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					Nanotechnology – Science, Medical
Applications, and IUPUI Resources

         Kody Varahramyan
      Vice Chancellor for Research


             April 15, 2009
           What is Nanotechnology




                                                                                               www.phys.psu.edu
                 www.nasa.gov




                                                  www.purdue.edu
                                                                   Semiconducting metal junction
An engineered DNA strand        pRNA tiny motor                    formed by two carbon nanotubes




Nanotechnology is the creation of functional materials, devices and
systems, through the understanding and control of matter at
dimensions in the nanometer scale length (1-100 nm), where new
functionalities and properties of matter are observed and harnessed
for a broad range of applications
           History of Nanotechnology
• ~ 2000 Years Ago – Sulfide nanocrystals used by Greeks and
  Romans to dye hair
• ~ 1000 Years Ago (Middle Ages) – Gold nanoparticles of
  different sizes used to produce different colors in stained glass
  windows
• 1959 – “There is plenty of room at the bottom” by R. Feynman
• 1974 – “Nanotechnology” - Taniguchi uses the term
  nanotechnology for the first time
• 1981 – IBM develops Scanning Tunneling Microscope
• 1985 – “Buckyball” - Scientists at Rice University and University
  of Sussex discover C60
• 1986 – “Engines of Creation” - First book on nanotechnology by
  K. Eric Drexler. Atomic Force Microscope invented by Binnig,
  Quate and Gerbe
• 1989 – IBM logo made with individual atoms
• 1991 – Carbon nanotube discovered by S. Iijima
• 1999 – “Nanomedicine” – 1st nanomedicine book by R. Freitas
• 2000 – “National Nanotechnology Initiative” launched
               What is Nanoscale


                 ww.mathworks.com
                                                       Fullerenes C60




                                                                        www.physics.ucr.edu
   12,756 Km                         22 cm                0.7 nm


1.27 × 107 m                        0.22 m           0.7 × 10-9 m


           10 millions times                 1 billion times
               smaller                          smaller
         Nanoscale Size Effect
• Realization of miniaturized devices and systems
  while providing more functionality
• Attainment of high surface area to volume ratio

• Manifestation of novel phenomena and
  properties, including changes in:
   - Physical Properties (e.g. melting point)
   - Chemical Properties (e.g. reactivity)
   - Electrical Properties (e.g. conductivity)
   - Mechanical Properties (e.g. strength)
   - Optical Properties (e.g. light emission)
Nanotechnology Applications
 Information Technology              Energy
                                      • More efficient and cost
        • Smaller, faster, more
                                        effective technologies for
          energy efficient and
                                        energy production
          powerful computing
                                       −   Solar cells
          and other IT-based           −   Fuel cells
          systems                      −   Batteries
                                       −   Bio fuels


       Medicine                   Consumer Goods
         • Cancer treatment           • Foods and beverages
                                       −Advanced packaging materials,
         • Bone treatment               sensors, and lab-on-chips for
         • Drug delivery                food quality testing
         • Appetite control           • Appliances and textiles
         • Drug development            −Stain proof, water proof and
         • Medical tools                wrinkle free textiles
         • Diagnostic tests           • Household and cosmetics
         • Imaging                     − Self-cleaning and scratch free
                                        products, paints, and better
                                        cosmetics
       Nanotechnology Health and
        Environmental Concerns
− Human and the environment come under
  exposure to nanomaterials at different
  stages of the product cycle
− Nanomaterials have large surface to volume
  ratio and novel physical as well as chemical
  properties which may cause them to pose
  hazards to humans and the environment
− Health and the environmental impacts
  associated with the exposure to many of the
  engineered nanomaterials are still uncertain
− The environmental fate and associated risk      Exposure of human and the environment
  of waste nanomaterials should be assessed       to nanomaterials at different stages of
  – e.g. toxic transformation, and interactions   product life cycle – US environmental protection agency,
                                                  2007 (epc.gov)
  with organic and inorganic materials
                          Nanoscale Materials
 Nanoscale materials have feature size less than 100
 nm – utilized in nanoscale structures, devices and
 systems
 Nanoparticles and Structures




Gold nanoparticles                                      A stadium shaped “quantum     A 3-dimensional nanostructure
                           Silver nanoparticles
– TU Dresden/ESRF, 2008    – Northwestern Univ., 2002   corral” made by positioning   grown by controlled nucleation
                                                        iron atoms on a copper        of Silicon-carbide nanowires
                                                        surface – IBM Corp., 1993.    on Gallium catalyst particles
                                                                                      – Univ. of Cambridge, 2007
             Nanoscale Materials
Nanowires and Nanotubes
• Lateral dimension: 1 – 100 nm
• Nanowires and nanotubes exhibit
  novel physical, electronic and
   optical properties due to
   – Two dimensional quantum confinement
   – Structural one dimensionality
   – High surface to volume ratio
• Potential application in wide range
  of nanodevices and systems
   – Nanoscale sensors and actuators       Nanowire Solar Cell: The
   – Photovoltaic devices – solar cells    nanowires create a surface that is
   – Transistors, diodes and LASERs        able to absorb more sunlight than
                                           a flat surface – McMaster Univ., 2008
                   Nanoscale Materials
                                                                                        Protein

 Bionanomaterials
 1) Biological materials utilized in
    nanotechnology
    - Proteins, enzymes, DNA, RNA, peptides
 1) Synthetic nanomaterials utilized in                 Cross-linked enzymes
    biomedical applications                             used as catalyst – Univ. of
                                                        Connecticut, Storrs , 2007

       - Polymers, porous silicon, carbon
         nanotubes



                                            Enzymes
                                            are used
                                            as              Bone cell on porous
Porous silicon (PSi) Human cell on PSi      oxidation       silicon – Univ. of Rochester, 2007
                                            catalysts
      Nanoscale Processes and
            Fabrication
  Top-down Approaches                   Bottom-up Approaches
    Optical and x-ray lithography        Layer-by-layer self assembly

 E-beam and ion-beam lithography          Molecular self assembly

    Scanning probe lithography                Direct assembly

Atomic force microscopic lithography         Coating and growth
  Material removal and deposition
                                            Colloidal aggregation
(Chemical, mechanical, or ultrasonic)

       Printing and imprinting
           Nanoscale Devices and
          Integrated Nanosystems
Nanochip
− Currently available microprocessors use
  resolutions as small as 32 nm
− Houses up to a billion transistors in a single chip
− MEMS based nanochips have future capability of 2
  nm cell leading to 1TB memory per chip                A MEMS based
                                                         nanochip
Nanoelectromechanical System                            – Nanochip Inc., 2006



(NEMS) Sensors
− NEMS technology enables creation of ultra small
  and highly sensitive sensors for various
  applications
− The NEMS force sensor shown in the figure is
  applicable in pathogenic bacteria detection           A NEMS bacteria
                                                         sensor
                                                        – Nano Lett., 2006, DOI: 10.1021/nl060275y
          Nanoscale Devices and
         Integrated Nanosystems
Nanophotonic Systems
− Nanophotonic systems work with light signals
  vs. electrical signals in electronic systems
− Enable parallel processing that means higher
                                                         A silicon processor featuring on-
  computing capability in a smaller chip                 chip nanophotonic network – IBM Corp.,
− Enable realization of optical systems on               2008


  semiconductor chip

Fuel Cells
− Fuel cells use hydrogen and air as fuels
  and produce water as by product
− The technology uses a nanomaterial
                                                 Schematic of a fuel             500 W fuel
  membrane to produce electricity                 cell                            cell –
                                                 – Energy solution center Inc.   H2economy.com
           Nanoscale Devices and
          Integrated Nanosystems
Lab on Chip
− A lab on chip integrates one or more laboratory
  operation on a single chip
− Provides fast result and easy operation
− Applications: Biochemical analysis (DNA/protein/cell
  analysis) and bio-defense                               Lab on chip gene
                                                           analysis device –            IBN
Drug Delivery Systems                                       Singapore, 2008

Impact of nanotechnology on drug delivery systems:
− Targeted drug delivery
− Improved delivery of poorly water soluble drugs
− Co-delivery of two or more drugs
− Imaging of drug delivery sites using imaging
  modalities                                             Targeted drug delivery
                                                         – ACS Nano 2009, DOI: 10.1021/nn900002m
      Medical Nanotechnology or
           Nanomedicine
Nanomedicine is the application of nanotechnology
in medicine, including to cure diseases and repair
damaged tissues such as bone, muscle, and nerve

Key Goals for Nanomedicine
− To develop cure for traditionally incurable diseases (e.g. cancer) through
  the utilization of nanotechnology
− To provide more effective cure with fewer side effects by means of
  targeted drug delivery systems
Nanotechnology in Health Care




        Video Journey into Nanotechnology
        National Cancer Institute, Alliance for Nanotechnology
        in Cancer – http://nano.cancer.gov/resource_center/video_journey.asp
 Nanotechnology in Health Care
• Thermal ablation of
  cancer cells
− Nanoshells have metallic
  outer layer and silica core
− Selectively attracted to cancer
  shells either through a
  phenomena called enhanced
  permeation retention or due
  to some molecules coated on
  the shells
                                    Thermal ablation of cancer cells assisted
− The nanoshells are heated         by nanoshells coated with metallic layer
                                    and an external energy source – National Cancer
  with an external energy           Institute

  source killing the cancer cells
 Nanotechnology in Health Care
Treatment
• Targeted drug delivery
− Nanoparticles containing
  drugs are coated with
  targeting agents (e.g.
  conjugated antibodies)
− The nanoparticles
  circulate through the
  blood vessels and reach      Targeted drug delivery –
                               Targeted drug delivery using a
  the target cells             multicomponent nanoparticle
                               containing therapeutic as well
− Drugs are released           as biological surface modifying
                               agents – Mauro Ferrari, Univ. of Cal. Berkley
  directly into the targeted
  cells
  Nanotechnology in Health Care
Nanotechnology offers tools
and techniques for more
effective detection, diagnosis
and treatment of diseases            The microfluidic channel with nanowire
                                     sensor can detect the presence of altered
                                     genes associated with cancer – J. Heath, Cali. Insti. of
Detection and Diagnosis              Technology


• Lab on chips help detection and
  diagnosis of diseases more
  efficiently
• Nanowire and cantilever lab on
  chips help in early detection of   The nanoscale cantilever detects the
  cancer biomarkers                  presence and concentration of various
                                     molecular expressions of a cancer cell
                                     – A. Majumdar, Univ. of Cal. at Berkeley
    Integrated Nanosystems Development Institute – INDI
•   Driving Forces at IUPUI
     –   Growing expertise and resources in nanoscience and engineering
     –   Desire by researchers to develop nanotechnology-based systems for biomedical, energy, and
         other targeted applications
•   Participation Open To All Interested Faculty, Centers, Departments &
    Schools
•   Current Participating Faculty from:
     –   Biology, Chemistry & Chemical Biology, Physics
     –   Biomedical Engineering, Electrical & Computer Engineering, Mechanical Engineering
     –   Orthopedic Surgery, Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
•   Current Partnering Centers:
     –   Center for Regenerative Biology and Medicine
     –   Lugar Center for Renewable Energy
     –   Transportation Active Safety Institute
     –   Center for Sensor and Ubiquitous Networking
     –   Nanoscale Imaging Center
     Integrated Nanosystems
Definition:
Systems which may consist of integrated
micro-, meso-, and/or macro-scale parts,
and have their core components realized by
nano-scale materials, processes, and
devices.
    Integrated Nanosystems Development Institute – INDI

Vision:
To be a world-class resource for the realization of
nanotechnology-based miniaturized systems that
contribute to the economic growth and social
advancement of Indiana and the nation and benefit
humanity as a whole.

Mission:
1) to enable, through innovative interdisciplinary
research and educational programs, the
development of nanotechnology-based systems for
biomedical, energy, environmental, information
technology and other applications, and
2) to provide solutions which, through translation of
research into practice and technology transfer,
contribute to social well being and economic growth.
    Integrated Nanosystems Development Institute – INDI

Current Research Projects:
•   Magnetic Nanostructured Materials and Devices for Sensing Applications
•   Spectroscopic Investigation of Quantum Systems
•   Transport in Graphene for Nanodevice Applications
•   Quantum Dot Imaging Probes
•   Bionanomaterials for Biomedical Applications
•   Polymer Nanocomposites for Orthopedic and Dental Applications
•   Development of Nano-rod Array for Li-ion Battery
•   Pt Nanoparticles Catalyst for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells
•   Interaction of Pt Nanoparticle and Carbon/Metal Oxide Support
•   Macro Scale to Micr/Nano Scale Machining
•   Thermoelectric Materials for Nanodevice Applications
•   Wireless Sensor Network Systems
•   Chip-Based Signal Conditioning System for ECG Application
•   VLSI circuits for 3D Imaging Applications
    Integrated Nanosystems Development Institute – INDI

Current Processing and Measurement Resources:
•   Micro/Nanoelectronics Laboratory
•   Sputtering systems
•   Thermal evaporator systems
•   Solution-based nanocrystal fabrication
•   Membrane ion transport workstation
•   Combined atomic force and fluorescence microscope
•   Fluorescence correlation spectrometer
•   Wide-field single molecule fluorescence microscopy
•   Room temperature near-field scanning optical microscope
•   Low temperature near-field scanning optical microscope
•   FTIR spectrometer
•   Spectrofluorometer
•   Ultra high vacuum scanning tunneling microscope
•   Small angle X-ray scattering system
•   Particle sizing instrument
•   Atomic force microscope
•   Combined atomic force-scanning tunneling microscope
•   Transmission electron microscope
•   Scanning electron microscope
•   Low vacuum scanning electron microscope with electron dispersion spectrometer
•   Electron probe microanalyzer with wavelength dispersion capabilities
•   Two photon absorption microscope
•   Confocal microscopes
    Integrated Nanosystems Development Institute – INDI

Current Computational Resources:
•   Access to IU’s Supercomputer systems
•   Clusters of workstations
•   Nanostructure Builder and Visualization
      –    Materials Studio
      –    NanoEngineer
•   Density Functional Theory codes
      –    FLEUR
      –    VASP
      –    Dmol3
      –    ABINIT
•   Molecular Dynamics simulators
      –    Materials Studio
      –    DLPOLY
      –    MPSIM
      –    LAMMPS
      –    CHARMM
•   Electrical Circuit design
      –    Menter Graphics
      –    Synopsis
      –    L-Edit, Layout Editor
      –    CAD
      –    LabView, PSPICE
•   Code development
      –    Matlab, Mathematica, Maple
•   In-House codes
Nanotechnology – Science, Medical
Applications, and IUPUI Resources




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