Introduction to Grid Computing

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					     Introduction to Grid Computing


                            Ed Seidel
                     Max Planck Institute for
                      Gravitational Physics
                       eseidel@aei.mpg.de




www.cactuscode.org                              www.gridlab.org
     Outline

   What is the Grid.
   What does the Grid mean for application users?
   What is a Virtual Organization?
   Why is the Grid different from the Internet?
   What should application users and developers be
    doing right now to be ready for the Grid?
   High level overview of today’s testbeds.




                                              Grid Intro 2
    History and Motivation
   1970s - 80s: Internet
       Email, ftp, etc
   1980s - 90s: Remote-, Distributed-, Meta-computing
       Beginning to think of ways to exploit distributed resources
       US SC Centers Programs
         – Had to access remotely
         – Think of harnessing together
       See examples later
   SC95: I-Way
       First large scale experiments
       Most failed, but I-Way a success!
   Post I-Way: The Grid
       Explosion of activity, but still immature. Get prepared for
        future
                                                                 Grid Intro 3
        Grid Computing: A New Paradigm
   Computational Resources Scattered Across the World
       Compute servers (double each 18 months)
        Handhelds
                                                          QuickTime™ and a
                                                     Photo - JPEG decompressor
                                                    are needed to see this picture.

       File servers
       Networks (double each 9 months)
       Playstations, cell phones etc…
   How to take advantage of this for
    scientific/engineering simulations?
       Harness multiple sites and
        devices
       Simulations at new level of               QuickTime™ and a Photo decompressor are ne eded to see this picture.




        complexity and scale, interacting
        with data


                                                                                                      Grid Intro 4
     Grid vs. Internet/Web Services?
   We’ve had computers connected by networks for
    20 years
   We’ve had web services for 5-10 years
   The Grid combines these things, and brings
    additional notions
       Virtual Organizations
       Infrastructure to enable computation to be carried
        out across these
         – Authentication, monitoring, information, resource discovery,
           status, coordination, etc
   Can I just plug my application into the Grid?
       No! Much work to do to get there!
                                                                 Grid Intro 5
    Components for Grid Computing
All have to work for real applications
Communities
   Teams with a need to share data, or develop common code
   Communities can be very diverse
       Experimentalists, computer scientists, simulation scientists, network
        researchers
       All may need to work together to solve a specific problem
       May co-develop a code, or contribute modules that should work
        together
   These communities may have very different resources
       Within company or university
       Across the world
   Grids aim to bring them together, allow them to harness their
    resources
   These communities may form a type of (virtual) organization

                                                                       Grid Intro 6
        Virtual Organizations
Resources
   Machines, networks, archives, file systems, etc at different sites
   What is a Virtual Organization (VO)?
       groups of organizations that use the Grid to share resources for
        specific purposes
         – EU DataGrid, Alliance, TeraGrid, SC02 Global Grid Testbed, etc
       Typically deploy same technology
       Deploy directory service: resources registered, and may be
        “discovered”. Globus has MDS (Monitoring and Discovery Service)
         – GIIS (Grid Index Information Service) provides info for entire VO
         – GRIS (Grid Resource Information Service), installed locally, reports to
           GIIS so people or applications can search GIIS for info
       Authentication: Certificates and Gridmap file
         – Sometimes a VO offers a “certificate” for individuals and resources
         – Sometimes they use other VO’s certificates
   So far, there is no Global GIIS that links together all VOs


                                                                                 Grid Intro 7
    Software Infrastructure
Infrastructure: Globus Metacomputing Toolkit
   Low Level
       Fundamental technologies needed to build computational grids.
       Security: logins, data transfer
       Communication
       Information (GRIS, GIIS)
       More generally: Grid Services
   Middleware
       Data movers
       Resource Brokers
       Portals
       Application Monitoring systems
   High Level
       Application Toolkits
   We focus today on Globus, Cactus, and GridLab
       Other: Legion, Unicore, Juxta…


                                                                        Grid Intro 8
     Components for Grid Computing
Grid Aware Applications (Cactus example):
   Grid Enabled Modular Toolkits for Parallel
    Computation: Provide to Scientist/Engineer, etc..
   Plug your Science/Eng. Applications in!
   Must Provide, Register as Grid Services
       Ease of Use: automatically find resources, given need!
       Distributed simulations: use as many machines as needed!
       Remote Viz and Steering, tracking: watch what happens!
       Take advantage of infrastructure
   Collaborations of groups with different expertise: no
    single group can do it! Grid is natural for this…
                                                                 Grid Intro 9
        Example Grids
   GridLab Testbed
       Ten machines in Europe for developers of Grid tools
   SC2001 ARG Testbed & Global Grid Testbed Collaboration
       Hastily assembled loose federation of world machines for SC2001
        and now SC2002 demonstrations
   NCSA Virtual Machine Room and PACI Grid
       Production resources
   TeraGrid (www.teragrid.org)
       USA distributed terascale facility at 4 sites for open scientific
        research
   Information Power Grid (www.ipg.nasa.gov)
       NASAs high performance computing grid

                                                                   Grid Intro 10
    Example Grids



NSF PACI Grid


                    NorduGrid




                         Grid Intro 11
       The NSF TeraGrid
              Caltech           Argonne
               26
               24


                                                13.6 Tflop facility
               8
                                      5




               SDSC               NCSA
   Some Grids are tightly coupled facilities, like TeraGrid
   Some are testbeds, like Global Grid Testbed Collaboration
   Some are long term, loosely coupled: PACI Grid (includes TeraGrid)
   All try to provide organized access to distributed resources
   Most are depending on Globus as the base infrastructure

                                                                 Grid Intro 12
        What does this mean now for
        users and developers?
   There is a grand vision of the future
       Collecting resources around the world into Vos
       Seamless access to them, with a single signon
       NEW applications to exploit of them in unique ways!
       Today we want to help you prepare for this
   There is a frustrating reality of the present
       These technologies are not yet fully mature
       Not fully deployed
       Not consistent across even single Vos
   But centers and funding agencies worldwide are pushing
    this very, very hard
       Better get ready now
       You can help! Work with your centers to get this deployed


                                                                Grid Intro 13
     Getting Ready for the Grid
   Need to start imagining how your applications
    can exploit the Grid (simplify use of HPC,
    provide more processing power, better access to
    data, allow new scenarios to forward your
    science, better collaborations).
   Applications codes will need modifications for
    the Grid, depending on much of it you want to be
    able to exploit!
   Write new codes with the Grid in mind.
   Consider using frameworks which are already
    Grid-compatible.
                                              Grid Intro 14

				
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