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Chief Financial Officer Academy and Financial Management


  • pg 1
									             DRAFT PRE-DECISIONAL

Two for the Price of One
            Presentation to

                                    Sandra A. Gregory, CDFM
                                    Office of the Under Secretary of
                                    Defense (Comptroller)

                                    February 16, 2011

                                      DRAFT PRE-DECISIONAL

                           Overview: Part I

• Part I: What are we doing as your Functional
          Community Manager?
 – Human Capital Strategy and the Financial Workforce Management Office

 – Financial Workforce Metrics

 – Launching Challenge Fund Projects: FM Online and FM myLearn

 – Competencies & Roadmaps

 – Defense Civilian Emerging Leadership Program

 – Civilian Expeditionary Workforce

 – CFO Academy Opportunities

  You are one of approximately 55,000 in the DoD FM workforce!
                                                                          C06-11-100   2
                                   DRAFT PRE-DECISIONAL

                           Overview: Part II

• Part II: What can you do about your career
           management? (PERFECT)
 – Plan your career and professional development and training and PERFORM
 – Experience
 – Run Fast
 – Find Mentors
 – Expect to make changes
 – Continue to work your boss’s agenda
 – Take cues from your personal board of directors

 Before we get to PERFECT, we’ll highlight the workforce strategy.
                                                                            C06-11-100   3
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         Start with the Human Capital Strategy

                                                         Critical Skills identified by
                                                       National Defense Authorization
                                                             Act (NDAA) of 2006
                                                            Define a strategic goal
                                                                  and vision

                                                         Determine specific recruiting
                                                              and retention goals,
                                                         including program objectives
                                                                to be achieved

                                                          Develop 7-10 year forecasts
   How will the Department of
    Defense have the right number of                         Provide annual report
    skilled people at the right time for                         to Congress
    the right place to meet mission                       NDAA 2010 -- Section 1112,
    requirements?                                         Developing Civilian Leaders

    A Functional Community Manager Helps Shape Policy & Strategy
                                                                                      C06-11-100   4
                             DRAFT PRE-DECISIONAL

   The DoD Comptroller’s Financial Workforce
             Management Office

• The Financial Workforce Management Office was created to focus
  on YOU and our FUTURE.
 To serve as the financial management community advocate to ensure
  the workforce has the competencies, capacity, and tools to acquire,
develop, and sustain the talent needed to meet the department’s current
   and future mission requirements, and to plan and execute special
       projects for the Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller).

             • Helping to Create, Transform, and Build the
               DoD Financial Management Workforce
             • Executing Special Projects

We exist to Champion a Strong Financial Management Workforce. . .
                      What are our metrics?
                                                                 C06-11-100   5
                                                                                                                    DRAFT PRE-DECISIONAL

                                                         Sustain Career Series Workforce Size
                                                        DoD FM (5XX) Workforce Size                                                            Analysis of Trends:
             35.0                                                                                                                 34.7
                                        31.1    31.5      31.0        30.4     30.9     30.8        30.9     31.5                              • FY09-FY10 Year-to-Year Growth of 1,975 in
             30.0                                                                                                                              the FM Workforce:
# of FM Work Series (thousands)

                                                                                                                                                  DFAS FM Workforce grew by 517 due to
             20.0                                                                                                                              in-sourcing, ERP, implementation of new
                                                                                                                                               system technologies and initiatives such as
                                           12.3                                                                                                audit readiness.
                                                    11.5         11                          10.7
                                                                        10.5      10.6                 10.2                  10.0       10.6
             10.0                                                                                                                                Non-DFAS FM Workforce grew by 1,458
                                                                                                                                               due to in-sourcing, conversion of positions,
                                                                                                                                               new auditor positions (Defense Contract
                                  0.0                                                                                                          Audit Agency) and new mission demands.
                                        FY01      FY02     FY03       FY04     FY05      FY06        FY07        FY08     FY09      FY10

                                                                        Non-DFAS        DFAS
                                                                                                                                               • The FM Workforce is augmented with
                                                                                                                                               approximately 207 Operations Research
                  Series DFAS
                                                             Description              Series DFAS
                                                                                                                                               Analysts (1515s) that perform cost analysis
                                                DFAS                                                   DFAS
                                                      Financial Administration
                                                                                                                                               based functions throughout the Department
                                  501   2,017 10,250                                   540      27         183     Voucher Examining
                                                           and Program                                                                         (not reflected on charts).
                                                       Financial Clerical and
                                  503    246    2,474                                  544     307         188           Civilian Pay
                                  505     3       637      Financial Manager           545     1,504       622           Military Pay
                                                                                                                                               FY 2010 Goal:
                                  510   2,568   3,065         Accounting               560      14     7,777        Budget Analysis
                                                                                                                   Budget Clerical and
                                                                                                                                               No further declines from FY 2008 baseline.
                                  511    69     6,842            Auditing              561      0          893
                                  525   3,778   1,090    Accounting Technician         599      8          377      Student Trainee            Result/Score:       G
                                  530    17       309      Cash Processing             5XX   10,558 34,707                 TOTAL

         Source: www.fedscope.gov, accessed December 23, 2010                                                                                  No declines

              6                                                              Achieving a Stable FM Workforce Size                                                                    C06-11-100
                                                                DRAFT PRE-DECISIONAL

                      Increase FM Workforce Credentials
          % of FM Workforce with Professional                                          Analysis of Trends:
                Certifications or Degrees                                              • Continued emphasis on the achievement
                                                                                         of degrees and FM certifications is driving
                                                                                         the trend upward.
                                                                                       • Components are encouraging employees
                                                                                         to update their degree and certification
                                                                                         information, currently there is no
                                                                                         requirement to share this information.

                                                                                       • FY10 data will not be available until
                                                                                         Dec 2010.

                                                                                       FY10 Goal:
                                                                                       A steady increase in the number of
                                                                                       degreed and credentialed FM employees
                                                                                       (baseline FY06).

    Source of information - DMDC, Association of Government Accountants,               Result/Status:
    and the American Society of Military Comptrollers, September 2009
                                                                                       Increases from FY06 to 09     G

7                                  FM Workforce Credentials Increasing                                                      C06-11-100
                                                                                DRAFT PRE-DECISIONAL

                                                               DOD FM Workforce
                                                  (By Mission Critical Series / Length of Service)

                                  Workforce as of 4th QTR FY10                                         Analysis of Trends:

                     9000                                                                              • Aggressive recruitment initiatives are
                                                                                                       being pursued to maintain the strength of
                     8000                                                                              the FM Mission Critical (MC) Occupations.

                     7000                                                                              • The FM community is exploring options
                                                                                                       to maintain the workforce and to eliminate
                     6000                                                                              the sharp decline in staffing within the
                                                                                                       initial 10 years of employment.
    # of Personnel

                     5000                                                                  501
                                                                                                       • 65% of FY09 – FY10 Year-to-Year
                     4000                                                                  511         increase was in the four MC Series,
                                                                                           560         0-9 Years Service group.
                                                                                                       FY10 Goal:
                                                                                                       To limit decline in FM Workforce within
                                                                                                       initial 10 years of employment and not to
                                                                                                       decrease from 2nd Qtr FY 10 levels.
                            0-5   5-9   `10-14   15-19     20-24     25-29   30-34   35+               Result/Status:
                                             Length of Service (Years)
                                                                                                       No Decline. Annual increase of 1,276
*Source of information – www.fedscope.gov, accessed December 23, 2010
                                                                                                       with 0-9 Years Service. G

8                       The Focus is on Professional Development and New Ideas…                                                           C06-11-100
                                      DRAFT PRE-DECISIONAL

   The Challenge Fund was the Catalyst for the
          DoD FM Website: FM Online
• Website title FM Online:            https://fmonline.ousdc.osd.mil
• CAC enabled website

                                        DoD FM myLearn

                 What’s New in FM?                           DoD Policy Reference

                    1                    2                       3

                                           IDP & FM
                  FM Certifications      Competencies          FM Professional
                                           & Career             Networking

                          4             5                              6

• Timeline
  – CY 2010 elements 1, 2, and 3
  – CY 2011 elements 4, 5 and 6

One-stop multi-purpose website for the DoD FM workforce is HERE…
                                                                                    C06-11-100   9

                       C06-11-100   10

                DRAFT PRE-DECISIONAL

One-Stop Website for the DoD FM Community

                                     DRAFT PRE-DECISIONAL

          Competencies and Career Roadmaps

 To implement standardized competencies that describe the knowledge
 skills and attributes needed to perform and achieve desired results. To use
 these competencies in developing your career roadmap.

• Outcome:
  – Integrated and standardized FM body of knowledge
  – Cross-leveraging of resources
  – Defined career roadmaps
• Competencies defined by Working Group:
  – Comprised of FM Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) for Services
    and Defense Agencies
  – Anticipated to be completed in early FY 2011 – now validating

    How do we enhance the leadership competency for civilians?
                                                                           C06-11-100   13
                                    DRAFT PRE-DECISIONAL

         Defense Civilian Emerging Leadership
                  Program (DCELP)

 To establish a leadership recruitment and development program for civilians.

• The FY 2010 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) required DoD to establish
  this program
• Pilot program starts in FY 2011 with 100 GS-7/9s
• FM and Acquisition and HR are in the pilot – 28/100 will be FM quotas
• This will be a cohort group – training together
• Training is centrally funded – unit pays TDY costs

      Training is critical for our Civilian Expeditionary Workforce
                                                                           C06-11-100   14
                                     DRAFT PRE-DECISIONAL

                   DoD Civilian Expeditionary
                       Workforce (CEW)

• On January 23 DoD reissued DoD 1404.10 under a new title to establish the DoD
  Civilian Expeditionary Workforce
  – Updates policies and responsibilities for the designation of a subset of the Civilian
    Workforce using position-based categories: Emergency-Essential
    (E-E), Non-Combat Essential (NCE), and person-based categories: Capability-based
    Volunteers (CBVs) and former DoD employees.
  – CEW will be pre-identified to be organized, trained, and equipped for rapid response
    and quick assimilation into new environments to support:
     • Contingencies, emergencies, and combat operation missions of DoD or remain in
       place and respond with the same swiftness to such events

                                                                                   C06-11-100   15
                                       DRAFT PRE-DECISIONAL

           Civilian Expeditionary Workforce
                 Framework (Structure)

      20th Century Model                                      21st Century Model

              Workforce                                               EE - Emergency

                Ad-Hoc                                               NCE - Non-Combat

                                                                   CBV - Capability Based

                         Governed by DoD Directive 1404.10, January 2009
 • Creates a larger universe of pre-identified, ready, trained and cleared civilians
 • Creates awareness of civilian readiness for Components and individuals
 • Assigns Functional Community Managers responsibility for managing readiness

                                                                                            C06-11-100   16
                                   DRAFT PRE-DECISIONAL

                              CFO Academy

•   In 2007, the CFO Council determined that financial managers needed to
    strengthen their knowledge and understanding in areas such as:
     – Federal financial policy and organization
     – Strategic leadership and change management
     – Performance management and accountability
     – Portfolio management
•   The CFO Academy is a component of the National Defense University’s (NDU)
    Information Resources Management College, iCollege

•   The Academy launched its first offering, the CFO Leadership Certificate Program,
    in September 2008
•   CFO Academy is open to high-potential GS-13s and above and military O-4s and

You can take one course or aim for a Certificate in CFO Leadership.
                                                                              C06-11-100   17
                                DRAFT PRE-DECISIONAL

       More Information for the CFO Academy

• More information can be found on the College’s website at

• Call Dr Todd Holmes, Department Chair / Associate Professor,
  – Phone: 202‐685‐4887 and Email: todd.holmes@ndu.edu

• The tuition for DoD students is centrally funded – the unit pays for
  TDY and travel costs

• Web-based courses or in-residence courses in Washington, DC

                    Now let’s look at Part II . . .
             What are you doing to manage your career?

                                                                         C06-11-100   18
                                 DRAFT PRE-DECISIONAL

    Part II: What can you do to manage your

• Plan your career and professional development and training and PERFORM
• Experience
• Run Fast
• Find Mentors
• Expect to make changes
• Continue to work your boss’s agenda
• Take cues from your personal board of directors

      Strive for the PERFECT ways to manage your career…

                                                                           C06-11-100   19
                                     DRAFT PRE-DECISIONAL

                      P = Plan and PERFORM

  • You have a blank sheet of paper to outline a career path
    – Where do you want to go?
    – What do you need to have in your toolkit?
    – What professional degrees, certifications, and professional development
      will you need?
  • Perform, perform, perform
    – Everyday is a new experience to show how you can perform
    – Teamwork in performance is important
    – Leadership development and practice are key factors
    – Getting projects across the goal line will make a difference

The Plan is the Roadmap…Performance has YOU in the driver’s seat!

                                                                                C06-11-100   20
                                    DRAFT PRE-DECISIONAL

                              E = Experience

• There are many ways of getting new experiences

• Where you have sat does make a difference of where you will sit tomorrow

• Not everyone needs to have the same experience to get to the end goal

• If you stay in the same job for “XX” years, it is not the same as “getting “XX”

• This is about completing the puzzle

• Make public speaking your friend

                The Experience Factor has many Flavors

                                                                                    C06-11-100   21
                                 DRAFT PRE-DECISIONAL

                               R = Run Fast

• You should be in a daily race to do your BEST, EFFICIENT, SMART, TIMELY work
• “Leadership is about managing energy” – James Clawson, UVA’s Darden School
  – First in yourself
  – Then in those around you
  – Do YOU have energy?
  – What can you do to get more energy?
• Your boss, teammates and followers recognize energy – others are watching how you
  manage that energy.
• Also run with purpose and direction…and BALANCE

                   Running Fast will be a Differentiator

                                                                            C06-11-100   22
                                    DRAFT PRE-DECISIONAL

                           F = Find Mentors

• Find many mentors, starting with your first job
• How to get a mentor
• How to keep a mentor
• How to be a mentor
• Mentors should be candid
• Don’t wait for a mentor to find you
• Some will be natural mentors – others will be situational
• Don’t have just ONE mentor

               Mentors can form your Board of Directors

                                                              C06-11-100   23
                                   DRAFT PRE-DECISIONAL

                E = Expect to Make Changes

• Flexibility can make a difference to your success
  – Career paths and opportunities
  – Think outside the lines

• Sometimes surprises end up with the best “Cracker Jack” prizes
  – The Princess who was sent to the Dungeon has some examples

• You don’t know what is around the corner…don’t put your career plan in cement

• Personal circumstances can make deviations to your plan

                Change is the only constant…Expect it!

                                                                              C06-11-100   24
                  DRAFT PRE-DECISIONAL

C = Continue to Work your Boss’s Agenda

Rule #1:
Know what is important to your boss, and
prioritize your work schedule accordingly.

          Suggest memorizing Rule #1.

                                         C06-11-100   25
                                   DRAFT PRE-DECISIONAL

                 T = Take Cues from your
                Personal Board of Directors

• Career path and performance – is this the right path?

• Experience – how can I prepare?

• Am I running fast enough?

• Am I adapting to change?

• What do they say about my performance?

• Dress and appearance – any distractors?

• Reflect on your priorities…both personal and professional

      Strive for the PERFECT ways to manage your career…

                                                              C06-11-100   26

   Championing a Strong
 DoD Financial Management
…because People are the most
important part of our financial

                                   C06-11-100   27


                           C06-11-100   28
                                     DRAFT PRE-DECISIONAL

                      FY 2010 Challenge Fund

                      . . . Financial Management Training for the Future

• Received great ideas that addressed the following:
  – Building analytical skills
  – Creating and promoting non-traditional learning opportunities, especially
    some that might appeal to newer professionals
  – Creating and promoting life-long learning opportunities
  – Promoting financial management expeditionary workforce capabilities
  – Encouraging great cost consciousness
  – $2.4 million awarded to implement ideas
              We received 82 project submissions that offered creative and
          innovative initiatives to help financial management professionals grow.

        Winners Announced in January 2010. . . Here they are…

                                                                                    C06-11-100   29
                                  DRAFT PRE-DECISIONAL

      The FY 2010 Challenge Fund Finalists

“The ERP Effect” – Defense Finance and Accounting Service
 • Develop simulated real-world training in a virtual learning environment focusing
   on Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) initiatives. The project includes
   simulating transaction processing while the virtual world impact is illustrated

“Knowledge Management Training” – Defense Logistics Agency
 • Develop a process to capture, transfer, retain, and reuse knowledge among the
   workforce. One hour modules of knowledge and learning will be captured and
   made available for viewing on a continuous basis.

“Online Fiscal Law Refresher Training” – Navy
 • Develop an online fiscal law refresher class to meet the Financial Management
   Regulation fiscal law training requirement and to provide the financial
   management community the ability to obtain this training in an easy to use
   e-learning format.

                                                                                 C06-11-100   30
                                    DRAFT PRE-DECISIONAL

      The FY 2010 Challenge Fund Finalists

“FMR Update Webcasts” – Defense Acquisition University
 • Develop quarterly broadcasts, fed over the internet, that highlight changes to
   the Financial Management Regulation. The webcasts will be recorded and
   posted to a central location and will available for viewing continuously.

“FM Webinars” – Defense Acquisition University
 • Develop financial management webinars, to be held twice a month, that will
   cover one or more of the financial management areas of emphasis including
   cost analysis; budget policies; planning, programming, budgeting, and
   execution; congressional enactment; fiscal law; and budget execution.

“FM myLearn” – Air Force
 • Develop and field a multi-purpose website for the Department workforce that
   will serve as an online catalog of professional training opportunities for financial
   management personnel and support career-long learning objectives.

       Here’s how we are using a Challenge Fund Winner
                in an overall bigger project. . . .
                                                                                     C06-11-100   31
                                                                         DRAFT PRE-DECISIONAL

Department of Defense Organizational Structure
                                                                          Secretary of Defense

                                                                         Deputy Secretary of Defense

                                                                                                                                          Office of the Inspector General
                                                                                                                                          of the Department of Defense

                                                                                                                                                          The Organization
       Office of the                 Department                           Department                               Department                             of the Joint Chiefs
   Secretary of Defense              of the Army                          of the Navy                            of the Air Force                               of Staff

                                      Secretary                            Secretary                                 Secretary                          Chairman of the Joint
• Under Secretaries,                                                                                                                                       Chiefs of Staff
                                     of the Army                          of the Navy                            of the Air Force
• Assistant Secretaries, and
• Other Specified Officials       Office       The          Office        Office of the     Headquarters     Office of the      The
                                  of the       Army    of the Chief of    Secretary of        Marine         Secretary of        Air
                               Secretary of    Staff        Naval          the Navy            Corps              the           Staff
                                                                                                                                                                Joint Staff
                                the Army                Operations                                            Air Force

       Defense Agencies
                                               The         The                                                                   The
                                                                                          The Marine Corps
                                              Army         Navy                                                               Air Force
             DoD Field
                                                                                                                                  Combatant Commanders

                                                                                                                             • US Africa Command
                                                                                                                             • US Central Command
                                                                                                                             • US European Command
                                                                                                                             • US Joint Forces Command
                                                                                                                             • US Northern Command
                                                                                                                             • US Pacific Command
                                                                                                                             • US Southern Command
                                                                                                                             • US Special Operations Command
                                                                                                                             • US Strategic Command
                                                                                                                             • US Transportation Command


                                                                                                                                                                              C06-11-100   32
                                                      DRAFT PRE-DECISIONAL

                               OUSD(C) Organizational Structure
                                                Under Secretary of Defense
                                             (Comptroller)/Chief Financial Officer
 Sr. Military Asst. to the USD(C)
                                                            Robert F. Hale                                Director
  CAPT David McFarland, USN
                                                                                                Management and Administration
 Military Asst. to the PDUSD(C)                       Principal Deputy                                Mark Heintzelman
   Lt COL JR Weilacher, USAF                      Under Secretary of Defense
                                                         Michael J. McCord

                  Director                                                                                      Deputy
   Defense Financial & Accounting Services                                                   Under Secretary of Defense (Resource Issues)
                 Terri McKay                                                                              Sandra Richardson

                                                                                                Financial Workforce Management Office
         Defense Contract Audit Agency
                                                                                                            Sandra Gregory
                 Pat Fitzgerald

                    Deputy                                     Deputy
          Under Secretary of Defense                  Under Secretary of Defense
                                                                                                      Chief Financial Officer (DCFO)
        (Budget & Appropriation Affairs)                 (Program / Budget)
                                                                                                               Mark Easton
                 Blaine Aaron                                 John Roth

• Associate Director, External Affairs       • Asst. Deputy Comptroller (P/B)                • Director for Accounting and Finance Policy
  Pam Bain                                     Mary Tompkey                                    Vacant
                                             • Director for Revolving Funds                  • Director , Financial Improvement & Audit Readiness
                                               Gretchen Anderson                               Vacant
                                             • Director, Military Personnel & Construction   • Director, Financial Reporting and Analysis
                                               Anne McAndrew                                   Lydia Moschkin
                                             • Director for Operations                       • Director, Business Integration
                                               Bill Campbell                                   Vacant
                                             • Director for Investment
                                               Roberto Rodriquez
                                             • Director, Program and Financial Control
                                               John Graveen

                                                                                                                                  C06-11-100        33
                                          DRAFT PRE-DECISIONAL

                     CFO Leadership Certificate

•   CFO leadership education will develop the next generation of leaders in
    government financial management.*

     – Supported by Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller) in collaboration with
       the CFO Council.

     – Focuses on unique challenges and opportunities facing government CFOs
       and their staff in the present and into the future.

     – Leverages iCollege’s information leader courses.

        * Financial management community includes personnel responsible for accounting
          and finance, budget and cost analysis, internal controls and auditing, financial
          systems, and resource management

               More info about the CFO Academy courses. . .

                                                                                             C06-11-100   34
                                   DRAFT PRE-DECISIONAL

      Preparing Government Financial Leaders
        CFO Leadership Certificate (CFLOC) Program

             CFO leadership education will develop the next generation
                 of leaders in government financial management.

• 8 courses completed over 4-years
  – 4 Strategic Finance courses
  – 4 Leadership courses

• Focus on unique challenges and
  opportunities facing government CFOs

• Leverages NDU iCollege’s information
  leader courses

• Courses offer 3 graduate-level credits

                                       DRAFT PRE-DECISIONAL

         Preparing Government Financial Leaders
                           Flexible CFLOC Options

        e-Resident                 Distributed Learning       Management Program
                                                                  (Full Time)

•   1 week of on-line          •    1 week of on-line         •   14 weeks at Fort McNair
    “preparation”                   preparation
                                                              •   Offered fall and spring
•   1 week in residence        •    9 weeks of on-line
    “seminar” at Fort McNair        coursework                •   Government & private
                                                                  sector field studies
•   1 week of on-line          •    3 weeks to complete
    “synthesis”                     academic assignments

•   2 weeks to complete        •    Global, 24/7 access
    academic assignments

                                                                          DRAFT PRE-DECISIONAL

                                  Control FM Workforce Attrition
                    Attrition to Total FM Workforce
                                                                                              Analysis of Trends:
                                                                                              • Overall attrition rates are well below the
                                                                                                government average of 8%.
                                                                                              • The poor economy and other cultural
                                                                                                impacts (e.g., “sandwich generation”)
                                                                                                limited the anticipated increase in
                                                                                                retirements. Initial projections show this
                                                                                                trend may continue through FY10.
                                                                                              • Resignations, Agency Transfers Out, and
                                                                                                Other Separations declined in FY09 and
                                                                                                continues into FY10, as the FM community
                                                                                                moves to a sustained workforce*.

                                                                                              FY10 Goal:
                                                                                              For Resignations and Agency Transfers Out,
                                                                                              not to exceed Government average turnover
                                                                                              rate (current annual rate is 8%)*.

                                                                                              1% Turnover Rate G

                                                                                             *Other Separations include: Reductions in Force, Deaths, and Termination or Removals

     Source of information
          •Attrition data reflected in chart – www.fedscope.gov, accessed October 20, 2010

37                                                          FM Retention is Stable
                                        Staff the FM WorkforceDRAFT PRE-DECISIONAL

                 DOD 5XX Workforce Staffing
                                                                               Analysis of Trends:
                                                                               • FY10 continues to show gains exceeding
                                                                                 losses, with FY08 as the baseline.
                                                                               • DoD is filling the vacant positions on a
                                                                                 timely basis while sustaining
                                                                                 the workforce.
                                                                               • On-going challenges include:
                                                                                 - Obtaining security clearances
                                                                                 - In-sourcing of positions
                                                                                 - Lack of good recruitment tools and plans
                                                                                 - Understanding gaps and vacancies

                                                                               FY10 Goal:
                                                                               Expect staffing gains keep pace with any
                                                                               staffing losses.

                                                                               Gains outpaced losses     G

 Source of information – www.fedscope.gov, accessed October 20, 2010

38         Current Staffing Trends are Keeping Pace with Vacancies

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