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					7 Selecting and Financing Housing
 Evaluating Renting and Buying Alternatives
• Your lifestyle and your choice of housing
   – How you spend your time and money
   – Every buying decision = lifestyle statement
• Personal preferences vs. financial factors
• Traditional financial guidelines:
   – Spend no more than 25-30% of take-home pay on
     housing, or
   – No more than 2 1/2 times your annual income
   – More difficult to do in inexpensive urban areas
 Assess Costs and Benefits of Renting

Choice should be based on:
– Lifestyle (do you like or want to do maintenance tasks?)

– Financial factors (e.g., affordability, tax deductions, equity)

– Mobility vs. permanence (are you able to “settle down”?)

– Renting = less costly in short run (monthly payment)

– Home ownership =long-term financial
  advantages (tax deductions and equity growth over time)
           Renting vs. Buying Housing

                           RENTING vs. BUYING
             Advantages                            Disadvantages
           Easy to move                             No tax benefits
Fewer responsibilities for maintenance    Limitations regarding remodeling
   Minimal financial commitment            Restrictions regarding pets, etc

         Pride of ownership                    Financial commitment
         Financial benefits              Higher living expenses than renting
         Lifestyle flexibility                     Limited mobility
              Rental Activities

• Selecting a rental unit
  – Apartment or house
• Advantages of renting
  – Easier to move
  – Fewer maintenance responsibilities
  – Minimal financial commitments
• Disadvantages of renting
  – No tax benefits
  – “Money down the drain” (not building equity)
  – Limitations regarding remodeling
  – Restrictions regarding pets and other activities
      Legal Details of a Lease
• Description and address of property
• Name and address of the owner/landlord (lessor)
• Name of tenant (lessee)
• Effective date and length of the lease
• Amount of security deposit
• Amount and due date of rent
• Date and amount for late rent payments
• List of included utilities, appliances, etc.
• Restrictions on certain activities (e.g., pets, remodeling)
• The right to sublet the unit; transfer clause
• Conditions under which landlord may enter unit
          Objective 2
Implement the Home-Buying Process

          Home Buying Activities
 Step 1: Determine Homeownership Needs

• Evaluate Home Ownership
  – Stability of Residence
      • American dream/norm (personalized living location)
  – Financial Benefits
      • Deduct property taxes, mortgage interest
      • Potential increase in value of your home
      • Building equity in your home
  – Lifestyle Flexibility – Can Express Your Individuality

• Drawbacks of Homeownership
  – Financial Uncertainty
      • Obtaining money for the down payment
      • Obtaining mortgage financing
      • Home values could drop; can go “underwater” and lose money
  – Limited Mobility
      • Can take time to sell your home
  – Higher Living Costs (Than Renting)
      • Maintenance, repainting, repairs, and home improvements
      • Rising real estate taxes
        Home Buying Activities
           Types of Housing Available
• Single-Family Dwelling
• Multi-Unit Dwelling
   – Duplex (two homes)
   – Townhouse (2, 4, or 6 units)

• Condominium
   – Individual ownership of a unit in a building
   – “Condominium” ≠ a type of building structure
   – “Condominium” = a legal form of homeownership
• Cooperative Housing
   – Units owned by a non-profit organization
   – Shareholders purchase stock for right to live in unit in building with multiple units
• Manufactured Homes
   – Fully or partially assembled in a factory, and then moved to the housing site
   – Prefabricated = components factory-built and assembled at the site
   – Mass production under factory conditions keeps costs lower than site-built homes
    Home Buying Activities
   Types of Housing Available
Mobile Homes
– Type of manufactured home, often <1,000 sq. ft.
– Same basic features as a conventional house
– Safety is debated
– Tend to depreciate in value (like cars)
– Owners must own the land or rent the “pad” on
  which mobile home is placed

          Home Buying Activities
         Types of Housing Available
• Building a Custom Home:
   – Does the contractor have needed experience?
   – Does contractor have a good working relationship with:
     - Architect?
     - Suppliers?
     - Electricians?
     - Plumbers ?
     - Carpenters?
   – What assurance do you have about quality?
   – What are payment arrangements?
   – What delays will be considered legitimate?
   – Is the contractor licensed and insured?
   – Are there any complaints about this contractor?
   – Contract should have a time schedule, cost estimates,
     description of work, and a payment schedule              7-10
        Home Buying Activities
    Determine What You Can Afford
– Consider both price and quality
– Look at your income, your current living expenses, and
  how much you have for a down payment
– Have a loan officer prequalify you
   • Front-End Ratio- monthly payment for PITI should not exceed
     25% to 29% of gross income
   • Back-end Ratio- monthly payment for PITI plus ALL CONSUMER
     DEBTS should not exceed 33% to 41% of gross income

– Purchase what you can afford NOW - you can always
  move up
– Buy a “fixer-upper” at a lower price ONLY if you have the
  time, skills, and money to fix it up
         Home Buying Activities
    Step 2: Find and Evaluate a Home
• Select a location, location, location
   – Be aware of zoning laws
   – Assess the school system-if you have children OR not
• Services of real estate agents
   – Will show homes that meet your needs, present your
     offer, negotiate the price, assist in obtaining financing,
     and represent you at the closing
   – Commission paid by seller; built into price
   – Seller’s agent, Dual agent, or Buyer’s agent
• The Home Inspection
   – Conduct a home inspection or hire an inspector
   – Mortgage company will require an appraisal
          Home Buying Activities
           Step 3: Price the Property
• Determine the Home Price
   – Price affected by selling prices in the area
   – Current demand for housing
   – Time home has been on the market
   – Owner’s need to sell
   – Financing options
   – Features and condition of the home

• Negotiate the Purchase Price
   – Counteroffers are common
   – Earnest money
      • Portion of the price deposited as evidence of good faith
   – Contingency clause
      • Offer dependent on certain events:
           – Obtaining financing
           – Sale of current home
                     Objective 3
   Determine Costs Associated with
         Purchasing a Home
• The Finances of Home Buying: The Downpayment and
  The Mortgage
                 Step 4: Obtain Financing
• Determine down payment amount
   – Large (> 20%) downpayment makes the process easier

• Mortgage insurance if < 20% down (PMI)
• Automatic PMI termination when equity =>22%
   – Required by Homeowners Protection Act
• Feature of a mortgage: LEVERAGE (using other people’s
  money; magnifies a home’s gain or loss)
        Home Buying Activities
                  The Mortgage
•    Long-term loan on a specific piece of
     property (e.g., primary home or other real estate)
•    Usually 10, 15, 20, 25, or 30 years
•    Three main phases
    1. Complete application and meet with lender to
       provide evidence of qualification
    2. Lender obtains credit report and verifies
    3. Mortgage is approved or denied
       – Lender commits to make loan for a set period;
         check lender’s interest-rate lock-in rules
       Home Buying Activities
                The Mortgage
• Qualifying for a mortgage includes:
  – Income
  – Debts
  – Credit history (700+ score)
  – Down payment amount
  – Length of the loan
  – Current mortgage rates
• “Points” = prepaid interest as a % of loan amount
  – Each point =1% of the loan amount
  – Premium paid to obtain a lower mortgage rate
                  Home Buying Activities
                              The Mortgage
• Loan for which you qualify will be greater when rates are lower
• Calculating the monthly principal and interest payment:
    – Exhibit 7-7 = Mortgage payment factors (page 230)
    – Example:
       • 30-year, 7%, $223,000 mortgage
       • Monthly payment = 223 X $6.65 = $1,482.95
       • Payment = Principal repayment + interest
       • PITI = payment + taxes + insurance
•   Fixed-Rate, Fixed-Payment Mortgage
    – Fixed rate, fixed payment, amortized
    – 5%, 10% or 20% down
    – 15, 20 or 30 years of fixed payments
•   Government-Guaranteed Financing Programs
    – Veterans Administration (VA)
    – Federal Housing Authority (FHA)
    – Lower down payment than conventional                          7-17
                   Home Buying Activities
                            Types of Mortgages
• Adjustable Rate Mortgage (ARM)
   –   Flexible-rate or variable-rate mortgage
   –   Interest rate varies over the life of the loan
   –   Rate cap restricts amount of change in rate
   –   Payment cap restricts amount of change in payment
         • Can result in negative amortization

• Convertible ARM
   –   Allows conversion to a fixed rate during a certain period

• Balloon Mortgage
   –   Fixed monthly payments
   –   Large final payment after 3, 5, or 7 years

• Growing-Equity Mortgage (GEM)
   –   Payments increase to allow loan to be paid off more quickly

• Interest-Only Mortgage
   –   Lower payments for the first few years
   –   Payments go towards interest only                             7-18
                 Home Buying Activities
                   Other Financing Options
•   Shared Appreciation Mortgage (SAM)
     – Borrower gets a lower interest rate
     – Agrees to share appreciated value of home with the lender
•   Second Mortgage
     – Home equity loan (fixed payments) or HE Line of credit to tap
     – Home = collateral
     – Interest may be tax deductible
•   Reverse mortgages
     – Home equity conversion mortgage
     – Provides homeowners who are 62+ with tax-free income based on
       home equity; high up-front costs

     Mortgage Repayment Strategies
•   Refinancing
     – Consider costs of refinancing in decision
•   Making extra payments
     – Reduces payoff time & interest paid

        Home Buying Activities
Step 5: Close the Purchase Transaction
• Make arrangements for a walk through
  – Last-minute items for negotiation
• Closing
  – Meeting including buyer, seller,
    lawyers (if any) and sometimes lender
  – Document signing
  – Last-minute details settled; expense payments
  – Closing costs = settlement costs
  – Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act
     • Requires buyers be given closing costs estimate
       before the closing                                7-20
               Home Buying Activities
                               Closing Costs
•   Title insurance and search fee
•   Attorney’s and appraisers fees
•   Property survey
•   Pest inspection
•   Recording fees
•   Transfer taxes
•   Credit report
•   Lender’s origination fee
•   Escrow account for tax and insurance reserve
•   Pre-paid interest
•   Real estate broker’s commission
•   Title Insurance
     –   Title company defines boundaries of property
     –   Title search to insure property is free of claims
     –   Protects against future defects in title
•   Deed
     –   Document that transfers ownership
     –   Warranty deed guarantees the title is good
           •   Seller is true owner with right to sell the property
           •   No outstanding claims against the title
•   Escrow Account
     –   Money deposited with lending institution for payment of taxes and insurance
                   Objective 4
Develop a Strategy for Selling a Home

Preparing your home
– Repair, repaint, clean, reduce clutter
– When showing home, “Stage It”:
   • Turn on lights
   • Open draperies
   • Bake bread or make coffee for welcoming smell
   • “Curb appeal”
      – Lawn and landscaping
      – Outdoor clutter
      – Exterior paint
          Selling Your Home

• Determining the selling price
  – Appraisal = estimate of the current value
• “For Sale by Owner”
  – Use a lawyer or title company
  – Time consuming for seller
• Listing with a Real Estate Agent
  – Consider agent’s knowledge of the
  – Various services and marketing efforts
  – Screens potential buyers                    7-23
 Wrap Up

• Chapter Quiz
• Concept Check 7-1- Rent or Buy?
• Concept Check 7-2- Quality of School for
  Childless Home Buyers?
• Concept Check 7-3- Main Sources of
  Money for Downpayment? and Type of
  Home Financing Action?

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