Phylogenetic Classification System - Dicots Flowering plants Nymphaeles Magnoliids Monocots Tricolpates (Eudicots) Basal Tricolpates Core Tricolpates (Core Eudicots) Rosids Eurosids I Eurosids II Asterids Euasterids I Euasterids II **See http://www.colby.edu/info.tech/BI211/PhyloFamilies.htm for more information** Nymphaeales • Nymphaeaceae Waterlilies; Aquatic; often contain latex; leaves mostly alternate, simple; flowers solitary, bisexual, actinomorphic Magnoliids • Magnoliaceae “Magnolia: trees and shrubs; leaves alternate, simple, stipulate, the stipules large and enclosing the young buds, falling quickly and leaving a scar at the node; flowers perfect, often large, with many separate sepals, petals (often undifferentiated), stamens, and carpels.”* Eudicots: Basal Tricolpates • Ranunculaceae columbine buttercup “Buttercups; mostly herbs; leaves with sheathing leaf bases, blades often divided; flowers mostly perfect with spirally arranged, numerous stamens and carpels.”* Eudicots: Basal Tricolpates • Papaveraceae “Poppy; mostly herbs, sometimes shrubs or trees, often with milky or colored latex; leaves alternate; flowers showy, perfect, calyx of 2-3 distinct, quickly falling sepals, corolla of 4-6 or 8-12 biseriate, crumpled, separate petals; numerous stamens, 2- to several united carpels; fruit a capsule opening by valves or pores.”* Eudicots: Core Tricolpates • Cactaceae “Cactus; succulent, fleshy habit, usually spiny herbs, with the spines arranged in areoles; flowers solitary and showy with numerous perianth parts; stamens numerous; ovary inferior.”* Eudicots: Core Tricolpates • Caryophyllaceae pink carnation “Pink; Herbs with swollen nodes; leaves opposite, connected at the base with a transverse line; pistil with free central placentation; fruit a many- seeded capsule opening by teeth or valves.”* Eudicots: Rosids • Geraniaceae geranium “Geranium; flowers 5-merous, stamens with filaments united at base; fruit with elastic dehiscent schizocarps that curl on the beak.”* “Fruits (schizocarps) of filaree (Erodium moschatum), a common and prolific naturalized Mediterranean weed during the spring in southern California. Each fruit is composed of five sections called carpels and a long, slender style column. Since the seed-bearing carpels do not split open, the fruit is considered indehiscent. When they begin to dry out, the mature carpels (each with its own slender style) separate from each other. As the styles uncoil, the carpels are often forcibly ejected. Upon landing on the ground, the free end of the style spirals around like the hand of a clock, twisting the seed-bearing carpel deeper and deeper into the soil. Species of Erodium are also called storksbill because of the long, beaklike style column on the fruits.” From http://waynesword.palomar.edu/fruitid2.htm Eudicots: Eurosids I • Cucurbitaceae “Cucurbit, gourd; coarse, tendril-bearing vines; flowers usually yellow, imperfect; ovary inferior; fruit a berry or pepo.”* Eudicots: Eurosids I • Fabaceae (Leguminosae) mimosa “Bean, pea; trees, shrubs, or herbs; leaves pinnately or palmately compound or simple; flowers papilionaceous and distinctly irregular; corolla of 5 petals forming a banner (or standard), 2 wings, and a keel; stamens 10 ( all free, 9 fused and 1 free, or all 10 fused); pistil of 1 carpel; fruit a legume.”* Eudicots: Eurosids I • Betulaceae Female catkin Male catkin “Birch, alder; Deciduous trees or shrubs; leaves simple, serrate; staminate flowers in catkins.”* Eudicots: Eurosids I • Fagaceae “Beech, oak; trees or shrubs; leaves alternate (in oak, leaves and buds clustered at the ends of the branches, pith 5-angled); fruit a nut, at least partially covered by a cupule of hardened bracts.”* Eudicots: Eurosids I • Euphorbiaceae “Spurge; herbs, shrubs, trees or lianas; many are xerophytic and cactoid; most with milky latex; leaves alternate, sometimes opposite or whorled, simple or compound, usually with stipules, but often modified into glands, hairs, or spines; flowers imperfect, plants often monoecious; sepals and petals present or either or both lacking; fruit a schizocarp.”* Eudicots: Eurosids I • Violaceae violet pansies “Herbs (tropical members are trees and shrubs); flowers zygomorphic, 5- merous, petals 5, the anterior ones spurred, stamens 5, frequently 1 is spurred at the base.”* Eudicots: Eurosids I • Rosaceae apples, pears, plums, peaches, strawberries, and raspberries “Herbs, shrubs, and trees; leaves with stipules; flowers actinomorphic; sepals 5, petals 5; stamens numerous; hypanthium (floral disk) often present.”* Eudicots: Eurosids I • Ulmaceae “Elm; trees or shrubs with watery sap; leaf bases oblique; fruit an evenly winged samara or drupe.”* Eudicots: Eurosids I • Juglandaceae Walnut family; trees, rarely shrubs, deciduous, with gray or brownish bark; leaves alternate [or opposite], aromatic, pinnately compound; margins serrate or entire; flowers unisexual, staminate and pistillate on same plants; ovary 1, inferior; stigmas 2, fleshy or plumose; fruits large nuts [or samaras] Eudicots: Eurosids II • Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) silique “Mustard; herbs with an odorous, watery juice; flowers of 4 sepals, 4 petals, and 6 stamens (4 long and 2 short); fruit a silique or silicle.”* Eudicots: Eurosids II • Aceraceae “Maple; trees or shrubs; leaves opposite, usually simple with palmate venation; flowers actinomorphic; fruit a winged schizocarp.”* Asterids • Ericaceae Rhododendron indicum - Azalea “Heath, rhododendron; woody, often shrubby; leaves alternate, evergreen or deciduous; flowers urceolate or campanulate; stamens distinct, often twice as many as the petals, anthers opening by terminal pores.”* Also see: http://theseedsite.co.uk/flowershapes.html Asterids: Euasterids I • Lamiaceae “Mint; herbs and shrubs with square stems; aromatic; leaves opposite; inflorescences axillary or whorled; flowers 5-merous, zygomorphic; stamens 2 or 4; ovary deeply 4-lobed, style basally attached between the 4 lobes; fruit of 4 nutlets.”* Asterids: Euasterids I • Oleaceae “Olive, ash; leaves opposite; flowers 4-merous, stamens 2, ovary 2-locular; seeds usually 2 per locule.”* Asterids: Euasterids I • Bignoniaceae Trumpet creepers; shrubs, woody vines, trees; leaves opposite, often compound; sepals 5 connate, stamens often 4; ovary superior. Asterids: Euasterids I • Scrophulariaceae foxglove snapdragon “Figwort, snapdragon; flowers 5-merous, zygomorphic; corolla 2-lipped; stamens 2 or 4, sometimes with a fifth sterile stamen; ovary 2-locular, style terminal, ovules numerous.”* Asterids: Euasterids I • Solanaceae nightshade petunia “Nightshade, potato; leaves alternate, stipules absent; flowers actinomorphic, 5-merous; stamens 5; ovary 2-locular, sometimes falsely divided again; ovules numerous; fruit a berry or capsule.”* Asterids: Euasterids II • Apiaceae “Carrot, parsley; aromatic herbs with hollow stems; leaves compound with sheathing bases; inflorescences umbellate; flowers 5-merous, often yellow or white; stamens 5, ovary 2-carpellate, bilocular, inferior; fruit a schizocarp.”* Asterids: Euasterids II • Asteraceae (Compositae) Disk Ray floret floret Sunflower or Aster; inflorescence of dense heads surrounded by whorls of bracts (the involucre or phyllaries); two floret types – disk and ray; inferior ovary; achenes *From Phillips, R.B. 2004. Biology 211: Flowering Plant Taxonomy GUIDE TO FLOWERING PLANT RECOGNITION (Phylogenetic System of Classification). Accessed 21 March 2005. http://www.colby.edu/info.tech/BI211/PhyloFamilies.htm. Catkins are found in a few different families. Above are two members of the Moraceae (Mulberry) family. Notice the male catkin – it is similar to those that you will dissect today. Here is the pistillate inflorescence that you will be dissecting today.
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