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statistical methods. It means statistical data information given in numerical terms; for
example (the amount land owned by different peasants in a village, tehsil or district; the monthly
wages earned by workers in a factory; the number male and female voters in a constituency;
the numbers of people of different religions in a town; etc. Such information is collected through
census and surveys.


Census. The term census is used to indicate that information is collected from all the members of
the group in which we 'are interested. For example Government of India conducts All India
Census every ten years (the last was in 1991) to record the actual number of persons alive at a,
given time, along with their" ages, sex, occupation, housing condition, etc.

Survey. The term survey (or sample survey) is used to indicate that the information is collected
only from some selected members of the group and not from all of them. For example the
National Sample Survey (or NSS) is a programme of obtaining information periodically to help
the Government in framing its' policies. The Ministry of Labour conducts family budjet surveys
to find out how much an average worker's family has to spend to obtain the minimum
requirements of food, clothing, housing, education, medical aid, etc.

Raw data. The information collected through census and surveys, or in a routine manner, is
called raw data . The word data means information. The adjective raw attached to it indicates that
the information thus collected cannot be put to any use immediately and directly but has to be
processed, that is, converted to a more suitable form, before it begins to make sense to be utilized

Classification and Tabulation of Data. Classification is the first step of statistical method in
dealing with raw statistical data. It is the process of arranging things in groups or classes
according to the common characteristics possessed by them. After classification, the next step is
to present the data in

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