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					Phylogenetic Classification
     System - Dicots
  Flowering plants
    Nymphaeles

     Magnoliids
     Monocots
      Tricolpates (Eudicots)
       Basal Tricolpates
       Core Tricolpates (Core Eudicots)
         Rosids
          Eurosids I
          Eurosids II

         Asterids
           Euasterids I
           Euasterids II
**See http://www.colby.edu/info.tech/BI211/PhyloFamilies.htm
for more information**
                 Nymphaeales
• Nymphaeaceae




Waterlilies; Aquatic; often contain latex; leaves mostly
alternate, simple; flowers solitary, bisexual,
actinomorphic
                      Magnoliids
• Magnoliaceae




“Magnolia: trees and shrubs; leaves alternate, simple, stipulate,
the stipules large and enclosing the young buds, falling quickly
and leaving a scar at the node; flowers perfect, often large, with
many separate sepals, petals (often undifferentiated), stamens,
and carpels.”*
           Eudicots: Basal Tricolpates
     • Ranunculaceae




                                  columbine            buttercup
“Buttercups; mostly herbs; leaves with sheathing leaf bases, blades often
divided; flowers mostly perfect with spirally arranged, numerous
stamens and carpels.”*
Eudicots: Basal Tricolpates
     • Papaveraceae




“Poppy; mostly herbs, sometimes shrubs or trees, often with milky or
colored latex; leaves alternate; flowers showy, perfect, calyx of 2-3
distinct, quickly falling sepals, corolla of 4-6 or 8-12 biseriate, crumpled,
separate petals; numerous stamens, 2- to several united carpels; fruit a
capsule opening by valves or pores.”*
           Eudicots: Core Tricolpates

     • Cactaceae




“Cactus; succulent, fleshy habit, usually spiny herbs, with the spines
arranged in areoles; flowers solitary and showy with numerous perianth
parts; stamens numerous; ovary inferior.”*
            Eudicots: Core Tricolpates

• Caryophyllaceae




                                     pink                 carnation

“Pink; Herbs with swollen nodes; leaves opposite, connected at the base
with a transverse line; pistil with free central placentation; fruit a many-
seeded capsule opening by teeth or valves.”*
                    Eudicots: Rosids
     • Geraniaceae




                                                 geranium



“Geranium; flowers 5-merous, stamens with filaments united at base;
fruit with elastic dehiscent schizocarps that curl on the beak.”*
“Fruits (schizocarps) of filaree (Erodium moschatum), a common and prolific
naturalized Mediterranean weed during the spring in southern California. Each fruit
is composed of five sections called carpels and a long, slender style column. Since
the seed-bearing carpels do not split open, the fruit is considered indehiscent. When
they begin to dry out, the mature carpels (each with its own slender style) separate
from each other. As the styles uncoil, the carpels are often forcibly ejected. Upon
landing on the ground, the free end of the style spirals around like the hand of a
clock, twisting the seed-bearing carpel deeper and deeper into the soil. Species of
Erodium are also called storksbill because of the long, beaklike style column on
the fruits.” From http://waynesword.palomar.edu/fruitid2.htm
                  Eudicots: Eurosids I
     • Cucurbitaceae




“Cucurbit, gourd; coarse, tendril-bearing vines; flowers usually yellow,
imperfect; ovary inferior; fruit a berry or pepo.”*
                  Eudicots: Eurosids I
     • Fabaceae (Leguminosae)



                                                   mimosa

“Bean, pea; trees, shrubs, or herbs; leaves pinnately or palmately
compound or simple; flowers papilionaceous and distinctly irregular;
corolla of 5 petals forming a banner (or standard), 2 wings, and a keel;
stamens 10 ( all free, 9 fused and 1 free, or all 10 fused); pistil of 1
carpel; fruit a legume.”*
                  Eudicots: Eurosids I
     • Betulaceae




                                                     Female catkin
                                                      Male catkin

“Birch, alder; Deciduous trees or shrubs; leaves simple, serrate;
staminate flowers in catkins.”*
                   Eudicots: Eurosids I
      • Fagaceae




“Beech, oak; trees or shrubs; leaves alternate (in oak, leaves and buds
clustered at the ends of the branches, pith 5-angled); fruit a nut, at least
partially covered by a cupule of hardened bracts.”*
                  Eudicots: Eurosids I
     • Euphorbiaceae




“Spurge; herbs, shrubs, trees or lianas; many are xerophytic and cactoid;
most with milky latex; leaves alternate, sometimes opposite or whorled,
simple or compound, usually with stipules, but often modified into
glands, hairs, or spines; flowers imperfect, plants often monoecious;
sepals and petals present or either or both lacking; fruit a schizocarp.”*
                 Eudicots: Eurosids I
     • Violaceae




                violet                           pansies
“Herbs (tropical members are trees and shrubs); flowers zygomorphic, 5-
merous, petals 5, the anterior ones spurred, stamens 5, frequently 1 is
spurred at the base.”*
                  Eudicots: Eurosids I
     • Rosaceae                                       apples,
                                                      pears, plums,
                                                      peaches,
                                                      strawberries,
                                                      and
                                                      raspberries



“Herbs, shrubs, and trees; leaves with stipules; flowers actinomorphic;
sepals 5, petals 5; stamens numerous; hypanthium (floral disk) often
present.”*
        Eudicots: Eurosids I
• Ulmaceae




“Elm; trees or shrubs with watery sap; leaf bases oblique;
fruit an evenly winged samara or drupe.”*
              Eudicots: Eurosids I
 • Juglandaceae




Walnut family; trees, rarely shrubs, deciduous, with gray or
brownish bark; leaves alternate [or opposite], aromatic,
pinnately compound; margins serrate or entire; flowers
unisexual, staminate and pistillate on same plants; ovary 1,
inferior; stigmas 2, fleshy or plumose; fruits large nuts [or
samaras]
                  Eudicots: Eurosids II
     • Brassicaceae (Cruciferae)


                                                      silique



“Mustard; herbs with an odorous, watery juice; flowers of 4 sepals, 4
petals, and 6 stamens (4 long and 2 short); fruit a silique or silicle.”*
                 Eudicots: Eurosids II
     • Aceraceae




“Maple; trees or shrubs; leaves opposite, usually simple with palmate
venation; flowers actinomorphic; fruit a winged schizocarp.”*
                            Asterids
     • Ericaceae


                                                 Rhododendron
                                                 indicum - Azalea




“Heath, rhododendron; woody, often shrubby; leaves alternate, evergreen
or deciduous; flowers urceolate or campanulate; stamens distinct, often
twice as many as the petals, anthers opening by terminal pores.”*
Also see: http://theseedsite.co.uk/flowershapes.html
   Asterids: Euasterids I

     • Lamiaceae




“Mint; herbs and shrubs with square stems; aromatic; leaves opposite;
inflorescences axillary or whorled; flowers 5-merous, zygomorphic;
stamens 2 or 4; ovary deeply 4-lobed, style basally attached between the
4 lobes; fruit of 4 nutlets.”*
            Asterids: Euasterids I
 • Oleaceae




“Olive, ash; leaves opposite; flowers 4-merous, stamens 2,
ovary 2-locular; seeds usually 2 per locule.”*
             Asterids: Euasterids I
 • Bignoniaceae




Trumpet creepers; shrubs, woody vines, trees; leaves
opposite, often compound; sepals 5 connate, stamens
often 4; ovary superior.
                Asterids: Euasterids I
     • Scrophulariaceae




                                                     foxglove
                              snapdragon
“Figwort, snapdragon; flowers 5-merous, zygomorphic; corolla 2-lipped;
stamens 2 or 4, sometimes with a fifth sterile stamen; ovary 2-locular,
style terminal, ovules numerous.”*
                Asterids: Euasterids I
     • Solanaceae




                      nightshade                  petunia

“Nightshade, potato; leaves alternate, stipules absent; flowers
actinomorphic, 5-merous; stamens 5; ovary 2-locular, sometimes falsely
divided again; ovules numerous; fruit a berry or capsule.”*
                 Asterids: Euasterids II
     • Apiaceae




“Carrot, parsley; aromatic herbs with hollow stems; leaves compound
with sheathing bases; inflorescences umbellate; flowers 5-merous, often
yellow or white; stamens 5, ovary 2-carpellate, bilocular, inferior; fruit a
schizocarp.”*
                Asterids: Euasterids II
 • Asteraceae (Compositae)




   Disk                   Ray
   floret                 floret


Sunflower or Aster; inflorescence of dense heads surrounded by whorls
of bracts (the involucre or phyllaries); two floret types – disk and ray;
inferior ovary; achenes
*From Phillips, R.B. 2004. Biology 211: Flowering Plant Taxonomy
GUIDE TO FLOWERING PLANT RECOGNITION (Phylogenetic
       System of Classification). Accessed 21 March 2005.
    http://www.colby.edu/info.tech/BI211/PhyloFamilies.htm.
Catkins are found in a few different
families. Above are two members of the
Moraceae (Mulberry) family.
                              Notice the male catkin –
                              it is similar to those that
                              you will dissect today.
                 Here is the pistillate
                 inflorescence that you will be
                 dissecting today.

				
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