gaseous material, known as the
precursor, to the reactor chamber, where it is
deposited upon the substrate133. An energy
source is needed to provide heat for
deposition to occur, and a vacuum and
exhaust system to vent out the extraneous
gaseous molecules134.

CVD belongs to a class of a vapor
deposition techniques, including molecular        Dual-RF-plasma CVD System
beam epitaxy (MBE), that deposits one
material atomically upon another135. Like the
previously discusses microscopy techniques,
they can be used in conjunction. Some
processes are hybrids of two different
systems136.

CVD is unique in its ability to “deposit any
element or compound”, and do so with very
high purity, density, uniformity, economically,
and below the material's melting point137.
                                                  Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition CVD System
HOW CVD IS USED                                   Boyd, et al.
CVD is used in the manufacture of artificial
diamond138. The diamond “is comparable in
purity and properties to...natural diamond.
The hardness of diamond, coupled with the
conformality of CVD films, can be exploited
to make tool coatings and inserts with long
cutting lives”139.

A new method of CVD has been
demonstrated to collect and distribute atoms
along a specific path140. The method is
plasmon-assisted CVD, which differs from
convetional CVD by use of a low-powered
laser beam141. “The technique makes use of
the plasmon resonance in nanoscale metal
structures to produce the local heating
necessary to initiate deposition...”142.

Thermal CVD has been used to grow carbon
nanotubes143. The growing process requires
depositing Iron, Nickel, Cobalt, or an alloy of
the three metals onto a substrate144. The
substrate is etched, placed into the thermal
CVD apparatus, etched again, and heated to
produce carbon nanotubes145.
HOW MOLECULAR BEAM EPITAXY (MBE) WORKS
When “atoms are deposited on a substrate        Dr. Werner Wegsheider
and continue the same crystal structure as
the substrate”146, this is called epitaxial
growth. “Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is a
term used denote epitaxial growth of
compound semiconductor films by a process
involving the reaction of one or more thermal
molecular beams with a crystalline surface
under ultra-high vacuum conditions”147.
Molecular beams are typically generated by
thermally evaporating elements, although
other sources are used148.                      Institute of Semiconductor and Solid State Physics Austria


MBE requires an ultra-high vacuum (UHV)
environment149. MBE systems include a
vacuum system, a pumping system, liquid N2
panels, effusion cells, a substrate
manipulator and analysis tools150. “The
pumping system usually consists of ion
pumps”151, which attract gas molecules due
to the lower pressure maintained within the
pump152. Effusion cells are where the
element is thermally evaporated153.
HOW MBE IS USED                                  Sarikaya, et al.
MBE is used in conjunction with other tools.
It has been used to create quantum dots154,
which belong to the semiconducting group of
materials155. MBE has also been used to
grow Gallium Nitride (GaN) quantum discs
and Aluminum Gallium Nitride (AlGaN)
nanocolumns156, which may have
applications for optoelectronic devices.

Such devices include lasers and light-
emitting diodes (LEDs). GaN nanodiscs and
                                                 Gallium Indium Arsenide (GaInAs) Quantum Dots
AlGaN nanocolumns create lattice structures
                                                 Bertness, et al.
free of “atomic-scale defects, called
dislocations”157. These dislocations have
limited the spectral range of lasers, ranging
between near-UV and green158.

MBE has also been used to grow
Germanium (Ge) quantum dots159. These
have been grown on silicon, and potential
applications include not only optoelectronics,
but also “resonant tunneling diodes,
thermoelectric cooler, cellular automata, and
quantum computer[s]”160.                         Cross-Section and Top View of GaN nanocolumns (or nanowires)
HOW LITHOGRAPHY FOR NANOTECHNOLOGY WORKS
Lithographic tools are used to mass produce        MEMS and Nanotechnology Clearinghouse
microchips and other semiconductor
devices160. Lithography works by layering a
material sensitive to light (or whatever will do
the etching) upon a substrate, and exposing
the sensitive material to a controlled light,
etc, pattern161. At the nanoscale, lithography
has been used to pattern a “substrate for
selective growth of nanostructures”162.

One example of lithography used was in the
production of arrays of silver and gold-
palladium nanoparticles163. These particles
were created with a scanning transmission
electron microscope (STEM). The STEM
focused a 2 nanometer-diameter electron
beam to create the pattern164.

Another example is transmission electron
beam ablation lithography, which works by
“controllably ablating [removing by melting]
evaporated metal films, pre-patterned with
electron beam lithography”165.
HOW LITHOGRAPHY FOR NANOTECHNOLOGY IS USED
EV Group Australia and Komag, Inc., have        Chou, et al.
partnered up to use nanoimprint lithography
(NIL) to create discrete track recording
(DTR) patterned magnetic disks166. NIL
works by pressing molds “into a thin
thermoplastic polymer film on a substrate
that is heated above its glass transition
temperature”167. This method allows for
greater production quantities.

Hot embossing imprint lithography has been
used to form mechanical topography on
polymer cell substrates168. These substrates
are on the surface of joint replacements,
biosensors, and drug delivery devices. The
topography of these substrates can
influence how well the body's cells adhere to
the implant which uses the substrate.

Nanoparticle self-assembly has been
demonstrated with chemical lithography169.
“[P]article arrangement is controlled by
differences in reactivity – a characteristic
determined by exposing particles and
surfaces to an assortment of chemical
treatments”170.
HOW SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPES WORK
Scanning electron microscopes (SEMs)             Material Science and Engineering Department at Iowa State University
generate images based on the deflection of
beamed electrons off a given sample171. An
electron gun, consisting of a cathode and an
anode, generate the beam by attracting
electrons from the cathode to the anode172.
The beam is focused using an objective
lens173.

What makes SEMs useful is their superior
magnifying capability. Optical microscopes
use visible light, whose wavelength ranges
from 400 to 700 nanometers174. The
wavelength of an electron varies depending
on its momentum, and can be quite smaller
than that of visible light175.

This means that electrons that deflect off the
sample do so at a lower wavelength than
that of visible light, thus permitting greater
resolution than what an optical microscope
can provide. The sample information that
SEMs can provide include topographical,
atomic number, thickness, and composition
information176.
HOW SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPES ARE USED
                                                 Seung Hoon Nahm
Manipulators can operate inside an SEM,
allowing real-time imaging of an experiment
in progress177. The actual device that
performs the manipulation is called an end-
effector, and can include “[s]harpened metal
wires, referred to as probes”178, AFM tips
(also known as cantilevered probes), and
microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-
based grippers179. These manipulators can
work with focused ion beam (FIB) systems
to perform failure analyses of semiconductor
devices180.

An example of an end-effector in use was in
an SEM, armed with a cantilever
manipulator with a force sensor tip181. The
equipment was used to test the tensile
properties of carbon nanotubes182. The
SEM introduced hydrocarbon contamination
to attach the nanotube to the sensor tip, in a
process known as nano-welding183.
INTRODUCTION TO FORMS                            Univerity of Southern California   C’Nano Rhône-Alpes
Forms are the second topic that will be
presented.

Nano-sized creations can come in four
dimensional forms: the 0th dimension
(nanoparticles), the 1st dimension (nanowire
or nanotube), the 2nd dimension (nanofilm or
nanosheet), and the 3rd dimension
(nanomachine).

While the nanotube is three-dimensional             Nanofilm Surface Analysis         Brent Silby
(having diameter and length), it is useful to
differentiate its form from that of more
complex three-dimensional organizations.

From an architectural reference, thinking of
these dimensional forms in terms of point,
line, plane, and mass respectively may be
helpful.

The properties and applications of these
forms are varied and many. What elements
are used, and in what manner of
configuration, influence the nature of these
forms. I will introduce examples to illustrate
only that differences do exist among forms.
THE PROPERTIES OF 0-DIMENSIONAL NANOFORMS
The nanoparticle label can be said to be a          Matthew Meineke
valid description of a given particle when that
particle's effects are dominated by the rules
of quantum mechanics184. The science of
quantum mechanics describes the behavior
and function of light and particles at their
most discrete. What this means is that for
nanoparticles, the effects of atomic behavior
dominate the surface of particle, rather than
its interior185.

These particles can be engineered to have
specific properties, “often accomplished by
coating or encapsulating them within a shell
of a preferred material… For example, the
shell can alter the charge, functionality, and
reactivity of the surface, and can enhance
the stability and dispersibility of the colloidal
[consisting of two different phases -- solid,
liquid, etc] core. Magnetic, optical, or
catalytic functions may be readily imparted
to the dispersed colloidal matter depending
on the properties of the coating.”186.
APPLICATIONS OF 0-DIMENSIONAL NANOFORMS
The market for applications using              Georgia Tech
nanoparticles has been realized187. Industry
size was expected to be worth $900 million
by 2005, with an average annual growth rate
of 12.8% for the period between 2000 and
2005188.

One example of nanoparticle applications
are molecular tags189. The applications of
gold nanoparticles, for cancer detection and
                                               The NEST Laboratory – University of Dayton
treatment, were discussed earlier. Also
discussed were the applications of aluminum
nanoparticles for hydrogen storage.

Magnetite nanoparticles have been
proposed for use in
molecular/nanoelectromechanical systems
(MEMS/NEMS)190. These particles can be
magnetized, placed into traps surrounded by
conductors, and subjected to an electrical
field. They then rotate, permitting
mechanical power at a larger scale.
PROPERTIES OF 1-DIMENSIONAL NANOFORMS
Nanotubes and nanowires are two kinds of         Future Hi
one-dimensional nanoforms. The names are
suggestive; nanotubes have a hollow
interior, while nanowires do not. The
nanotube has gotten considerable press for
its properties.

Tests have demonstrated the stiffness of
carbon nanotubes to extend up to 673
Gigapascals (GPa) or 1.406  1010 psi191.
They “combine high stiffness with resilience
and the ability to buckle and collapse in a
reversible manner: even largely distorted        L. Piraux, et al.
configurations (axially compressed or
twisted) can be due to elastic deformations
with virtually no atomic defects involved.”192
Nanowires have demonstrated interesting                      QuickTimeª and a
                                                         TIFF (LZW) decompressor
electromagnetic properties. For example,             are needed to see this picture.
giant magnetoresistance (GMR) has been
“observed at room temperature on
[Cobalt/Copper] multilayered nanowires.”193
GMR “is the phenomenon where [electrical]
resistance in certain materials drops
dramatically when a magnetic field is
applied.”194
APPLICATIONS OF 1-DIMENSIONAL NANOFORMS
As mentioned earlier, there appears to be no      Erkki Halkka - ESA
limit as to the number of applications that the
nanotube can perform. Structural and
electrical properties have already been
mentioned. The carbon nanotube can also
“produce streams of electrons very efficiently
(field emission), which can be used to create
light in displays in televisions or computers,
or even in domestic lighting, and they can
enhance the fluorescence of materials they
are close to.”195

Nanowires (or nanofibers) have been
studied for low-temperature electrical
discharge, for use in lithium-ion batteries
(the kind used in laptops and cell phones).196
The high surface area-to-volume ratio helps
to “mitigate the slow electrochemical kinetics
problem”.197 The slow kinetics problem is the
decrease in charge delivered from the
battery at low temperatures198.
PROPERTIES OF 2-DIMENSIONAL NANOFORMS
Two-dimensional nanoforms can come in            Vendamme, et al.
nanofilms or nanoplates. Like the carbon
nanotube, they can display remarkable
properties.

A nanofilm, a nanomembrane, has been
developed that can hold up to 70,000 times
its weight in water, can pass through a hole
30,000 times smaller than the membrane
itself, and be as large as 16 square
centimeters.199 Its properties came from the
way it was manufactured. The membrane is
a hybrid of organic polymers with inorganic
components200 within an interpenetrating
network201. An interpenetrating network is
“any material containing two polymers, each
in network form.”202
Zinc Oxide nanoplates have been shown to
have a relatively large “surface area for heat
dissipation and large field enhancement
factors”.203 A large field enhancement factor
lowers the threshold for electron emission.
APPLICATIONS OF 2-DIMENSIONAL NANOFORMS
Nanofilm applications have already been   Vendamme, et al.
capitalized204.

FIX BIBLIOGRAPHY
BIBLIOGRAPHY
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2.    Ibid.

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12. Whitten 909.

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 38. http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A5759517 Accessed 21 June 2007.

 39. http://www.physorg.com/news7505.html Accessed 22 June 2007.

 40. http://www.trnmag.com/Stories/2003/032603/
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BIBLIOGRAPHY
 41. Ibid.

42. Ibid.

43. http://periodic.lanl.gov/elements/47.html Accessed 22 June 2007.

44. http://www.dartmouth.edu/~toxmetal/TXQAag.shtml Accessed 22 June 2007.

45. Ibid

46. Ibid.

47. http://periodic.lanl.gov/elements/47.html Accessed 22 June 2007.

48. www.jrnanotech.com/acatalog/More_Info.html Accessed 23 June 2007.

49. http://www.devicelink.com/mddi/archive/05/08/005.html Accessed 23 June 2007.

50. Ibid.

51. http://www.azonano.com/Details.asp?ArticleID=1041 Accessed 23 June 2007.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
 52. Ibid.

53. http://www.nanowerk.com/spotlight/spotid=634.php 23 June 2007.

54. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/tfacts60.html#bookmark02 Accessed 23 June 2007.

55. Ibid.

56. http://periodic.lanl.gov/elements/30.html 23 June 2007.

57. Ibid.

58. http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele030.html 23 June 2007.

59. http://periodic.lanl.gov/elements/30.html 23 June 2007.

60. http://www.worldofmolecules.com/elements/zinc.htm 23 June 2007.

61. Ibid.

62. Ibid.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
 63. http://www.gatech.edu/news-room/release.php?id=1287 Accessed 24 June
    2007.

 64. Ibid.

 65. Ibid.

 66. http://www.piezo.com/tech1terms.html Accessed 24 June 2007.

 67. Ibid.

 68. http://www.physorg.com/news8670.html Accessed 24 June 2007.

 69. Ibid.

 70. Ibid.

 71. http://periodic.lanl.gov/elements/25.html Accessed 24 June 2007.

 72. Ibid.

 73. Ibid.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
 74. http://www.npi.gov.au/database/substance-info/profiles/52.html Accessed 24
    June 2007.

 75. Ibid.

 76. Ibid.

 77. http://www.manganese.org/intro.php 24 June 2007.

 78. http://www.npi.gov.au/database/substance-info/profiles/52.html Accessed 24
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 79. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/tfacts151.html#bookmark02 Accessed 24 June 2007.

 80. http://www.nanowerk.com/news/newsid=1710.php Accessed 24 June 2007.

 81. Ibid.

 82. http://www.nanowerk.com/news/newsid=1060.php Accessed 24 June 2007.

 83. Ibid.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
 84. Luis Hueso and Neil Mathur. “Nanotechnology: Dreams of a hollow future”.
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 85. Ibid.

 86. http://www.webelements.com/webelements/elements/text/Ca/key.html Accessed
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 87. http://environmentalchemistry.com/yogi/periodic/Ca.html Accessed 25 June
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 88. http://dietary-supplements.info.nih.gov/factsheets/calcium.asp Accessed 25
    June 2007.

 89. Ibid.

 90. http://www.lenntech.com/Periodic-chart-elements/Ca-en.htm Accessed 25 June
    2007.

 91. http://www.angelo.edu/faculty/kboudrea/demos/calcium_H2O/calcium_H2O.htm
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BIBLIOGRAPHY
 92. http://www.fossil.energy.gov/news/techlines/2006/
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 93. http://nano.cancer.gov/news_center/nanotech_news_2005-04-04c.asp
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 94. Ibid.

 95. doi:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2004.09.014 Accessed 25 June 2007.

 96. Ibid.

 97. K. Fujihara, M. Kotaki and S. Ramakrishna. “Guided bone regenerationnext
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 98. http://nano.cancer.gov/news_center/nanotech_news_2006-12-18b.asp
    Accessed 25 June 2007.

 99. Ibid.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
 100. http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/physics/HydrogenAtom.html Accessed 26
      June 2006.

 101. http://periodic.lanl.gov/elements/1.html Accessed 26 June 2006.

 102. Ibid.

 103. http://ie.lbl.gov/education/info.htm Accessed 26 June 2006.

 104. Ibid.

 105. http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/medicalnews.php?newsid=21895 Accessed
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 106. Ibid.

 107. http://www.nanowerk.com/news/newsid=2092.php Accessed 26 June 2007.

 108. Ibid.

 109. http://www.mobot.org/jwcross/spm/ Accessed 28 June 2007.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
 110. Ibid.

111. Ibid.

112. http://stm2.nrl.navy.mil/how-afm/how-afm.html#General%20concept Accessed
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113. 932 Binnig, et al. “Atomic Force Microscope” Physical Review of Letters. Vol
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114. 1045 Meyer, Gehard and Amer, Nabil M. “Novel Optical Approach to Atomic
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     1988

115. Ibid.

116. Ibid.

117. http://www.che.utoledo.edu/nadarajah/webpages/whatsafm.html Accessed 28
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BIBLIOGRAPHY
 118. http://www.chembio.uoguelph.ca/educmat/chm729/afm/details.htm Accessed
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 119. Ibid.

 120. http://www.cmth.ph.ic.ac.uk/photonics/intro/AFM.html Accessed 2 July 2007.

 121. http://spm.phy.bris.ac.uk/techniques/AFM/ Accessed 2 July 2007.

 122. Ibid.

 123. http://www.mobot.org/jwcross/spm/ Accessed 2 July 2007.

 124. Ibid.

 125. http://physics.nist.gov/GenInt/STM/text.html Accessed 2 July 2007.

 126. 281, Binnig, G., and H. Rohrer. “Scanning Tunneling Microscopy” IBM Journal
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 127. http://www.umsl.edu/~fraundorfp/stm97x.html Accessed 2 July 2007.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
 128. Ibid.

129. Ibid.

130. http://www.physics.berkeley.edu/research/crommie/research_stm.html
     Accessed 3 July 2007.

131. http://physics.nist.gov/Divisions/Div841/Gp3/Projects/STM/aaa_proj.html
     Accessed 3 July 2007

132. http://chiuserv.ac.nctu.edu.tw/~htchiu/cvd/home.html Accessed 3 July 2007.

133. http://www.azom.com/details.asp?ArticleID=1552#_How_Does_CVD
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134. Ibid.

135. 2 Pierson, Hugh O., Handbook of Chemical Vapor Deposition: Principles,
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136. 3 Pierson.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
 137. http://www.ultramet.com/cvd2.htm Accessed 3 July 2007.

 138. 644 Celii & Butler. “Diamond Chemical Vapor Deposition”. Annual Review of
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 139. Ibid.

 140. http://www.physorg.com/news80403538.html Accessed 4 July 2007.

 141. Ibid.

 142. http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi/nalefd/2006/6/i11/abs/nl062061m.html
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 143. http://www.iljinnanotech.co.kr/en/material/r-4-4.htm Accessed 4 July 2007.

 144. Ibid.

 145. Ibid.

 146. http://math.nist.gov/mcsd/Reports/96/yearly/node18.html Accessed 8 July
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 148. http://projects.ece.utexas.edu/ece/mrc/groups/street_mbe/mbechapter.html
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 149. http://www.elettra.trieste.it/experiments/beamlines/lilit/htdocs/people/luca/
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 150. Ibid

 151. Ibid.

 152. www.varianinc.com/image/vimage/docs/products/vacuum/pumps/ion/shared/
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 153. http://www.physik.uni-
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 154. http://www.brookhaventech.com/pdf/NMjrnl.pdf Accessed 29 July 2007.
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 155. http://www.evidenttech.com/qdot-definition/quantum-dot-introduction.php
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 156. 125305-1 J. Ristic, et al. “Characterization of GaN quantum discs embedded in
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 157. http://www.stsc.hill.af.mil/crosstalk/2006/10/0610BertnessSanfordDavydov.html
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 158. Ibid.

 1.   159. http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=13747287 Accessed 30 July
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 2.   160.
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 1.   161. http://www.memsnet.org/mems/processes/lithography.html Accessed 31
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BIBLIOGRAPHY
 162. http://www.ringsurf.com/info/Technology_/Nanotechnology/Tools/Lithography_-
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 163. 7186 Craighead, H.G., and Mankiewich, P.M. “Ultra-Small Metal Particle
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 164. Ibid.

 165. 1329 -1337. Michael D. Fischbein and Marija Drndić. “Sub-10 nm Device
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 166. http://www.voyle.net/Nano%20Biz%20200/NanoBiz-0145.htm Accessed 7 July
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 167. 3114 Chou, et al. “Imprint of Sub-25 nm Vias and Trenches in Polymers”.
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 168. Charest, et al. “Combined Microscale Mechanical Topography and Chemical
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BIBLIOGRAPHY
 169. http://www.physorg.com/news72635583.html Accessed 12 August 2007.

 ●   Ibid.

 ●   http://mse.iastate.edu/microscopy/path.html Accessed 21 August 2007.

 ●   http://mse.iastate.edu/microscopy/source.html Accessed 21 August 2007.

 ●   http://mse.iastate.edu/microscopy/path.html Accessed 21 August 2007.

 ●   241 Bohren and Clothiaux. Fundamentals of Atmospheric Radiation. Wiley-VHC,
     2006.

 ●   http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/quantum/debrog2.html Accessed 21
     August.

 ●   http://mse.iastate.edu/microscopy/beaminteractions.html Accessed 21 August
     2007.

 177. 192 Gupta, Rishi, and Stallcup II, Richard E. “Introduction to In Situ
    Nanomanipulation for Nanomaterials Engineering”. Scanning Microscopy for
    Nanotechnology. Ed by Zhou, Weilie, and Wang, Zhong Lin. Springer. 2007.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
 178. 204 Gupta.

 179. Ibid.

 180. 193 Gupta.

 181. http://www.andrew.cmu.edu/org/nanotechnology-
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 182. Ibid.

 183. Ibid.

 184. http://nanotechweb.org/dl/wp/nanoparticles_WP.pdf Accessed 4 September
    2007.

 ●   Ibid.

 ●   11 Caruso, Frank. “Nanoengineering of Particle Surfaces”. Advanced Materials.
     Vol 13. Issue 1. January 5, 2001.

 ●   www.ceg.org/industryreports/Nanochem%20NanoMtrls.pdf Accessed 7
     September 2007.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
 188. Ibid.

189. Mazzola, Laura. “Commercializing Nanotechnology”. Nature Biotechnology.
   Vol 21. Issue 10. 2003. Accessed on-line on 6 September 2007.

190. Zahn, Markus. “Magnetic Fluid and Nanoparticle Applications to
   Nanotechnology”. Journal of Nanoparticle Research. Vol 3. Pg. 73 - 78. 2001.

191. http://www.wag.caltech.edu/foresight/foresight_2.html Accessed 7 September
   2007.

192. Qingzhong, Zhao, et al. “Ultimate Strength of Carbon Nanotubes: A Theoretical
   Study”. Physical Review B. Vol 65. Issue 14. Article 144105. March 27, 2002.

193. Piraux, L., et al. “Giant Magnetoresistance in Magnetic Multilayered
   Nanowires”. Applied Physics Letters. Vol 65. Issue 19. Pg. 2484-2486.
   November 7, 1994.

194. http://www.stoner.leeds.ac.uk/research/gmr.htm Accessed 10 September 2007.

196. 6 Holister, et al. Nanotubes. White paper. CMP Científica. January 2003.

197. Sides, Charles R. and Martin, Charles R. “Nanostructured Electrodes and the
   Low-Temperature Performance of Li-Ion Batteries”. Advanced Materials. Vol. 17.
   Issue 1. January 6, 2005.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
 198. 125 Sides.

 199. Ibid.

 200. Vendamme, et al. “Robust free-standing nanomembranes of organic/inorganic
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    2006.

 201. Sharp, Kenneth G. “Inorganic/Organic Hybrid Materials”. Advanced Materials.
    Vol 10. Issue 15. Pg. 1243 - 1248. January 26, 1999.

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