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					Ancient Indian
  Science
        By:
  Greg Johnson
   Aaron Torres
   Brennen Hall
  Paul Mickelson
    Allie Lard
The Vedic Period
       Most influential time of Ancient Indian
        science
       1700 to 400 BCE



I.     The Four Vedas
II.    Religion
III.   Mathematics
IV.    Medicine
I. The Four Vedas
        Ancient Sanskrit literature
        Original scripture of Hindu teachings
        Each Veda is organized the same way
         with four distinct parts:
               The Samhitas (Hymns)
               The Brahmanas (Rituals)
               The Aranyakas (Theologies)
               The Upanishads (Philosophies)



1.   Rig Veda: The book of Mantra
        Scholars date back to as early as 15,000 - 4000 BCE before the
         Vedic times through oral tradition
        Composed around 1500 BCE
        Oldest book in any Indo-European language and the most
         important of Hindu literature
        It’s Samhita is comprised of 1024 hymns
        Holds accounts of the social, religious, political, and economic
         background of the Rig Vedic Civilization
I. The Four Vedas
2.       The Sama Veda: The book of song
             Liturgical collection of Melodies (Saman) drawn from Rig Veda
             Reduced version of Rig Veda
             “if the Rig Veda is the word, Sama Veda is the song or the meaning, if
              Rig Veda is the knowledge, Sama Veda is its realization, if Rig Veda
              is the wife, the Sama Veda is her husband”      -Vedic scholar, David
              Frawley

     3. The Yajur Veda: The book of ritual
                Liturgical collection to meet demands of a ceremonial religion
                Serves as a guide to priests who execute sacrificial acts
                     Combines prose prayers and the sacrificial formulae (Yajus)


4.   The Atharva Veda: The book of spell
          More diverse hymns than Rig Veda and in a simpler language
          Contains much history and sociology of the time portraying a clearer
           picture of Vedic Times
          Consists of spells and charms prevalent at its time
    II. Religion
•          Framework for Hinduism,
           Buddhism, and Jainism

1.         Brahma - Creator God
             God of the Rig Veda
2.         Triad of the Three Great Vedic Gods
     I.        Indra - God of thunder
                   King of Gods
     II.       Agni - God of the sky
                   Guardian of the word and giver of
                    eternal life
     III.      Surya - God of the sun
     IV.       Many other secondary gods and
               legistlator gods
3.         Reincarnation
             Sent back to Earth until they were
              worthy to be judged to become eternal

4.         Varying creation stories in India led
           to the veneration of around 3000
           different gods                               Temple of Maduria
II. Religion
                         6.   Sage Yajnavalka
                                       Assigned gods to eight spheres
                                       Reduced number of gods to thirty-three
                                  Eight Spheres of Existence
                                             Eight Vasus (“that which surrounds”)
                                   1.   The earth (prithivi)
                                   2.   Fire (Agni)
                                   3.   Space (Antariksha)
                                   4.   Wind (Vayu)
                                   5.   Sky (Dyaus)
                                   6.   Sun (Surya)
                                   7.   The constellations/stars (Nakshatra)
                                   8.   Moon (Soma)

7.   The Elements - Born from Aditi (mother god) and Rashyapa (god of vision)
           Friendship, honor, sharing, destiny, luck, industry, progress, moral, magic,
            courage, and the knowledge of cosmic law

8.       Three parts of the world known to man
     I.      The Earth where men evolve according to the principle of the elements
     II.     Space where minds, that are the regents of life evolve
     III.    The world of the heavens or cosmos where the gods lived
III. Mathematics
1.   Shulba Sutra (     Codes of the Rope)
        Book of Geometry
        Utilized the Pathagorean Triple (A2+B2=C2) circa 540 BCE.
        It is believed that it could even date back to eighth century BCE
         (aka before Pythagoras)
        They used this to construct altars
        Believed in spirituality and practicality in math much like
         Pythagoras
        “The diagonal chord of the
rectangle makes both the
squares
         that the horizontal
and vertical sides make
separately” Shulba
         Sutra (8th century BCE)
        Provides value of the square root
         of 2 which is accurate to 5 decimal
         Places!

       The four books of the Shulba Sutra
     I.     Baudhayana
     II.    Manava
     III.   Apastamba
     IV.    Katyayana
                      -The Samrat Yantra at Jaipur
III. Mathematics
2.           The sixteen math Sutras/Formulae
              Allows one to be able to solve problems
               from memory and orally
     I.        By one more than the previous one
     II.       All from 9 and the last from 10
     III.      Vertically and crosswise
     IV.       Transpose and adjust
     V.        When the sum is the same that sum is zero.
     VI.       If one is in ratio, the other is zero
     VII.      By addition and by subtraction
     VIII.     By the completion or non-completion
     IX.       Differences and Similarities
     X.        Whatever the extent of its deficiency
     XI.       Part and Whole                                     “All from 9 and the last from 10”
     XII.      The remainders by the last digit
     XIII.     The ultimate and twice the penultimate
     XIV.      By one less than the previous one
     XV.       The product of the sum is equal to the sum of the product
     XVI.      The factors of the sum is equal to the sum of the factors


     Ancient Indian Math Tutorial - Breaks down a couple of the
               formulae
 III. Mathematics
3.       Astronomy
          Vedanga Jyotishya (1373 BCE) - Astronomical obvservation
           and estimation handbook
             Kept track of astronomical dates by keeping track of solar
              and lunar movement
             Eternally cyclic time model called Yuga - 5-year unit or 1830
              days
          Heliocentric universe
             Earth at center and all other planets orbit
             Believed nothing in universe was stationary
             “The Vedic sages certainly were not ignorant
              of Earth’s motion around the Sun. Vedic
              astronomy understands quite well that the
              Sun is the center of the solar system. But the
              Earth, the other planets, the Sun and even
               the Galaxy are all in constant relative
              motion. From which point do we measure all
              this movement? We live on the Earth and see
              the universe from this vantage point”
              (Hughes 2008)
 IV. Medicine
Ayurveda (Ayer-life, Veda- knowledge) – Oldest known medical system in the
     world, goes back to 6,000 B.C. Ideas about disease and ailments, their
     symptoms and how to cure them. Emphasis was places on herbs and
     plants and based on the Vedas. It is likely that the knowledge of the
     Four Humours is based off of Ayurveda and was picked up by Greek
     Travelers.

2.   First to have hospitals, and first to perform surgery.
3.   Main medical practitioners - Atraya, Charaka and
     Shusruta
4.   Sushruta – First surgeon. Wrote “The Sushruta
     Samhita”
     •   Performed various surgeries such as cosmetic surgery
         (rhinoplasty), dental surgery and removing cataracts
         (ophthalmology). Anesthetics were not yet developed.
     •   Procedures that were performed during these times are
         amazingly similar to what we perform today.
     •   Describes the seven branches of surgery: Chedya
         (excision), Lekhya (scarification),Vedhya (puncturing), Esya
         (exploration), Ahrya (extraction), Vsraya (evacuation) and
         Sivya (Suturing)
     •   Also focuses on human anatomy.
IV. Medicine
   Eight branches of Ayur Veda based on The Atharva Veda.
    1. Kayachikitsa - Internal medicine.
    2. Shalya Tantra - Surgery.
    3. Shalakya Tantra - Ears,eyes,nose,throat.
    4. Kaumarabhritya Tantra - pediatrics.
    5. Agaada Tantra - Toxicology.
    6. Vajikarana Tantra - Purification of genetic organs.
    7. Rasaayana Tantra - Health & longetivity.
    8. Bhoota Vidya - Spiritual healing/psychiatry.



   Charaka - Ayurveda practitioner. “That physician who fails to enter the body of
    a patient with the lamp of knowledge and understanding can never treat
    diseases.”
   Physiology, etiology and embryology were also noted. Charaka wrote on
    digestion, metabolism and the immune system.
   The Three Dosha – Bile, Phlegm, and wind. A person becomes sick when there is
    an imbalance of the Three Dosha’s.
   Also wrote about genetics and considered what causes the gender of a child.
    IV. Medicine
   Yoga – System of exercise for physical and mental nourishment
        Patanjali – Treatise/book that collects all the elements of yoga
         together around 200 B.C.
        Through the practice of yoga, it was thought “the energy latent
         within the human body may be made live and released, which has a
         salubrious affect on the body and the mind.”


40 Types of Yoga in Modern Day
Abhava-Yoga: The unitive discipline of nonbeing,
meaning the higher yogic practice of immersion into
the self without objective support such as mantras;
a concept found in the puranas of Bhava-Yoga.
Adhyatma-Yoga: The unitive discipline of inner self;
sometimes said to be the Yoga characteristic of the
Upanishad.
Agni-Yoga: The unitive discipline of fire, causing the
awakening of the serpent power (Kundalini-Shakti)
through the joint action of mind (manas) and life
force (prana).
Works Cited
(2006). Ancient India Medicine. Retrieved March 11, 2009, from This is My India Web site:
    http://www.thisismyindia.com/ancient_india/ancient-india-medicine.html
Balakrishna, S (2008). Vedic Astronomy. Retrieved March 8, 2009, from Vedic Astronomy
    Web site: http://www.vedicastronomy.net/
Brinette, J (1998). India and the Vedic Period. Retrieved March 2, 2009, from Historel Web
    site: http://members.tripod.com/historel/orient/10inde.htm
Crystal, E (2009). Science, Medicine, Technology in Ancient India. Retrieved March 9, 2009,
    from Crystalinks Web site: http://www.crystalinks.com/indiascience.html
Das, S (2001, March). The Magic of Vedic Maths. Retrieved March 10, 2009, from The Magic
    of Vedic Maths Web site: http://hinduism.about.com/library/weekly/aa062901a.htm
History of Indian Science and Technology. (2009). In Wikipedia [Web]. Retrieved March 2,
    2009, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_science
Hughes, D (2008). Vedic Astronomy. Retrieved March 9, 2009, from The Esoteric Teaching
    Web site: http://joomla.esotericteaching.org/joomla/jyotish/vedic-astronomy
Sadisavin, M (2008). About the Vedas: A Brief Introduction to the Vedas. Retrieved March 2,
    2009, from About Web site:
    http://hinduism.about.com/cs/vedasvedanta/a/aa120103a.htm
Sushruta Samhita. (2009). In Global Oneness [Web]. Stockholm: Global Oneness
    Foundation. Retrieved March 9, 2009, from
    http://www.experiencefestival.com/sushruta_samhita
Thiruchendhilji, M (2008). Type of Yoga. Retrieved March 9, 2009, from Yogapoornavidna
    Web site: http://www.yogapoornavidya.com/typeof_yoga.htm
Vedic Period. (2008). In Nation Master [Web]. Rapid Intelligence. Retrieved March 2, 2009,
    from http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Vedic-period
Visnu, B (2006). Mathematics and the Spiritual Dimension. Retrieved March 10, 2009, from
    Mathematics and the Spiritual Dimension Web site:
    http://www.gosai.com/chaitanya/saranagati/html/math/math_1.html
Williams, K (2005, April). Vedic Mathematics. Retrieved March 2, 2009, from Vedic
    Mathematics Academy Web site: http://www.vedicmaths.org/Home%20Page.asp

				
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