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Glossary of OKDHS Terms and Acronyms

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									  Acronym                   Phrase_Word


.NET           .NET

               .NET Framework

               .NET Passport Single Sign-in

               100% Pure Java

100Base-T      100Base-T

100Base-VG     100Base-VG

100VG-AnyLAN   100VG-AnyLAN

10BROAD-36     10BROAD-36
1Base-5        1Base-5

24x7           24 hours a day, seven days a week

2B+D           2B+D

3270           3270

370            370
3745    3745

390     390
Abend   Abnormal End


        Abstract Class



        Accented Character


        Access Control

ACE     Access Control Entry

ACF2    Access Control Facility 2

ACL     Access Control List

        Access Modifier

        Access Token

          Accessor Methods

          Acknowledged Father

          Action Sequence

          Action State

          Active Class

AD        Active Directory

ADSI      Active Directory Service Interfaces

AIMM      Active Input Method Manager

          Active Memory

          Active Object

ASP       Active Server Page

ASP.NET   Active Server Pages for the .NET Framework

          Active Statement

          Active voice

          ActiveX Control

ADO       ActiveX Data Objects

          ActiveX Data Objects for the .NET
ADO.NET   Framework

          ActiveX Data Objects, Multidimensional

          Activity Diagrams

          Activity Graph

ABC       Activity-Based Costing

ABM       Activity-Based Management


          Actor Class

          Actor Generalization
         Actor Instance

AC       Actual Cost

AF       Actual Finish Date
         Actual Parameter
AS       Actual Start Date

         Ad Hoc

         Ad Hoc Connector Name


         Ad-Hoc Analysis

         Adjective Phrasing

         Adjudicated Father

         Adjunct Processor

         Administrative Court

         Administrative Law

         Administrative Vulnerability

         Administrator Role

AFCARS   Adoption and Foster Care Reporting System

ADSM     ADSTAR Distributed Storage Manager
           Adult Child

           Advanced Author Role

ACF        Advanced Communication Function

           Advanced Communications Function/Virtual
ACF/VTAM   Telecommunications Access Method
ADN        Advanced Digital Network
AFP        Advanced Function Printing

AIX        Advanced Interactive Executive

APPN       Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking
APS        Advanced Planning and Scheduling

           Advanced Program to Program
APPC       Communications
           Advanced Program-to-Program
AT         Advanced Technology



           Affidavit of Forged Endorsement

           Aggregate Class

           Aggregate Function
           Aggregate Order

           Aggregate Query

           Aggregated Data


           Aggregation Prefix
           Aggregation Wrapper
AS         Aging Services Applications
AFDC       Aid to Families with Dependent Children



         All Member

a.k.a.   Also Known As


         Alternate Routing


AMD      Amdahl Corporation
         American Association of Electronic
AAEC     Commerce

ANSI     American National Standards Institute

         American Standard Code for Information
ASCII    Interchange
ADA      Americans with Disabilities Act


Analysis & Design

Analysis Class

Analysis Mechanism

Analysis Model

Analysis Pattern

Analysis Server

Analysis Time


Analytical Tools


Annotational Property

Announcements List

      Anonymous Subscription

      Anonymous User Access
      ANSI C

ACP   ANSI Code Page

      ANSI to OEM Conversion

      Answer Wizard

      Answer Wizard Builder


      Antivirus software


      API Server Cursor



AA    Application Architecture
ADF   Application Development Facility - IBM

ADM   Application Development Methodology
         Application Layer

         Application Management
AMS      Application Management Specifications

API      Application Programming Interface
ARM      Application Resource Measurement
         Application Role
APPS1    Application Software

AS       Application System

AS/400   Application System/400
AD       Applications Development

         Applications Framework
ASI      Application-Specific Interface

         Architectural Baseline

         Architectural Mechanism

         Architectural Pattern

         Architectural View

ACR   Architecture Conformance Review

AIR   Architecture Implementation Review

AOR   Architecture Objectives Review
      Architecture, Executable
      Archive File






      Artifact Guidelines
         Artifact Set

AI       Artificial Intelligence



AM       Asset Management
ASDATE   Assigned Date


         Association Class
         Association End

         Associative Entity


ANS      Assured Network Services - Cisco

ADSL     Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line

ASYNC    Asynchronous

         Asynchronous Action
ASCOM    Asynchronous Communication

ADLC     Asynchronous Data Link Contorl

ATM      Asynchronous Transfer Mode
AAC      ATM Access Concentrator

AAL      ATM Application Layer

       Atomic Data
       Atomic Value

AP     Attached Processor

ADD    Attention Deficit Disorder

ADHD   Attention Deficit with Hyperactivity Disorder


       Attribute Domain


       Author Lists Right

       Author Role

ACC    Authorization and Access Control


ACL    AutoCorrect List

       AutoFormat As You Type

ACS    Automated Cartridge System

ADC    Automated Data Collection

ANX    Automated Network Exchange
ASR    Automated Speech Recognition
ASRS   Automated Storage and Retrieval System

       Automated System Operations - Lights-Out
ASO    Operation
ATL   Automated Tape Library

      Automatic Map of Address

      Automatic Recovery






      Backbone Network

      Backup Device

BDC   Backup Domain Controller

      Backup File
      Backup Media
      Backup Set

      Balanced Hierarchy

       Bank Levy

       Bar Chart

       Base character

       Base Class

       Base Data Type

       Base Table

       Base Tables

       Baseline Finish Date
       Baseline Start Date


BIOS   Basic Input / Output System

BSTR   Basic String” or Binary String

BTAM   Basic Telecommunications Access Method

       Basis Suite
       BAT files

WG     Batch file

BMP    Batch Message Processing


       BCP Files

       BCP Utility


         Bean-Managed Persistence
         Bean-Managed Transaction
         Behavioral Feature

         Behavioral Model Aspect

         Behavioral Testing


         Beta testing


BIDI     Bidirectional

         Bidirectional Rendering

         Bidirectional Text


         Bigint Data Type
BIN      Bin
         Binary Association
         Binary Data Type

bit      Binary Digit

         Binary File

binhex   Binary Hexadecimal
BLOB      Binary Large Object
          Binary Operator
          Binary Relationship

BSC       Binary Synchronous Communications


          Bit Data Type

          Bitmap Font

          Bitmap Index

Bit/s     Bits Per Second

bps       Bits Per Second
          Bitwise Operation
BLKSIZE   Block Size


          Boolean Expression


          Bottom-Up Testing


          Boundary Class



         Branch Coverage

         Branch Test
         Break Point




B-ISDN   Broadband ISDN

         Broadband LAN

         Browse Mode

         Browser Role
         Buddy Fix
BCWS     Budgeted Coast of Work Scheduled
BCWP     Budgeted Cost of Work Peformed


         Buffer Overrun


         Built-in Functions
BBS   Bulletin-Board System
BIA   Bureau of Indian Affairs


      Business Actor Class
      Business Actor Instance

      Business Analysis Model

      Business Architecture

BC    Business Continuity

BCP   Business Continuity Plan

      Business Creation

      Business Engineering

      Business Entity

      Business Event

      Business Goal

      Business Improvement
BI    Business Intelligence
      Business Logic

      Business Modeling

      Business Objective

      Business Process

BPA   Business Process Automation
      Business Process Engineering
BPR   Business Process Re-engineering

BRP   Business Recovery Planning

      Business Reengineering

BR    Business Rule

      Business Rules

      Business Strategy

      Business System

BU    Business Unit

      Business Use-Case Class

      Business Use-Case Instance

      Business Use-Case Model

      Business Use-Case Package

      Business Use-Case Realization

      Business Worker

B2B   Business-to-Business
B2C   Business-To-Consumer

BOM   Byte-order Mark

C     C
C++    C++

CLAN   cableless LAN


       Cache Aging

       Calculated Column

       Calculated Field

       Calculated Member

       Calculation Condition

       Calculation Formula

       Calculation Pass

       Calculation Subcube

CLI    Call-level Interface

       Candidate Key

       Candidate Window

       Capability Maturity Model (Cmm)

CRP    Capacity Requirements Planning

        Capsule Role
        Cardinal Splines


        Cardinality Constraint

        Cascading Delete

CSS     Cascading Style Sheets

        Cascading Update


        Case Key
        Case Set

        Case Study

CATLG   Catalog

CAT5    Category 5
CRT     Cathode Ray Tube

        Causal Study

        Center for Early Childhood Professional
CECPD   Development

CPU     Central Processing Unit
CP      Central Processor
CPP     Central Processor or Cache Processor
CSS     Central Support Services

CCP     Certified Computer Professional
CNE     Certified NetWare Engineer
CNP     Certified Network Professional

CPM     Certified Public Manager

CCB     Change Control Board

        Change Data Capture

        Change Management
CMS     Change Management System

CR      Change Request

        Change Script

        Changing Dimension

CSU     Channel Service Unit
        Char Data Type

       Character Format

       Character Set
CPS    characters per second


       Chart Component


       CHECK constraints


CFO    Chief Financial Officer
CIO    Chief Information Officer
CSO    Chief Storage Officer
CTO    Chief Technical Officer

CAP    Child Abuse Prevention
CC     Child Care
CCFP   Child Care Food Program
CCL    Child Care Licensing

       Child Entity
CSED   Child Support Enforcement Division
CY     Child Welfare
        Children and Family Services Division of
CSHCN   Children with Special Health Care Needs

COPPA   Children's Online Privacy Protection Act



        Churn Analysis




        Class Diagram

        Class Diagrams

        Class Hierarchy
        Class Library
        Class Method


CRC     Class-Responsibility Collaborators



        Click And Type

          Clickstream Data

C/S       Client / Server

C/SI      Client / Server Interface
AG        Client Advocacy/Advocate General

          Client Application

          Client coordinates

          Client Cursor

CS        Client Server

CF_HTML   Clipboard Format HTML


          Clustered Index


          Clustering Technology


Coax      Coaxial Cable
          Code Element
          Code Generator
          Code Inspections
Code Page

Code Pages

Code Point




Collaboration Database

Collaboration Diagram

Collaboration Diagrams


Collect And Paste

Collections Base


Column Filter
        Column-level Collation

        Column-level Constraint

        Combined Characters

        Combining Character

        Combining-mark Sequence
CMD     Command

        Command Relationship


        Commenting Model


COBOL   Common Business Oriented Language

        Common Controls

        Common Dialog Boxes

CGI     Common Gateway Interface

CLR     Common Language Runtime

CORBA   Common Object Request Broker Architecture

COSE    Common Open Software Environment
CPI      Common Programming Interface

CSA      Common Service Area
CSF      Common Storage Format
CSM      Common Storage Manager

CUA      Common User Access

CWMI     Common Warehouse Metadata Interchange

CWM      Common Warehouse Model

CWF      Common Workflow Framework for JAVA

CXI      Common X Interface
CCL      Common-Carrier Line


         Communication Association

CMC      Communications Management Configuration

         Communications Planning

CD-ROM   Compact Disc Read Only
CD       Compact Disk

         Comparative Form

         Compatibility Zone

         Compile Time

CMOS   Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor

       Complex Scripts


       Component Detection

       Component Diagram

       Component Model

COM    Component Object Model

CBD    Component-Based Development

       Composite Aggregation

       Composite Bean

       Composite Class
       Composite Index

       Composite Key

       Composite State

       Composite Substate
          Composition Window

          Compound Key


          Computed Column
          Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided
CAD/CAM   Manufacturing
CA        Computer Associates
CBT       Computer Based Training

COM       Computer Output to Microfilm or Microfiche

          Computer Security

CASE      Computer-Aided Software Engineering

          COM-structured Storage File

          Concatenated Index

          Concatenated Key



          Concept Mapping

          Concrete Class


          Concurrent Substate
      Confidential Data



      Configuration Item

CM    Configuration Management




CSD   Consolidated Service Desk


      Constellation Model



             Contact Activity Tracking

             Contacts List


             Container-Managed Persistence

             Container-Managed Transaction

             Containment Hierarchy
             Contempt Citation

             Contempt of Court

             Content Advisor

             Content Recycling
CDN          Content-Delivery Network


CIPP Model   Context, Input, Process, Product

             Contextual Analysis
       Continuation Media
CA     Continuous Availability

       Contributor Role

CTRL   Control
       Control Class

       Control Group

       Control Panel
CPF    Control Program Facility
CU     Control Unit

       Control-break Report


       Control-of-flow Language


       Conversion Window




       Cooperative Processing

UTC    Coordinated Universal Time

       Corporate Data Model

CSA    Corporate Service Amendment

       Correlated Subquery
COQ      Cost of Quality

CPI      Cost Performance Index

CV       Cost Variance

         Cost-Based Optimizer
         Council on Law Enforcement, Education and
CLEET    Training

CF       Coupling Facility
CASA     Court Appointed Special Advocates

         CPU Busy
CRDATE   Create Date
CRTIME   Create Time


         Critical Activity

CDR      Critical Design Review

         Critical Path

         Critical Update

         Cross Memory Service

XMS      Cross Memory Services
CSP      Cross System Product
XCF      Cross-System Coupling Facility

               Crosstab Query


CU             CU

               Cube File

               Cube Role

               Cultural Convention
               Current Finish Date
               Current Start Date

               Cursive Attachment

               Cursor Data Type

               Cursor Library

CIW            Custom Installation Wizard

               Custom Rollup

               Custom Rule
               Custom Workgroup Templates


CICS           Customer Information and Control System

CRM            Customer Relationship Management
CRU   Customer Replaceable Unit

CSS   Customer Service and Support



CYL   Cycles
      Cyclomatic Complexity

      Cyclomatic Number
CYL   Cylinder

      Cyrillic Script



DAA   Data Access Arrangement

DAO   Data Access Objects

      Data Access Page

DA    Data Administration
      Data Analysis

      Data Block

      Data Connection
DCB   Data Control Block

DCL   Data Control Language

DD    Data Definition
DDL     Data Definition Language

        Data Dependent

DD      Data Dictionary
        Data Dictionary View

        Data Element
DES     Data Encryption Standard

        Data Explosion

        Data Extract

DFDSS   Data Facility Data Set Services

DFHSM   Data Facility Hierarchical Storage Manager

DFP     Data Facility Product

        Data Facility Storage Management
DFSMS   Subsystem

        Data File

        Data Flow Diagram

        Data Integrity

DL/1    Data Language/One

        Data Lineage

DML     Data Manipulation Language
DM      Data Mart

        Data Member

        Data Migration Tools

        Data Mining

        Data Model

        Data Modification
DP      Data Processing

        Data Pump

        Data Scrubbing
DSU     Data Service Unit
MI      Data Services
DSD     Data Services Division of OKDHS
        Data Set

DSN     Data Set Name
DSORG   Data Set Organization

DSN     Data Source Name

        Data Transfer

        Data Transformation
       Data type

DW     Data Warehouse

DWM    Data Warehouse Method

DB     Database

DBA    Database Administration
DBA    Database Administrator

       Database Catalog

       Database Diagram
       Database File

       Database Language

       Database Layer

DBMS   Database Management System

       Database Object
        Database Owner

        Database Partition

        Database Project

DBRC    Database Recovery Control

        Database Role

        Database Schema

        Database Script

DB/DC   Database/Data Communication

DB2     Database-2

        Data-definition Query



        Date Picture String

        Datetime Data Type

DAYS    Days

        De facto Standards

        Dead key

DSR   De-centralized Security Rep.

      Decentralized Warehouse

      Deceptive Trade Practices
      Decimal Data Type

      Decision Support
DSS   Decision Support System

DRI   Decision Tree


      Declarative Referential Integrity

DAL   Dedicated Access Line


DEFAULT Constraint

Default Database

Default Instance

Default Language

Default Member

Default Result Set


Defining Model


Delete Query

         Delinquent Child


         Delphi Technique



DMZ      Demilitarized Zone

DoS      Denial of service attack


         Denormalized Data

DEN      Density

DHS      Department of Human Services
         Department of Mental Health and Substance
DMHSAS   Abuse Services

DPS      Department of Public Safety

DCN   Departmental Client Number

      Dependent Data Mart


      Deployment Diagram

      Deployment Environment

      Deployment Unit

      Deployment View
      Derived Attribute
      Derived Column

      Derived Data

      Derived Element

      Derived Fact


      Descriptive Study



      Design Lists Right

      Design Mechanism

      Design Model
       Design Package

       Design Pattern

       Design Review

       Design Subsystem

       Design Time

       Design-time Controls

DMI    Desktop Management Interface

       Destination Object

       Detail Data

       Detect And Repair
DCOM   Determination Controlling Order

       Determination of Parentage

       Determined String


       Development Case
       Development Cycle

       Development Process
       Developmental Disabilities Services Division
DDSD   (of DHS)
DD     Developmental Disability

      Device Context

DDK   Device Driver Kit



      Diagnostic Suite



      Dictionary Entry

      Differential Database Backup
DAT   Digital Audio Tape/drive
      Digital Certificate

      Digital Dashboard

DEC   Digital Equipment Corp.
DLT   Digital Linear Tape/drive

DNA   Digital Network Architecture

DRM   Digital Rights Management

      Digital Signature
DVD   Digital Video Disk

       Dimension Hierarchy

       Dimension Table
DASD   Direct Access Storage Device

       Direct Connect

       Direct Object

       Direct Response Mode
DIR    Directory

       Directory Partition

       Directory Service

DEN    Directory-enabled Networking

       Dirty Pages

       Dirty Read



       Discriminant Validity

       Discussion Board

       Discussion Comment

       Discussion Rights

       Discussion Server

       Discussion Thread

       Disjoint Substate

       Disk Mirroring

DOS    Disk Operating System

DISP   Disposition

       Distinguished Name


DAA    Distributed Application Architecture
DAP    Distributed Application Platform

DAV    Distributed Authoring Versioning

DCOM   Distributed Component Object Model

       Distributed Computing

DCE    Distributed Computing Environment
DDA    Distributed Data Architecture
DDM      Distributed Data Management
DDP      Distributed Data Processing

         Distributed Database

DME      Distributed Management Environment

DISOSS   Distributed Office Support System

DPP      Distributed Parallel Processing

         Distributed Processing
         Distributed Query
DRM      Distributed Resource Management

         Distributed Systems

DSLO     Distributed Systems License Option
DSM      Distributed Systems Management
DIST     Distribution

         Distribution Database

         Distribution Retention Period


DCCL     Division of Child Care Licensing of OKDHS

       DNS Server

       Document Description
       Document Generation
       Document Inspection
       Document Interchange Architecture - part of

       Document Library

       Document Map

       Document Template
DOCS   Documentation


DC     Domain Controller

       Domain Database

       Domain Integrity

       Domain Local Group
          Domain Model

          Domain Name Server

DNS       Domain Name System

DOS/VSE   DOS/Virtual Storage Extended

DBCS      Double-byte Character Set

          Down-level Browser


          Down-rev Save

          Drill Down/Drill Up

          Drill Through

          DSN-less Connection

          DTS Package

          DTS Package Template

          Dual File Save
DT      Dumb Terminal
        Dump File


DCME    Dynamic Cache Management Enhanced

        Dynamic Classification

        Dynamic Cursor

        Dynamic Filter

DHCP    Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

DHTML   Dynamic HTML

        Dynamic Information

        Dynamic IP address

DLL     Dynamic Link Library

        Dynamic Locking

        Dynamic Recovery

        Dynamic Snapshot
        Dynamic SQL Statements
        Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and
EPSDT   Treatment
EI      Early Intervention (SoonerStart)
         Earned Value



ESI      Edge Side Includes




         EJB Container

         EJB Object
EJECT    Eject


EBT      Electronic Benefits Transfer System
ebXML    Electronic Business Markup Language

EC       Electronic Commerce

         Electronic Communications Management
ECMA     Association

EDI      Electronic Data Interchange
EDAS     Electronic Direct/Access Storage
EDD      Electronic Document Distribution

E-Mail   Electronic Mail
EMC      Electronic Memory Corporation
ESD    Electronic Software Distribution


       Elevation Of Privileges


       Embedded Total
ERD    Emergency Repair Disk

ECL    Emitter-coupled Logic

ESS    Employee Self Services



       Enclosed Document

       Encrypted data

       Encrypted Trigger

EFS    Encrypting File System.

EOD    End of Data
EOF    End of File
EOF1   End of File Label
EUL    End User Layer
EOM    End-of-Message
       End-To-End Testing

EUDC   End-User Defined Character


EC        Engineering Change

          English Query

          English Query Application

          Enhanced Mail Merge

          Enhancement Request


EAI       Enterprise Application Integration

EAS       Enterprise Application Services

          Enterprise Architecture

          Enterprise Bean
ECS       Enterprise Client / Server

          Enterprise Data Access/Structured Query
EDA/SQL   Language

EDM       Enterprise Data Model

EDW       Enterprise Data Warehouse
EDM       Enterprise Distribution Management

EJB       Enterprise JavaBean

          Enterprise Manager
          Enterprise Model
        Enterprise Portal

ERP     Enterprise Resource Planning
ESS     Enterprise Storage Server

ESA     Enterprise Systems Architecture

ESCON   Enterprise Systems Connection
ESCD    Enterprise Systems Connection Director
ETS     Enterprise Technical Services


        Entity Bean

        Entity Class

        Entity Integrity

ERD     Entity Relationship Diagram

ER      Entity Relationship Model

        Entry Action




          Environment Catalog


          Equivalence Class

          Erroneous Payment
ECC       Error Correcting Code

          Error Detection
          Error Log

          Error State Number



ES/9000   ES/9000

          Escape Character

EU Data Protection Directive

Evaluation Research

Evaluation Study

Evalution Mission


Events List

Event-To-Method Connection



Ex Post Facto

Excel Date Fix Wizard

Excel Date Migration Wizard

Excel File Recovery Macro


      Exception Handler

      Exclude Dictionary

      Exclusive lock

      Executable Architecture
XIP   Execute in Place
EX    Executive

EIS   Executive Information System

      Exit Action

E/S   Expanded Storage
      Expected Response

      Experimental Design
      Experimental Group
        Expert System
        Expert Testers
EXPDT   Expiration Date

        Explicit Transaction

        Exploratory Testing






XA      Extended Architecture

        Extended Characters

EF      Extended Function

        Extended LAN

XRF     Extended Recovery Facility

        Extended Stored Procedure


XML    Extensible Markup Language

ESE    Extensible Storage Engine

XSL    Extensible Stylesheet Language

       External Data
       External Hyperlink

       External Link
       External Service Provider, Enterprise Server
ESP    Platform

       External Validity

       Extract Processing


ETL    Extraction, Transformation, And Loading
       Extraction, Transformation, And
ETT    Transportation

       Extraneous Variables
XP     Extreme Programming




Fax    Facsimile


       Fact Data
        Fact Table





        Fair Information Practices

FMV     Fair Market Value


FERPA   Family Education Rights and Privacy Act


        Fault Model

        Fault Tolerance
FT      Fault Tolerant or Fault Tolerance

        Fault-Based Testing
FC      FC
FUD    Fear Uncertainty and Doubt

       Feasibility Study

       Feature Richness

FIPS   Federal Information Processing Standard



FC     Fiber Channel

FDDI   Fiber Distributed Data Interface

       Fiber Optics


       Field Length
FO     Field Ops

FRU    Field Replaceable Unit

       Field Terminator

FAT       File Allocation Table

          File DSN
HDR1      File Header Label

          File Locking
FILESEQ   File Sequence

          File Server

          File Storage Type

          File transfer

FTP       File Transfer Protocol

FTAM      File Transfer, Access and Management


          Fill Factor



          Final State
FA        Finance-Payroll
          Financial Modernization Act of 1999
       Firehose Cursor
       Firehose Cursors

FIFO   First In, First Out
1NF    First Normal Form

       Fixed Database Role

       Fixed Server Role
       Flattened Interface

       flattened Rowset

       Float Data Type
       Floating Accent

       Floating Diacritic
       Floating Table

       Flow of Events


       Focus Groups

       Focus Of Control

       Following Characters


       Font Association

       Font Fallback

       Font Linking
          Font Substitution

FK        Foreign Key
FRC       Foreign Reciprocating Country
          Foreign Table

          Formal Parameter

          Form-Based Authentication


FORTRAN   Formula Translator

          Forum State

          Forward-only Cursor

          Fourth Generation Language 4GL
4NF       Fourth Normal Form

4GL       Fourth-Generation Language

          Fourth-Generation Languages (4gl)


FR        frame relay
FUNI      Frame Relay User Network Interface
       Frames Page

FAPE   Free and Appropriate Public Education


FAQ    Frequently Asked Questions

FEP    Front - End Processor
       Front-end Processor

       FrontPage Server Extensions

       FrontPage-patched Apache Web Server


       Full Duplex

       Full File Replacement

       Full Outer Join
       Full-text Catalog
       Full-text Enabling

       Full-text Index

       Full-text Query

       Full-text Search Index
       Full-text Service

       Full-width Character
        Function Paths

        Function Points
        Function Test

        Functionality, Usability, Reliability,
FURPS   Performance, Supportability

        Fundamental Metric

        Gap Analysis

GA      General Availability
LG      General Counsel

        General Discussions

        Generalizable Element


        Generalized Key

GDG     Generated Data Group

G5      Generation 5

        Generic Data Type

        Generic Prototype

GDPS    Geographically Dispersed Parallel Sysplex
Gbit    Gigabit
Gb      Gigabit
GB      Gigabyte
Gbyte   Gigabyte

        Glass house
GC     Global Catalog

       Global Catalog Server

       Global Default

GG     Global Group

       Global Interface

       Global Module

       Global Notes

       Global Properties

       Global Rule

       Global Subscriptions

       Global Variable



       Globalized Functionality Testing

GUID   Globally Unique Identifier


GLB    Graham-Leach-Bliley Act





GDDM   Graphic Data Display Manager

GIF    Graphic Interchange Format

GUI    Graphical User Interface

       Graphical User Interface (Gui)

GDI    Graphics Device Interface

GL     Graphics Library

       Green-Field Development

       Grounded Theory

      Group Policy

GPO   Group Policy object

      Guard Condition



HDX   Half Duplex

      Half-width Character
HDD   Hard Disk Drive


HF    Hardfail
HW    Hardware

      Hash Data
           Hawthorne Effect

HDA        Head Disk Assembly

           Health Insurance Portability and
HIPAA      Accountability Act
Hz         Hertz


           Heterogeneous Data
HP         Hewlett-Packard [Co.]

HP-UX      Hewlett-Packard's UNIX implementation.


           Hierarchical Database

           Hierarchical Namespace

HOLAP      Hierarchical OLAP

HSM        Hierarchical Storage Manager

           High Availability

HACMP      High Availability Clustered Multiprocessing
HPC        High Performance Computing

           High Power Shell
HADA       High-Availability Disk Array

HDLC       High-Level Data Link Control
        High-Performance Shell

HSSDS   High-Speed Switched Data Service
HSTR    High-Speed Token Ring - IBM

HDS     Hitachi Data Systems


        Home Directory

        Home Page

        Homogeneous Data


        Horizontal Partitioning





        HTML Administration Pages
        Html Browser

        HTML Help

        HTML Help Workshop
        Http Request


        Huge Dimension
PR      Human Recourses Management

        Hybrid OLAP





HTML    Hypertext Markup Language

HTTPS   HyperText Transfer Protocol

HTTP    Hypertext Transport Protocol



ID           Identifier
             Identifying Relationship

             Identity Column

             Identity Property

             Ideographic Character


             Idle Time

IEEE 802.3   IEEE 802.3

             Image Data Type

             Image File Cache

             Immediate Updating
             Immediate Updating Subscribers

             Immediate Updating Subscriptions



             Implementation Inheritance
         Implementation Mechanism

         Implementation Model
         Implementation Pattern

         Implementation Subsystem

         Implementation View

         Implicit Transaction

         Implied Permission



IDRC     Improved Data Recording Capability




       Include File Cache




       Incremental Delivery

       Incremental Development

       Incremental Update

       Independent Function Paths

ISV    Independent Software Vendor

IDX    Index

       Index ORing
       Index page

       Indexing Service
IHS    Indian Health Service

       Indirect Object
IEP    Individualized Education Program
IFSP   Individualized Family Service Plan
IHP    Individualized Habilitation Plan
IDEA   Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

          Inductive Approach

          Inference Engine

IBI       Information Builders Inc.

          Information Disclosure
IM        Information Management

IMS       Information Management System
          Information Management System / Enterprise
IMS/ESA   Systems Architecture

          Information Model
IRDS      Information Resource Dictionary System
IR        Information Retrieval

IS        Information Systems

IT        Information Technology


          Initial Load
          Initial Media
IML       Initial Microcode Load
IPL       Initial Program Load

          Initial Snapshot
      Initialization Parameter
INT   Initialize

      Inline Discussion
      Inline Images

      In-memory Document Cache

      Inner Join


I/O   Input / Output
IOP   Input /Output Processor

      Input Context
HKL   Input Language Handle

      Input Locale

      Input Member

      Input Method

IME   Input Method Editor

IMM   Input Method Manager

      Input Set

      Input Source

      Input-output Analysis

      Insensitive Cursor

      Insert Query

      Insert Values Query
AR     Inspector General

       Install On Demand

       Installed Templates


       Institute Of Electrical And Electronics
IEEE   Engineers

       Int (integer) Data Type

       Intact Groups


ICDA   Integrated Cached Disk Array

IC     Integrated Circuit

ICSF   Integrated Cryptographic Services Facility

IDMS   Integrated Database Management System
IDE    Integrated Development Environment
IDE    Integrated Device Electronics
IDN    Integrated Digital Network

IDM    Integrated Document Management

       Integrated Infrastructure
       Integrated Network and Systems
INSM   Management
INMS   Integrated Network Management System
IOS    Integrated Office System
       Integrated Security

ISDN   Integrated Services Digital Network


       Integration Build Plan

       Integration Test


       Integrity Constraint

       Integrity Rules

IWS    Intelligent Workstation

ISQL   Intent Lock


       Interaction Diagram

       Interactive List

       Interactive Logon
           Interactive Structured Query Language
ISPF       Interactive Systems Productivity Family

IVR        Interactive Voice Response

           Interactive Web


           Interface Implication

           Interface Inheritance

           Internal Code Input Method
ICF        Internal Coupling Facility
           Internal Data

           Internal Identifier

           Internal Image Formats

Intranet   Internal Networks

           Internal Transition

           Internal Validity

IBM        International Business Machines Corporation

IEC        International Electrotechnical Commission

IOUG       International Oracle Users Group
ISO       International Standards Organization



ICAL      Internet Calendar

VCard     Internet Contacts Format

ICRA      Internet Content Rating Association.

ICMP      Internet Control Message Protocol

IETF      Internet Engineering Task Force
IE        Internet Explorer

IIS       Internet Information Server

IIS       Internet Information Services

IIOP      Internet Inter-Orb Protocol
          Internet Message Access Protocol - Version
IMAP4     4
          Internet Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet
IPX/SPX   Exchange

IP        Internet Protocol
             Internet Protocol Address

ISAPI        Internet Server API
ISP          Internet Service Provider

             Internet Services Manager
IPC          Internet-enabled

             Interprocess Communication
IRP          Interrupt Request
Intra-LATA   Intra-Local Access and Transport Area


             Invariant Culture


             IP Address

             IP Number
IPSEC        IP Security Protocol

             Irregular Form

             Irregular Form Type
             Irregular Noun

             Irregular Verb
       IS Cultures

       ISO 10646

       ISO 4217 Currency Symbol

       ISO 8859

       ISO Reference Model for Open Systems
       Interconnection OSI

       Isolation Level


IV-D   IV-D (Child Support)

       J2EE Application

       J2EE Platform
        Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition
        Java 2 Platform, Standard Edition
JAE     Java Application Environment
        Java Application Programming Interfaces For
JAIN    Integrated Networks

JAR     Java Archive

JDBC    Java Database Connectivity

JDK     Java Development Kit

JFC     Java Foundation Class

JMAPI   Java Management API

JNDI    Java Naming And Directory Interface

JRMI    Java Remote Method Invocation

JRE     Java Runtime Environment

JVM     Java Virtual Machine



JSP     JavaServer Pages
JRO   Jet and Replication Objects

      JET Database

      JIT Installation


JCL   Job Control Language

JES   Job Entry Subsystem

      Job Log

      Job Stream

      Join Column

      Join Condition
      Join Field

      Join Filter

      Join Operator

      Join Path
      Join Table

JAD   Joint Application Development
JET   Joint Engine Technology
      JSP Application

      JSP Container

      Junction Table

JIT   Just in Time

      KB Article


        Key Column

        Key Length

        Key Mechanism

        Key Range Lock

        Keyboard Layout

        Keyboard Locator

        Keyset-driven Cursor


        Keytrap Tool

Kbit    Kilobit
Kb      Kilobit

Kbps    Kilobits Per Second
K       Kilobyte
Kbyte   Kilobyte
KHz     Kilohertz
KVA     Kilovolt Ampere

        Knowledge Base

        Knowledge Base Server

        Knowledge Base System
KBS     Knowledge Based System
KCC      Knowledge Consistency Checker

         Knowledge Discovery

KM       Knowledge Management
LBL      Label

         LAN Manager

         LAN Server

         LAN/LAN Connectivity

         LAN/WAN Inter-networking


         Language AutoDetect

         Language Enabling
         Language Group

LANGID   Language ID
         Language Pack Kit

         Language/layout pair

         Large Level

      Lateral Thinking



      Leading Characters


      Leaf Level
      Leaf Member

      Leased Line

LPA   Least Privilege Administration
LRE   Least Restrictive Environment

      Left Outer Join
LTR   Left-to-right
LRE   Left-to-right Embedding

      Left-to-right Embedding Mark

LRO   Left-to-right Override

      Left-to-right Text

      Legislative Law



      Level Field
       Level Hierarchy

       Levels Of Localization


       License Server

LVP    License Verification Program


LED    Light Emitting Diode

LDAP   Lightweight Directory Access Protocol

LOS    Line of Sight
LPR    Line Printer Remote

       Linear Gradient Brush

       Linear Independence
LOB    Line-of-Business
       Lines Of Code

LAPB   Link Access Procedure D-channel

       Link Bar
       Link End

       Link Layer

       Linked Cube
          Linked Server

          Linked Table

          Linking Table

LCD       Liquid Crystal Display
          List AutoFill

          List Field

          List Form




          Load Testing
LOANLOC   Loan Location
LCL       Local

LATA      Local Access and Transport Area

          Local Administrators Group

LAN       Local Area Network

LAT       Local Area Transport
LAWN      Local Area Wireless Network

          Local Attack
       Local Bridge

       Local Cube

       Local Distributor
LEA    Local Education Agency

       Local Group

       Local Login Identification
       Local Office

       Local Server

       Local Subscription
       Local User Profile

       Local Variable


LCID   Locale ID



        Localizable Resource


        Localization Kit


        Lock Down

        Lock Escalation

        Lock Files

        Log File

        Logic Flow Map
        Logic Schematics

        Logical Data Model

        Logical Join

        Logical Model

        Logical Name

        Logical Operators

        Logical Order
LRECL   Logical Record Length

LU      Logical Unit
LU 6.2   Logical Unit Type 6.2

         Logical View

         Login (account)

         Login Security Mode

         Logograph Logographic

         Logon Script

         Lookup Table

         Loosely Coupled Multiprocessor
         Low Income Home Energy Assistance
LIHEAP   Program


         Machine DSN

MICR     Magnetic-Ink Character Recognition

         Magnitude Of A Physical Quantity

         Mail Bomb
         Mail Relaying


         Make Table Query

         Malicious User

         Manage Lists Right

         Managed Code
MQI      Managed Queue Interface - IBM
MSO      Managed Service Organization

MIB      Management Information Base

MIS      Management Information Systems

M:M      Many-to-many Relationship

         Many-to-one relationship

         Mapping Tools


         Mark Attachment
MPP      Massively Parallel Processing

MASTER   Master

         Master Database
         Master Definition Site

         Master File
MPS      Master Production Scheduling
         Master Site
MTO         Master Terminal Operator

            Material Mistake of Fact
            Materialized View
MCH         Maternal and Child Health

MTBF        Mean Time Between Failure
MTF         Mean Time to Failure

MTTR        Mean Time to Repair


MULC        Measured Usage License Charge


            Media Description

            Media Family
            Media Header
MEDIANAME   Media Name

            Media Set
MS          Medical Services
Mbps        Megabits Per Second
Mbyte       Megabyte
MB          Megabyte
MHz         Megahertz

      Member Delegation

      Member Group

      Member Key Column

      Member Name Column

      Member of Military Service or Servicemember

      Member Property

      Member Server

      Member Variable

MTC   Memorex Telex Corporation


      Merge Contact Information

      Merge Replication


MAC   Message Authentication Code

      Message Log
      Message Number
       Message Table
MOM    Message-Oriented Middleware


       Messaging Application Programming
MAPI   Interface

       Meta Data


       Metadata Repository




MOF    Meta-Object Facility

       Method Call
       Metric System

MAN    Metropolitan Area Network

MCA      Micro Channel Architecture


         Microsoft .NET

         Microsoft .NET Framework

         Microsoft .NET Passport

         Microsoft Agent

         Microsoft Alerts
MCE      Microsoft Certified Engineer

MSCMS    Microsoft Content Management Server

         Microsoft Corp.

MSDE     Microsoft Data Engine

MS-DOS   Microsoft Disk Operating System

MDC      Microsoft Download Center

MSIL     Microsoft Intermediate Language

IEAK     Microsoft Internet Explorer Administration Kit

MSLU     Microsoft Layer for Unicode
MMC       Microsoft Management Console

          Microsoft MapPoint® .NET

          Microsoft NetMeeting

          Microsoft Office 2000 File Optimizer

          Microsoft Office Antivirus API

          Microsoft Office Clipboard

          Microsoft Office Multi-Language Pack

          Microsoft Office Proofing Tools Kit

          Microsoft PhotoDraw

          Microsoft Script Editor

          Microsoft Security Bulletin

          Microsoft Virus Alert

          Microsoft Visual Studio® .NET

          Microsoft Win32 Internet API (WinInet)
WinINET   Microsoft Win32 Internet API.


MIPS   Million Instructions Per Second
MSU    Million Service Units

MMMC   Minimum Monthly Maintenance Charge

       Mining Model

       Mining Model Training


       Mixed Environment

       Mixed Mode



       Mobil Code


       Mode Biasing

        Model Aspect

        Model Database

        Model Dependency

        Model Elaboration

        Model Element

MVC     Model Viewcontroller


        Modeless Input

        Modeling Conventions

        Modeling Time

Modem   Modulator/Demodulator


MDX     Money Data Type

MLC     monthly license charge
MOA     Monthly Order Amount


        Most Important Tests (Mits)
MAC     Moves - Add - Changes

        MSI Package file




        Multiattribute Utility Theory

MBCS    Multibyte Character Set
        Multidimensional Analysis

        Multidimensional Data

        Multidimensional Database

        Multidimensional Expressions

        Multidimensional OLAP
        Multidimensional Online Analytical
MOLAP   Processing
       Multidimensional Structure

MFP    Multifunction Printer


       Multi-Lingual Editing
MUI    Multilingual User Interface

       Multilingual User Interface Pack

       Multi-master Replication

MM     Multimedia

       Multimedia Database

       Multiple Classification

MDF    Multiple Domain Facility

       Multiple Inheritance

       Multiple Instances
MOPS   Multiple Operating System PR/SM

MVS    Multiple Virtual Storage
          Multiple Virtual Storage MVS

MDI       Multiple-document Interface

Mux       Multiplexer




MIME      Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension

MSNF      Multi-System Networking Facility

          Multithreaded Server Application



          Multivariate Methods
MIDI      Musical Instrument Digital Interface

          Mutator Methods


MVS/SP1   MVS System Product Version 1

MVS/SP2   MVS System Product Version 2

MVS/SP3   MVS System Product Version 3
MVS/SP4   MVS System Product Version 4

MVS/ESA   MVS/Enterprise System Architecture

          NA Value

          Name Phrasing

          Name Resolution

          Name Space Extension

          Named Instance

          Named Pipe

          Named Set


          Naming Relationship

          N-ARY Association

NAS       National Advanced Systems

          National Child Abuse and Neglect Data
NCANDS    Systems

NLS API   National Language Support API

          National Standard
          Native American
          Native Format

          Native Mode

          Natural Language


          Nchar Data Type
NEC       NEC Technologies

          Nested Query

          Nested Subweb
          Nested Table
NETBEUI   Net Bios Extended User Interface

          Net Framework

NSAPI     Netscape Server API


NAS       NetWare Access Server
NDS       NetWare Directory Services
NDPS      NetWare Distributed Print Services

NLM       NetWare Loadable Modules

NASD      Network - Attached Storage Device

NAP       Network Access Point

NSM       Network and Systems Management

NetBIOS   Network Basic Input / Output System

NCCF      Network Communications Control Facility

NC        Network Computer Or Network Computing
NCD       Network Computing Device
NCF       Network Computing Framework
NCI       Network Computing Infrastructures
NCL       Network Control Language

NCP       Network Control Program

NDL       Network Data Language

          Network Domain Name
NDF       Network Dynamic Functionality

NFS       Network File System

NFT       Network File Transfer

NIC       Network Interface Card

          Network Layer

NLDM      Network Logical Data Manager
          Network Logon

          Network Management
NMC       Network Management Center

          Network Management System
NNTP      Network News Transfer Protocol

NOS       Network Operating System

          Network Place

NPDA      Network Problem Determination Application
          Network Service

          Network Topology

          Neutral Character

          Neutral Culture
          New Economy

NT        New Technology
NTFS      New Technology File System

NGI       Next-Generation Internet


          Niladic functions
NOEJECT   No Eject
          No-compile Localization


       Noise Word

       Nominal Group Techniques


       Nonclustered Index

       Noncompile Mirroring

       Non-file-based Templates

       Non-IV-E Foster Care

       Nonleaf Member

       Nonrepeatable Read


       Nonspacing Character

       NonStop SQL
       Non-TANF Case

NUMA   Non-Uniform Memory Access
NV     Nonvolatile

NF     Normal Form

       Normalization Rules

       Normalized Data



NAFS   Novell Advanced File System

NTDS   NT Directory Services

       Ntext Data Type




       Numeric Expression

       Nvarchar data Type


       Object Class

       Object Dependencies

       Object Diagram
OFS   Object File System

      Object Flow State

      Object Identifier

      Object Lifeline

OLE   Object Linking And Embedding
OMG   Object Management Group

      Object Model

OO    Object Oriented

      Object Owner

      Object Permission

ORB   Object Request Broker
      Object Store
      Object Variable

      Object-Oriented Design
        Object-Oriented Languages

OOP     Object-Oriented Programming
        Occupational Therapist / Occupational
OT      Therapy

        ODBC Data Source

        ODBC Driver

        ODBC Driver Manager

OEMCP   OEM code Page

        Office Assistant

        Office Clip Gallery

        Office Converter Pack

        Office E-mail

OIS     Office Information System

        Office Meetings
OCA     Office of Client Advocacy of OKDHS
OIG     Office of Inspector General of OKDHS
OJA     Office of Juvenile Affairs
        Office of Juvenile System Oversight (of

OPW     Office Profile Wizard
ORAPI         Office Registry API

Offcln9.exe   Office Removal Wizard

OSE           Office Server Extensions

              Office Update

              Office Web Components

              Office-Extended Web Server

OST           Offline Storage
              Oklahoma Areawide Services Information
OASIS         System
              Oklahoma Child Support Enforcement
OCEAN         Automated Network
              Oklahoma Commission on Children and
OCCY          Youth

OKDHS         Oklahoma Department of Human Services
ODSS          Oklahoma Directors of Special Services
OHCA          Oklahoma Health Care Authority
OSBI          Oklahoma State Bureau of Investigation
              Oklahoma State Department of Education
OSDE          (SDE)
OSDH          Oklahoma State Department of Health
OSIS          Oklahoma Support Information System

OT            Oklahoma Teaching Hospitals applications

              OLAP Server

              OLE Automation Controller

              OLE Automation Objects

              OLE Automation Server
OCX    OLE Custom Control

       OLE DB

       OLE DB Consumer

       OLE DB for OLAP

       OLE DB Provider

1:M    One-to-many Relationship

1:1    One-to-one Relationship

OLAP   On-line Analytical Processing

       Online Meeting
       Online Redo Log

       Online Transaction Processing

OLTP   On-Line Transaction Processing
       Onward Transfer
OAG    Open Applications Group

OCS    Open Control Systems

OIM    Open Data Services

ODBC   Open Database Connectivity

ODSI   Open Directory Service Interface

       Open Information Model

ONA    Open Network Architecture
       Open Network Computing - Sun
ONC    Microsysetms

OSF    Open Software Foundation

       Open Systems

OSI    Open Systems Interconnection
OV     Open View


       OpenType Layout
OS        Operating System

          Operating System Process
OS/2      Operating System/2

OS2/ EE   Operating System/2 Extended Edition

OS2/ SE   Operating System/2 Standard Edition
OS/400    Operating System/400


          Operation of Law

          Operational Data

ODS       Operational Data Store

          Operational System


          Operations Research

          Opt In
      Opt Out

OCR   Optical Character Recognition
ODD   Optical Disk Drive

      Optical Fiber


      Oracle Designer

      Oracle Developer

      Oracle Discoverer

      Oracle Enterprise Manager

      Oracle Forms

      Oracle Parallel Processor
      Oracle Reports

      Ordered Set

      Organization Unit

OU    Organizational Unit

      Origin Object

OEM   Original Equipment Manufacturer


      Otimize Synchronization

      Outer Join

      Outlook Nickname Utility

      Outside Link




      Overflow Characters



PDF   Package Definition File


      Page Split
      Paper Documentation
PES   Parallel Enterprise Server

      Parallel Processing

      Parallel Processor

      Parallel Query Option

PQS   Parallel Query Server
      Parallel Sysplex

PTS   Parallel Transaction Server


      Parameter Connection

      Parameterized Element

      Parent Class

      Parent Entity

      Parent-Child Relationship

      Parent-child Trust Relationship



      Partitioned Data
      Partitioned Data SetSometimes called:PDS
PDS   or a Library


      Parts of Speech

      Pass Order

      Passive Voice


      Pass-through Query

      Pass-through Statement


PAP   Password Authentication Protocol

       Path Analysis

       Path Gradient Brush

       Path-Dependent Function


       Peace Officer

       Peer Web Services

       Peer-to-Peer Communications
PPRC   Peer-to-Peer Remote Copy
       Percent Function Coverage


         Performance Measures
         Performance Testing
PCI      Peripheral Componant Interconnect
         Per-machine Settings
         Permanent Data Set



         Persistent Object
PC       Personal Computer
PCLAN    Personal Computer Local Area Network

PC-DOS   Personal Computer-Disk Operating System
         Personal Data

PDA      Personal Digital Assistant

PDL      Personal Distribution Lists

PID      Personal ID

PIN      Personal Identification Number
         Personal Information

         Personal Injury


PII      Personally Identifiable Information

         Per-user settings






      Physical Data Model

      Physical Name
      Physical Quantity

      Physical Reads
PT    Physical Therapist / Physical Therapy

PU    Physical Unit

PUP   Physical Unit Passthru

      Physical Vulnerability
      Pilot Language


      Pivot Chart

      Pivot Table


      PivotTable Component



P3P   Platform For Privacy Preferences Project

PCM   Plug-Compatible Manufacturer

PCO   Point Of Control And Observation

POS   Point of Sale


      Point-to-Point Networking


        Policy engine

POOL    Pool Name

PDF     Pop Directional Formatting


PNG     Portable Network Graphics

        Portable Operating System for Computer
POSIX   Environments


        Positional Forms
        Positioned Update

        Possessive Case
        Post Adjudicated Review Board
PARBA   Administration

POP3    Post Office Protocol Version 3

PB      Power Builder

PERL    Practical Extraction & Reporting Language


        Precomposed Character




        Prefix Characters

        Prefix Length

        Prefix Search

PDR     Preliminary Design Review


        Preposition Phrasing

        Presentation Assistant
          Presentation Broadcast

          Presentation Layer

PM        Presentation Manager

          Presumed Father
PGP       Pretty Good Privacy
PM        Preventive Maintenance
PREVVOL   Previous Volume

          Primary Dimension Table

PDC       Primary Domain Controller

PK        Primary Key

          Primary Table

          Primitive Type
PCB      Printed Circuit Board
PCL      Printer Control Language


         Privacy Compromise

         Privacy Policy

         Privacy Statement


PCT      Private Communication Technology

         Private Dimension

         Private Fix

         Private Key

         Private-use Zone

         Procedural Gateway

PL/SQL   Procedural SQL

         Procedure Cache


         Process View


PR/SM   Processor Resource/Systems Manager



        Product Champion
PID     Product ID

PRD     Product Requirements Document

        Product Vulnerability
        Production Data

        Production System Monitoring

        Product-Line Architecture
PS      Professional Services - IBM



        Programmatic Paths
PL/1    Programming Language One

PMO   Project Management Office

PM    Project Manager

      Project Manager

PRA   Project Review Authority


      Proper Noun



      Property Pages

      Property-To-Property Connection



      Protocol Conversion



      Proximity Search


      Proxy Server
PS    PS 2
PS2   PS2



      Public Key

      Public Key Encryption
PKI   Public Key Infrastructure


      Publication Database

      Publication Retention Period
      Published Data

      Published Model


      Publishing Server

      Publishing Table
      Pubs Database

      Pull Subscription

      Push Subscription



      Qualitative Text Analysis

QA      Quality Assurance
QA/QC   Quality Assurance/Quality Control

        Quality Control
QE      Quality Engineering
QoS     Quality of Service

        Quality Review

        Quality Risk


        Quasi-Experimental Design
QBE     Query by Example

QMF     Query Management Facility

        Query Optimizer

        Query Tools


        Question Builder

        Question File

        Question Template

Q       Queue

        Queue Time
QFA     Quick File Access
QFE    Quick Fix Engineering

       Quick Launch bar
QR     Quick Response

       QuickFind Contact

       Race Condition
RACK   Rack


       Ragged Hierarchy
RAM    Random Access Memory

       Random Assignment


       Range Query

RAD        Rapid Application Development

           Rapid Application Development (Rad)

RAAD       Rapid Architected Application Development

           Rational ClearCase

           Rational ClearQuest

RPW        Rational Process Workbench

           Rational Rose
           Rational SoDA

           Rational XDE
           RCDATA Resource

READDATE   Read Date

ROM        Read Only Memory

           Reading Order

           Real Data Type

           Real-Time System

           Recalculate Web

           Receive A Message

        Recommendation Report

RECFM   Record Format


        Recovery Interval

ROC     Recovery Operation Center

        Recursive Foreign Key

        Recursive Partitioning
        Redo Log File

RISC    Reduced Instruction Set Computer


RAID    Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disk

        Reference Data
        Reference Table
        Referenced Key
RK      Referencing Key
RI      Referential Integrity

        Referential Integrity Constraint


        Reflexive Relationship

        Refresh Data



        Regression Test
        Regular Cube
        Regular Dimension
RS      Rehabilitations Services


        Relational Database

RDBMS   Relational Database Management System
ROLAP   Relational OLAP

        Relational Study


RM      Relationship Manager

        Relationship Object

        Relationship Type

RDN     Relative Distinguished Name
RID     Relative Identifier

        Relative URL


        Release Delta

        Release Manager
R+     Reliability Plus

RAS    Reliability, Availability and Serviceability
RMT    Remote
RAS    Remote Access Server - Microsoft

       Remote Attack

       Remote bridge

       Remote Data

RDO    Remote Data Objects
RDA    Remote Database Access

       Remote Distributor

RFA    Remote File Access

       Remote Host
RIPS   Remote Installation Preparation System

RJE    Remote Job Entry

       Remote Login Identification

RMI    Remote Method Invocation

       Remote Partition

RPC    Remote Procedure Call

       Remote Server
RSS    Remote Service Structure

       Remote Stored Procedure

       Remote Table

RMM    Removable Media Management
       Repeated Measures

       Replicated Data


       Replication Conflict Viewer

       Replication Monitor

       Replication Scripting

       Replication Topology

RDS    Report Distribution System


       Repository Engine

       Repository Object

RTIM   Repository SQL Schema

       Repository Type Information Model


RFC    Request For Change
RFC    Request For Comments

RFI    Request for Information
RFP    Request for Proposal
RFQ    Request For Quotation


       Requirement Attribute

       Requirement Type


       Requirements Management

       Requirements Tracing

R&D    Research And Development
RV     Residual Value

       Resilient Application

       Resolution Strategy


RACF   Resource Access Control Facility
        Resource File

RMF     Resource Measurement Facility

        Response Time



        Result Set

        Retained Support

RETPD   Retention Period
ROA     Return on Assets

ROE     Return on Equity

ROI     Return On Investment

        Return Parameters

        Reusable Bookmark



        Rich Text

        Rich Text Edit

RTF     Rich Text Format

        Right Outer Join

RTL     Right-to-left
RLE     Right-to-left Embedding
      Right-to-left Embedding Mark
RLO   Right-to-left Override

      Right-to-left Override Mark
      Right-to-left Text



      Risk Management Application
RSA   Rivest-Shamir-Adleman Algorithm

      RMI Compiler

      RMI Registry

      Roaming User

      Roaming User Profile


      Role-based Authorization

      Roll Back

      Roll Forward


      Rollback Script
         Roll-Up Queries

         Root Form

         Root Web


         Round-trip Conversion


         Routing Bridge


         Row Aggregate Function

         Row Filter
         Row Lock


RS232C   RS232C



        Run Time

        Run-time Library

        Runtime System

        Safe Harbor Agreement

        Safe Harbor Principles


        Sample Data



        Scalar Aggregate

        Scan Code

      Scheduled Backup


      Schema Master

      Schema MOF

      Schema Rowset


      Scientific Method

      Scope Management

SCR   Scratch

      Screen Coordinates

      Screen Dump

         Scripting Engine

         Scripting Language


         Search Condition

2NF      Second Normal Form

         Secondary Data Uses
SET      Secure Electronic Transaction
SHTTP    Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol
S/MIME   Secure Mime

SNC      Secure Network Communications

SSL      Secure Sockets Layer

SID      Security Identifier

         Security Principal

         Security Update
DCC      See “DCCL”


Select List

Select Query




Semantic Object

Semantic Variation Point


Semiadditive Measure


Send/Receive Mode


Sensitive Cursor

Sensitive Data

      Sequence Diagram

      Sequence Diagrams

      Sequenced Collection

      Sequenced Relationship
SSA   Serial Storage Architecture



      Server Cursor

      Server Health

      Server Name
      Server name(S55R01)


      Service Deployment
SD    Service Desk
SLA   Service Level Agreement
        Service Pack

SLR     Service-Lever Reporter

SOA     Service-Oriented Architecture


        Servlet Container

        Servlet Container, Distributed



        Session Bean

        Setup Initialization File

        Setup Project


        Severity Level

        Shared Dimension

        Shared Lock

        Shared-Nothing Architecture
D$      Shares
C$      Shares
SHELF   Shelf

        Shortcut Key



        Sim Ship

SMTP    Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
SNMP    Simple Network Management Protocol

SOAP    Simple Object Access Protocol

SPOOL   Simulated Peripheral Operations On-line

        Simultaneous Ship

        Single Binary

        Single Inheritance
        Single Sign On

        Single Valued

SBCS    Single-byte Character Set

        Single-Image Mode

        Single-master Operations

        Single-user Mode
SBM    Skills-Based Management



       Slice And Dice

       Slowly Changing Dimensions

       Small Business Tools
SCSI   Small Computer System Interface

       Smalldatetime Data Type

       Smallint Data Type

       Smallmoney Data Type

       Smart Card

       Smart Tags

       Smoke Test

       SMS Installer

       SMTP Mail Server

       Snapshot Agent

       Snapshot Agent Utility
       Snapshot Cursor

       Snapshot Replication

        Snowflake Model

        Snowflake Schema

        Soap-Opera Testing

SOCKS   Socket Secure

SF      Softfail
SW      Software
        Software Application

        Software Architecture

SWAMI   Software Asset Management Group

        Software Capability Maturity Model (Sw-

SCM     Software Change Management

SCLM    Software Configuration and Library Manager

SDK     Software Development Kit
SDLC   Software Development Life Cycle

SEPA   Software Engineering Process Authority

       Software Maintenance

       Software Requirement

SRS    Software Requirements Specifications

SSR    Software Specification Review

       Software Update

SSD    Solid State Disk

       Solve Order

       Sort Keys

       Sort Order

       Source and Target
       Source Code
       Source Cube
       Source Data

       Source Database

       Source List

       Source Object

       Source Partition

       Spacing Character
       Spaghetti Code


spec   Specification
SLP    Speech and Language Pathologist


       Spreadsheet Component

       SQL Collation
       SQL Database

       SQL Expression

       SQL Mail

       SQL Query

       SQL Query Analyzer

       SQL Server

       SQL Server Authentication

       SQL Server Enterprise Manager

       SQL Server Event Forwarding Server
       SQL Server Login
       SQL Server Role
       SQL Server User

       SQL Statement

       SQL String Functions

       SQL_variant Data Type


       Stakeholder Need

       Stakeholder Request

       Standalone System
       Standard Security

SGML   Standardized Generalized Markup Language


       Star Join

       Star Model

       Star Query

       Star Schema

     Start Page



     State Machine
     Statechart Diagram
     Stateful Session Bean

     Stateless Session Bean


     Statement Coverage

     Statement Permission
     Statement Test
     Static Artifact

     Static Classification

     Static Code Analyzer

     Static Cursor
     Static Information

     Static IP address

     Static SQL Statements
ST   Status

     Status Window

     Step Object


SMS   Storage Management System
      Storage Resource Management or System
SRM   Resource Manager
STK   Storage Technology Corp./StorageTek
STC   Storage Technology Corporation

      Store-and-forward Database

      Stored Procedure
SPA   Strategic Planning Assumptions

      Stroke Count
      Strong Character
      Strong Entity Type

      Strong Password
      Structural Feature

      Structural Model Aspect

      Structural Test
SFS   Structured File Server - Transarc
SQL   Structured Query Language
      Structured Storage File
      Structured System


      Subactivity State



      Subject Area

      Submachine State


      Subscribing Server


      Subscription Database


      Subset Phrasing




          Subtype Entity


          Summary Data

          Summary Table


          Superlative Form

          Supertype Entity
SSI       Supplemental Security Income
          Supplemental Security Income Disabled
SSI-DCP   Children's Program




          Switched Access

SVC       Switched Virtual Circuit


SMP       Symmetrical Multiprocessing

          Synch State

SyncMgr   Synchronization Manager


          Synchronous Action

SDLC      Synchronous Data Link Control





S/370     System 370

S/390     System 390

          System Administrator

          System Catalog
SCM      System Configuration Manager

         System Databases

         System Functions

         System Generated Key

         System Locale

SMS      System Management Server

SNA      System Network Architecture

         System Policy Editor
SYSOUT   System Produced Output

SRR      System Requirements Review

         System Stored Procedures

         System Tables

         System Test
SAA   Systems Application Architecture

SI    Systems Integration or Integrator

SMF   Systems Management Facility

SAP   Systems, Applications, And Products

T1    T1
T2    T2
T3    T3

      Table Data Type
      Table Lock

      Table Scan

TDS   Table-level Constraint

      Tabular Data Stream

      Tagged Value

      Tape Backup
      Target Object
         Target Partition

         Target Test Item


Tempdb   Task Object
         Tasks List

         Team Leader

         Technical Authority


         Technology Transfer

TDD      Telecommunication Devices for the Deaf

TCAM     Telecommunications Access Method

Telco    telephone company



TANF     Temporary Assistance for Needy Families
         Temporary Data Set

         Temporary Database

         Temporary Stored Procedure

         Temporary Table
Tbyte    Terabyte
TB       Terabyte

TS       Terminal Server
TSUser   Terminal Server User

TS       Terminal Services
T&C      Terms and Conditions

         Ternary Relationship

         Test 1

         Test Case
Test Coverage

Test Cycle

Test Driver

Test Effort

Test Environment

Test Escape

Test Idea
Test Inspection

Test Inventory
Test Mission

Test Motivator

Test Oracle

Test Procedure

Test Requirement

Test Scenario
      Test Script
      Test Set

      Test Suite



      Text Data Type
      Text Element
TOM   Text Object Model

      Text Object Model Interfaces

RUP   The Rational Unified Process®



      Theory-Driven Evaluation

TCM   Thermal Conduction Module
        Theta Join

        Thin Client

3NF     Third Normal Form

3GL     Third-Generation Language

        Third-party Seal


        Thread Locale

        Tie Line

TCM     Tightly Coupled Multiprocessor

        Time Dimension

        Time Event
        Time Expression
        Time Picture String
        Time Series

        Time Stamp
TTL     Time To Live


TSO     Time-Sharing Option
TSO/E   Time-Sharing Option/Extended
TS    Timestamp

      Timestamp Data Type

      Timing Mark

      Tinyint Data Type

      Token Bus

      Token Passing

      Token Ring

TRN   Token Ring Network


      Tool Mentor


      Top Link Bar

      Top-Down Testing

TCO   Total Cost of Ownership
      Total Independent Paths (Tip)
TQM   Total Quality Management
TVO   Total Value of Opportunity

      TPC Benchmarks

      Trace File

         Traceability Item
TRK      Tracks


         Training Data Set


         Trait Phrasing


TCP/IP   Transaction Control Protocol/Internet Protocol

         Transaction Log

         Transaction Logging

TP       Transaction Processing

         Transaction Rollback

         Transactional Replication
Tpm      transactions per minute
tps      transactions per second

      Transact-SQL Cursor



      Transformable Subscription


      Transient Data

      Transient Object

      Transitive Dependency

      Transitive Trust

TCP   Transmission Control Protocol



      Transparent Gateway

      Transport Layer
TLS   Transport Layer Security



      Treatment Group


      Tribal Office Case


      Trigger (Database)
      Triggering Data
      Trojan Horse
TT    Trouble Ticket



      Trusted Connection



      Twisted Pair

      Two-phase Commit

      Type A Organization

      Type B Organization

      Type C Organization
      Type Expression

UHF   Ultra High Frequency

      Unary Relationship

      Unbalanced Hierarchy

      Unbind Office Binders Utility

      Underlying Table

      Underwriters Laboratory (Ul)

      Unenforced Relationship


      Unicode Collation
      Unicode Format

UML   Unified Modeling Language

URL   Uniform Resource Locator

UPS          Uninterruptible Power Supply

             Union Query
UP           Uni-processor

             UNIQUE Constraints

             Unique Index

             Uniqueidentifier Data Type


UOA          Unit of Analysis

             Unit Test

UTOS Model   Units, Treatments, Observations, Settings
UDB          Universal Database

             Universal Description, Discovery, and
UDDI         Integration

             Universal Group

UNC          Universal Naming Convention
USB          Universal Serial Bus

UTS          Universal Time-Sharing System
UAP          University Affiliated Program

UNIX         Unix
UII   UNIX International Inc.

      Unmanaged code

      Unreproducible Bug
UCE   Unsolicited Commercial E-mail


      Update Lock
      Update Query

      Update Rollup

      Update Statistics



      Usability Testing


      Usage Analysis

      Use Case

      Use Case Diagram

       Use-Case Diagram

       Use-Case Instance

       Use-Case Model

       Use-Case Package

       Use-Case Realization

       Use-Case Section

       Use-Case View

USER   User
       User Acceptance Test (Uat)

       User Account

UA     User Assistance
       User Customized Templates

       User Database
UDF    User Defined Functions

UI     User Interface

       User Locale

       User Metadata
UNI    User Network Interface

       User Profile

       User Rights
       User-defined Character
      User-defined Data Type

      User-defined Event

      User-defined Function

      User-focused Approach

      User-interface Language


VAN   Value Added Network

VAR   Value Added Reseller

      Value Expression
      Value Questing

VAI   Value-added Internetwork

      Varbinary Data Type

      Varchar Data Type


VBR   Variable Bit Rate

VLT       Vault

VAX/VMS   VAX Virtual Memory System

VF        Vector Facility

VML       Vector Markup Language
VEM       Vendor Evaluation Model


          Verb Phrasing




          Version Stamp



          Vertical Filtering

          Vertical Kerning

          Vertical Metrics

          Vertical Partitioning
VHF       Very High Frequency
VLDB      Very Large Database

          Very Large Dimension
VLSI   Very Large Scale Integrated Circuit
VDT    Video Display Terminal
VDU    Video Display Unit
VGA    Video Graphics Array
VOD    Video on Demand or Voice Over Data


       View Bar

       View Element

       View Generation

       View Lists Right

       View Projection

       View, Database
VAX    Virtual Address Extension

VC     Virtual Channel
       Virtual Cube

       Virtual Dimension

VLAN   Virtual LAN

VM     Virtual Machine

VM     Virtual Memory
VNC    Virtual Network Connection

VPDN   Virtual Private Data Network

VPN    Virtual Private Network
           Virtual Server

VS         Virtual Storage

VSAM       Virtual Storage Access Method

           Virtual Storage Extended/Enterprise Systems
VSE/ESA    Architecture
VTS        Virtual Tape Subsystems

VTAM       Virtual Telecommunications Access Method

VT         Virtual Terminal
VTP        Virtual Terminal Protocol

VET        Virus Eradication Team


VB         Visual Basic

           Visual Basic Editor

VBX        Visual Basic Extension

VB.NET     Visual Basic for the .NET Framework

VBScript   Visual Basic Scripting Edition
           Visual C++
VI         Visual InterDev

           Visual Keyboard
       Visual Order

       Visual Programming Tool
       Visual Studio .NET

       Visual Total

VRS    Vital Record Specification

VRU    Voice Response Unit
VOL    Volume

VPA    Volume Purchase Agreement
VSN    Volume Serial Number

VTOC   Volume Table of Contents


       W APIs

       Waterfall Model
WAV    Waveform Audio

       Weak Entity Type

       Weak Password

       Web Address

       Web Application
WAS    Web Application Server
          Web Browser

          Web Collaboration

          Web Folders NameSpace Extension

          Web Forms

          Web Notification

          Web Parts

          Web Query

          Web Server

WSDL      Web Service Description Language

          Web services

          Web Site

          Web System



WYSIWYG   What You See Is What You Get
          WHERE clause

          White Box Testing

          Wide Character

WAN       Wide-Area Network



        Wildcard Characters

        Wildcard Search
        Win32 API

        Win32s API
WPM     Window Presentation Management

        Windows .NET Framework
W2K     Windows 2000

Win95   Windows 95

        Windows Authentication

        Windows Collation

        Windows Forms

        Windows Forms Controls

        Windows Forms Designer

MSI     Windows Installer
WIP     Windows Interface Protocol
WINS    Windows Internet Name Services

        Windows NT
        Windows NT Option Pack

        Windows NT Super Thin Client

        Windows Registry

        Windows Services

        Windows Update

WIMPS   Windows, Icons, Mouse, Pointers, Scroll bars

WAP     Wireless Access Protocol

WLAN    wireless LAN
WML     Wireless Markup Language
        Women, Infants and Children (nutrition
WIC     program)

        Word Generation
WP      Word Processing
wpm     words per minute

WBS     Work Breakdown Structure
WIP     work in progress
WLM     Work Load Manager


        Workflow Detail

WkGp    Workgroup

        Working Hypothesis


WWW         World Wide Web
Web         World Wide Web

W3C         World Wide Web Consortium


            Worldwide Executable


            Write Back
WRITEDATE   Write Date

            Write Enable

            Write-ahead Log

WORM        Write-Once, Read-Many

            Writing System
            X Terminal

            X Windows

X.21        X.21
X.25     X.25

XI       X.25 SNA Interconnection

X.400    X.400

X.500    X.500

X.509    X.509

X/Open   X/Open

XMI      XML Metadata Interchange
         XML Web Services

         Year 2000 Compliance

Y2K      Year 2000 Problem

         Yield Analysis Application
ZIP      Zone Information Protocol
                                      Definition                                              Source
A popular e-mail standard (other than PGP). In order to use S-MIME, you must first get
a "certificate". There are many freeware and commercial sources for certificates. You
must then save the "private" portion in a secure location so that it cannot be lost;
otherwise, if someone steals it, they can impersonate you. If you lose it, then you will
not be able to read your e-mail.                                                               A&D
In Java, a file format used for aggregating many files into one.                               ORA

Microsoft .NET is software that connects information, people, systems, and devices. It
spans clients, servers, and developer tools, and consists of: The .NET Framework 1.1,
used for building and running all kinds of software, including Web-based applications,
smart client applications, and XML Web services-components that facilitate integration
by sharing data and functionality over a network through standard, platform-
independent protocols such as XML (Extensible Markup Language), SOAP, and HTTP.
Developer tools, such as Microsoft Visual Studio® .NET 2003 which provides an
integrated development environment (IDE) for maximizing developer productivity with
the .NET Framework. A set of servers, including Microsoft Windows® Server 2003,
Microsoft SQL Server™, and Microsoft BizTalk® Server, that integrates, runs, operates,
and manages Web services and Web-based applications. Client software, such as
Windows XP, Windows CE, and Microsoft Office XP, that helps developers deliver a
deep and compelling user experience across a family of devices and existing products.

A platform that enables the creation and use of Extensible Markup Language (XML)-
enabled applications, processes, and Web sites as services that share and combine
information and functionality with each other by design. The .NET Framework is
available for Windows platforms or smart devices, providing tailored solutions for
organizations and individuals. See Common Language Runtime (CLR).
A service that allows a Web user to create a single set of credentials that can be used
to access any site that supports a Microsoft .NET Passport service. The objective of the
Passport single sign-in service is to increase customer satisfaction by allowing Web
site visitors easy access without the frustration of repetitive registrations and forgotten
passwords.                                                                                     MSN
A Sun Microsystems initiative to guide developers in writing, certifying, and marketing
applications written entirely in the Java programming language.                                ORA
100-megabit-per-second (Mbps) standard for copper cabling used with Fast Eithernet,
often used to mean Fast Eithernet with copper cabling.                                         Gen
Local-area network (LAN) standard of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers (EEE) 802 committee for transmission of 100 megabits per second (Mbps)
over unshielded twisted pair (UTP).                                                            Gen
Method of local-area network (LAN) transmission based on 100Base-VG that builds on
aspects of both Token Ring and Eithernet to run at 100 megabits per second (Mbps)
with resilience and high realization of potential.                                             Gen

Broadband 10 megabits per second (Mbps) network running over thick coaxial cable.
One megabit per second (Mbps) transmission over twisted-pair configurations.                   Gen

Continuous availability: 24 hours a day, seven days a week. A continuously available
system exhibits two characteristics: high availability and continuous operations.
The Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Basic Rate Interface (BRI) which is
comprised of two 64 Kbps bearer (B) channels and one 16 kilobits per second (Kbps) D
channel.                                                                                       Gen
The generic term for IBM's synchronous, interactive terminal environment which
includes: * Cluster Controllers (3174, 3274, 3276). * Displays (3178, 3179, 3191,
3192, 3277, 3278, 3279, 3290 flat plasma panel). * Printers (3287, 3262, 3268, 3812,
3820). The environment is characterized by distinct protocols and designations, such
as BSC, SDLC, SNA and LU/PU devices.                                                           Gen
Generic term for IBM's mainframe architecture. Families with 370 architecture include
370/XXX, 9370, 43XX, 303X, 308X and 3090.                                                      Gen
An IBM front end processor (FEP) that offers significant performance and availability
improvements over the 3725 FEP. The 3745 is the first IBM FEP to support T1 line
multiplexing.                                                                                 Gen
Generic term for IBM's mainframe architecture announced on 9/90. The ES/9000
product suite is the first implementation of the 390 architecture. The suite includes 18
models spanning performance from 2 MIPS through 230 MIPS. The ES/900 suite
replaces the 9370, 4391, and 3090 product families.                                           Gen
Descriptive of the abnormal termination of an application or system function.                 Gen
Of or relating to a subject in the abstract without practical purpose or intention. Not
applied or practical; theoretical. Considered apart from concrete existence. Contrast:
concrete. See: abstract class. A concept or idea not associated with any specific
instance. Synonym: abstraction. A summary of the main points of an argument or
theory. Synonyms: outline, synopsis.                                                          RUP
A class that provides common behavior across a set of subclasses but is not itself
designed to have instances. An abstract class represents a concept; classes derived
from it represent implementations of the concept. See also: base class. Contrast:
concrete class.                                                                               RUP
The creation of a view or model that suppresses unnecessary details to focus on a
specific set of details of interest. The essential characteristics of an entity that
distinguish it from all other kinds of entities. An abstraction defines a boundary relative
to the perspective of the viewer.                                                             RUP
An Alt+character combination used to activate menus, menu items, and dialog box
items in Windows. The character that activates the menu or dialog box item is
underlined. It is also called a “hot key.”                                                    MSN
A character that has a diacritic attached to it—such as “ñ.” See Extended characters
and Diacritic.                                                                                MSN
An action by which the customer accepts ownership of software products as a partial or
complete performance of a contract.                                                           RUP
In respect to privacy, an individual's ability to view, modify, and contest the accuracy
and completeness of personally identifiable information (PII) collected about him or her.
Access is an element of the Fair Information Practices.                                       MSN
The management of permissions for logging on to a computer or network.                        MSN
Each ACE contains a security identifier (SID), which identifies the principal (user or
group) to whom the ACE applies, and information on what type of access the ACE
grants or denies.                                                                             MSN
A data security software product distributed by Computer Associates for the S/370
environment. Also called CA-ACF2.                                                             Gen

(1) A list that indicates which users or groups have permission to access or modify a
particular file on Windows NT. (2) A set of data associated with a file, directory, or
other resource that defines the permissions that users and/or groups have for
accessing it. In the Active Directory™ service, an ACL is a list of access control entries
(ACEs) stored with the object it protects. In the Windows NT® operating system, an
ACL is stored as a binary value, called a security descriptor. (3) A list associated with a
file that contains information about which users or groups have permission to access or
modify a file. (2) The specification of an executable statement that forms an abstraction
of a computational procedure. An action typically results in a change in the state of the
system, and can be realized by sending a message to an object or modifying a link or a
value of an attribute.

A keyword that controls access to a class, method, or attribute. The access modifiers in
Java are public, private, protected, and package, which is the default.

A data structure that contains authorization information for a user or group. A system
uses an access token to control access to securable objects and to control the ability of
a user to perform various system-related operations on a local computer.
The extent to which computers are easy to use and available to a wide range of users,
including people with disabilities.                                                           MSN
Methods that an object provides to define the interface to its instance variables. The
accessor method to return the value of an instance variable is called a get method or
getter method, and the mutator method to assign a value to an instance variable is
called a set method or setter method.                                                       RUP
A man who has established a father-child relationship by signing an acknowledgment of
paternity.(See also: Adjudicated Father; Alleged Father; Legal Father; Presumed
Father; Putative Father)                                                                    CSED
(1) An end user-initiated operation upon a selected cube or portion of a cube. The
operation can launch an application with the selected item as a parameter or retrieve
information about the selected item.                                                        MSN
An expression that resolves to a sequence of actions.                                       RUP
A state that represents the execution of an atomic action, typically the invocation of an
operation.                                                                                  RUP
The execution of an action.                                                                 RUP
A class representing a thread of control in the system. A class whose instances are
active objects. See: active object.                                                         RUP

A structure supported by Windows® 2000 that lets any object on a network be tracked
and located. Active Directory is the directory service used in Windows 2000 Server and
provides the foundation for Windows 2000 distributed networks.

A client-side product based on the Component Object Model (COM). ADSI defines a
directory service model and a set of COM interfaces that enable Windows NT and
Windows 95 client applications to access several network directory services, including
Active Directory. ADSI allow applications to communicate with Active Directory. ADSI
provides the means for directory service clients to use one set of interfaces to
communicate with any namespace that provides an ADSI implementation. ADSI clients
gain a simpler access to namespace services by using ADSI in place of the network-
specific application programming interface (API) calls. ADSI conforms to and supports
standard COM features. ADSI also defines interfaces and objects accessible from
automation-compliant languages such as Java, Visual Basic®, and Visual Basic
Scripting Edition (VBScript), as well as from non-automation-compliant languages such
as C and C++, which enhance performance. In addition, ADSI supplies its own OLE
database provider, and so fully supports any clients already using an OLE database,
including those using ActiveX® technologies.
An ActiveX control that provides limited IMM service on non-Asian language versions of
Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows Me, and Windows NT 4 platforms. It is replaced by
the more general Text Services Framework in Windows XP. Active IMM is also known
as “Global IME.”                                                                            MSN
An area of cached memory that stores Web pages and allows for quicker save and
recalculation processes.                                                                    MSN
An object that owns a thread and can initiate control activity. An instance of active
class.                                                                                      RUP

An ASCII text file that contains embedded server-side scripting and Hypertext Markup
Language (HTML) elements. ASP-compatible Web servers can execute these scripts.
On the client side, an ASP file is a standard HTML document that can be viewed on any
platform using any Web browser. ASP files have the .asp extension.

(1) The new generation of Active Server Pages (ASP) files written in a managed
language on the Common Language Runtime (CLR) using the .NET Framework. Also
known as “ASP+,” and “ASPX.”. (2) A component of the Microsoft .NET Framework for
building, deploying, and running Web applications and distributed applications.
An SQL statement that has been executed but whose result set has not yet been
canceled or fully processed.                                                                MSN

Indicates the subject of the sentence is the entity that performs the action described by
the verb. For example, customers buy products is in active voice, whereas products are
bought by customers is in passive voice. See also: passive voice
An Application Programming Interface (API) that enhances Microsoft’s Object Linking
and Embedding (OLE) protocol. Often compared to Java, ActiveX facilitates various
Internet applications, and therefore extends and enhances the functionality of
Microsoft’s Internet Explorer browser. Like Java, ActiveX enables the development of
interactive content. When an ActiveX-aware browser encounters a Web page that
includes an unfamiliar feature, it automatically installs the appropriate applications so
the feature can be used. For ActiveX to be effective, Web pages must conform to
standards established by Microsoft. While not a direct replacement for Java, ActiveX
will allow Microsoft and other Windows software to gain some of the portability of Java
applets. (2) A set of technologies that enables software components to interact with
one another in a networked environment, regardless of the language in which the
components were created. ActiveX, which was developed as a proposed standard by
Microsoft in the mid-1990s and is currently administered by the Open Group, is built on
Microsoft's Component Object Model (COM). Currently, ActiveX is used primarily to
develop interactive content for the World Wide Web, although it can be used in desktop
programs and other programs. ActiveX controls can be embedded in Web pages to               Gen
produce animation and other multimedia effects, interactive objects, and sophisticated
A reusable software component that incorporates ActiveX technology. An ActiveX
Control can be used to add specialized functionality, such as animation or user
interaction, to Web pages, desktop programs, and software development tools. It is
often downloaded and executed automatically by a Web browser. ActiveX controls can
be written in a variety of programming languages, including C, C++, Visual Basic, and
Java. Push buttons, scroll bars, radio buttons, and pull-down menus are examples of
ActiveX Controls.                                                                           MSN
(1) Programming objects that represent the structure of your database and the data it
contains. ActiveX Data Objects can be used to access different types of data, including
Web pages, spreadsheets, and so on. (2) An easy-to-use application programming
interface (API) that wraps OLE DB for use in languages such as Visual Basic, Visual
Basic for Applications, Active Server Pages, and Microsoft Internet Explorer Visual
Basic Scripting.                                                                            MSN
A set of classes that expose data-access services to the .NET programmer. ADO.NET
supplies a rich set of components for creating distributed, data-sharing applications. It
is an integral part of the .NET Framework, providing access to relational data, XML
integration, and application data.                                                          MSN
(ADO MD) A high-level, language-independent set of object-based data access
interfaces optimized for multidimensional data applications. Visual Basic and other
automation languages use ADO MD as the data access interface to multidimensional
data storage. ADO MD is a part of ADO 2.0 and later.                                        MSN
A unit of work a role may be asked to perform.                                              RUP
Activity diagrams provide a way to model the workflow of a business process. You can
also use activity diagrams to model code-specific information such as a class
operation.                                                                                  A&D

A special case of a state machine that is used to model processes involving one or
more classifiers. Contrast: statechart diagram. Synonym: activity diagram.
A methodology that measures the cost and performance of activities, resources, and
cost objects. Resources are assigned to activities, then activities are assigned to cost
objects based on their use. Activity based costing recognizes the causal relationships
of cost drivers to activities.                                                              RUP
The broad discipline that focuses on achieving customer value and company profit by
way of the management of activities. It draws on activity-based costing as a major
source of information.                                                                      RUP
Actors represent system users. They help delimit the system and give a clearer picture
of what the system should do                                                                A&D
Defines a set of actor instances, in which each actor instance plays the same role in
relation to the system. A coherent set of roles that users of use cases play when
interacting with these use cases. An actor has one role for each use case with which it
communicates.                                                                               RUP
An actor generalization from an actor class (descendant) to another actor class
(ancestor) indicates that the descendant inherits the role the ancestor can play in a use
case.                                                                                       RUP
Someone or something, outside the system that interacts with the system.                     RUP
Total costs incurred that must relate to whatever cost was budgeted within the planned
value and earned value (which can sometimes be direct labor hours alone, direct costs
alone, or all cots including indirect costs) in accomplishing work during a given time
period. See also earned value.                                                               PMO

The point in time that work actually ended on an activity. (Note: In some application
areas, the activity is considered "finished" when work is "substantially complete.").
Synonym: argument.                                                                           RUP
The point in time that work actually started on an activity.                                 PMO

(1) Intermittent, spontaneous access to the database. (2) For this specific purpose; for
a special case only, without general application [an ad hoc committee].
The OpenRowset function in the FROM clause of a query, which allows all connection
information for an external server and data source to be issued every time the data
must be accessed.                                                                            MSN
A custom extension, written in any language that supports the Component Object
Model (COM), usually Visual Basic, that interacts with Analysis Manager and provides
specific functionality. Add-ins are registered with the Analysis Add-in Manager. They
are called by the Analysis Add-in Manager in response to user actions in the user
interface.                                                                                   MSN
Network Telecommunications                                                                   Gen
A type of analysis in which questions are answered by manipulating the dimensions,
dimension values, and layout of data.                                                        ORA
A way of expressing a relationship in English in which an entity is described by an
adjective (either a single word or another entity containing the adjective). For example,
in the phrasing the cities are hot, hot is the adjective, and cities is the entity being
described.                                                                                   MSN
A man who has been adjudicated by a court of competent jurisdiction to be the father of
a child.(See also: Acknowledged Father; Alleged Father; Legal Father; Presumed
Father; Putative Father)                                                                     CSED

A secondary CPU that is in communication with a primary CPU. This secondary CPU or
processor handles a specific task or function. Typically, the primary CPU sends traffic
to the adjunct processor to be processed. Also called an attached processor.
In states with administrative process, the decisions made by the statutorily defined
administrative agency have the same force as those made by the district court.
Administrative courts abide by the same rules for notices, hearings and judicial or
independent administrative review that govern the work of district courts in other states.
The main advantage of administrative court process is that it keeps routine child
support cases out of the crowded district court system so action can be taken more
quickly.                                                                                     CSED

Law created by administrative agencies in the form of rules, regulations, orders, and
decisions. Chapter 25 of Title 340 in the Oklahoma Administrative Code is the body of
law created by the Oklahoma Department of Human Services (OKDHS) Child Support
Enforcement Division (CSED).(See also: Case Law; Legislative Law)
Failure to observe administrative best practices, such as using a weak password or
logging on to an account that has more user rights than the user requires to perform a
specific task.                                                                               MSN
A collection of rights that allow a user to modify all Web site content and manage site
settings and accounts.                                                                       MSN
A component of the Microsoft® .NET Framework for data access.                                MSN

A mandatory report that is required to be filed with the federal government twice a year.
This report contains the various adoption and foster care cases that occurred in a
calendar year and is also liable for monetary penalities if not submitted timely.
An IBM software product that enables a user to manage storage, data access and
backup across multivendor enterprise wide networks.                                          Gen
A child eighteen (18) years of age or older. In Oklahoma, CSED interprets Section 112
of Title 43 of the Oklahoma Statutes as meaning that support continues for an 18 year
old child who is regularly and continuously attending high school if the custodial person
is providing the child with the necessities of life.
A collection of rights that allow a user to view, add, and change pages, documents in
libraries, discussion boards, themes, and borders, as well as manage tasks and
recalculate links.                                                                          MSN

The generic name for a family of IBM licensed programs consisting mainly of VTAM,
TCAM, NCP and SSP programs that use the principles of Systems Network
Architecture (SNA) and include the distribution of function and resource sharing.

See "VTAM".
Usually refers to a 56Kbps leased line.                                                     ORA
An IBM all-points-addressable enterprise wide print architecture.                           Gen
The UNIX System V-type operating system delivered by IBM for its RS/6000 technical
workstation, PS/2 and S/370.                                                                Gen
An extension of SNA Low Entry Networking (LEN; also known as PU 2.1), that provided
dynamic multi-path routing among S/36 and AS/400 nodes.                                     Gen
A true architecture within IBM's Systems Network Architecture (SNA) that documents
how modes can initiate and control processing within other environments supporting it.
APPC uses a common format for requests and data that all environments translate to fit
their specific processing environment. It is supported in both Type 2.0 and Type 2.1
connections.                                                                                Gen

(See APPC)
The part of speech modifying a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. In English Query,
adverbs such as very and recent are interpreted correctly; however, other adverbs,
such as rapidly or graciously are not interpreted.                                          MSN
An icon representing a program or feature that is configured during Office Setup to
install the first time you use it. See also Install on Demand.                              MSN
An official numbered OKDHS form used by customers (companies, individuals and
other states) to allege that checks have been fraudulently endorsed. It also serves to
protect the state from any loss or harm occasioned or sustained by the issuance of a
replacement check. (Formerly known as ADM-44-B)                                             CSED
 A class that represents the "whole" in an aggregation (whole-part) relationship. See:
aggregation.                                                                                RUP
A function that performs a calculation on a column in a set of rows and returns a single
value.                                                                                      MSN
A query (SQL statement) that summarizes information from multiple rows by including
an aggregate function such as Sum or Avg .                                                  MSN
Precalculated and prestored summary data that is held in tables in a data warehouse.
Aggregated data provides direct access to calculated data that improves query
performance. Functions used to calculate aggregated data include SUM, MAX, MIN,
COUNT, and AVG. See also summary table.                                                     ORA
(1) A table or structure that contains precalculated data for a cube. (2) A collection of
objects that makes a whole. An aggregation can be a concrete or conceptual set of
whole-part relationships among objects.                                                     MSN
A string that is combined with a system-defined ID to create a unique name for a
partition's aggregation table.                                                              MSN
A wrapper that encapsulates a COM object within another COM object.                         MSN
Aging Services Applications                                                                  ETS
(1) A user-defined response to a SQL Server event. Alerts can either execute a defined
task or send an e-mail and/or pager message to a specified operator (MSN). (2) A
notification to a user or groups of users identifying a task that needs to be performed
and when it needs to be performed. An Alert may be sent in the form of a task on the
user’s task list or an email. “Alerts” will be delivered as a Global Module that any
OKDHS system can use (CCL)                                                                  CCL
A mathematical expression used to encrypt or decrypt information.                           A&D
An alternative name for a table or column in expressions that is often used to shorten
the name for subsequent reference in code, prevent possible ambiguous references, or
provide a more descriptive name in the query output. An alias can also be an
alternative name for a server.                                                              MSN
To allow the name of an object, property, or relationship to be reused in a new context
while keeping all other attributes constant.                                                MSN
The single member of the (All) level. By default, the name of the All member is All
followed by a space and the dimension name. See also: default member                        MSN
Elements of a writing system composed of a collection of letters that have a one-to-one
relationship with a sound. See Letter.                                                      MSN
Consisting of either letters or numbers, or both.                                           MSN
A support order that provides one support amount for more than one child.                   CSED
A method of entering characters by typing in the character’s decimal code with the
Numeric Pad keys (Num Lock turned on). In Windows:                                          MSN
The routing of a call or message over a substitute route when an established route is
busy or otherwise unavailable for immediate use.                                            Gen
In fonts, alternates are similar to positional forms. For example, kanji uses alternative
forms of parentheses when positioned vertically.                                            MSN
The Alt key on the right on some non-U.S. Windows keyboard layouts. The AltGr key is
equivalent to the Ctrl+Alt key combination and is used to create an alternative shift
state for accessing additional characters on some keys.                                     MSN


An organization of American industry and business groups that develops trade and
communication standards for the United States. Through membership in the
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International
Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), ANSI coordinates American standards with
corresponding international standards. (2) The term “ANSI” as used to signify Windows
code pages is a historical reference, but is nowadays a misnomer that continues to
persist in the Windows community. The source of this comes from the fact that the
Windows code page 1252 was originally based on an ANSI draft—which became
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Standard 8859-1. “ANSI
applications” are usually a reference to non-Unicode or code page–based applications.

(1) A 7-bit encoding. Although primitive, ASCII’s set of 128 characters is the one
common denominator contained in most of the other standard character sets and in all
Windows and OEM code pages. (2) A widely used asynchronous protocol based on
ASCII code. A coded character set consisting of 7-bit coded characters (8 bits with
parity), used for information inter-exchange among data processing systems, data
communications systems and associated equipment. The ASCII set comprises
alphanumeric characters, control characters and graphic characters.

A signal transmission in which voltage varies continuously with time as a representation
of a physical quantity (e.g., voice wave forms or potentiometer settings).
(1) The part of the software development process whose primary purpose is to
formulate a model of the problem domain. Analysis focuses on what to do; design
focuses on how to do it. See: design. (2) Analysis is the separation of an intellectual or
material whole into its constituent parts for individual study. It is the study of such
constituent parts and their interrelationships in making up a whole, resulting in a spoken
or written presentation of such study.                                                       R&S
A discipline in the Unified Process, whose purpose is to show how the system's use
cases will be realized in implementation; (general) activities during which strategic and
tactical decisions are made to meet the required functional and quality requirements of
a system. See also: Design Model.                                                            RUP
An abstraction of a role played by a design element in the system, typically within the
context of a use-case realization. Analysis classes may provide an abstraction for
several roles, representing the common behavior of those roles. Analysis classes
typically evolve into one or more design elements; for example, design classes and/or
capsules, or design subsystems.                                                              RUP

An architectural mechanism used early in the design process, during the period of
discovery when key classes and subsystems are being identified. Typically analysis
mechanisms capture the key aspects of a solution in a way that is implementation
independent. Analysis mechanisms are usually unrelated to the problem domain, but
instead are "computer science" concepts. They provide specific behaviors to a domain-
related class or component, or correspond to the implementation of cooperation
between classes and/or components. They may be implemented as a framework.
Examples include mechanisms to handle persistence, inter-process communication,
error or fault handling, notification, and messaging, to name a few.
An object model describing the realization of use cases; serves as an abstraction of the
design model.                                                                                RUP

[FOW97a] speaks of analysis patterns as, "[...] groups of concepts that represent a
common construction in business modeling. It may be relevant to only one domain, or it
may span many domains. “Therefore, in this reference, the vocabulary of the domain
does intrude into the description of the pattern. There is no reason why the definition in
[FOW97a] should not be extended to domains other than business modeling. Another
aspect of an analysis pattern is that it is an abstract, conceptual template, intended
(through binding as with any pattern) for instantiation in an analysis model, which will
then need further refinement through design. The scale of an analysis pattern can vary
widely, though those presented in [FOW97a] are medium in scale, and would compose
to form analysis models for entire applications.
The server component of Analysis Services that is specifically designed to create and
maintain multidimensional data structures and provide multidimensional data in
response to client queries.                                                                  MSN
Refers to something that occurs during an analysis phase of the software development
process. See: design time, modeling time.                                                    RUP
Member of the project team who is responsible for eliciting and interpreting the
stakeholder needs, and communicating those needs to the entire team.                         RUP
Software that employs mathematical algorithm(s) to analyze the data contained in a
data warehouse. Data mining, OLAP, ROLAP, and other terms are used to designate
tools with different functionality. In practice, however, a given analytical tool may
provide more than one type of analysis procedure and may also encompass some
middleware functionality.                                                                    ORA
A member in a superior level in a dimension hierarchy that is related through lineage to
the current member within the dimension hierarchy. For example, in a Time dimension
containing the levels Quarter, Month, and Day, Qtr1 is an ancestor of January 1. See
also: child, descendant, parent, sibling                                                     MSN

A property that is maintained by Meta Data Services as string data that can be attached
to any repository object that exposes the IAnnotationalProps interface.
A place to post information for the team. By default, a view of the Announcements list
appears on the home page.                                                                    MSN
A condition in which an individual's true identity is unknown.                                MSN
An anonymous subscription is a type of pull subscription for which detailed information
about the subscription and the Subscriber is not stored.                                      MSN

The ability to access a Web server on which one does not have an account. Usually,
anonymous users have more restricted access rights than users with accounts.
The standardized C programming language.                                                      MSN
The Windows (ANSI) code page in use. Windows NT uses this code page to convert to
and from Unicode (UTF-16) automatically whenever an application calls one of the “A”
entry points of Win32 APIs.                                                                   MSN

The conversion of characters that must occur when data is transferred from a database
that stores character data using a specific code page to a client application on a
computer that uses a different code page. Typically, Windows-based client computers
use ANSI/ISO code pages, and some databases (for compatibility reasons) may use
OEM code pages, such as the MS-DOS 437 code page or code page 850.
The Answer Wizard uses Office Assistant as a tool to provide Help. You can ask
questions of the Assistant, and the Answer Wizard provides a list of the topics it feels
are most relevant.                                                                            MSN
A utility included in the Microsoft Office 2000 Resource Kit (ORK) that provides the
ability to build your own Answer Wizard content. This is useful in creating answers to
organization-specific questions.                                                              MSN
A software technique for smoothing the jagged appearance of curved or diagonal lines
caused by poor resolution on a display screen.                                                MSN

Software specifically designed for the detection and prevention of known viruses.
Freely distributed and widely used Web-server software available from the Apache
Group.                                                                                        ORA

A server cursor built to support the cursor functions of an application programming
interface (API), such as ODBC, OLE DB, ADO, and DB-Library. An application does not
usually request a server cursor directly; it calls the cursor functions of the API. The SQL
Server interface for that API implements a server cursor if that is the best way to
support the requested cursor functionality. See also: server cursor

(1) A Java program designed to run within a Web browser. Contrast: application. (2) A
small program that runs within an application. Applet’s are commonly used to make
otherwise static World Wide Web pages more interactive. Some examples are:
animated graphics, games, configurable bar charts, and scrolling messages. Applet’s
can help companies develop strong and positive identities through corporate Web sites.
Applet’s also play an important role in network computers (NCs). They increase an
NCs independence from the server because they do not have to communicate with the
operating system (resident on the server) to function once the Applet has been received
by the NC. Applet’s are an ingredient in a functioning NC installation, and therefore
contribute to saving companies significant money in their desktop computing strategies.
In Java, a networked device such as a printer, terminas, and client that is managed
using an application built using the Java management API (JMAPI). In computing, a
server dedicated to one specific function.                                                    ORA
A software program designed to enable end users to carry out a specific task or
function. Word processors, spreadsheets, graphics programs, and data managers are
examples of applications.                                                                     Gen
Describes the layout of an application’s deployment.                                          Gen

The strucured methodology that the Enterprise Applications Services unit will use to
design, develop, test and deploy maintenance requests and new projects for OKDHS.
The top of the seven layer OSI model, generally regarded as offering an interface to,
and largely defined by, the network user. It is the end user layer in SNA.
How automated functional and business capabilities are developed and managed
through their live cycle.                                                                     Gen

(1) A set of routines available in an application, such as ActiveX Data Objects (ADO),
for use by software programmers when designing an application interface. (2) An
interface that enables user-written programs to communicate with vendor-provided
products. For example, IBM has provided APIs for Presentation Manager, OS/2 EE
and various Office Vision services to enable users to add function to IBM-supplied
software. (3) A set of functions supported by the operating system. The Win32
application programming interface (API) entry points that usually expect string
parameters to be encoded in Windows code pages (also called “ANSI code pages”) or
sometimes OEM code pages. See –W APIs.
A SQL Server role created to support the security needs of an application.                    MSN
IBM’s second-tier fourth-generation language/decision support system (4GL/DSS)
program product.                                                                              Gen

IBM's next generation midrange system to replace the IBM S/36 and S/38 product
families, and to be the flagship office system ("SAA Office"). Before the June 21, 1988
announcement, AS/400 was commonly referred to as "Silverlake."
Applications Development                                                                      Gen

An application framework is a collection of programs or modules that perform certain
unique functions, are inter-operational, and are used as the building blocks for the
development of applications. In the object-oriented development environment, these
programs are referred to as objects, and they can be used as the basis for creating new
objects that have even more functionality, without diminishing the capabilities of the
original object. This is called inheritance and extensibility. While each object is unique,
the function that it performs is likely to be reused many times and in many different
applications within the organization, which reduces the amount of development and
maintenance time across the enterprise. Some examples of these objects are: Data
Access Module, Security Control, Error Handling, etc. There may be predefined user
interface objects that control how the graphical user interface looks and operates. Most
applications framework products contain a “Business Rules Engine”, which allows
business rules to be entered and maintained without having to change and recompile
the application source code.
A software tool for finding files stored on FTP sites.                                        ORA
The baseline at the end of the Elaboration phase, at which time the foundation structure
and behavior of the system is stabilized.                                                     RUP

Architectural mechanisms represent common concrete solutions to frequently
encountered problems. They may be patterns of structure, patterns of behavior, or both.
In the Rational Unified Process (RUP), architectural mechanism is used as an umbrella
term for analysis mechanism, design mechanism, and implementation mechanism.

[BUS96] defines an architectural pattern as: "An architectural pattern expresses a
fundamental structural organization schema for software systems. It provides a set of
predefined subsystems, specifies their responsibilities, and includes rules and guide.

A view of the system architecture from a given perspective, which focuses primarily on
structure, modularity, essential components, and the main control flows.
The highest-level concept of a system in its environment, according to IEEE. The
architecture of a software system (at a given point in time) is its organization or
structure of significant components interacting through interfaces, those components
being composed of successively smaller components and interfaces. The
organizational structure of a system. An architecture can be recursively decomposed
into parts that interact through interfaces, relationships that connect parts, and
constraints for assembling parts. Parts that interact through interfaces include classes,
components and subsystems.
Designed to achieve an alignment between information technology strategy and a major
external force - vendors.                                                                         Gen
Designed to enable an alignment between information technology strategy and
implementation, this review, which involves both information systems managers and
end users, assures that tactical initiatives such as product acquisitions support the
enterprise information architecture and, therefore, the business and technology
objectives.                                                                                       Gen
As part of enterprise information management, is focused on achieving an alignment
between business and information technology strategies.                                           Gen
See: executable architecture.                                                                     RUP
The .cab file created by archiving an Analysis Services database.                                 MSN
(1) A binding for a parameter that resolves to a run-time instance. Synonym: actual
parameter. Contrast: parameter. A data element, or value, included as a parameter in a
method call. Arguments provide additional information that the called method can use
to perform the requested operation. (2) A keyword, constant, variable, literal value,
expression, or object name that provides input to a command, function, method, or
program. Synonymous with parameter.                                                               RUP
Advanced Research Projects Agency Network                                                         ORA

In programming, a collection of data items, all of the same type, in which each item's
position is uniquely designated by an integer. In database administration, a group of
data cells that are arranged by the dimensions of the data. For example, a spreadsheet
is a two-dimensional array in which the cells are arranged in rows and columns. A three-
dimensional array can be visualized as a cube with each dimension forming one edge
of the cube. See also cell, dimension, variable.

1. The human ability to make things; creativity of human beings as distinguished from
the world of nature. 2. Skill; craftsmanship. 3. Any specific skill or its application (the art
of making friends). 4. Any craft, trade, or profession or its principles. 5. Making or doing
of things that display form, beauty, and unusual perception; art includes painting,
sculpture, architecture, music, literature, drama, the dance, etc. 6. Artful or cunning. 7.
Sly or cunning trick; wile. (Webster's New World Dictionary of the American Language,
Second College Edition, Prentice Hall, 1984)
An object specified for replication. An article is a component in a publication and can be
a table, specified columns (using a column filter), specified rows (using a row filter), a
stored procedure or view definition, the execution of a stored procedure, a view, an
indexed view, or a user-defined function.                                                         MSN
(1) A piece of information that: 1. Is produced, modified, or used by a process, 2.
Defines an area of responsibility, and 3. Is subject to version control. An artifact can be
a model, a model element, or a document. A document can enclose other documents.
A physical piece of information that is used or produced by a software development
process. Examples of Artifacts include models, source files, scripts, and binary
executable files. An artifact may constitute the implementation of a deployable
component. Synonym: product. Contrast: component. (2) An object produced or
shaped by human craft, especially a tool, weapon, or ornament of archaeological or
historical interest.                                                                              R&S
A description of how to work with a particular artifact, including how to create and revise
the artifact.                                                                                     RUP
A set of related artifacts, which help to present one aspect of the system. Artifact sets
cut across disciplines, as several artifacts are used in a number of disciplines; for
example, the Risk List, the Software Architecture Document, and the Iteration Plan.
A technology in which computer systems attempt to resolve problems by "reasoning,"
similar to the processing of the human mind. Commercially applicable topics include
problem solving techniques, learning, reasoning, speech, language understanding,
vision and robotics.                                                                           Gen
An Excel spreadsheet containing Web-based customizable error messages. This file is
included in the ORK.                                                                           MSN

A logical expression specifying a program state that must exist or a set of conditions
that program variables must satisfy at a particular point during program execution.
A system of practices intended to address short-comings, inefficiencies, waste and
unavoidable failures in managing technology and information technology equipment. It
involves five major areas: 1. Requisition, 2. Procurement, 3. Deployment, 4.
Maintenance, and 5. Retirement strategies.                                                     Gen
Specifies when the volume was assigned to the library                                          ESS
A relationship that models a bi-directional semantic connection among instances. The
semantic relationship between two or more classifiers that specifies connections among
their instances.                                                                               RUP
A model element that has both association and class properties. An association class
can be seen as an association that also has class properties, or as a class that also
has association properties.                                                                    RUP
The endpoint of an association, which connects the association to a classifier.                RUP

An entity type that associates the instances of one or more entity types and contains
attributes that are peculiar to the relationship between those entity instances.

1. The act of assuming, a taking upon oneself, taking over, or taking for granted. 2.
Anything taken for granted; supposition. 3. Presumption. (Webster's New World
Dictionary of the American Language, Second College Edition, Prentice Hall, 1984)
Assumptions are factors that, for planning purposes, are considered to be true, real, or
certain. Assumptions affect all aspects of project planning, and are part of the
progressive elaboration of the project. Project teams frequently identify, document, and
validate assumptions as part of their planning process. Assumptions generally involve a
degree of risk.                                                                                PMO
A 1.5Mbps (T1) service designed to deliver video over existing copper telephone wire.
Also provides a 16Kbps return path that can be used for control signals such as Pause
or Fast Forward.                                                                               ORA
Characterized by not having a constant time interval between successive bits,
characters, or events. Transmission generally uses one start and one stop bit for
character element synchronization (often called start-stop transmission).                      Gen
A request where the sending object does not pause to wait for results. Contrast:
synchronous action.                                                                            RUP
An IBM Systems Netwrok Architecture (SNA)-compatible protocol for asynchronous
connection or remote terminals.                                                                Gen

A wide-area network (WAN) technology, a transfer mode for switching and transmission
that efficiently and flexibly organizes information into cells. ATM’s powerful flexibility
lies in its ability to provide a high-latency switching fabric for all types of information.
A device that is connected to a private branch exchange (PBX).                                 Gen
The “glue” that connects traditional packet and frame structures and multimedia data
types with short, fixed-length asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) cells.                         Gen
Either all of the transaction data modifications are performed or none of them are
performed.                                                                                     MSN
In a data warehouse, the data at its lowest level of detail that provides the base data for
all data transformations.                                                                     ORA
A data value that cannot be further decomposed.                                               ORA

(1) [Telecommunications] An auxiliary processor attached to a PBX (e.g., AT&T's
System 25/75/85) for the purpose of supporting user applications not associated with
basic PBX operations. For example, terminals can be switched to an AP through the
PBX to access work processing applications. Data Processing: A multiprocessor
configuration in which some of the processors have unique characteristics (i.e., not a
general processor). For example, in an IBM AP configuration, the attached processor
generally does not have access to the peripherals and lacks channels for application
data I/O. (2) Data Processing: A multiprocessor configuration where some of the
processors have unique characteristics (i.e., not a general processor). For example, in
an IBM AP configuration, the attached processor generally does not have access to the
peripherals and lacks channels for application data. Telecommunications: An auxiliary
processor attached to a PBX (e.g., AT&T's System 25/75/85) for the purpose of
supporting user applications not associated with basic PBX operations. For example,
terminals can be switched to an AP through the PBX to access word processing

A planned and methodical attempt to break or otherwise circumvent the normal
operation of a running computer software program. Often malicious in nature, the
concept of attacking computer software originated in the software hacker (A.K.A
cracker) community whose members use various techniques to attack software
systems, typically to circumvent security software and gain illegal entry to a host
system. Examples of recognized attack techniques include buffer overflow, denial of
service, resource constraint and Trojan horse. This term has subsequently been
adopted by computer software testing professionals in discussing the methods by which
they might expose potential bugs in a software system.

(1) A single property of an object. An object is described by the values of its attributes.
For example, a car can be described by its attributes: make, model, color, and so on.
The term attribute is often used interchangeably with property, which means the same
thing. Attributes are also data items used to describe the objects that are represented
by the classes defined in the schema. Attributes are defined in the schema separately
from the classes; this allows a single attribute definition to be applied to many classes.
(2) In C/C++ programming, attributes contain information or parameters that define
object classes property and/or behaviors. (3) In HTML, an attribute is a parameter that
defines a special property of an HTML element. Attributes are specified within start
tags. For example, <IMG SRC=“image.gif”> means that the element IMG has an
attribute called “SRC,” which is assigned the indicated value. (4) In XML, an attribute is
similar to HTML attributes, but describes additional properties on any XML element. (5)
"A property or characteristic of an entity type that is of interest to the organization. An
attribute may appear as a ""column"" within the physical database." (6) In data mining,
a single characteristic of a case. An attribute is used to provide information about a
case. For example, weight can be an attribute of a case that involves shipping                Gen
containers. See also: case, object.
A domain defines a set of properties and assigns them to an attribute or column.
The process of verification of the identity of a person or place.                             A&D
(1) Verifying the identity of a user who is logging on to a computer system or verifying
the integrity of a transmitted message. (2) The process for verifying that someone or
something is who or what it claims to be. In private and public computer networks
(including the Internet), authentication is commonly performed through the use of logon
passwords. (3) The process of validating that the user attempting to connect to SQL
Server is authorized to do so. See also: SQL Server Authentication. (4) The operation
that verifies the permissions and access rights granted to a user. (5) In reference to
computing, especially remote computers on a network, the right granted an individual or
process to use a system and the data stored on it. Authorization is typically set up by a
system administrator and verified by the computer based on some form of user
identification, such as a code number or password.
Information that assuredly originated from the expected person or place, and with
content that appears to be correct. To                                                       A&D
A right that allows a user to add, modify, or remove items in a list, document library,
discussion board, or survey.                                                                 MSN
A collection of rights that allow the user to view, add, and modify pages, and items in a
list, document library, discussion board or survey.                                          MSN
Access Method 1. The technique and/or the program code in a computer operating
system that provides input/output services. The access method typically carries with it
an implied data and/or file structure with logically similar devices sharing access
methods. Examples are IBM's VTAM and TCAM. 2. In local area networks, the
technique and/or program code used to arbitrate the use of the communications
medium by granting access selectively to individual stations. Examples are CSMA/CD
and Token Passing.                                                                           Gen
The AutoCorrect feature automatically detects and corrects typos, misspelled words,
grammatical errors, and incorrect capitalization, and provides a way to quickly insert
text, graphics, or symbols in your documents.                                                MSN
A file that stores a list of words used by the AutoCorrect feature in Microsoft Word and
Microsoft Excel. It stores the misspelled word and the word to which it should be
changed.                                                                                     MSN
The AutoFormat As You Type feature automatically formats your document by applying
headings, bulleted and numbered lists, borders, numbers, symbols, and fractions to
your text.                                                                                   MSN

ACS is a term used to describe an automated tape processing system. These systems
automate the physical retrieval, mounting of the tapes into tape drives for processing
and storage of cartridge tapes without manual intervention. Utilizing robotic equipment,
used to select the cartridge tapes to be processed from the library of tapes under
control of the ACS which includes related support hardware, tape storage facilities
which along with tape library software that is used to control the physical storage of
cartridge tapes. See also ATL.
Devices such as bar-code systems, optical character recognition, radio frequency
identification devices, and magnetic media recording that convert disparate information
into computer records.                                                                       Gen
Established by the Automotive Industry Action Group (AIAG) to offer extranet-based
applications to suppliers of Chrysler, Ford and General Motors.                              Gen

Often referred to as “lights-out operations.” This is a combination of hardware and
software that allows a computer installation to run unattended - that is, without the need
for a human operator to be physically located at the site of the installation.
ATL is a term used to describe an automated tape processing system. These systems
automate the physical retrieval, mounting of the tapes into tape drives for processing
and storage of cartridge tapes without manual intervention. Utilizing robotic equipment,
used to select the cartridge tapes to be processed from the library of tapes under
control of the ATL which includes related support hardware, tape storage facilities which
along with tape library software that is used to control the physical storage of cartridge
tapes. See also ACS.
In a contact, click Map of Address on the toolbar, to open your Web browser and use a
free service of the Microsoft Expedia Web site to plot a map to any address in the
United States.                                                                                 MSN

(1) The ability of the installation program to restore the computer to its original state if
installation fails. See also rollback. (2) Recovery that occurs every time SQL Server is
restarted. Automatic recovery protects your database if there is a system failure.

AutoNavigation pages are HTML representations of Office Web Server folders. When a
new file is added to a folder it will be seen the next time a user views that folder.

The independence one site has from other sites when performing modifications to data.

An information file located at the root of the Office compact disc. It provides information
for the Windows Installer as well as Setup.exe. When you insert the Office compact
disc in the CD-ROM drive, the Autorun.inf file starts Setup.exe if the Auto Insert
Notification option is enabled by the operating system.
(1) A set of tuples. Each tuple is a vector of members. A set of axes defines the
coordinates of a multidimensional data set. For more information about axes, see the
OLE DB documentation. (2) A component that serves as the major reference point for
plotting data in a graph. See also: slice, tuple                                               MSN

A high-speed line or series of connections that forms a major pathway within a network.

A high speed transmission facility, or an arrangement of such facilities, designed to
interconnect lower speed distribution channels or clusters of dispersed user devices.
A copy of a database, transaction log, file, or filegroup used to recover data after a
system failure.                                                                                MSN
A tape or disk used in a backup or restore operation.                                          MSN

In a Windows NT Server 4.0 or earlier domain, a computer running Windows NT Server
that receives a copy of the domain’s directory database, which contains all account and
security policy information for the domain. The copy is synchronized periodically and
automatically with the master copy on the primary domain controller (PDC). Backup
domain controllers also authenticate user logons and can be promoted to function as
PDCs as needed. Multiple backup domain controllers can exist on a domain. In a
Windows 2000 domain, backup domain controllers are not required; all domain
controllers are peers, and all can perform maintenance on the directory. Windows NT
4.0 and Windows NT 3.51 backup domain controllers can participate in a Windows
2000 domain when it is running in mixed mode. See also domain controller, primary
domain controller.
A file that stores a full or partial database, transaction log, or file and/or filegroup
backup.                                                                                        MSN
The tape, disk, or named pipe used to store a backup set.                                      MSN
The output of a single backup operation.                                                       MSN

A dimension hierarchy in which all leaf nodes are the same distance from the root node.
The range of frequencies or bit rate that can pass over a given circuit. The bandwidth
determines the rate at which information can be transmitted through the circuit. The
greater the bandwidth, the more information can be sent through the circuit in a given
period of time.                                                                                Gen
Direct withdrawal of child support arrears from a noncustodial parent's (NCP's)
checking account, savings account, or other financial institution account. Also known
as a Financial Institution Data Match (FIDM). (See also: Multistate Financial Institution
Data Match)                                                                                  CSED
A graphic display of schedule-related information. In the typical bar chart, activities or
other project elements are listed down the left side of the chart, dates are shown
accorss the top, and activity durations are shown as date-placed horizontal bars. Also
called a Gantt chart.                                                                        PMO
An encoding code point that does not graphically combine with preceding characters
and that is neither a control nor a format character. The Latin “a” is an example of a
base character.                                                                              MSN
A class from which other classes or beans are derived. A base class may itself be
derived from another base class. See: abstract class.                                        RUP
Any system-supplied data type, for example, char , varchar , binary , and varbinary .
User-defined data types are derived from base data types. See also: data type, user-
defined data type                                                                            MSN

A table stored permanently in a database. Base tables are referenced by views,
cursors, SQL statements, and stored procedures. See also: underlying table
The normalized data structures maintained in a target warehousing database. Also
known as detail data.                                                                        ORA
(1) A reviewed and approved release of artifacts that constitutes an agreed basis for
further evolution or development and that can be changed only through a formal
procedure, such as change management and configuration control. (2) The original
approved plan (for a project, a work package, or an activity), plus or minus approved
scope changes. Usually used with a modifier (e.g., cost baseline, schedule baseline,
performance measurement baseline).                                                           PMO
See scheduled start date.                                                                    PMO
See scheduled start date.                                                                    PMO

Beginner's all-purpose symbolic instruction code, a programming language. See: VB.
The part of an operating system that links the specific hardware devices to the
software.                                                                                    Gen
A BSTR is a pointer to a wide-character string used by Automation data-manipulation
functions. BSTR strings are also used for passing string data between Component
Object Model (COM) components, by utilizing strings allocated with COM’s memory
allocator.                                                                                   MSN
IBM’s lowest-level input/output (I/O) macro-routine support for providing
communications programs on a host computer.                                                  Gen

A highly optimized test suite used to establish the baseline behavior of a system.
Batch files                                                                                  ESS

(1) A computer environment that processes an action or user request without user
interaction. Some batch programs work in the background, allowing simultaneous user
access. (2) A set of SQL statements submitted together and executed as a group. A
script is often a series of batches submitted one after the other.
In an IMS environment, a region or regions controlled by the IMS Control Region
specifically to support batch processing which utilizes Database(s) under the control of
IMS for telecommunication transaction processing.                                            Gen
The number of times per second that the carrier signal shifts value.                         ORA
A privacy seal program established by the Better Business Bureau which certifies that
certain websites conform to baseline privacy standards. Microsoft is a sponsor of
BBBOnLine.                                                                                   MSN

Files that store bulk copy data created by the bulk copy utility or synchronization.
A command prompt bulk copy utility that copies SQL Server data to or from an
operating system file in a user-specified format.                                            MSN
A small component that can be used to build applications. See: Java Bean.                        RUP

A companion class for a bean that defines a set of methods that can be accessed to
retrieve information on the bean's properties, events, and methods.
When the transfer of data between an entity bean’s instance variables and the
underlying resource manager is managed by the entity bean.                                       ORA
When an enterprise bean defines the boundaries of a transaction.                                 ORA
The observable effects of an operation or event, including its results.                          RUP
A dynamic feature of a model element, such as an operation or method.                            RUP
A model aspect that emphasizes the behavior of the instances in a system, including
their methods, collaborations, and state histories.                                              RUP
Tests that verify the output is correct for a given input, without verifying the process that
produced the output; data testing.                                                               BQ

(1) A surveyor's mark made on a permanent landmark of known position and altitude; it
is used as a reference point in determining other altitudes. (2) A standard or point of
reference in measuring or judging quality, value, and so on. (Webster's New World
Dictionary of the American Language, Second College Edition, Prentice Hall, 1984). (3)
A measurement usually made to document progress, such as database performance.
(1) Distributing prerelease software to future users and potential customers in order to
get feedback and bug reports. (2) Pre-release testing in which a sampling of the
intended customer base tries out the product.                                                    MSN

Error we introduce by having knowledge and therefore expectations of a system.
Provides the ability to enter data using both left to right and right to left script. Mid-East
and Far-East languages use BI-DI. The primary BI-DI languages are Arabic and
Hebrew, but they also include Farsi, Urdu, and other languages using right to left (RTL)
script.                                                                                          MSN

Refers to the script’s ability to handle text that reads both left to right and right to left.
For example, in the bidirectional rendering of Arabic, the default reading direction for
text is right-to-left, but for numbers, it is left-to-right. Processing a complex script must
account for the difference between the logical (keystroke) order of input and the visual
order of the output glyphs. In addition, processing must properly deal with caret
movement and hit testing. The mapping between screen position and a character index
for, say, selection of text or caret display requires knowledge of the layout algorithms.

A mixture of characters that are read from left to right and from right to left. Most Arabic
and Hebrew strings of text for example, are read from right to left, but numbers and
embedded Western terms within Arabic or Hebrew text are read from left to right.
A computer architecture that stores multibyte numerical values with the most significant
byte values first. On systems using big endian architecture, the letter “A” (U+0041) is
stored as 0x00 0x41. See Little-endian.                                                          MSN
An integer data type with a value from -2^63 (-9,223,372,036,854,775,808) through
2^63-1 (9,223,372,036,854,775,807).                                                              MSN
A shelf location in an installation defined storage location (vault)                             ESS
An association between two classes. A special case of an n-ary association.                      RUP
A fixed-length binary data type with a maximum length of 8,000 bytes.                            MSN

A single-digit number in base-2' in other words, either a one or a zero. The smallest unit
of computerized data. Bandwidth is usually measured in bits per second.

A file that has been encrypted, encoded, or compiled, as opposed to a plaintext file.
A method for converting nontext files (non-ASCII) into ASCII. Binhex is needed
because internet e-mail can be transmitted only using ASCII.                                     ORA
A piece of binary data that has an exceptionally large size (such as pictures or audio
tracks stored as digital data), or any variable or table column large enough to hold such
values. In Transact-SQL, a BLOB is stored in an image column. Sometimes the term
BLOB is also applied to large character data values, such as those stored in text or
ntext columns.                                                                              MSN
An operator that has two arguments.                                                         ORA
A relationship between the instances of two entity types                                    A&D
A half duplex, character oriented data communications protocol originated by IBM in
1964. It includes control characters and procedures for controlling the establishment of
a valid connection and the transfer of data. Also called bisync and BSC. Although still
in widespread usage, is being replaced by IBM's more efficient protocol SDLC, which is
under SNA.                                                                                  Gen
(1) In SQL application programming interfaces (APIs), binding is associating a result set
column or a parameter with a program variable so that data is moved automatically into
or out of a program variable when a row is fetched or updated. (2) The creation of a
model element from a template by supplying arguments for the parameters of the
template.                                                                                   MSN

1. The predominant signaling method used for digital transmission services, such as
digital data service (DDS) and T1, in which the signal carrying the binary value
successfully alternates between positive and negative polarities. 2. A type of integrated
circuit that uses both positively and negatively charged currents, characterized by high
operational speed and cost. Also called Alternate Mark Inversion.
A data type that holds a value of either 1 or 0.                                            MSN
A font whose characters are represented by bitmaps or by a pattern of dots, as
opposed to vector, TrueType, or OpenType fonts, whose characters are represented by
lines and curves. Bitmap fonts are generally less scalable and more jagged than
TrueType fonts. See TrueType.                                                               MSN
A specialized form of index indicating the existence or nonexistence of a record by a
series of ones and zeros.                                                                   ORA
Binary digits.                                                                              A&D
Basic unit of measure for serial data transmission capacity. Kbit/s or Kilobit/s, for
thousands of bits per second.                                                               Gen
A measurement of how fast data is moved from one place to another. A 28.8K modem
can move 28,800 bits per second.                                                            ORA
An operation that manipulates a single bit, or tests whether a bit is on or off.            MSN
In Java, any code between matching braces, such as { x = 1; }.                              ORA
Specifies the length in bytes, of the largest logical record in the data set                ESS

(1) A series of Transact-SQL statements enclosed by BEGIN and END. You can nest
BEGIN...END blocks within other BEGIN...END blocks. (2) The term Blocks refers to
categories of subjects within a treatment group. For example, one might divide the
group into older, middle aged, and younger patients and further divide the groups into a
group in which some treatment is applied. The advantage is to enable the researcher to
discover how the treatment affects each of the age groups.
(1) An operation or expression that can be evaluated only as either true or false. (2) An
enumeration whose values are true and false.                                                MSN
An expression that evaluates to a Boolean value.                                            RUP
Page regions reserved for content that you want to appear consistently on all your Web
pages. Shared borders usually contain link bars hyperlinks to the other pages in the
current Web site.                                                                           MSN
Each module or component is first tested alone, and then the modules are combined a
few at a time and tested with simulators used in place of components that are
necessary but missing.                                                                      BQ
The point of interaction between systems or applications that use different character
encodings.                                                                                  MSN
A class used to model communication between the system's environments and its inner
workings.                                                                                   RUP
(1) A general creativity technique that can be used to identify risks using a group of
team members or subject-matter experts. Typically, a brainstorming session is
structured so that each participants' ideas are recorded for alter analysis. A tool of the
risk identification processs. (2) Using group synergy to think up ideas.
In a group session, each person records an idea or solution to the problem on a piece
of paper and adds it to a pile. Everyone then takes a different paper from the pile and
adds an idea related to the one already on that page, writing down the first thing that
comes to mind. These ideas are then compiled and discussed to develop a final
solution.                                                                                    R&S
In program logic, a branch refers to a decision in the code, usually a conditional branch
such as an if statement, but it could also be an unconditional branch like a goto
statement.                                                                                   BQ

The count of the minimum number of paths required to exercise both branches of each
decision node in the system. Best known in unit testing as the number of logic branches
in the source code (such as the number of if statements multiplied by 2).

A test that exercises a logic branch in a program. Traditionally part of unit testing.
A point in a computer program where the execution will be halted.                            RUP
IBM Breeze for Software Configuration and Library Manager (SCLM) for z/OS™ is a
browser based package approval system for SCLM, integrated with SMTP e-mail for
notification. It allows developers and managers to review and approve SCLM packages
via standard browsers.                                                                       Gen

A technique or device that enables the interconnection of LANs at relatively low protocol
levels to provide communications between devices on the separate LANs.

The description for an analog circuit providing greater bandwidth than a voice grade
telephone line, i.e., operating at a band width of 20KHz or higher. Broadband channels
are used for many communications applications, including high speed voice and data
communications, radio and television broadcasting and some local area networks. In
the digital domain, speeds exceed ISDN primary rate. Also called wideband.
A high speed (greater than ISDN primary rate) usually about 150 Mbps facility, or an
arrangement of such facilities, designed to provide a wide range of switch audio, video
and data applications in the same network.                                                   Gen

A LAN (local area network) that generally uses frequency division multiplexing to divide
a single broadband channel into a number of smaller independent channels, which are
used to transfer information with different bandwidths (e.g., voice, data and video).
A function that lets you scan database rows and update their values one row at a time.
Several browse mode functions return information that an application can use to
examine the structure of a complicated ad hoc query.                                         MSN
A collection of rights that allow a user to view items in a list, document library,
discussion board or survey.                                                                  MSN
See private fix.                                                                             MSN
This term has been replaced with the term planned value.                                     PMO
This term has been replaced with the term earned value.                                      PMO

A region of memory reserved for use as an intermediate repository in which data is
temporarily held before it is transferred between two locations or devices.

A condition that results from adding more information to a buffer than it was designed to
hold. An attacker may exploit this vulnerability to take over a system.
An operational version of a system or part of a system that demonstrates a subset of
the capabilities to be provided in the final product.                                        RUP
A group of predefined functions provided as part of the Transact-SQL and
Multidimensional Expressions (MDX) languages.                                                MSN
A computerized meeting and announcement system that allows people to carry on
discussions, upload and download files, and make announcements without other
people having to be connected to the computer at the same time.                                  ORA

A bus is physically a length of wire or a set of parallel wires. All units that wish to inter-
communicate are connected to the bus. There must be a means of determining when
each can transmit to the bus (access control), and a common method of sending and
receiving the data (protocol) that includes a means of addressing. A bus network is the
simplest and most commonly used network.
Defines a set of business-actor instances, in which each business-actor instance plays
the same role in relation to the business.                                                       RUP
Someone or something, outside the business that interacts with the business.                     RUP
An object model describing the realization of business use cases. Synonym: business
object model.                                                                                    RUP
Business architecture is an organized set of elements with clear relationships to one
another, which together form a whole defined by its functionality. The elements
represent the organizational and behavioral structure of a business, and show
abstractions of the key processes and structures of the business.                                RUP

Recovery of normal operations following the loss of resources, facilities, or technology.
A broad disaster recovery approach whereby enterprises plan for recovery of the entire
business process.                                                                                Gen
To perform business engineering where the goal is to create a new business process, a
new line of business or a new organization.                                                      RUP
A set of techniques a company uses to design its business according to specific goals.
Business engineering techniques can be used for business reengineering, business
improvement, and business creation.                                                              RUP
A business entity represents a significant and persistent piece of information that is
manipulated by business actors and business workers.                                             RUP
A business event describes a significant occurrence in space and time, of importance
to the business. Business events are used to signal between business processes and
are usually associated with business entities.                                                   RUP
A business goal is a requirement that must be satisfied by the business. ; Business
goals describe the desired value of a particular measure at some future point in time
and can therefore be used to plan and manage the activities of the business. Also see
business objective.                                                                              RUP
To perform business engineering where the work of change is local and does not span
the entire business. It involves trimming costs and lead times and monitoring service
and quality.                                                                                     RUP
Any computerized process used to extract and/or analyze business data.                           ORA
The code that implements the functionality of an application.                                    ORA

Encompasses all modeling techniques you can use to visually model a business. These
are a subset of the techniques you may use to perform business engineering.
The commonly used term for high-level business goals. Because business objectives
are usually abstract, they are difficult to measure and are therefore translated into more
measurable lower-level business goals.                                                           RUP

A group of logically related activities that use the resources of the organization to
provide defined results in support of the organization's objectives. In the RUP, we
define business processes using business use cases, which show the expected
behavior of the business, and business use-case realizations, which show how that
behavior is realized by business workers and business entities. See also: process.
The automation of complex business processes and functions beyond conventional
data manipulation and record-keeping activities, usually through the use of advanced
technologies.                                                                                    Gen
See: business engineering.                                                                       RUP
The fundamental analysis and radical redesign of business practices and management
systems, job definitions, organizational systems, and beliefs and behaviors to achieve
dramatic performance improvements.                                                             Gen

Mathematical, graphical, logical and managerial algorithms for describing and modeling
business processes, information systems, or management decision-making systems.

To perform business engineering where the work of change includes taking a
comprehensive view of the entire existing business and think through why you do what
you do. You question all existing business processes and try to find completely new
ways of reconstructing them to achieve radical improvements. Other names for this are
business process reengineering (BPR) and process innovation.

(1) A statement that defines or constrains some aspect of the business. It is intended
to assert business structure or to control or influence the behavior of the business. (2)
A declaration of policy or condition that must be satisfied within the business. Business
rules can be captured in models, in documents or in both.

The logical rules that are used to run a business. Business rules can be enforced in the
.com objects that make up the middle tier of a Windows DNA system, they can also be
enforced in a SQL Server database using triggers, stored procedures, and constraints.
The business strategy defines the principles and goals for realizing the business idea. It
consists of a collection of long-term business objectives that will ultimately result in the
achievement of the business vision.                                                            RUP
A business system encapsulates a set of roles and resources that together fulfill a
specific purpose, and defines a set of responsibilities with which that purpose can be
achieved.                                                                                      RUP

Term used to describe an enterprises organizational lines of business (Business Units).

A business use case defines a set of business use-case instances, where each
instance is a sequence of actions a business performs that yields an observable result
of value to a particular business actor. A business use-case class contains all main,
alternate workflows related to producing the "observable result of value".
A sequence of actions performed by a business that yields an observable result of
value to a particular business actor.                                                          RUP
A model of the business intended functions. The business use-case model is used as
an essential input to identify roles and deliverables in the organization.                     RUP
A business use-case package is a collection of business use cases, business actors,
relationships, diagrams, and other packages; it is used to structure the business use-
case model by dividing it into smaller parts.                                                  RUP
A business use-case realization describes how the workflow of a particular business
use case is realized within the business analysis model, in terms of collaborating
business objects.                                                                              RUP
A business worker represents a role or set of roles in the business. A business worker
interacts with other business workers and manipulates business entities while
participating in business use-case realizations.                                               RUP
The exchange of products, services, or information between businesses (or e-
businesses) on the internet.                                                                   Gen
The retailing aspects of internet commerce (e-commerce).                                       ORA
A group of bits, usually eight.                                                                ORA

The Unicode character U+FEFF—or its noncharacter mirror-image, U+FFFE—used to
indicate the byte order of a text stream. The presence of a BOM at the beginning of a
text file is a strong clue that a file is encoded in Unicode.

The programming language created by Dennis Ritchie at the former Bell Laboratories in
1972. C provides very precise control of the computer’s operation.
An extension to the C language defined by Bjarne Stroustrop at Bell Laboratories in
1986. As a superset of C, it provides additional features for data abstraction and object-
oriented programming.                                                                           Gen
A local-area network (LAN) network where radio, microwave, or infrared links take the
place of physical cables.                                                                       Gen
(1) A special memory subsystem in which frequently used data values, such as files
that are made available for use offline, are duplicated for quick access. (2) A temporary
storage area for instructions and data near a computer’s central processing unit (CPU),
usually implemented in high-speed memory.                                                       Gen
The mechanism of caching that determines when a cache row is outdated and must be
refreshed.                                                                                      MSN
To determine by using mathematics, to compute.                                                  BQ
A column in a table that displays the result of an expression rather than stored data. For
example, CalculatedCostColumn = Price * Quantity .                                              MSN
A field defined in a query that displays the result of an expression rather than stored
data.                                                                                           MSN

A member of a dimension whose value is calculated at run time using an expression.
Calculated member values may be derived from other members' values. A calculated
member is any member that is not an input member. For example, a calculated
member Profit can be determined by subtracting the value of the member Costs from
the value of the member Sales. See also: input member
A Multidimensional Expressions (MDX) logical expression used to determine whether a
calculation formula will be applied against a cell in a calculation subcube. See also:
solve order                                                                                     MSN
A Multidimensional Expressions (MDX) expression used to supply a value for cells in a
calculation subcube, subject to the application of a calculation condition. See also:
solve order                                                                                     MSN
A stage of calculation in a multidimensional cube in which applicable calculations are
evaluated. Multiple passes may be required to complete all calculations. See also:
solve order                                                                                     MSN
The set of multidimensional cube cells used to create a calculated cells definition. The
set of cells is defined by a combination of Multidimensional Expressions (MDX) set
expressions. See also: solve order                                                              MSN
An action state that invokes an operation on a classifier.                                      RUP
(1) The interface supported by ODBC for use by an application. (2) A callable API for
database access, which is an alternative to an embedded SQL application program
interface. In contrast to embedded SQL, CLI does not require precompiling or binding
by the user, but instead provides a standard set of functions to process SQL
statements and related services at run time.                                                    MSN
(1) A column or set of columns that have a unique value for each row in a table. Each
candidate key value uniquely identifies a single row in the table. Tables can have
multiple candidate keys. One candidate key in a table is specified by the database
designer to be the primary key for the table, and any other candidate key is called an
alternate key. (2) An attribute, or combination of attributes, that uniquely identifies a row
in a relation.                                                                                  Gen
The window of an Input Method Editor (IME) that lists characters the user can choose
to replace the text highlighted in the composition window.                                      MSN
Scheme for measuring the levels of process maturity in a company. Developed at
Carnegie Mellon University.                                                                     BQ
The functions of establishing, measuring and adjusting limits or levels of capacity that
are consistent with a production plan.                                                          Gen
A specific design pattern, which represents an encapsulated thread of control in the
system. A capsule is a stereotyped class with a specific set of required and restricted
associations and properties.                                                                    RUP
Capsule roles represent a specification of the type of capsule that can occupy a
particular position in a capsule's collaboration or structure. Capsule roles are strongly
owned by the container capsule and cannot exist independently of it. A capsule's
structural decomposition usually includes a network of collaborating capsule roles
joined by connectors.                                                                       RUP
In GDI+, a sequence of individual curves joined to form a larger curve.                     MSN
(1) The number of elements in a set. Contrast: multiplicity. (2) The number of rows in a
table. See also column, row, and table.                                                     Gen
Specifies the number of instances of one entity that can (or must) be associated with
each instance of another entity.                                                            A&D
The blinking line indicating the space into which you insert text.                          MSN
An operation that deletes a row containing a primary key value that is referenced by
foreign key columns in existing rows in other tables. On a cascade delete, all of the
rows whose foreign key values reference the deleted primary key value are also
deleted.                                                                                    MSN

(1) A cascading style sheet is a document containing style information that can be
referenced by multiple web pages. Styles define appearance and formatting of content
on web pages and allow authors more control over how content is displayed in
browsers. (2) Design templates that provide augmented control over presentation and
layout of HTML elements. They allow you to separate the way you design information
from the HTML content and give you greater control over the appearance and
presentation of your Web pages. They extend the ability to precisely specify the
location and appearance of elements on a page and create special effects. Cascading
style sheets contain specific code that the browser interprets and applies to the Web
page and Web page elements.
An operation that updates a primary key value that is referenced by foreign key
columns in existing rows in other tables. On a cascade update, all of the foreign key
values are updated to match the new primary key value.                                      MSN

(1) Two distinct variations or forms of the same character within the same alphabet.
These variants, which differ in shape and size, are called “uppercase” letters (also
known as “capital” or “majuscule” letters) and “lowercase” letters (also known as “small”
or “minuscule” letters). (2) In data mining, an abstract view of data characterized by
attributes and relations to other cases. A case is a distinct member of a case set, and
can be a member of multiple case sets. See also: case key, case set, attribute
In data mining, the element of a case by which the case is referenced within a case set.
See also: case                                                                              MSN
In data mining, a set of cases. See also: case                                              MSN
A case study is an intensive study of a specific individual or specific context. A
combination of methods, such as unstructured interviewing and direct observation, are
frequently used when conducting case studies.                                               R&S

Taking a string of text and converting everything into either lowercase or uppercase.
A place on the system where data is stored and tracked                                      ESS
A classification for labeling and grouping Web pages and files by common criteria such
as page contents, file types, or similar distinction.)                                      MSN
Term generally used to describe a computer terminal.                                        Gen
Of, involving, or constituting a cause: Indicative of or expressing a cause.                R&S
When a study is designed to determine whether one or more variables, such as a
program or treatment variable causes or affects one or more outcome variables. This
type of study might be done if some change(s) was made to the network requiring the
accumulation of data in order to measure the affect on the network and user
community.                                                                                  R&S
(1) In a cube, the set of properties, including a value, specified by the intersection when
one member is selected from each dimension. (2) A single data value of an
expression. In a dimensioned expression, a cell is identified by one value from each of
the dimensions of the expression. For example, in a variable with the dimensions
MONTH and DISTRICT, each combination of a month and a district identifies a
separate cell of that variable. See also dimension, expression, and variable.
In ADO MD, an object that contains a collection of cells selected from cubes or other
cellsets by a multidimensional query.                                                         MSN

The portion of a computer system that performs computations and contains the
memory. It does not include peripherals such as tape, disk and terminals.                     Gen
A Unit within Data Services Division                                                          MSN
(1) An encrypted file containing user or server identification information, which is used
to verify identity and to help establish a security-enhanced link. (2) A collection of data
used for authentication and secure exchange of information on nonsecured networks,
such as the Internet. A certificate securely binds a public encryption key to the entity
that holds the corresponding private encryption key. Certificates are digitally signed by
the issuing certification authority and can be managed for a user, a computer, or a
service.                                                                                      MSN

The Certified Public Manager program is a nationally accredited comprehensive
management training program designed to improve the quality and efficiency of
management in the public sector. Participants in the Oklahoma CPM program, through
seminars, examinations, and job related projects, enhance their management skills,
thereby becoming better resources for their agency and for the state.
(1) A formally constituted group of stateholders responsible for approving or rejecting
changes to the project baselines. (2) The role of the CCB is to provide a central control
mechanism to ensure that every change request is properly considered, authorized and
coordinated.                                                                                  PMO
The process of capturing changes made to a production data source. Change data
ensures that data is synchronized with the original source and reduces data volume in a
data warehousing environment.                                                                 ORA
The practice of administering changes with the help of tested methods and techniques
in order to avoid new errors and minimize the impact of changes.                              MSN
A general term for any request from a stakeholder to change an artifact or process.
Documented in the Change Request is information on the origin and impact of the
current problem, the proposed solution, and its cost. See also: enhancement request,
defect.                                                                                       RUP
A text file that contains SQL statements for all changes made to a database, in the
order in which they were made, during an editing session. Each change script is saved
in a separate text file with an .sql extension. Change scripts can be applied back to the
database later, using a tool such as osql .                                                   MSN
A dimension that has a flexible member structure. A changing dimension is designed to
support frequent changes to structure and data.                                               MSN
A component of customer premises equipment (CPE) used to terminate a digital circuit,
such as DDS or T1, at the customer site.                                                      Gen
In programming, the keyword used to declare a variable of type character.                     ORA
A character data type that holds a maximum of 8,000 characters.                               MSN
(1) The smallest components of a writing system or script that have semantic value. A
character refers to an abstract idea rather than to a specific glyph or shape that a
character might have once rendered or displayed. (2) A code element. (3) A single unit
of data, such as letters, numbers, and punctuation marks. Characters are usually
represented by eight (8) bits, or one (1) byte, of information.

Data stored in a bulk copy data file using text characters. See also: native format

(1) A character set determines the types of characters that SQL Server recognizes in
the char , varchar , and text data types. Each character set is a set of 256 letters, digits,
and symbols specific to a country/region or language. The printable characters of the
first 128 values are the same for all character sets. The last 128 characters, sometimes
referred to as extended characters, are unique to each character set. A character set is
related to, but separate from, Unicode characters. (2) A grouping of alphabetic,
numeric, and other characters that have some relationship in common. For example,
the standard ASCII character set includes letters, numbers, symbols, and control codes
that make up the ASCII coding scheme.
Stands for “character set.” A set of characters used in Windows. Charsets refer to the
same collections of characters as those defined by Windows code pages. See Code
page below.                                                                                     MSN
A Chart component is an ActiveX control that runs in a Web browser. It can chart
numbers from a Spreadsheet component or data provided by a data model. When you
publish an Excel chart on the Web, a Chart component appears on the Web page. See
also Office Web Component.                                                                      MSN
A written order directing a financial institution to pay money as instructed. An
instrument may be a check even though it is described on its face by another term,
such as money order, warrant, cashier's check, or bank draft. Also spelled cheque.
(See also: Warrant)                                                                             CSED

Defines which data values are acceptable in a column. You can apply CHECK
constraints to multiple columns, and you can apply multiple CHECK constraints to a
single column. When a table is dropped, CHECK constraints are also dropped.
An event in which the database engine writes dirty buffer pages to disk. Dirty pages are
pages that have been modified, but the modifications have not yet been written to disk.
Each checkpoint writes to disk all pages that were dirty at the last checkpoint and still
have not been written to disk. Checkpoints occur periodically based on the number of
log records generated by data modifications, or when requested by a user or a system
shutdown.                                                                                       MSN

A set of conditions that well-formed artifacts of a particular type should exhibit. May also
be stated in the form of questions, which should be answered in the affirmative.

A member in the next lower level in a hierarchy that is directly related to the current
member. For example, in a Time dimension containing the levels Quarter, Month, and
Day, January is a child of Qtr1. See also: parent, ancestor, descendant, sibling
Child Care Licensing                                                                             CCL
Child entities have relationships with parent entities in which there can be one or more
instances of data related to an instance in the parent entity.                                  A&D

The Children's Online Privacy Protection Act. A U.S. law that took effect on April 21,
2000, and requires parental consent for certain websites to knowingly collect personally
identifiable information on children under the age of 13.
An integrated circuit that is the foundation of computer processing and data storage. It
holds the logic circuitry that responds to and processes the basic instructions that run
all types of computers.                                                                      Gen
An individual's ability to determine whether and how personally identifiable information
(PII) collected from him or her may be used, especially for purposes beyond those for
which the information was originally provided. Choice is an element of the Fair
Information Practices.                                                                       MSN
An application that profiles groups of customers in order to understand issues that
impact attrition and customer retention.                                                     ORA
An encryption method, typically using a predefined key and an algorithm to transform
plaintext into ciphertext.                                                                   MSN
Text that has been encrypted with an encryption algorithm and key.                           MSN
A two way path for signals sent between two or more points in a network.                     Gen

A demand for money or property to which one asserts a right (an insurance claim).
One who asserts a right or demand, especially formally.                                      CSED
A set of objects that share the same attributes, operations, methods, relationships, and
semantics (common structure and a common behavior). A class may use a set of
interfaces to specify collections of operations it provides to its environment. See:
interface.                                                                                   RUP
A diagram that shows a collection of declarative (static) model elements, such as
classes, types, and their contents and relationships.                                        RUP
A class diagram is a picture for describing generic descriptions of possible systems.
Class diagrams and collaboration diagrams are alternate representations of object
models.                                                                                      A&D
The relationships among classes that share a single inheritance. All Java classes
inherit from the Object class.                                                               RUP
A collection of classes.                                                                     RUP
See: method.                                                                                 RUP
See definition for: prediction                                                               MSN
A mechanism that describes behavioral and structural features. Classifiers include
interfaces, classes, data types, and components.                                             RUP

This is a technique in object-oriented development, originally proposed by Ward
Cunningham and Kent Beck, to help define what objects should do in the system (their
responsibilities), and identify other objects (the collaborators) that are involved in
fulfilling these responsibilities. The technique is described in [WIR90]. CRC cards are a
way of capturing these results using ordinary index cards.

In English Query, a sequence of related words within a sentence, having both a subject
and a predicate and functioning as either an independent or a dependent unit. In
Transact-SQL, a subunit of an SQL statement. A clause begins with a keyword.
The process of transforming the operational and external source data into a defined and
standardized format using packaged software applications before moving the data into
a data warehouse. Also referred to as data cleaning, data cleansing, or scrubbing. See
also source data.                                                                            ORA
See plaintext.                                                                               MSN
A Word feature that allows you to quickly insert text, graphics, tables, or other items in
a blank area of a document when you double-click in the blank area. Click And Type
automatically applies the formatting necessary to position the item where you double-
clicked.                                                                                     MSN
A record of a user's activity on a Web site, including every page visited, the amount of
time spent on each, and the order in which the pages were visited.                              ORA
Information that users generate as they move from page to page and click on items
within a website, usually stored in log files. Website designers can use clickstream data
to improve users' experiences with a site.                                                      MSN
A classifier that requests a service from another classifier. Contrast: supplier.               RUP
The splitting of an application into tasks performed on separate computers, on of which
is a programmable work station (e.g., a PC).                                                    Gen
An interface published by Sybase and delivered with release 4.0 of its SQL Server
product.                                                                                        Gen

An application that retrieves data from an Analysis server and performs local analysis
and presentation of data from relational or multidimensional databases. Client
applications connect to the Analysis server through the PivotTable Service component.
Relative coordinates of a window or client area as specified by the system or
applications. Client coordinates ensure that an application can use consistent
coordinate values while drawing in the window, regardless of the position of the window
on the screen.                                                                                  MSN
A cursor implemented on the client. The entire result set is first transferred to the client,
and the client application programming interface (API) software implements the cursor
functionality from this cached result set.                                                      MSN

The splitting of an application into tasks performed on separate computing devices -
programmable workstation such as a personal computer (PC) and a server.

The model of interaction in distributed data processing where a program at one location
sends a request to a program at another location and awaits a response. The
requesting program is called a client, and the answering program is called a server.
A Windows utility used as a buffer for copying and pasting text.                                MSN
The type of HTML used to store data on the Office Clipboard.                                    MSN

In data warehousing, a means of sorting and storing related data from different tables,
advantageous in an environment where related data is commonly queried together.
An index in which the logical order of the key values determines the physical order of
the corresponding rows in a table.                                                              MSN
A data mining technique that analyzes data to group records together according to their
location within the multidimensional attribute space. Clustering is an unsupervised
learning technique. See also: segmentation                                                      MSN
Technology that allows individual computers to share the same data and back each
other up to prevent system failures. Oracle9i Real Application Clusters is the most
advanced form of this technology.                                                               ORA

The sequence of characters or glyphs between points at which the Unicode
representation of a string aligns with the glyph representation. For simple text, where
each code point is represented by a single glyph, the cluster is the character and its
glyph. For simple ligatures, where two or more code points are represented by a single
glyph, the cluster is the sequence of code points and the single glyph. The most
complex case is when a sequence of code points is represented by a sequence of
glyphs with no internal alignment between characters and glyphs. This can occur, for
example, in the case of reordering within Indic syllables.
A transmission medium consisting of one or more central wire conductors surrounded
by a dielectric insulator and encased in either a wire mesh or an extruded metal
sheathing.                                                                                      Gen
See Code Point                                                                                  MSN
A software application that generates program source code.                                      BQ
A formal process where the source code is inspected for defects.                                BQ
An ordered set of characters of a given script in which a numeric index (code-point
value) is associated with each character. In this book, this term is generally used in the
context of code pages defined by Windows and can also be called a “character set” or
“charset.” (2) "For character and Unicode data, a definition of the bit patterns that
represent specific letters, numbers, or symbols (such as 0x20 representing a blank
space and 0x74 representing the character ""t""). Some data types use 1 byte per
character; each byte can have 1 of 256 different bit patterns."
An ordering or encoding of a standard set of characters used when a key is pressed on
a keyboard. Single-byte code pages can support 256 combinations and are specific to a
language, or set of languages that use the same characters. Two-byte code pages can
support 65,536 combinations.                                                                 MSN
(1) The minimum bit combination that can represent a unit of encoded text for
processing or exchange. (2) An index into a code page or a Unicode standard.                 MSN
The act of writing a software program. Program language statements are called code.
This is an old term from precompiler days when programmers translated programming
instructions directly into machine language.                                                 BQ
The congenital union of components of the same kind that depend on one another. The
act or state of sticking together; close union. Contrast: coupling                           RUP

(1) Is a description of a collection of objects that interact to implement some behavior
within a context; It describes a society of cooperating objects assembled to carry out
some purpose. (2) It captures a more holistic view of behavior in the exchange
(1) Database used by the Office Server Extensions (OSE) to store Web discussions
and Web subscriptions data. This database is a Microsoft Data Engine (MSDE)
database or a SQL Server database. See also Microsoft Data Engine and Structured
Query Language. (2) A SQL-based database that stores information about the dynamic
content from a SharePoint team Web site, such as document libraries, link bars, and
lists.                                                                                       MSN

(1) A collaboration diagram describes a pattern of interaction among objects; it shows
the objects participating in the interaction by their links to each other and the messages
they send to each other. (2) It is a class diagram that contains classifier
Collaboration diagrams and sequence diagrams are alternate representations of an
interaction.                                                                                 A&D
(1) Refers to a set of rules that determine how textual data is sorted and compared. (2)
A set of rules that determines how data is compared, ordered, and presented.
Character data is sorted using collation information, including locale, sort order, and
case-sensitivity. See also: locale, SQL collation                                            MSN

A special clipboard where you can collect objects from Office programs, including
Internet Explorer 5, and paste them when you need them. You can store up to 12
objects from Office programs on the Office Clipboard. The Office Clipboard toolbar
provides an easy-to-use interface allowing you to copy or paste the items you want.
The sum of the following three calculations: 2 (x) current assistance distributed
collections+ 2 (x) former assistance distributed collections+ 1 (x) never assistance
distributed collections = Collections Base                                                   CSED

(1) In an SQL table, the area in each row that stores the data value for some attribute of
the object modeled by the table. For example, the Employees table in the Northwind
sample database models the employees of the Northwind Traders company. The
LastName column in each row of the Employees table stores the last name of the
employee represented by that row, the same way a Last Name field in a window or form
would contain a last name. (2) "Container that is common to all items in a list,
document library, discussion board, or survey. Stores a single piece of information for
an item. Also known as "field". See also: row.
Column filters restrict the columns to be included as part of a snapshot, transactional or
merge publication.                                                                           MSN
The ability of SQL Server 2000 to support multiple collations in a single instance.
Databases can have default collations different from the default collation of the
instance. Individual columns and variables can be assigned collations different from the
default collation for the instance or database. Each column in a table can have a
different collation.                                                                           MSN

A constraint definition that is specified within a column definition when a table is created
or altered. The constraint applies only to the associated column. See also: constraint
Characters that join into one character when placed together. One example is the “ae”
combination in English; it is sometimes represented by a single character. Arabic is a
script that has many combining characters.                                                     MSN
A character that graphically combines with a preceding base character. The combining
character is said to apply to that base character. The combining acute accent mark ´ -
U+0301 - is an example of a combining character.                                               MSN
An alphabetic base character followed by one or more combining-mark characters such
as acute and grave accents.                                                                    MSN
Provides instructions to hardware based on natural-language questions or commands.
For example, "Play the album with song XXX on it."                                             MSN
An annotation attached to an element or a collection of elements. A note has no
semantics. Contrast: constraint.                                                               RUP
A way for the development team to pass along localization instructions to the
localization team. This information might include whether strings can be localized or
whether limitations on the string length exist, for instance, or can just consist of general
comments added to the resource files. See localization.                                        MSN
An operation that saves all changes to databases, cubes, or dimensions made since
the start of a transaction. A commit guarantees that all of the transaction's
modifications are made a permanent part of the database, cube or dimension. A
commit also frees resources, such as locks, used by the transaction. See also: roll
back                                                                                           MSN
A language compiler compliant, at the high level of required modules, with the
American National Standards Institute (ANSI) X3.23-1985 standard.                              Gen
Within the context of Windows, a set of controlling elements (windows) that are
implemented by the common control library, which is a dynamic-link library (DLL)
included with the Windows operating system. Like other control windows, a common
control is a child window that an application uses in conjunction with another window to
perform input/output (I/O) tasks.                                                              MSN
Standard dialog boxes defined by Windows for operations found in numerous
applications; these operations include Open, Save As, Print, Page Setup, Color
Selection, Font Selection, and Find. Applications can call common dialog box API
functions directly instead of having to supply a custom dialog template and dialog
procedure.                                                                                     MSN
A standard method of extending Web server functionality by executing programs or
scripts on a Web server in response to Web browser requests, such as in form
processing. Use of a common gateway interface (CGI) can make a Web page more
dynamic.                                                                                       MSN

(1) A very important part of the .NET Framework. At the base level, it is the
infrastructure that executes applications, and allows them to interact with the other
parts of the .NET Framework. It also provides important capabilities in optimizing,
securing, and providing many robust capabilities such as application deployment and
side-by-side execution. See .NET Framework. (2) The core runtime engine in the
Microsoft .NET Framework for executing applications. The common language runtime
supplies managed code with services such as cross-language integration, code access
security, object lifetime management, and debugging and profiling support.
A middleware specification, which defines a software bus, the Object Request Broker
(ORB) provides the infrastructure.                                                             RUP

A group formed to promote interoperability and portability across Unix platforms.
part of IBM’s SAA                                                                         Gen
Part of an address space shared with all other address spaces and used by
subsystems such as IMS for data areas that must be accessed by many address
spaces.                                                                                   Gen
One of the four SAA components. CUA specifies conventions for the dialog between
user and computer. The initial CUA specification appeared to represent an uneasy
compromise between Microsoft (with its extensive experience developing Windows and
Macintosh applications) and IBM's mainframe software developers. CUA has since
been divided into "Basic" CUA (for 3270 terminals) and "Advanced" CUA (for intelligent
workstations).                                                                            Gen

A standard specification to enable the interchange of warehouse metadata among data
management and analysis tools and among warehouse metadata repositories. Oracle
is a member of a multivendor working group to identify and enable this standard.
Oracle's open standard for data warehousing. CWM integrates all aspects of
warehousing, incorporating both technical and business metadata.                          ORA

An object oriented framework developed by CSE Systems that enables developers to
build and integrate applications based on the CSE/WorkFlow engine.

An X Windows-based graphical user interface developed by Hewlett-Packard and
Microsoft. CXI provides the user interface "feet" of OS/2 Presentation Manager using
an application programming interface optimized for the X Windows environment. CXI
was part of the basis for OSF/Motif. Contrast PM/X.
Common-Carrier Line                                                                       Gen
An association between an actor class and a use case class, indicating that their
instances interact. The direction of the association indicates the initiator of the
communication (Unified Process convention).                                               RUP
In a deployment diagram an association between nodes that implies a communication.
See: deployment diagram.                                                                  RUP

A S/370 host software configuration whereby certain machines are designed for
network management, while others are applications oriented. A virtue of this technique
is isolation of network performance from application problems. The high end 4381
models are well suited for the role of network owners. A second enabler is NetView,
which provides network management level communications among CMC hosts.
Determining the information and communications needs of the project stakeholders:
who needs what information, when they will need what information, when they will need
it, and how it will be given to them.                                                     PMO
A version of the standard compact disc intended to store general purpose digital data;
provides 650-Megabytes (Mbyte) user capacity at 10-13 corrected bit error rate
compared to 635 Mbyte at 10-9 for the standard CD. CD-ROMs can be used for a wide
variety of data storage, such as music, video, graphics and other multimedia. They are
also often used by software companies to deliver programs such as word-processing or
spread sheet applications since they hold significantly more data than a typical floppy
disk (2.8 Mbytes).                                                                        Gen
A form of an adjective or adverb that refers to a comparison or that denotes a greater
degree. Shorter adjectives and some adverbs typically form their comparative degree
by adding -er, such as young and younger.                                                 MSN
The area in Unicode repertoire from U+F900 through U+FFEF that is assigned to
characters from other standards. These characters are variants of other Unicode
characters.                                                                               MSN
Refers to something that occurs during the compilation of a software module. See:
modeling time, run time.                                                                  RUP

A program to translate source code into code that can be executed by a computer.
A semiconductor technology that uses less power and generates less heat (enabling
higher circuit density), but is typically slower than bipolar technologies.
Scripts that require special handling when it comes to shaping and laying out
characters in software applications. This special handling is closely related to linguistic
requirements of these scripts. Complex scripts can have any combination of the
following attributes: bidirectional rendering, contextual shaping, combining characters,
as well as specialized word-breaking and justification rules. See Contextual analysis
below, Rendering, and Uniscribe.                                                              MSN

A non-trivial, nearly independent, and replaceable part of a system that fulfills a clear
function in the context of a well-defined architecture. A component conforms to and
provides the realization of a set of interfaces. A modular, deployable, and replaceable
part of a system that encapsulates implementation and exposes a set of interfaces. A
component is typically specified by one or more classifiers (e.g., implementation
classes) that reside on it, and may be implemented by one or more artifacts (e.g.,
binary, executable, or script files). Contrast: artifact.
The process used by the Windows Installer to determine whether a component is
available and is in good working order. The Windows Installer performs component
detection every time you attempt to use a feature of a program that was installed by the
installer.                                                                                    MSN

A diagram that shows the organizations and dependencies among components.
An architecture and an API that allows developers to define reusable segments of code
that can be combined to create a program. VisualAge for Java uses the JavaBeans
component model.                                                                              RUP

A specification developed by Microsoft for building software components that can be
assembled into programs or add functionality to existing programs running on Microsoft
Windows platforms. COM components can be written in a variety of languages,
although most are written in C++ and can be unplugged from a program at run-time
without having to recompile the program. COM is the foundation of the OLE, ActiveX,
and DirectX specifications. See also method, ActiveX, DirectX, OLE.

(1) Development methodology in which preassembled building blocks of code are
combined. (2) The creation and deployment of software-intensive systems assembled
from components as well as the development and harvesting of such components.
Communications Port                                                                           ESS
A list of dimension-value combinations in which a given combination has one value
taken from each of the dimensions on which the composite is based, in order to store
sparse data in a compact form.                                                                ORA
Synonym: composition.                                                                         RUP

A bean that is composed of other beans. A composite bean can contain visual beans,
nonvisual beans, or both. See also: bean, nonvisual bean, and visual bean.
A class that is related to one or more classes by a composition relationship. See:
composition.                                                                                  RUP
An index that uses more than one column in a table to index data.                             MSN
(1) A primary key that consists of more than one attribute. (2) A key composed of two
or more columns.                                                                              Gen
A state that consists of either concurrent (orthogonal) substates or sequential (disjoint)
substates. See: substate.                                                                     RUP
A substate that can be held simultaneously with other substates contained in the same
composite state. See: composite state. Synonym: region.                                       RUP
A form of aggregation association with strong ownership and coincident lifetime as part
of the whole. Parts with non-fixed multiplicity may be created after the composite itself,
but once created they live and die with it; that is, they share lifetimes. Such parts can
also be explicitly removed before the death of the composite. Composition may be
recursive. See also: composite aggregation.
See Conversion Window.                                                                       MSN
A key in a database table that is made up of a number of column or field values.
Synonymous with composite key.                                                               ORA
The application of any of several techniques that reduce the number of bits required to
represent information in data transmission or storage, thereby conserving bandwidth
and/or memory.                                                                               Gen
A virtual column in a table whose value is computed at run time. The values in the
column are not stored in the table, but are computed based on the expression that
defines the column. An example of the definition of a computed column is: Cost as
Price * Quantity .                                                                           MSN
Two highly specialized technical computer applications to improve an engineer's
productivity.                                                                                Gen
A software vendor.                                                                           Gen

A system in which digital data is converted into an image on dry processed microfilm.
The discipline, techniques, and tools designed to help protect the confidentiality,
integrity, and availability of data and systems.                                             MSN

An umbrella term for a collection of tools and techniques that are said by their
distributors to promise revolutionary gains in analyst and programmer productivity.
A component object model (COM) compound file used by Data Transformation
Services (DTS) to store the version history of a saved DTS package.                          MSN
A mathematical term indicating that items are placed adjacent to each other giving the
appearance of a single item. The term is applied to the capability to logically connect
multiple data sets.                                                                          Gen
An index that is created on a composite key.                                                 ORA

A key in a database table that is made up of a number of column or field values.
To combine two or more character strings or expressions into a single character string
or expression, or to combine two or more binary strings or expressions into a single
binary string or expression.                                                                 MSN
Any communications device that allows a shared transmission medium to
accommodate more data sources than there are channels available within the
transmission medium.                                                                         Gen
Concept mapping is a technique for representing knowledge in graphs. Knowledge
graphs are networks of concepts. Networks consist of nodes (points/vertices) and links
(arcs/edges). Nodes represent concepts and links represent the relations between
concepts."                                                                                   R&S

Of or relating to an actual, specific thing or instance. Capable of being perceived by the
senses, not abstract or imaginary. Contrast: abstract. See: concrete class.
A class that can be directly instantiated. Contrast: abstract class.                         RUP

(1) A process that allows multiple users to access and change shared data at the same
time. SQL Server uses locking to allow multiple users to access and change shared
data at the same time without conflicting with each other. (2) The occurrence of two or
more activities during the same time interval. Concurrency can be achieved by
interleaving or simultaneously executing two or more threads. See: thread.
A substate that can be held simultaneously with other substates contained in the same
composite state. See: composite substate. Contrast: disjoint substate.                       RUP
Any piece of data or set of data, transmitted or maintained in any form or medium,
including electronic, paper, or oral, that is used to identify a person by virtue of its
containing one or more individual identifiers, such as name, Social Security number,
telephone number, case number, or postal zip code. The misuse of protected data
violates the law and creates a liability for OKDHS. Misuse of protected data also
violates customer confidentiality and privacy, and creates opportunities for fraud or
other illegal activity.                                                                        CSED
Assuring that information is provided only to those who are authorized and able to use
it. (see Privacy)                                                                              A&D

1) The arrangement of a system or network as defined by the nature, number, and chief
characteristics of its functional units; applies to both hardware or software configuration.
(2) The requirements, design, and implementation that define a particular version of a
system or system component. See: configuration management.
[ISO95] An entity in a configuration that satisfies an end-use function and can be
uniquely identified at a given reference point.                                                RUP

(1) A function that enables impact/dependency analysis of application components. (2)
[ISO95] A supporting process whose purpose is to identify, define, and baseline items;
control modifications and releases of these items; report and record status of the items
and modification requests; ensure completeness, consistency and correctness of the
items; and control storage, handling and delivery of the items.

A dimension that is built on base dimensions in order to achieve fine control over the
status of individual combinations of base dimension values. Each value in a conjoint is
a combination of values, one from each of the conjoint's base dimensions. Contrast
with composite. See also dimension, dimension value, sparsity, and variable.
A part of speech (such as and or although) used to connect words, phrases, clauses, or
sentences. Coordinating conjunctions (and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet) connect and relate
words and word groups of equal grammatical rank.                                               MSN

An interprocess communication (IPC) linkage established between a SQL Server 2000
application and an instance of SQL Server 2000. The connection is a network link if the
application is on a computer different from the SQL Server 2000 instance. If the
application and the SQL Server 2000 instance are on the same computer, the linkage is
formed through a local IPC mechanism, such as shared memory. The application uses
the IPC linkage to send Transact-SQL statements to SQL Server and to receive result
sets, errors, and messages from SQL Server.
The Windows subsystem that runs character-based applications, as opposed to
applications that have a graphical user interface (GUI).                                       MSN
(1) A numeric value, typically an integer, that refers to a character value, the size of a
buffer, the position of a character in a string, and so forth. It is assumed that the value
does not change during the time a program is running. (2) A group of symbols that
represent a specific data value. The format of a constant depends on the data type of
the value it represents. For example, 'abc' is a character string constant, 123 is an
integer constant, 'December 16, 1999' is a datetime constant, and 0x02FA is a binary
constant.                                                                                      MSN
A warehouse model that comprises a collection of star models. See also snowflake
model and star model.                                                                          ORA
(1) Applicabe restriction that will affect the performance of th eproject. Any factor that
affects when an activity can be scheduled (PMO). (2) A property assigned to a table
column that prevents certain types of invalid data values from being placed in the
column. For example, a UNIQUE or PRIMARY KEY constraint prevents you from
inserting a value that is a duplicate of an existing value, a CHECK constraint prevents
you from inserting a value that does not match a search condition, and NOT NULL
prevents you from inserting a NULL value. (3) A rule that cannot be violated by
database users. (A&D) See also: column-level constraint. (4) A semantic condition or
restriction. Certain constraints are predefined in the UML, others may be user defined.
Constraints are one of three extensibility mechanisms in UML. See: tagged value,
The third phase of the Unified Process, in which the software is brought from an
executable architectural baseline to the point at which it is ready to be transitioned to
the user community.                                                                               RUP
A special class method that has the same name as the class and is used to construct
and possibly initialize objects of its class type.                                                RUP
To access and execute the application logic exposed by a Web service.                             MSN
In Microsoft Outlook, keep track of all e-mail, tasks, appointments, journal entries, and
documents related to a contact. For example, you can easily see all upcoming
appointments and tasks related to a particular contact. You can also open a contact
from any related item.                                                                            MSN
Stores information such as name, telephone number, e-mail address, and street
address for people who work with your team.                                                       MSN
(1) An instance that exists to contain other instances, and that provides operations to
access or iterate over its contents; for example, arrays, lists, sets. (2) A component
that exists to contain other components. (2) A special type of Active Directory object.
A container is like other directory objects in that it has attributes and is part of the Active
Directory namespace. However, unlike other objects, it does not usually represent
something concrete. It is the container for a group of objects and other containers. See
also object.                                                                                      MSN
When the transfer of data between an entity bean's variables and the underlying
resource manager is managed by the enterprise bean's container.                                   ORA
When an Enterprise Java Beans (EJB) container defines the boundaries of a
transaction. An entity bean must use container-managed transactions.                              ORA

A namespace hierarchy consisting of model elements, and the containment
relationships that exist between them. A containment hierarchy forms an acyclic graph.
See Citation for Contempt.                                                                        CSED
Any act which is calculated to obstruct court in the administration of justice, committed
by a person under the court's authority as a party to a proceeding before the it. Willful
disobedience of or failure to comply with a court's orders. (See also: Citation for
Contempt)                                                                                         CSED
A tool in Microsoft Internet Explorer that lets you control which sites users on your
computer can visit. This is particularly helpful for parents who want to control the
content their children view on the Web.                                                           MSN

Reusing content in localization. Content recycling saves time and money because the
content is researched, presented, edited, reviewed, and translated only once.
A network specializing in the delivery of streaming audio and video.                              ORA
A method of line control ("dispute") in which multiple terminals request permission to
gain control over a line to transmit data.                                                        Gen
A view of a set of related modeling elements for a particular purpose, such as
specifying an operation.                                                                          RUP
A management-oriented evaluation systems model originated by evaluators.                          R&S
A process for determining how to handle text based on surrounding characters, as in
Arabic, in which a glyph changes shape depending on its position in a word. See
Complex scripts above, Rendering, and Uniscribe.                                                  MSN
The backup media used when the initial medium becomes full, allowing continuation of
the backup operation.                                                                      MSN
Continuous Availability                                                                    Gen
A collection of rights that enable a user to view pages and documents in a library, and
contribute to discussions.                                                                 MSN
The process of comparing actual performance with planned performance, analyzing
variances, evaluating possible alternatives, and taking appropriate corrective action as
needed.                                                                                    PMO
A class used to model behavior specific to one, or to several use cases.                   RUP
The term Control Group refers to the group assigned to the experiment, but not for the
purpose of being exposed to the treatment (change). The performance of the control
group usually serves as a baseline against which to measure the effect of the full
treatment on the treatment group.                                                          R&S
A group of Windows utilities used to edit system settings, including international
preferences.                                                                               MSN
The operating system for the IBM S/38.                                                     Gen
A report that summarizes data in user-defined groups or breaks. A new group is
triggered when different data is encountered.                                              MSN
A device that acts as the electrical and logical interface between a data terminal
equipment and a local area network bus.                                                    Gen
Transact-SQL keywords that control the flow of execution of SQL statements and
statement blocks in triggers, stored procedures, and batches.                              MSN

A communication model where two distributed applications exchange information by
way of a conversation; typically one application starts (or allocates) the conversation,
sends some data, and allows the other application to send some data. Both
applications continue in turn until one decides to finish (or de-allocate). The
conversational model is a synchronous form of communication.
The window of an IME that displays text typed by the user, either just the way it is
entered or after it is converted to ideographic form.                                      MSN
Text file used by the Office Converter Pack to determine which converters are installed
by default and whether Setup should be run in quiet mode. See also Office Converter
Pack.                                                                                      MSN
A small data file that is stored on a user's local computer for record-keeping purposes
and which contains information about the user that is pertinent to a website, such as
user preferences.                                                                          MSN

Small files that your Web browser creates at the request of Web sites you visit; the
browser sends the contents of the file to the site upon subsequent visits.
The process by which a single application is partitioned among two or more hardware
platforms. Each segment of the application can communicate with the other(s).
Physical connectivity can occur via a direct channel connection, a node on a local area
network, a peer to peer communication link or a master slave link. The application
software can exist in a distributed processing environment, but this is not a
requirement.                                                                               Gen

Often spelled out as “Universal Coordinated Time”, it is the standard time common to
every place in the world. Formerly and still widely called “Greenwich Mean Time” (GMT)
and also “World Time.” It is expressed using a 24-hour clock.
A model of the business needs and data requirements for an online transaction
processing system.                                                                         ORA
IBM's CSA is a maintenance discount program that was introduced in October 1986. It
provides attractive maintenance discounts for users who demonstrate effective problem
management procedures as defined by IBM and make 1 to 5 year commitments for
IBM maintenance.                                                                           Gen
A subquery that references a column in the outer statement. The inner query is
executed for each candidate row in the outer statement.                                    MSN
The costs incurred to ensure quality. The cost of quality includes quality planning,
quality control, quality assurance, and rework.                                                PMO
The cost efficiency ratio of earned value to actual costs. CPI is often used to predict the
magnitude of a possible cost overrun using the following formula: BAC/CPI = projected
cost at completion. CPI = EV divided by AC.                                                    PMO
1) Any difference between the budged cost of an activity and the actual cost of that
activity. 2) In earned value, EV less ACWP = CV.                                               PMO
A statistical mechanism that analyzes where and how to retrieve data from the Oracle7
and Oracle8 servers to ensure fast access to data.                                             ORA
Council on Law Enforcement Education and Training. See
for more information on CLEET.                                                                 CSED
The degree to which components depend on one another. There are two types of
coupling, "tight" and "loose". Loose coupling is desirable to support extensible software
architecture but tight coupling may be necessary for maximum performance. Coupling
is increased when the data exchanged between components becomes larger or more
complex. Contrast: cohesion.                                                                   RUP
Central processing unit.                                                                        BQ
A SQL Server statistic that reports the time, in milliseconds, the central processing unit
(CPU) spent on SQL Server work.                                                                MSN
Specifies the date when the volume was created.                                                ESS
Specifies the time the volume was created.                                                     ESS
Information that includes identification and proof of identification that is used to gain
access to local and network resources. Examples of credentials are user names and
passwords, smart cards, and certificates.                                                      MSN

Any activity on a critical path. Most commonly determined by using the creitical path
method. Although some activites are "critical, " in the dictionary      sense, without
being on the critical path, this meaning is seldom used in the project context.

In the waterfall life cycle, the major review held when the detailed design is completed.
The series of activities that determines the duration of the project. In a deterministic
model, the critical path is usually defined as those activites with float less than or equal
to a specified value, often zero. It is the longest path through the project. See critical
path method.                                                                                   PMO
A broadly released fix for a specific problem addressing a critical, non-security-related
bug.                                                                                           MSN

Cross memory service (XMS) is an MVS facility which enhances IBM's implementation
of subsystems. The principal function of XMS is to serve as the infrastructure through
which strategic software subsystems exploit the 308X and 3090 hardware architectures.

An architectural extension to S/370 that provides machine facilities enabling IBM's
subsystems implementation. With XMS, programs in separate MVS address spaces
may share data without using Common Service Area storage and may share programs
without scheduling system requests blocks (SRBs). The principal direction for XMS is
to serve as the infrastructure through which strategic software subsystems exploit the
multiprocessor 308X and 3090 hardware architectures. Through use of XMS for intra-
system communications, large subsystems can achieve higher levels of parallelism and
granularity. XMS has been enhanced via access registers that extend its purview
beyond addressability to two address spaces.
IBM’s strategic fourth-generation language (4GL).                                              Gen
Portable or applicable to more than one operating system.                                      MSN
A layout of multidimensional data in rows, columns, and pages. In data warehousing, a
crosstab can be used to display summary information and show how data varies across
dimensions, such as sales by region by month. A crosstab is sometimes called a
matrix. See also rotate.                                                                       ORA
Displays data for summarized values from a field or table, and then groups them by two
sets of facts: one down the left side and the other across the top of the datasheet.
This acronym represents categories that can be used both in the definition of product
requirements and in the assessment of product quality. Broken into two parts, the first
part represents operational categories, capability, reliability, usability, performance,
installability, compatibility, and the second part represents developmental categories,
supportability, testability, maintainability, portability, and localizability. See also:
FURPS+.                                                                                     RUP
The use of codes to convert data by using a key so that only a specific recipient will be
able to read it. Cryptography is used to enable authentication and nonrepudiation, and
to help preserve confidentiality and data integrity.                                        MSN
Contracts Applications                                                                      ETS

A set of data that is organized and summarized into a multidimensional structure
defined by a set of dimensions and measures. See also: multidimensional structure
See Local Cube                                                                              MSN
A collection of users and groups with the same access to a cube. A cube role is created
when you assign a database role to a cube, and it applies only to that cube. See also:
custom rule, database role                                                                  MSN
Data or data formats that are specific to a language, local dialect, or geographic
location. Examples are currency symbols, date formats, calendars, numeric separators,
and sort orders.                                                                            MSN
The current estimate of the point in time when an activity will be completed.               PMO
The current estimate of the point in time when an activity will begin.                      PMO

Used when adjacent glyphs need to be positioned in order to join them cursively. It is
heavily utilized in fonts that support cursive scripts like Arabic. See Kashida.
An entity that maps over a result set and establishes a position on a single row within
the result set. After the cursor is positioned on a row, operations can be performed on
that row, or on a block of rows starting at that position. The most common operation is
to fetch (retrieve) the current row or block of rows.                                       MSN
A special data type used to reference a cursor.                                             MSN
A part of the ODBC and DB-Library application programming interfaces (APIs) that
implements client cursors. A cursor library is not commonly used in current systems;
server cursors are used instead.                                                            MSN
A utility included in the Microsoft Office 2000 Resource Kit. Used to help manage and
deploy customized installations of Office by configuring setup options. This tool is much
improved over the Network Installation Wizard (NIW) of Office 97. Besides setting file
locations and program configurations, network administrators can use the CIW to
customize registry entries, shortcuts, and files. The executable file name for the CIW is
Custwiz.exe.                                                                                MSN
An aggregation calculation that is customized for a dimension level or member and
overrides the aggregate functions of a cube's measures.                                     MSN
In a role, a specification that limits the dimension members or cube cells that users in
the role are permitted to access. See also: cube role, database role                        MSN
Newly created or modified templates saved in a network-based location.                      MSN
A person or organization, internal or external to the producing organization, who takes
financial responsibility for the system. In a large system this may not be the end user.
The customer is the ultimate recipient of the developed product and its artifacts. See
also: stakeholder.                                                                          RUP
IBM's strategic general purpose subsystem for implementing transaction processing
applications. CICS invokes customer written application programs in response to
transactions entered at teleprocessing terminals and provides the services needed by
those applications to retrieve and update data in files and respond to the terminal that
invoked them.                                                                               Gen
The set of processes and supporting software that allows an organization to collect and
leverage information on customer interactions with sales, marketing, and customer
service departments.                                                                        ORA
Systems such as help desks and sales and marketing systems that provide front-line
support with backend linkage for interaction with customers (e.g., tracking, resolution
and escalation).                                                                                Gen
The theoretical study of communication and control processes in biological,
mechanical, and electronic systems, especially the comparison of these processes in
biological and artificial systems.                                                              R&S
A term originated by author William Gibson in his novel Neuromancer that is currently
used to describe the internet medium and the range of information resources available
through it.                                                                                     ORA
Synonyms: lifecycle, development cycle. See also: test cycle.                                   RUP

Specifies that RMM retains the data sets based on cycles or copies of a data set.
A term used interchangeably with the cyclomatic number.                                         BQ

The minimum number of linearly independent paths through a structured system.
Tracks that are positioned under the heads of the actuator at one time                          ESS
The script traditionally used for writing various Slavic languages, including Russian.
Over the past two centuries, the Cyrillic script has been extended so that some of the
other non-Slavic minority languages of the former Soviet Union could be written. Cyrillic
script is written in linear sequence from left to right.                                        MSN
A “Dashboard” is an application that provides a graphical representation of information
(data) in a way that is easy to read. Generally, this data is a small, defined set of key
metrics used to provide a quick evaluation of the status of processes, projects, or
finances. The term “dashboard” is used because the interface often looks like the
dashboard of a car. These types of application are also known as “cockpits” or
“scorecards”.                                                                                   A&D
Things known or assumed; facts or figures from which conclusions can be inferred;
information.                                                                                    BQ
An interface device once used to interconnect customer-owned data terminal
equipment (DTE) to the telephone network.                                                       Gen

Objects that represent the structure of your database and the data that it contains. DAO
works with the Jet database engine. Compare ActiveX Data Objects.
Web page that has a connection to a database. In a data access page, you can view,
add to, edit, and manipulate the data stored in the database. A data access page may
also include data from other sources, such as Excel.                                            MSN

A high-level function that is responsible for the overall management of data resources
in an organization, including maintaining corporate-wide definitions and standards.
The process of analyzing data.                                                                  BQ
In text , ntext , and image data, a data block is the unit of data transferred at one time
between an application and an instance of SQL Server 2000. The term is also applied
to the units of storage for these data types. In tape backup files, data block is the unit of
physical I/O.                                                                                   MSN

A collection of information required to access a specific database. The collection
includes a data source name and logon information. Data connections are stored in a
project and are activated when the user performs an action that requires access to the
database. For example, a data connection for a SQL Server database consists of the
name of the database, the location of the server on which it resides, network
information used to access that server, and a user ID and password.
Contains the characteristics of the records for data sets                                       ESS
Commands used to control a database, including administering privileges and
committing (saving) data. (2) The subset of SQL statements used to control
permissions on database objects. Permissions are controlled using the GRANT and
REVOKE statements.                                                                              Gen
(1) Language specifying the attributes, properties, and objects in a database. (2)
Statement used to establish a correlation between a file and a data set.                        Gen
Those commands used to define a database, including creating, altering, and dropping
tables and establishing constraints.                                                         A&D
Something that is dependent on the value of a given piece of information. For example,
which branch of an if statement will be selected is usually dependent on the information
being processed at that specific time.                                                       BQ

(1) A centralized repository of information about the data, such as its meaning,
relationships to other data, origin, usage and format. The dictionary assist company
management, database administrators, systems analysis and application programmers
in effectively planning, controlling and evaluating the collection, storage and use of
data. A data dictionary manages data categories such as: alias, data elements, data
records, data structure, data store, data models, data flows, data relationships,
processes, functions, dynamics, size, frequency, resource consumption and other user-
defined attributes. (2) A set of system tables, stored in a catalog, that includes
definitions of database structures and related information, such as permissions. (3) A
repository of information about a database which documents data elements of a
database (A&D).
A system table.                                                                              MSN
The most elementary unit of data that can be identified and described in a dictionary or
repository which cannot be subdivided.                                                       ORA
The exponential growth in size of a multidimensional structure, such as a cube, due to
the storage of aggregated data. See also: density, sparsity                                  MSN
A subset of data extracted from one environment and transported to another
environment.                                                                                 ORA
A member of IBM's Data Facility family of software products. It provides copy, dump-
restore and DASD space management functions.                                                 Gen

A member of IBM's Data Facility family of software products. It provides automatic
space and availability management among a hierarchy of storage devices.
Actually named MVS/DFP, it is the MVS component that contains the access methods
and handles catalog management. This MVS back-end contains about half of the 10
million lines of code in that operating system and is the property of the General
Products Division of IBM.                                                                    Gen
The conceptual repackaging of IBM's Data Facility family of products and RACF. It is
intended to simplify the management and use of external storage resources by
providing a device-independent means of requesting services by data set. See SMS
(System Managed Storage).                                                                    Gen
In bulk copy operations, the file that transfers data from the bulk copy out operation to
the bulk copy in operation. In SQL Server 2000 databases, data files hold the data
stored in the database. Every SQL Server 2000 database has at least one primary data
file, and can optionally have multiple secondary data files to hold data that does not fit
on the primary data file. See also: log file                                                 MSN
A diagram that shows the normal flow of data between services as well as the flow of
data between data stores and services.                                                       ORA
(1) A state in which all the data values stored in the database are correct. If incorrect
data values have been stored in a database, the database is said to have lost data
integrity. (2) The accuracy, validity and consistency of data, according to a set of rules
for changing (i.e., updating) the database.                                                  Gen
At first, DL/1 specifically meant the "language" in which the application programmer
specifies requirements to IMS/DB. DL/1 has also been used to denote the DOS version
of IMS/DB. For some time now, the terms "DL/1" and "IMS/DB" have been used
synonymously, even by IBM.                                                                   Gen
Information used by Data Transformation Services (DTS), in conjunction with Meta
Data Services, that records the history of package execution and data transformations
for each piece of data.                                                                      MSN
Those commands used to maintain and query a database, including updating, inserting,
modifying, and querying data.(A&D). (2) The subset of SQL statements used to
retrieve and manipulate data.                                                                Gen
(1) A data warehouse that is designed for a particular line of business, such as sales,
marketing, or finance. (2) A data warehouse that is limited in scope, whose data are
obtained by selecting and (where appropriate) summarizing data from the enterprise
data warehouse. (A&D). (2) A subset of the contents of a data warehouse. A data mart
tends to contain data focused at the department level, or on a specific business area.
See also: data warehouse                                                                      Gen
A child member generated for a nonleaf member in a parent-child dimension. A data
member contains a value directly associated with a nonleaf member that is independent
of the summary value calculated from the descendants of the member. For example, a
data member can contain a manager's salary so that either individual salaries or
summarized salaries can be displayed.                                                         MSN
Unspecified tools that allow data to be moved from various sources into a data
warehouse.                                                                                    ORA

(1) A technique that discovers meaningful patterns and relationships hidden in data,
often used for segmenting customers and predicting their behavior. (2) Knowledge
discovery using a sophisticated blend of techniques from traditional statistics, artificial
intelligence, and computer graphics. See also knowledge discovery.
A representation of the specific information requirements of a business area. See also
entity relationship diagram.                                                                  ORA
An operation that adds, deletes, or changes information in a database using Transact-
SQL statements such as INSERT, DELETE, and UPDATE.                                            MSN
An OLE DB service provider that provides the infrastructure to import, export, and
transform data between heterogeneous data stores using Data Transformation Services
(DTS).                                                                                        MSN

(1) Part of the process of building a data warehouse out of data coming from multiple
online transaction processing (OLTP) systems. The process must address errors such
as incorrect spellings, conflicting spelling conventions between two systems, and
conflicting data (such as having two part numbers for the same part). (2) A technique
of using pattern recognition and other artificial intelligence techniques to upgrade the
quality of raw data before they are transformed and moved to the data warehouse.
A device designed to transmit digital directly on transmission facilities.                    Gen
A synonym for modem, used by AT&T and other vendors.                                          Gen
A name given to a collection of records composed of 8 characters starting with a capitol
letter.                                                                                       ESS
Specifies the basic nature and Organization of the data set                                   ESS

(1) In ADO and OLE DB, the location of a source of data exposed by an OLE DB
provider. See also: ODBC data source. (2) The source of data for an object such as a
cube or dimension. It is also the specification of the information necessary to access
source data. It sometimes refers to an object of ClassType clsDataSource . (2) The
name assigned to an ODBC data source. Applications can use DSNs to request a
connection to a system ODBC data source, which specifies the computer name and
(optionally) the database to which the DSN maps.
As a key principle of privacy, the movement of personally identifiable information (PII)
between entities, such as a customer list being shared between two different
companies.                                                                                    MSN
The component of data reconciliation that converts data from the format of the source
operational systems to the format of the enterprise data warehouse.                           A&D
(1) A detailed coding scheme recognized by system software, such as DBMS, for
representing organizational data (A&D). (2) The characteristic of a field that determines
what type of data it can hold. Data types include Boolean, Integer, Long, Currency,
Single, Double, Date, String, and Variant (default). (3) An attribute that specifies what
type of information can be stored in a column, parameter, or variable. System-supplied
data types are provided by SQL Server; user-defined data types can also be created.
See also: base data type
An integrated decision support database whose content is derived from the various
operational databases. A subject-oriented, integrated, time-variant, nonvolatile
collection of data used in support of management decision-making processes (A&D).
(2) A database specifically structured for query and analysis. A data warehouse
typically contains data representing the business history of an organization. See also:
data mart, fact table.                                                                        Gen
A structured method for the full lifecycle custom development of data warehouse
projects.                                                                                     ORA

(1) An organized collection of logically related data (A&D). (2) An electronic filing
system organized by fields, records and files. (3) A minimally redundant collection of
shared data. (4) A collection of information, tables, and other objects organized and
presented to serve a specific purpose, such as searching, sorting, and recombining
data. Databases are stored in files. (5) A collection of data related to a particular
subject or purpose. Within a database, information about a particular entity, such as an
employee or order, is categorized into tables, records, and fields.
A technical function that is responsible for physical database design and for dealing
with technical issues such as security enforcement, database performance, and backup
and recovery.                                                                                 A&D
Person responsible for administering, monitoring, and maintaining the database.               Gen
The part of a database that contains the definition of all the objects in the database, as
well as the definition of the database. See also: system catalog                              MSN

A graphical representation of the objects in a database. A database diagram can be
either a whole or a partial picture of the structure of a database; it includes objects for
tables, the columns they contain, and the relationship between them.
One of the physical files that make up a database.                                            MSN
The language used for accessing, querying, updating, and managing data in relational
database systems. SQL is a widely used database language. The Microsoft SQL
Server implementation of SQL is called Transact-SQL.                                          MSN
An architectural layer of Active Directory that isolates the upper layers of the directory
service from the underlying database system by exposing application programming
interfaces (APIs) to the Directory System Agent (DSA) layer so that no calls are made
directly to the Extensible Storage Engine (ESE).                                              MSN

A software application that is used to create, maintain, and provide controlled access to
user databases (A&D). (2) A complete software facility for building, maintaining and
generation reports from a database. Database management systems have evolved
along three generic forms: 1. Hierarchical DBMS (1960s) - records were organized in
a pyramid like structure, with each record linked to a parent. 2. Network DBMS (1970s)
- records could have many parents, with imbedded pointers indicating the physical
location of all related records in a file. 3. Relational DBMS (1980s) - records were
conceptually held in tables, similar in concept to a spreadsheet. Relationships between
the data entities were kept separate from the data itself. Data manipulation created
new tables called views.
(1) A database component. A table, index, trigger, view, key, constraint, default, rule,
user-defined data type, or stored procedure in a database. May also refer to a
database. (2) An object (tables, fields, and joins) that is used in an English Query
application to answer queries.                                                                MSN
A member of the database administrator role of a database. There is only one database
owner. The owner has full permissions in that database and determines the access and
capabilities provided to other users.                                                       MSN
The practice of separating a database into portions that may reside on more than one
disk volume or more than one system.                                                        Gen

A collection of one or more data connections (a database and the information needed
to access that database). When you create a database project, you can connect to one
or more databases through ODBC and view their components through a visual user
interface that includes a Database Designer for designing and creating databases and a
Query Designer for creating SQL statements for any ODBC-compliant database.
A facility that automates a significant portion of recovery operations. Originally
implemented as an IMS component, it was separated into its own address space and
now is used by DB2. This evolution is a good example of how IBM likes to craft
components common to multiple subsystems.                                                   Gen

A collection of users and groups with the same access to an Analysis Services
database. You can assign a database role to multiple cubes in the database, thereby
granting the role's users access to these cubes. See also: cube role, custom rule
The names of tables, fields, data types, and primary and foreign keys of a database.
Also known as the database structure.                                                       MSN
A collection of statements used to create database objects. Transact-SQL scripts are
saved as files, usually ending with .sql.                                                   MSN
Refers to IBM's collection of transaction managers and database managers: CICS,
IMS, DB2 and SQL/DS.                                                                        Gen

IBM's strategic product for general purpose information storage, including database
management. It is a reasonably complete implementation of the relational technology.
The introduction of DB2 Version 2 improves many of the previous performance
problems, and IBM should continue to enhance the product. IMS and DB2 will coexist
and even compete for some time. DB2 is a re-conceptualization of IMS, and a
revolutionary change from it. The most strategic component/aspect of DB2 is the
interface to it, namely, SQL. In fact, DB2 is properly viewed as an SQL engine.

An SQL query that contains Data Definition Language (DDL) statements. These are
statements that allow you to create or alter objects (such as tables, indexes, views, and
so on) in the database and to migrate database objects from Microsoft Access.
In OLE DB for OLAP, the set of multidimensional data that is the result of executing a
Multidimensional Expressions (MDX) SELECT statement. For more information about
datasets, see the OLE DB documentation.                                                     MSN
A descriptor of a set of values that lack identity and whose operations do not have side
effects. Data types include primitive predefined types and user-definable types.
Predefined types include numbers, string and time. User-definable types include
enumerations.                                                                               RUP

A string used to represent a date or time format—for example, "dd MMMM, yyyy".
A SQL Server system data type that stores a combined date and time value from
January 1, 1753, through December 31, 9999, with an accuracy of three-hundredths of
a second, or 3.33 milliseconds.                                                             MSN

Specifies that RMM retain all data sets based on a number of days since creation.
Specifications or styles which have not been approved by vendor independent
standards bodies, but which, nonetheless, have become widely accepted by vendors
and users, such as DOS as a personal computer operating system.                             Gen
A key that does not produce a character by itself, such as the accent key on the
international keyboard. However, when the user types in a character after pressing the
accent key, an accented character appears.                                                  MSN
(1) A situation when two users, each having a lock on one piece of data, attempt to
acquire a lock on the other's piece. Each user would wait indefinitely for the other to
release the lock, unless one of the user processes is terminated. SQL Server detects
deadlocks and terminates one user's process. (2) A condition in which two independent
threads of control are blocked, each waiting for the other to take some action. Deadlock
often arises from adding synchronization mechanisms to avoid race conditions. See
also: livelock                                                                             MSN
Given a program that has a bug, to track the problem down in the source code.              BQ

Used to refer to applications that are distributed but originate with MIS, have central
applications development, and are centrally supported. (Contrast with "Departmental.")
A remote data source that users can query/access via a central gateway that provides a
logical view of corporate data in terms users can understand. The gateway parses and
distributes queries in real time to remote data sources and returns result sets back to
users.                                                                                     ORA
Misleading or misrepresenting products or services to consumers and customers. In the
United States, these practices are regulated by the Federal Trade Commission at the
federal level and typically by the Attorney General's Office of Consumer Protection at
the state level.                                                                           MSN
Fixed precision and scale numeric data from -10^38 -1 through 10^38 -1.                    MSN
(1) The act of using data and tools within an organization to support managerial
decisions. Usually decision support involves the analysis of many units of data in a
heuristic fashion. (2) Systems designed to support the complex analytic analysis
required to discover business trends. The information retrieved from these systems
allows manager to make business decisions based on timely and accurate analysis of
business trends.                                                                           MSN
A system designed to support strategic (vs. Operating) decisions.                          Gen
A treelike model of data produced by certain data mining methods. Decision trees can
be used for prediction. See also: prediction                                               MSN
A branching node with multiple edges entering and one edge leaving; decisions can
contain processes; in this text, for the purposes of clarity, decisions will be modeled
with only one edge entering.                                                               BQ

FOREIGN KEY constraints defined as part of a table definition that enforce proper
relationships between tables. The constraints ensure that proper actions are taken
when DELETE, INSERT, and UPDATE statements remove, add, or modify primary or
foreign key values. The DRI actions enforced by FOREIGN KEY constraints can be
supplemented with additional referential integrity logic defined in triggers on a table.
The breakdown of an accented character or a precomposed character into an ordered
set of character components. For “ã” the components are “a” followed by the combining
character “~”.                                                                             MSN
The process of converting encrypted data back into its original form.                      MSN

Working from the more general to the more specific. Sometimes this is referred to as
the "top-down" approach (Theory – Hypothesis – Observation – Confirmation). It begins
with developing a theory, then narrowing that down into more specific hypotheses that
can be tested. The hypothesis is then narrowed down even further through the
collection of observations relating to the hypotheses. This enables the hypotheses to be
tested with specific data, thereby confirming or refuting the original theory. Deductive
reasoning is narrower in nature than inductive reasoning, and is concerned with testing
or confirming hypotheses.

A data value, option setting, collation, or name assigned automatically by the system if
a user does not specify the value, setting, collation, or name. An action taken
automatically at certain events if a user has not specified the action to take.
A property defined for a table column that specifies a constant to be used as the default
value for the column. If any subsequent INSERT or UPDATE statement specifies a
value of NULL for the column, or does not specify a value for the column, the constant
value defined in the DEFAULT constraint is placed in the column.

The database the user is connected to immediately after logging in to SQL Server.
The copy of SQL Server that uses the computer name on which it is installed as its
name. See also: named instance, multiple instances                                           MSN

The language that SQL Server 2000 uses for errors and messages if a user does not
specify a language. Each SQL Server 2000 login has a default language.

The dimension member used in a query when no member is specified for the
dimension. The default member of a dimension is the All member if an (All) level exists,
or else an arbitrary member of the highest level. You can also set default members for
individual roles in custom rules for dimension security. See also: All member

The default mode SQL Server uses to return a result set back to a client. Rows are sent
to the client in the order they are placed in the result set, and the application must
process the rows in this order. After executing an SQL statement on a connection, the
application cannot do anything on the connection other than retrieve the rows in the
result set until all the rows have been retrieved. The only other action that an
application can perform before the end of the result set is to cancel the remainder of the
result set. This is the fastest method to get rows from SQL Server to the client. See
also: firehose cursors

An anomaly, or flaw, in a delivered work product. Examples include such things as
omissions and imperfections found during early lifecycle phases and symptoms of
faults contained in software sufficiently mature for test or operation. A defect can be
any kind of issue you want tracked and resolved. See also: change request.
The model on which a repository is based. Any number of repositories can have the
same defining model.                                                                         RUP
The description of a database object that includes characteristics such as the object's
data type, dimensions, long description, name, permission specifications, properties,
and type (e.g., dimension or variable).                                                      ORA
The changing of form or shape induced by stress.                                             BQ
The number of entity types that participate in a relationship.                               A&D
(1) Allows a higher administrative authority to grant specific administrative rights for
containers and subtrees to individuals and groups. This eliminates the need for domain
administrators with sweeping authority over large segments of the user population.
Access control entries (ACEs) can grant specific administrative rights on the objects in
a container to a user or group. Rights are granted for specific operations on specific
object classes via ACEs in the container’s Access Control List (ACL). For example, to
allow user “James Smith” to be an administrator of the "Corporate Accounting"
organizational unit, you would add ACEs to the ACL on “Corporate Accounting” as
follows: “James Smith”; Grant; Create, Modify, Delete; Object-Class User “James
Smith”; Grant; Create, Modify, Delete; Object-Class Group “James Smith”; Grant;
Write; Object-Class User; Attribute Password Now James Smith can create new users
and groups in Corporate Accounting and set the passwords on existing users, but he
cannot create any other object classes and he cannot affect users in any other
containers (unless, of course, he is granted that access by ACEs on the other
containers). (2) The ability of an object to issue a message to another object in
response to a message. Delegation can be used as an alternative to inheritance.              MSN
Contrast: inheritance.
A query (SQL statement) that removes rows from one or more tables.                           MSN
In Transact-SQL, characters that indicate the start and end of an object name, using
either double quotation marks ("") or brackets ([]).                                         MSN
A juvenile who is guilty of criminal behavior, which is usually punished by special laws
not pertaining to adults. A delinquent child means a juvenile who:a. has violated any
federal or state law or municipal ordinance except a traffic statute or traffic ordinance or
any provision of the Oklahoma Wildlife Conservation Code, the Oklahoma Vessel and
Motor Regulation Act or the Oklahoma Boating Safety Regulation Act, or has violated
any lawful order of the court made pursuant to the provisions of the Oklahoma Juvenile
Code, or b. has habitually violated traffic laws, traffic ordinances or boating safety laws
or rules.
An output from a process that has a value, material or otherwise, to a customer or other
stakeholder.                                                                                   RUP

The Delphi Technique is based on the Hegelian Principle of achieving oneness of mind
through a three-step process of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis. In thesis and
antithesis, all present their opinion or views on a given subject, establishing views and
opposing views. In synthesis, opposites are brought together to form the new thesis.
All participants are then to accept ownership of the new thesis and support it, changing
their own views to align with the new thesis. Through a continual process of evolution,
Oneness of Mind will supposedly occur.
The change. A file created by an application that contains only changes made to the
application.                                                                                   ORA
To deconstruct an object so that it can be written as a stream of bytes. See also:
flatten, serialize.                                                                            RUP
This term is now commonly used in the industry to describe a sub-network, typically
used for web servers that are protected by firewalls from both the external Internet and
a company's internal network.                                                                  RUP
A computerized assault launched by an attacker to overload or halt a network service,
such as a Web server or a file server. For example, an attack may cause the server to
become so busy attempting to respond that it ignores legitimate requests for
connections.                                                                                   MSN
The process of transforming normalized relations into unnormalized physical record
specifications.                                                                                A&D
To introduce redundancy into a table in order to incorporate data from a related table.
The related table can then be eliminated. Denormalization can improve efficiency and
performance by reducing complexity in a data warehouse schema. See also: star
schema                                                                                         MSN
The data in a denormalized database model.                                                     ORA
(1) Specifies the volume's recording density. (2) The percentage of cells that contain
data in a multidimensional structure. Analysis Services stores only cells that contain
data. A dense cube requires more storage than a sparse cube of identical structure
design. See also: data explosion, sparsity (MSN).                                              ESS

Removes a permission from a user account and prevents the account from gaining
permission through membership in groups or roles within the permission.


State agency within Oklahoma responsible for policing all state roads and highways as
well as several thousand miles of lake and river shore lines throughout the state. The
department is also responsible for providing security related functions for the Governor,
his immediate family and the Lieutenant Governor, as well as security at the Governor's
Mansion. The DPS is responsible for the licensing of all motor vehicle operators,
including the testing of those who apply for the first time, and the renewal of those who
currently hold valid driver licenses due to expire. Maintaining the active driving record of
the approximately 2.3 million driver license holders is another responsibility of the
Used to refer to applications that are initiated and developed by end users, and that are
often unique to the departments. (Contrast with "Decentralized.")                              Gen
A generated number that uniquely identifies all OKDHS clients                                 CCL
The views and procedures that depend on the specified table or view.                          MSN
A relationship between two modeling elements, in which a change to one modeling
element (the independent element) will affect the other modeling element (the
dependent element).                                                                           RUP
A data mart that is sourced directly from a data warehouse.                                   ORA
A discipline in the software-engineering process, whose purpose is to ensure a
successful transition of the developed system to its users. Included are artifacts such
as training materials and installation procedures.                                            RUP
A diagram that shows the configuration of run-time processing nodes and the
components, processes, and objects that live on them. Components represent run-time
manifestations of code units. See also: component diagram.                                    RUP
A specific instance of a configuration of hardware and software established for the
purpose of installing and running the developed software for it's intended use. See also:
test environment, environment.                                                                RUP

A set of objects or components that are allocated to a process or a processor as a
group. A distribution unit can be represented by a run-time composite or an aggregate.
An architectural view that describes one or several system configurations; the mapping
of software components (tasks, modules) to the computing nodes in these
configurations.                                                                               RUP
An attribute whose values can be calculated from related attribute values.                    A&D
A value derived by some algorithm from the values of other columns.                           ORA

(1) Data that exists only as a subset of other data. (2) Data that have been selected,
formatted, and aggregated for end user decision support applications.
A model element that can be computed from another element, but that is shown for
clarity or that is included for design purposes even though it adds no semantic
information.                                                                                  RUP
(or measure) A fact (or measure) that is generated from existing data using a
mathematical operation or a data transformation. Examples include averages,
differences, percentages, and totals. See also fact data.                                     ORA
A member in a dimension hierarchy that is related to a member of a higher level within
the same dimension. For example, in a Time dimension containing the levels Year,
Quarter, Month, and Day, January is a descendant of 1997. See also: child, parent,
ancestor, sibling                                                                             MSN
A study designed primarily to describe what is going on or what exists. A study that
seeks to describe the available products that perform a particular task might be an
example. For instance, to describe the available options for JAVA code generators, this
type of study would be appropriate.                                                           R&S

To construct an object from a de-marshaled state. See also: marshal, resurrect.
(1) To make preliminary sketches of; sketch a pattern or outline for; plan. (2) To plan
and carry out, especially by artistic arrangement or in a skillful way. (3) To form (plans,
etc.) in the mind; contrive. (4) To plan to do; purpose; intend. (Webster's New World
Dictionary of the American Language, Second College Edition, Prentice Hall, 1984). (5)
The part of the software development process whose primary purpose is to decide how
the system will be implemented. During design, strategic and tactical decisions are
made to meet the required functional and quality requirements of a system. See:
analysis.                                                                                     RUP
A right that allows a user to add, modify, or remove fields and views of a list, document
library, discussion board, or survey.                                                         MSN

An architectural mechanism used during the design process, during the period in which
the details of the design are being worked-out. They are related to associated analysis
mechanisms, of which they are additional refinements, and they may bind one or m
An object model describing the realization of use cases; serves as an abstraction of the
implementation model and its source code.                                                     RUP
A collection of classes, relationships, use-case realizations, diagrams, and other
packages, it is used to structure the design model by dividing it into smaller parts. It's
the logical analogue of the implementation subsystem.                                        RUP

[GAM94] defines a design pattern as: "A design pattern provides a scheme for refining
the subsystems or components of a software system, or the relationships between
them. It describes a commonly-recurring structure of communicating components that
solves a general design problem within a particular context." Design patterns are
medium to small-scale patterns, smaller in scale than architectural patterns but typically
independent of programming language. When a design pattern is bound, it will form a
portion of a concrete design model (perhaps a portion of a design mechanism). Design
patterns tend, because of their level, to be applicable across domains.
A design review is a session (meeting) held in order to review the overall research
design. Design Review’s are generally conducted on a regular basis throughout the life
of the research project. Design Reviews are intended to ensure that appropriate and
scientific research designs are developed, and meet all requirements of the Research
Standards.                                                                                   R&S

A model element, which has the semantics of a package (it can contain other model
elements) and a class (it has behavior). Classes or other subsystems it contains
provide the behavior of the subsystem. A subsystem realizes one or more interfaces,
which define the behavior it can perform. Contrast: design package.
Refers to something that occurs during a design phase of the software development
process. See: modeling time. Contrast: analysis time.                                        RUP
(Oracle Designer) An Oracle computer-aided systems engineering (CASE) tool.                  ORA
Design-time controls are ActiveX controls that you use while designing or editing a
page. See also ActiveX control.                                                              MSN

An architecture specification defined by the Desktop Management Task Force (DMTF)
designed to give vendors and users a common vendor - and protocol-neutral framework
to manage desktop systems, servers, peripherals, and components.
An object in a repository that participates in a relationship such that the object is the
destination of the relationship. For example, component is the destination object in the
relationship project has component. See also: origin object                                  MSN
Measurements in the core of a data warehouse on which all online analytical
processing (OLAP) queries depend. Synonymous with fact data.                                 ORA

New feature in Office Setup in which the Windows Installer detects and repairs
problems without user intervention. Detect And Repair is run by clicking Detect And
Repair on the Help menu or when running Setup in Maintenance Mode.
(1) Determination Controlling Order                                                          CSED
The establishment of the parent-child relationship by the signing of an acknowledgment
of paternity under this section or adjudication by the court.                                CSED

A string that has been converted from a phonetic representation into ideographs.

A person responsible for developing the required functionality in accordance with
project-adopted standards and procedures. This can include performing activities in any
of the requirements, analysis & design, implementation, and test disciplines.
The software-engineering process used by the performing organization. It is developed
as a configuration, or customization, of the Unified Process product, and adapted to the
project's needs.                                                                             RUP
Synonyms: lifecycle, cycle. See also: test cycle.                                            RUP
A set of partially ordered steps performed for a given purpose during software
development, such as constructing models or implementing models.                             RUP

Sometimes used to refer to Developmental Disability Applications                              ETS
A type of node, which provides supporting capabilities to a processor. Although it may
be capable of running embedded programs (device drivers), it cannot execute general-
purpose applications, but instead exists only to serve a processor running general-
purpose applications. See definition for: file                                                 MSN
A Graphics Device Interface (GDI) structure that defines a set of graphics objects and
their associated attributes, as well as the graphics modes that affect output. The
graphics objects include a pen for line drawing, a brush for painting and filling, a bitmap
for copying or scrolling parts of the screen, a palette for defining the set of available
colors, a region for clipping and other operations, and a path for painting and drawing
operations.                                                                                    MSN
A set of tools and libraries for creating Windows-based software to run hardware
devices such as printers, along with documentation.                                            MSN

A character that is attached to or overlays a preceding base character. For example, a
mark placed over, under, or through a Latin-based character—such as “~”—to indicate
a change in phonetic value from the unmarked state. Most diacritics are nonspacing
characters that don’t increase the width of the base character. See Accented character.

Two dots placed over a Latin vowel to indicate that the vowel is pronounced as a
separate syllable (as in the word “naïve”). Typically used when two vowels are adjacent,
but should be pronounced separately rather than as a diphthong. See Umlaut.
To ascertain why a system responds to a set of stimuli the way it does.                        BQ
A highly optimized test suite used to establish the current behavior of a system, used to
isolate the site (or source) of a failure.                                                     BQ

A graphical depiction of all or part of a model. A graphical presentation of a collection
of model elements, most often rendered as a connected graph of arcs (relationships)
and vertices (other model elements). UML supports the following diagrams: class
diagram, object diagram, use-case diagram, sequence diagram, collaboration diagram,
statechart diagram, activity diagram, component diagram, and deployment diagram.
The process of, or the equipment or facilities involved in, establishing a temporary
connection via the switched network.                                                           Gen
Defined words in the English Query dictionary. You can make additions to the dictionary
through the English Query domain editor by specifying the word, its part of speech, and
an optional irregular form.                                                                    MSN
A database backup that records only those changes made to the database since the
last full database backup. A differential backup is smaller, and is faster to restore than a
full backup and has minimal effect on performance.                                             MSN
See certificate.                                                                               MSN
A container that provides a customized display of information consolidated from various
information sources. Every Digital Dashboard is a Web page containing one or more
Web Parts. See Web Parts.                                                                      MSN
The second largest computer company (1990) in the world (after IBM). However,
Fujitsu's acquisition of ICL, will vault it into second place in 1991.                         Gen

Digital Equipment Corp.'s counterpart to IBM's SNA. Encompasses all of its networking
products including DECnet, DECnet Gateway and communications servers.
A technology that provides persistent protection to digital data using encryption,
certificates, and authentication. Authorized recipients or users must acquire a license in
order to consume the protected material--files, music, movies--according to the rights,
or business rules, set by the content owner.                                                   MSN
Data that is bundled with a message or transmitted separately and is used to identify
and authenticate the sender and message data. A valid digital signature also confirms
that the message has not been tampered with.                                                   MSN
A combination of characters that is written separately but forms a single lexical unit—for
example, the Danish “aa” and the Spanish “ch” and “ll”.                                        MSN
A structural attribute of a cube, which is an organized hierarchy of categories (levels)
that describe data in the fact table. These categories typically describe a similar set of
members upon which the user wants to base an analysis. For example, a geography
dimension might include levels for Country, Region, State or Province, and City. See
also: measure, virtual dimension, level, member group
One of the hierarchies of a dimension. See also: hierarchy                                    MSN
A table in a data warehouse whose entries describe data in a fact table. Dimension
tables contain the data from which dimensions are created. See also: primary
dimension table, fact table                                                                   MSN
DASD is a general term, but it typically refers to a magnetic disk device.                    Gen
The state of being connected to a back-end database, so that any changes you make
to a database diagram automatically update your database when you save the diagram
or selected items in it.                                                                      MSN

A noun (along with any of its modifiers) naming whom or what after a transitive verb.
For example, the customer buys the products (the products is the direct object.)

The default mode in which SQL Server statistics are gathered separately from the SQL
Server Statistics display. Data is available immediately to SQL Server Performance
Monitor; however, the statistics displayed are one period behind the statistics retrieved.
A hierarchical structure that stores information about objects on the network.                MSN

A contiguous subtree of the directory that forms a unit of replication. A given replica is
always a replica of some directory partition. Active Directory is made up of one or more
directory partitions. In Active Directory a single server always holds at least three
directory partitions: The schema, The configuration (replication topology and related
metadata), One or more per-domain directory partitions (subtrees containing the actual
objects in the directory), The schema and configuration are replicated to every domain
controller in a given forest. The per-domain directory partition is replicated only to
domain controllers for that domain.

Such as Active Directory; provides the methods for storing directory data and making
this data available to network users and administrators. For example, Active Directory
stores information about user accounts, such as names, passwords, phone numbers,
and so on, and enables other authorized users on the same network to access this
information. See also Active Directory, directory partition.

The management of network elements such as routers, applications, and users from a
central repository of information about users, applications, and network resources.
Windows 95 software that gives programs direct access to a computer's sound and
graphics hardware.                                                                            MSN
Buffer pages that contain modifications that have not been written to disk.                   MSN
Reads that contain uncommitted data. For example, transaction1 changes a row.
Transaction2 reads the changed row before transaction1 commits the change. If
transaction1 rolls back the change, transaction2 has read a row that never logically
existed.                                                                                      MSN
A discipline is a collection of related activities that are related to a major 'area of
concern'. The disciplines in RUP include: Business Modeling, Requirements, Analysis &
Design, Implementation, Test, Deployment, Configuration & Change Management,
Project Management, Environment.                                                              RUP
A component of the notice principle, wherein a company should make available its data
handling practices, including notices on how it collects, uses, and shares personally
identifiable information (PII).                                                               MSN
In discriminant validity, the degree to which the operationalization is not similar to
(diverges from) other operationalizations that it theoretically should not be similar to is
examined.                                                                                     R&S
Comments that users attach to Web pages and documents. Known in administrative
tasks as "Web document discussion" to differentiate from discussion boards.
A Web site component that enables users to participate in topics of discussion by
posting and replying to comments.                                                             MSN
A remark or topic of discussion that is associated with a Web page or document and is
stored on a discussion server.                                                                MSN
Rights that allow a user to view, add, modify, and close discussion comments that are
attached to a Web page or document.                                                           MSN
(1) A computer that stores discussion text and information about the location of the file
being discussed. (2) Web server used to host Web collaboration (discussions and
subscriptions). The Web server has Office Server Extensions installed. See also
Collaboration Database and Web Collaboration.                                                 MSN
In an online forum, such as a newsgroup, a series of messages or articles in which
replies to a message are nested directly under it, instead of the messages being
arranged in chronological or alphabetical order.                                              MSN

A substate that cannot be held simultaneously with other substates contained in the
same composite state. See: composite state. Contrast: concurrent substate.
The duplication of disks and controller so that two access paths exist in case of a failure
occurs on one of them.                                                                        Gen
Commonly used to refer to the Microsoft developed DOS for Intel's 80x8x PCs (and
known as MS-DOS). IBM markets MS-DOS as PC-DOS.                                               Gen

A family of IBM work processing software for the PC, S/36 and mainframe lines that
creates DCA documents. IBM markets DisplayWrite as defining the standard user
interface to IBM text creation and manipulation products. DisplayWrite 4 on the PC
(released in mid 1986) focused on resolving some of the inconsistencies among the
three different DisplayWrite implementations. DisplayWrite is included in SAA.
Indicates if a file already exist or if it is being created within a job.                     ESS
Identifies the domain that holds the object as well as the complete path through the
container hierarchy by which the object is reached. Every object in the Active Directory
has a unique distinguished name. A typical distinguished name might be:
CN=JamesSmith,CN=Users,DC=Microsoft,DC=Com. This distinguished name
identifies the “James Smith” user object in the domain.                         MSN
To move transactions or snapshots of data from the Publisher to Subscribers, where
they are applied to the destination tables in the subscription databases.                     MSN
Architectures in which the computational and data processing requirements of an
application are performed by two or more computer systems.                                    Gen
An Internet protocol supported by Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS) version
5.0.                                                                                          MSN

(2) Distributed component object model (Microsoft). Microsoft's extension of their
Component Object Model (COM) to support objects distributed across a network.

Distributed computing is a programming model in which processing occurs in many
different places (or nodes) around a network. Processing can occur wherever it makes
the most sense, whether that is on a server, personal computer, handheld device, or
other smart device. In contrast to the two-node system prevalent today (the client and
the centralized server), Microsoft .NET uses distributed computing.
Distributed Computing Environment. Adopted by the computer industry as a de facto
standard for distributed computing. DCE allows computers from a variety of vendors to
communicate transparently and share resources such as computing power, files,
printers, and other objects in the network.                                                   RUP
Group Bull’s scheme for data interoperability.                                                Gen
An IBM initiative whose purpose is to be the base for solving the data connectivity
problem, i.e., to interconnect disparate environments so that data can be interchanged
at a very high level. The intent is to encompass rules for data description, data
organization, data access, data integrity and data management. Level 1.0, introduced
in June 1986, provides the capability for S/36 and S/38 users to share and maintain
data among themselves and on CICS/VS based files. The firmly rooted assortment of
varying protocols for data handling within IBM's products constitutes a formidable
barrier to widening DDM's scope. It is the base architecture for IBM's distributed
relational database architecture.
A database whose objects (tables, views, columns, files) reside on more than one
system in a network and that can be accessed or updated from any system in the
network.                                                                                   Gen
A mix of network management specifications endorsed by the Open Software
Foundation (OSF).                                                                          Gen

DISOSS is a family of IBM program products that provides library and document
distribution functions, as well as document translation services. It operates only under
the MVS operating system and uses CICS for access by terminal users. DISOSS has
been slow to gain acceptance because of functional deficiencies and non-usability.
IBM is filling in the capabilities with the Personal Services packages.
Distribution of a job to whichever processor or network is best equipped to handle the
job at that time.                                                                          Gen

(1) The ability for an application to be run on one or more nodes of a multi-hardware
platform network. The user need not be aware of the physical location of the data or
the application software. The application can operate using cooperative processing, but
this condition is not necessary. (2) Distributed processing is an application or systems
model in which function and data can be distributed across multiple computing
resources connected on a LAN or WAN. See: client/server computing.
A single query that accesses data from multiple data sources.                              MSN
Distributed Resource Management                                                            Gen
Refers to computer systems in multiple locations throughout an organization working in
a co-operative fashion, with the system at each location primarily serving the needs of
that location but also able to receive and supply information from other systems within
the network.                                                                               Gen
An IBM software license option that is available to IBM customers with a basic license
for the software product that allows them to copy certain IBM-licensed material for the
purpose of installing multiple systems.                                                    Gen
A technology for managing the interconnected parts of a system.                            Gen

A database on the Distributor that stores data for replication including transactions,
snapshot jobs, synchronization status, and replication history information.
The distribution retention period determines the amount of information stored for a
replication agent and the length of time subscriptions will remain active in the
distribution database. When the distribution retention period is exceeded, the
Distribution Clean Up Agent runs.                                                          MSN
A server that hosts the distribution database and stores history data, and/or
transactions and meta data. See also: local Distributor, remote Distributor                MSN

A storage management software product distributed by Sterling Software for the S/370
environment.                                                                               Gen
Short for Domain Name System (or Service), an Internet service that translates domain
names into IP addresses. Because domain names are alphabetic, they're easier to
remember. The Internet however, is really based on IP addresses. Every time you use
a domain name, therefore, a DNS service must translate the name into the
corresponding IP address. For example, the domain name might
translate to The DNS system is, in fact, its own network. If one DNS
server doesn't know how to translate a particular domain name, it asks another one,
and so on, until the correct IP address is returned.
(1) A document is an impression or record left by a human being on a physical object.
(2) A document is a collection of information that is intended to be represented on
paper, or in a medium using a paper metaphor. The paper metaphor includes the
concept of pages, and it has either an implicit or explicit sequence of contents. The
information is in text or two-dimensional pictures. Examples of paper metaphors are
word processor documents, spreadsheets, schedules, Gantt charts, web pages, or
overhead slide presentations.                                                                 R&S
Describes the intended content of a particular document.                                      RUP
See “Notices”                                                                                 CCL
A formal process where the project documentation is inspected for defects.                    BQ

Defined by IBM as a set of services performed by peer communications processes.
A folder where a collection of files is shared and the files often use the same template.
Each file in a library is associated with user-defined information that is displayed in the
content listing for that library.                                                             MSN
The Document Map is a separate pane in Word that displays a list of headings in the
document. You can use the Document Map to quickly navigate through the document
and keep track of your location in it.                                                        MSN
A concrete tool template, available for tools such as Adobe(r) FrameMaker(r) or
Microsoft(r) Word(r).                                                                         RUP

(1) A single security boundary of a Windows NT-based computer network. Active
Directory is made up of one or more domains. On a standalone workstation, the domain
is the computer itself. A domain can span more than one physical location. Every
domain has its own security policies and security relationships with other domains.
When multiple domains are connected by trust relationships and share a common
schema, configuration, and global catalog, they constitute a domain tree. Multiple
domain trees can be connected together to create a forest. See also domain controller,
domain local group. (2) In Windows 2000 security, a collection of computers grouped
for viewing and administrative purposes that share a common security database. In
relational databases, the set of valid values allowed in a column.

(1) A Windows NT-based server holding an Active Directory partition. See domain. (2)
A computer that manages all aspects of user-domain interactions. These are
computers running Microsoft Windows NT Server that share one directory database to
store security and user account information for the entire domain; they comprise a
single administrative unit. Domain controllers use the information in the directory
database to authenticate users logging on to domain accounts.
A user defined data type that defines a valid range of values for a column of a table in a
database.                                                                                     RUP
An integrity mechanism that enforces the validity of entries for a given column. The
mechanism, such as the CHECK constraint, can restrict the possible data values by
data type, format, or range of values allowed.                                                MSN
Can contain users and global groups from any domain in the forest, universal groups,
and other domain local groups in its own domain. A domain local group can only be
used on ACLs in its own domain. See also domain, forest.                                      MSN
A domain model captures the most important types of objects in the context of the
domain. The domain objects represent the entities that exist or events that transpire in
the environment in which the system works. The domain model is a subset of the
business analysis model.                                                                      RUP
A system for translating domain names such as into numeric
Internet protocol addresses such as                                              RUP

A hierarchical distributed database used for name/address translation and client-server
rendezvous. Domain Name System is the namespace used on the Internet to translate
computer and service names into TCP/IP addresses. Active Directory uses DNS as its
location service, and so clients find domain controllers via DNS queries.
IBM's midrange operating system, primarily for 43XX systems, now known as VSE. For
many years IBM has tried to motivate its VSE customers to migrate to MVS. But there
are not enough systems programmers to support the migration, which is one of the
reasons that VSE/ESA has been introduced. During 1987 IBM began marketing VSE-
driven 4381s and 9370s for low-end transaction processing environments. On
September 5, 19990, the company announced a more robust version, VSE/ESA,
signifying that DOS was the "blessed" full- function operating system for low-end
mainframes.                                                                                   Gen
(1) A character encoding in which the code points can be either 1 or 2 bytes. Used, for
example, to encode Chinese, Japanese, and Korean languages. See Multibyte
character set (MBCS), and CJK/CJKV. (2) A character set that generally uses two
bytes to represent a character, allowing more than 256 characters to be represented.
DBCSs are typically used in environments that use ideographic writing systems, such
as Japanese, Korean, and Chinese.                                                             Gen
Any browser that does not support all of the HTML technologies utilized by the Office
programs when a program writes out HTML. A down-level browser does not render
correctly all of the features of an Office document saved as HTML. Down-level
browsers include Microsoft Internet Explorer versions 3.x and 4.x and Netscape
Navigator versions 3.x and 4.x.                                                               MSN

(1) To transfer a copy of a file from a remote computer to a requesting computer by
means of a modem or network. (2) The process of loading software into one or more
network nodes from another node or device over the network or channel.
The process of saving a file in an earlier version file format. Down-rev saving is used to
share files with users using earlier versions of a program. Files saved in earlier versions
will lose features unique to the current version.                                             MSN
A technique for navigating through levels of data ranging from the most summarized
(up) to the most detailed (down). For example, when viewing the details of sales data
by year, a user can drill down to display sales data by quarter, and further to display
data by month.                                                                                MSN

To retrieve the detailed data from which the data in a cube cell was summarized.
See digital rights management.                                                                MSN

A type of data connection that is created based on information in a data source name
(DSN), but is stored as part of a project or application. DSN-less connections are
especially useful for Web applications because they enable you to move the application
from one server to another without recreating the DSN on the new server.
An organized collection of connections, Data Transformation Services (DTS) tasks,
DTS transformations, and workflow constraints defined by the DTS object model and
assembled either with a DTS tool or programmatically.                                         MSN
A model Data Transformation Services (DTS) package. The template is used to help
create and configure a particular type of package.                                            MSN

The process of saving a file in two different binary formats, (for example, both Excel
5.0/95 and Excel 97/2000 file formats). Dual file save allows you to use files in different
versions of a program without having to install additional software such as file
converters. Note that saving a file in a dual file format increases the size of the file.
A terminal not performing local processing of entered information, serves only as an I/O
device for an attached or network linked processor.                                          Gen
See definition for: backup                                                                   MSN
See definition for: backup file                                                              MSN
Use of physical or psychological force to coerce a person to sign an acknowledgment of
paternity.                                                                                   CSED

From the Greek meaning `Two as One'. The description of a configuration that cannot
be partitioned to run as two single processors, although the complex will operate on one
processor if the other fails. Dyadic products include a processor controller that provides
visibility of every channel to each processor. With dual multiprocessors, each channel
is visible to only one processor, although the channels can be switched between the
processors. In the AP (Attached Processor) multiprocessor configuration, only one of
the processors has channels attached to it, and the AP does all its I/O through that
processor. IBM introduced the dyadic concept with the 3081.
A semantic variation of generalization in which an object may change type or role.
Contrast: static classification.                                                             RUP
A cursor that can reflect data modifications made to the underlying data while the
cursor is open. Updates, deletes, and inserts made by users are reflected in the
dynamic cursor.                                                                              MSN
Merge replication filters that restrict data based on a system function or user-defined
function (for example: SUSER_SNAME()).                                                       MSN

A protocol for assigning dynamic IP addresses to devices on a network. With dynamic
addressing, a device can have a different IP address every time it connects to the
network. In some systems, the device's IP address can even change while it is still
connected. DHCP also supports a mix of static and dynamic IP addresses. Dynamic
addressing simplifies network administration because the software keeps track of IP
addresses rather than requiring an administrator to manage the task. This means that a
new computer can be added to a network without the hassle of manually assigning it a
unique IP address. Many ISPs use dynamic IP addressing for dial-up users. DHCP
client support is built into Windows 95 and NT workstation. NT 4 server includes both
client and server support.

A technology that extends Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) by adding an object
model. Scripts and programs can use the object model to change styles and attributes
of page elements (objects) and to replace existing elements with new ones. Dynamic
HTML also extends HTML by adding multimedia and database access features.
Information that is created at the time the user requests it. Dynamic information
changes over time so that each time users view it, they see different content.               RUP
An IP address that is assigned to a computer using DHCP. This IP address may
change each time the computer connects to the network or even during the course of a
network connection.                                                                          A&D
A module containing functions or resources that other programs or DLLs can utilize.
DLLs cannot run by themselves; other programs have to load them. EBCDIC: Extended
Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. These types of code pages are used on IBM
and other manufacturers' mainframes.                                                         MSN
The process used by SQL Server to determine the most cost-effective locks to use at
any one time.                                                                                MSN
The process that detects and/or attempts to correct software failure or loss of data
integrity within a relational database management system (RDBMS).                            MSN
A snapshot of a merge publication with dynamic filters that is applied using bulk copy
files to improve performance.                                                                MSN
In Embedded SQL for C, an SQL statement built and executed at run time.                      MSN

[MSP97] defines this as: "A measure of the value of work performed so far. Earned
value uses original estimates and progress-to-date to show whether the actual costs
incurred are on budget and whether the tasks are ahead or behind the baseline plan."

(1) The transaction of business over an electronic medium such as the Internet. (2) A
business that uses Internet technologies and network computing in their internal
business processes (via intranets), their business relationships (via extranets), and the
buying and selling of goods, services, and information (via electronic commerce). (3)
Enterprise wide business philosophy The OKDHS e-business Steering Committee
exists to promote the use of Internet technology in the business practices of OKDHS
and to oversee the development and implementation of projects to accomplish this
goal. Some activities include a) the identification, selection and prioritization of projects
for implementation, b) provide input regarding use of emerging technologies, c)
resolution of any e-business issues, and d) monitoring the progress of the e-business
agency-wide strategy.
In database modeling, an element of a cube. Each edge contains values from one or
more dimensions. See also cube.                                                                  ORA

A simple markup language for defining Web page fragments, enabling dynamic content
to be cached to speed assembly and delivery of personalized Web pages.

In logic flow diagrams, these are lines that connect nodes on the logic flow map.
1. Having an effect; producing a result. 2. Producing a definite or desired result;
efficient. 3. In effect; operative; active. 4. Actual, not merely potential or theoretical. 5.
Making a striking impression; impressive. 6. Equipped and ready for combat.
(Webster's New World Dictionary of the American Language, Second College Edition,
Prentice Hall, 1984)                                                                             BQ
1.Ability to produce a desired effect, product, and so on with a minimum of effort,
expense, or waste; quality or fact of being efficient. 2. The ratio of effective work to the
energy expended in producing it, as of a machine; output divided by input. (Webster's
New World Dictionary of the American Language, Second College Edition, Prentice
Hall, 1984)                                                                                      BQ
In Java, a container that implements the EJB component contract of the J2EE
architecture. This contract specifies a runtime environment for enterprise beans that
includes concurrency, deployment, lifecycle management, securtiy, transaction, and
other services.                                                                                  ORA

In Java, an object whose class implements the enterprise bean's remote interface.
Specifies to direct a volume to an exit station                                                  ESS
The second phase of the process where the product vision and its architecture are
defined.                                                                                         RUP
A system that allows OKDHS benefits to be paid electronically, Used by Food Stamps,
Day Care and others.                                                                             CCL
A markup language for conducting business over the internet.                                     ORA
The uses of communication technologies to transmit business information and transact
business.                                                                                        Gen

An international industry association founded in 1961 dedicated to the standardization
of information and communication systems and focusing on standards for multimedia
computing, high-capacity storage media, high-speed telecommunications, software
engineering, IT security, and application portability.
The electronic transfer between trading partners of pre-formatted business documents,
such as purchase orders and bills of lading.                                                     Gen
Another name for solid state disk.                                                               Gen
Distribution of information without the use of paper.                                            Gen
Any communications service that permits the electronic transmission and storage of
text messages.                                                                                   Gen
A means of installing software by transmitting it over a network.                            Gen
(1) An atomic constituent of a model. (2) The basic unit of information in an HTML or
XML document. Elements are arranged hierarchically to define the overall document
structure.                                                                                   MSN
The process by which a user misleads a system to grant unauthorized rights, usually for
the purpose of compromising or destroying the system.                                        MSN
In programming, a keyword used to execute a block of statements when the test
condition using the "if" keyword evaluates to false.                                         ORA
A predefined level of aggregation built into a dimension for which a hierarchy exists. For
example, in a TIME dimension, each quarter represents the total for the months in the
quarter.                                                                                     ORA
Emergency Repair Disk                                                                        ESS
A type of bipolar (i.e., a category of chip design) transistor characterized by extremely
fast switching speeds.                                                                       Gen
Relying on or derived from observation or experiment: empirical results that supported
the hypothesis. Verifiable or provable by means of observation or experiment: empirical
laws. Guided by practical experience and not theory.                                         R&S
Determined by trial or experiment.                                                           BQ
HRMD's Oracle application                                                                    ETS
Altering program code to handle input, display, and editing of bidirectional or East Asian
languages, such as Arabic and Japanese, respectively.                                        MSN
The hiding of a software object's internal representation. The object provides an
interface that queries and manipulates the data without exposing its underlying
structure.                                                                                   RUP
A document can be enclosed by another document to collect a set of documents into a
whole; the enclosing document as well as the individual enclosures is regarded as
separate artifacts.                                                                          RUP
A method or system of assigning numeric values to characters (for example, ASCII,
Unicode, Windows 1252).                                                                      MSN
Data that has been converted from plaintext into ciphertext.                                 MSN
A trigger that is created with an optional encryption parameter that encrypts the
definition text and cannot be decrypted. Encryption makes the information
indecipherable to protect it from unauthorized viewing or use.                               MSN
A file-based encryption technology that enables users to encrypt files and folders on an
NTFS volume disk to keep them confidential.                                                  MSN
(1) A method for keeping sensitive information confidential by changing data into an
unreadable form. (2) The process of converting data into ciphertext to prevent it from
being understood by an unauthorized party.                                                   Gen
Located at the end of the volume                                                             ESS
The user interface for multidimensional structures.                                          ORA
Type of testing where the entire system is tested—that is, from end-to-end.                  BQ
A special character, such as a rare ideograph, that the user creates with a EUDC editor
and assigns to a code point within a reserved range.                                         MSN

A privacy principle which provides mechanisms for assuring compliance with the Fair
Information Practices, recourse for individuals affected by noncompliance, and
consequences for noncompliant organizations. Methods for enforcement include a
review by independent third parties, such as BBBOnLine.

1. (a) The science concerned with putting scientific knowledge to practical uses. (b) The
planning, designing, construction, or management of machinery, roads, bridges,
buildings, and so on. 2. The act of maneuvering or managing. (Webster's New World
Dictionary of the American Language, Second College Edition, Prentice Hall, 1984)
A revision to a parts list, bill of materials or drawings, authorized by the engineering
department. Changes are usually identified by a control number and are made for
"Safety." "Cost Reduction." or "Functionally" reasons. In order to effectively implement
engineering changes all affected functions such as Materials, Quality Assurance,
Assembly and Engineering, should review and agree to the change.
Refers to a Microsoft application development product that allows users to ask
questions in English, rather than in a computer language such as SQL. For example,
you might ask, "How many customers bought products last year?" rather than prepare
an equivalent SQL statement.                                                                   MSN
An application based on a relational database that gives end users the ability to pose
queries in English, rather than in a computer language such as SQL.                            MSN

If you want to create a mailing list that's a subset of your Contacts folder, you can filter
the contacts list and then use the filtered list to begin a mail merge from Outlook.
A type of stakeholder request that specifies a new feature or functionality of the system.
See also: change request.                                                                      RUP
A group of departments, divisions, groups, or companies that make up an entire
business.                                                                                      ORA

(1) The plans, methods, and tools aimed at modernizing, consolidating, and
coordinating the computer applications in an enterprise, usually with an eye toward
transitioning from legacy applications to those that install e-business processes within
the organization. (2) EAI enables data propagation and business process execution
throughout the numerous distinct networked applications as if it would be a unique
global application. It is a distributed transactional approach and its focus is to support
operational business functions.
The unit within Data Services Division (DSD) that is responsible for all software
development. This includes mainframe, web-based, client-server and thrid party
software.                                                                                      Gen

Enterprise architecture is a comprehensive framework used to manage and align an
organization's business processes, Information Technology (IT) software and hardware,
local and wide area networks, people, operations and projects with the organization's
overall strategy. A strong Enterprise Architecture process helps to answer basic
questions like: *What are the organization's business processes, and how is IT
supporting those processes?
In Java, a component that implements a business task or business entity, either an
entity bean or a session bean.                                                                 ORA

A product by Information Builders, EDA provides a common interface between a wide
range of Structured Query Language (SQL) programs and SQL databases. Queries on
data from different types of databases can be queried simultaneously using EDA.
A graphical model that shows the high-level entities for the organization and the
relationships among those entities.                                                            A&D

A centralized, integrated data warehouse that is the control point and single source of
all data made available to end users for decision support applications.
Enterprise Distribution Management                                                             Gen
An EJB is a non-visual, remote object designed to run on a server and be invoked by
clients. An EJB can be built out of multiple, non-visual JavaBeans. EJB’s are intended
to live on one machine and be invoked remotely from another machine. They are
platform-independent. Once a bean is written, it can be used on any client or server
platform that supports Java.                                                                   RUP
(Oracle Enterprise Manager) An Oracle product that provides a GUI to systems and
databases for enterprisewide systems management.                                               ORA
A model of the business.                                                                       ORA
A personalized single point of information including relevant applications internal and
external to a company.                                                                         ORA

The broad set of activities--and the software that supports them--that helps a company
manage key business flows, including product planning, purchasing, inventory
maintenance, supplier management, order tracking, finance, and human resources.
Enterprise Storage Server                                                                      Gen

ESA/370 is IBM's S/370 extended architecture for the 3090 and 4381 processors, and
is supported by MVS/ESA. The major ESA feature is the support of data spaces in
addition to the S/370 program-and-data address spaces of S/370. (See MVS/ESA).

(1) [Architecture] Announced by IBM in September 1990, ESCON is the beginning, of a
new connectivity concept. Ultimately, it has the potential of redefining the
interconnection structure for the corporate networking. However, as originally
announced ESCON had very little new "architecture" within the implementation of a
high speed fiber-optic serial channel for IBM's ES/9000 processors. (2) A high speed
fiber-optic serial channel for IBM’s ES/9000 processors announced in September 1990.
(1) A person, place, thing, event, or concept that is relevant to a business organization
and about which it needs to keep data. An entity appears as a “table” within the
physical database (A&D). (2) In English Query, an entity is a real-world object, referred
to by a noun (person, place, thing, or idea), such as people, products, shipments, cities,
and so on. Entities are semantic objects.                                                      Gen

In Java, an enterprise bean that represents persistent data maintained in a database
and identified by a primary key. If the container in which an entity bean is hosted
crashes, the entity bean, its primary key, and any remote references survive the crash.
A class used to model information that has been stored by the system, and the
associated behavior. A generic class reused in many use cases, often with persistent
characteristics. An entity class defines a set of entity objects, which participate in
several use cases and typically survive those use cases.                                       RUP

A state in which all the rows in a database have a not-null primary key value, all tables
have primary keys, and no table has any duplicate primary key values. This ensures
that there are no duplicate entries for anything represented in the database.
The Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD) graphically documents the information of
interest to the business. It shows the relationship between the data elements (entities)
of interest to a customer.                                                                     A&D
A model whose primary purpose is to bridge the semantic gap between the user's
notions of relationships among data elements and the requirements of the relational
model. In the ER model, an entity is anything about which data can be stored and
entities have relationships with each other.                                                   Gen
An action executed upon entering a state in a state machine regardless of the transition
taken to reach that state.                                                                     RUP

(1) A data type of a property. It specifies that a property value should support a fixed set
of constant strings or integer values. (2) A list of named values used as the range of a
particular attribute type. For example, RGBColor = {red, green, blue}. Boolean is a
predefined enumeration with values from the set {false, true}.
One of three files required by Office to present the Office E-mail header. Envelope.dll is
the envelope control file that contains the program code. See also Envelopr.dll and
Sendto9.dll.                                                                                   MSN
One of three files required by Office to present the Office E-mail header. Envelopr.dll is
the envelope resource file that contains the localized resources for a given language.
See also Envelope.dll and Sendto9.dll.                                                         MSN
(1) A discipline in the software-engineering process, whose purpose is to define and
manage the environment in which the system is being developed. Includes process
descriptions, configuration management, and development tools. (2) A specific
instance of a configuration of hardware and software, established for the purpose of
software development, software testing, or in which the final product is deployed. See
also: test environment, deployment environment.
A catalog or list of the elements of a given environment, usually includes description
and specifications.                                                                          BQ
A join in which the values in the columns being joined are compared for equality, and all
columns are included in the results.                                                         MSN
A classification of equivalent values for which an object is expected to behave similarly.
This technique can be applied to help analyze the most significant tests to conduct
when there are too many potential tests to conduct in the available time. Synonyms:
equivalence partition, domain.                                                               RUP

Erroneous payment occurs when CSED has incorrectly paid money to a custodial
person, noncustodial parent, or other entity, or failed to retain money assigned to the
state because of an administrative error. (See also: Overpayment)
Code in which redundant information (e.g., parity bits, Cyclic Redundancy Check
(CRC), etc.) is sent with transmitted characters or a block of characters to allow the
receiving node to ascertain whether all information was received without an error. Upon
detection of an error, the receiving node or station generally requires a re-transmission
of the last character or block of characters from the sending node or station. The
process of error detection dialog between sending and receiving stations is referred to
as "handshaking."                                                                            Gen
A text file that records system information from SQL Server.                                 MSN
A number associated with SQL Server 2000 messages that helps Microsoft support
engineers find the specific code location that issued the message. This can be helpful
in diagnosing errors that may be generated from multiple locations in the SQL Server
2000 code.                                                                                   MSN
An Excel spreadsheet containing information about error messages used in Office
programs. This file is included in the Microsoft Office 2000 Resource Kit.                   MSN
“Errors” is a Global Module that records fatal errors which occur in an application and
redirects the user to an error screen if applicable.                                         CCL

A new family of processors that implement the IBM S/390 architecture. On
announcement (9/90), no compelling architectural differentiation was detailed over the
capabilities of the ESA/370 functions. However, the dramatic new features and
functions (i.e., the "Future System" capabilities) will be announced within the first two
years of the new products. The ES/9000 models 900 and 820 are FS-"capable."

A character used to indicate that another character in an expression is meant literally
and not as an operator. For example, in SQL, the character "%" is used as a wildcard
character to mean "any number of characters in this position." However, if you want to
search for a string such as "10%" (ten percent), you cannot specify "10%" alone as a
search string, because the "%" would be interpreted as "any number of characters in
addition to 10." By specifying an escape character, you can flag instances where "%"
specifically means percent. For example, if you specify the escape character "#", you
can indicate a search string of "10#%" to mean "ten percent."
A baseband LAN developed by Xerox Corp. and supported by Intel Corp., DEC, Hewlett-
Packard and a host of others. Ethernet has a bus topology with CSMA/CD access
control.                                                                                     Gen
A European Union (EU) law stating that personal data from EU countries can only be
transferred to non-EU countries that provide an acceptable level of privacy protection.
An organization must inform individuals why information about them is collected, how to
contact the organization with inquiries and complaints, the types of third parties to
which the organization will disclose, and the options an organization provides to limit
the disclosure of certain information. Proper notice and choice must be offered to allow
an individual to opt in or opt out of providing specific information the organization plans
on tracking. See also Safe Harbor Agreement.
The common currency introduced in Europe in 1999.                                              MSN
Evaluation research is the discipline which deals with the theory, methods, and carrying
out of evaluations.                                                                            R&S

This type of study provides an opinion or judgment rather than a yes-no-maybe answer
or a recommendation. It provides a studied opinion on the value or worth of something.
An evaluation study would attempt to answer some question or questions. The resultant
report would typically compare something to a set of requirements (or criteria) and
determine how well it met those requirements. Depending on the objective of the
project, there may be a recommendation stemming from the research results.

A brief, easy-to-remember statement that defines the essence of the work objectives for
the test team for a given work schedule. Typically reconsidered per iteration, the
evaluation mission provides focus to keep the team working productively to benefit the
testing stakeholders. Some examples of mission statements include: find important
problems fast, advise about perceived quality and verify to a specification.

The specification of a significant occurrence that has a location in time and space. In
the context of state diagrams, an event is an occurrence that can trigger a transition.
A place to post important dates. By default, a view of the Events list appears on the
home page.                                                                                     MSN
A connection from an event generated by a bean to a method of a bean. When the
connected event occurs, the method is executed.                                                RUP
The life of the software after its initial development cycle; any subsequent cycle, during
which the product evolves.                                                                     RUP
An iterative development strategy that acknowledges that user needs are not fully
understood and therefore requirements are refined in each succeeding iteration
(elaboration phase).                                                                           RUP

Ex post facto refers to causal inferences drawn "after the fact." In an ex post factor
study, the causal event of interest has already happened. These are known as non-
experimental studies and are often contrasted with experimental studies. A typical
example of this type of research would be to compare two groups of patients in a
hospital, one treated with Drug A, and the other treated with Drug B, and then trying to
infer a difference in the performance of the two drugs.

An Excel add-in included in the Microsoft Office 2000 Resource Kit. This add-in
changes the year component of all date formats from two digits to four digits. The add-
in also modifies serial numbers related to dates so that they fall within a specific century
and creates a report of workbooks that contain dates for easy reference.
An Excel add-in included in the Microsoft Office 2000 Resource Kit used to scan
workbooks for worksheet functions that accept date arguments. Dates entered as text
may produce different results than they did in previous versions. The unexpected
results that may occur are salvageable to a change in the date algorithm in Excel 97
and Excel 2000.                                                                                MSN
An Excel add-in included in the Microsoft Office 2000 Resource Kit that provides the
ability to access Excel workbooks that appear to be corrupted. The utility extracts and
copies salvageable data into a new Excel workbook.                                             MSN
The fact or condition of excelling; of superiority; surpassing goodness or merit, and so
on.                                                                                            BQ
An event during program execution that prevents the program from continuing normally;
generally, an error.                                                                            ORA
A block of code that reacts to a specific type of exception. If the exception is for an error
that the program can recover from, the program can resume executing after the
exception handler has executed.                                                                 ORA

A dictionary containing words that the main dictionary recognizes as being spelled
correctly, but that you want questioned during a spelling check. Using an exclude
dictionary allows you to specify preferred spellings for certain words. For example, if
you prefer theatre rather than theater, theater can be added to the exclude dictionary so
that if Word finds theater during a spelling check, it prompts you for the correct spelling.

A lock that prevents any other transaction from acquiring a lock on a resource until the
original lock on the resource is released at the end of the transaction. An exclusive lock
is always applied during an update operation (INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE).

An executable architecture is a partial implementation of the system, built to
demonstrate selected system functions and properties, in particular those satisfying
non-functional requirements. It is built during the elaboration phase to mitigate risks
related to performance, throughput, capacity, reliability and others, so that the complete
functional capability of the system may be added in the construction phase on a solid
foundation, without fear of breakage. It is the intention of the RUP that the executable
architecture be built as an evolutionary prototype, with the intention of retaining what is
found to work (and satisfies requirements), and making it part of the deliverable system.

An application program specifically designed for use by the corporate executive.
An action executed upon exiting a state in a state machine regardless of the transition
taken to exit that state.                                                                       RUP

E/S is an in-board disk cache memory available as an option on 3090 and 4381
processors. E/S provides additional high-speed, page-addressable memory used by
the operating system to cache frequently used pages outside of main memory. This
storage transfers 4096-byte pages to and from main storage synchronously with
processor operations. Because of the 3090's virtual storage capabilities, IBM has
avoided the problems associated with large-capacity storage (LCS), a facility introduced
in the early days of S/360 to form a storage hierarchy. Exploitation of E/S by the
relational database products will be a key part of their performance evolution.
A standard against which a test is compared.                                                    BQ
Experimental design is a planned interference by someone (research analyst for the
purposes of this methodology) in the natural order of events. The research analyst does
more than observe what is occurring. The emphasis is on experimentation, and
therefore great value is place on the information acquired. Monumental gains in
knowledge in all sciences have resulted from the intentional interference by man with
the natural stream of events. More than just observation or measurement of a natural
event, a selected condition or a change (treatment) is introduced. Observations or
measurements are planned to illuminate the effect of any change in conditions. The
importance of experimental design also stems from the quest for inference about
causes or relationships as opposed to simply description. Researchers are not
expected to merely describe the events they observe, they make inferences about what
produced, contributed to, or caused events. To gain the necessary information without
ambiguity, an experimental design is usually required. Consequently, the development
of complex designs arises from the possibility of alternative relationships,
consequences or causes. The purpose of the experimental design is to rule out any
alternative causes, leaving only the root (real) cause.                                         R&S
See Treatment Group                                                                             R&S
The act of conducting experiments.                                                              BQ
A software system with two basic components: a knowledge base and an inference
engine. The system mimics an expert's reasoning process. A knowledge-based
system is sometimes also referred to as an expert system.                                    Gen
Testers who are experts in their areas.                                                      BQ
Specifies the date the volume should be considered for release                               ESS

A group of SQL statements enclosed within transaction delimiters. The first delimiter
the end delimiter must be one of the following: COMMIT TRANSACTION, COMMIT
A technique for testing computer software that requires minimal planning and tolerates
limited documentation for the target-of-test in advance of test execution, relying on the
skill and knowledge of the tester and feedback from test results to guide the ongoing
test effort. Exploratory testing is often conducted in short sessions in which feedback
gained from one session is used to dynamically plan subsequent sessions. For more
detail, see: [BAC01a].                                                                       RUP

RequisitePro’s primary navigation window. In this window, project artifacts (documents,
requirements, and views) are displayed in packages in a tree Rational Rose.
In the context of packages, to make an element visible outside its enclosing
namespace. See: visibility. Contrast: export [OMA], import.                                  RUP
To host and make available a Web service so that it can be used by other applications
or services.                                                                                 MSN
(1) In SQL, a combination of symbols and operators that evaluate to a single data
value. Simple expressions can be a constant, variable, column, or scalar function.
Complex expressions are one or more simple expressions connected by operators. (2)
A string that evaluates to a value of a particular type. For example, the expression "(7 +
5 * 3)" evaluates to a value of type number.                                                 MSN
A relationship from an extension use case to a base use case, specifying how the
behavior defined for the extension use case can be inserted into the behavior defined
for the base use case.                                                                       RUP
A major extension of IBM's S/360 architecture that features 31-bit addressing and a
more sophisticated I/O subsystem. It was delivered in 1983 on the 398X processors,
and is now available on the 3090 and 4381. The MVS/XA and VM/XA operating
systems support XA.                                                                          Gen
(1) Characters above the ASCII range (32 through 127) in single-byte character sets.
(2) Accented characters.                                                                     MSN
Extended function refers to the dual copy, DASD fast-write and cache fast-write
features introduced with the 3990.                                                           Gen
(Local-Area Network) A "super" LAN (or enterprise network) that provides users
throughout the enterprise with access to all computing resources via inter-networking of
LANs over wide-area networks within the enterprise.                                          Gen
A reliability enhancement for an IMS/VS database/data communications environment.
It provides the capability of creating a "mirror" IMS system and synchronizing it to the
primary subsystem. The mirror IMS/VS system takes over the workload from the
primary subsystem in the case of some, but not all, disruptive events, thereby
improving availability. XRF will also facilitate testing and installation of new software
releases. It has also been extended to CICS.                                                 Gen
A function in a dynamic link library (DLL) that is coded using the SQL Server 2000
Extended Stored Procedure API. The function can then be invoked from Transact-SQL
using the same statements that are used to execute Transact-SQL stored procedures.
Extended stored procedures can be built to perform functionality not possible with
Transact-SQL stored procedures.                                                              MSN

An extend-relationship from a use-case class A to a use-case class B indicates that an
instance of B may include (subject to specific conditions specified in the extension) the
behavior specified by A. Behavior specified by several extenders of a single target use
case can occur within a single use-case instance.
The ability to easily add new functionality to existing services without major software
rewrites or without redefining the basic architecture.                                         ORA

(1) An open standard for exchanging structured documents and data over the Internet
that was introduced by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) in November 1996.
XML is a simplified version of Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). (2) A
markup language that provides a format for describing structured data. XML is a World
Wide Web Consortium (W3C) specification and is a subset of Standard Generalized
Markup Language (SGML).
The Active Directory database engine. ESE (Esent.dll) is an improved version of the Jet
database that is used in Microsoft Exchange Server versions 4.x and 5.5. It implements
a transacted database system, which means that it uses log files to ensure that
committed transactions are safe.                                                               MSN
An XML language used for transforming XML documents into something that can be
displayed, such as HTML.                                                                       MSN

The unit of space allocated to a SQL Server object, such as a table or index, whenever
the object needs more space. In SQL Server 2000, an extent is eight contiguous pages.
Data originating from outside the central processing complex.                                  ORA
A hyperlink pointing to a page or file that is outside of the current Web site.                MSN
In a Web site, a link to a URL that is located outside the current Web site. Synonym:
outside link                                                                                   RUP

External validity refers to the proposed interpretation of the results of the study. It asks
the question: With what other groups could we reasonably expect to get the same
results if we used the same treatment?                                                         R&S
The process of selecting data from one environment and transporting it to another
environment for use by individual users or departments.                                        ORA
The process of selecting and pulling data from the operational and external data
sources, in order to prepare it for a data warehouse.                                          ORA
The methods involved in populating a data warehouse. See also extraction, load, and
transformation.                                                                                ORA
The methods involved in accessing and manipulating source data and loading it into a
data warehouse.                                                                                ORA
Extraneous variables (external to the experiment) are variables that may influence or
affect the results of the treatment on the subject.                                            R&S
A special package, stereotyped «facade», within a subsystem that organizes and
exports all information needed by the clients of the subsystem. Included in this package
are interfaces(where the interfaces are unique to the subsystem), realization
relationships to interfaces outside the subsystem, and any documentation needed by
clients of the subsystem to use the subsystem                                                  A&D
A special package, stereotyped "facade", within a subsystem that organizes and
exports all information needed by the clients of the subsystem. Included in this package
are interfaces (where the interfaces are unique to the subsystem), realization
relationships to interfaces outside the subsystem, and any documentation needed by
clients of the subsystem to use the subsystem.                                                 RUP
The PowerBuilder client/server computer system that collects and inputs data into the
PS2 system.                                                                                    CCL
The system or equipment used for the transmission of images, usually over the public
telephone network.                                                                             Gen
A row in a fact table in a data warehouse. A fact contains values that define a data
event such as a sales transaction.                                                             MSN
Measurements within the core of a data warehouse on which all online analytical
processing (OLAP) queries depend.                                                              ORA
A central table in a data warehouse schema that contains numerical measures and
keys relating facts to dimension tables. Fact tables contain data that describes specific
events within a business, such as bank transactions or product sales. See also: data
warehouse, dimension table, star join, star schema

A variable of specific experimental interest is sometimes referred to as a factor.
Ordinarily the term factor is used when an experiment involves more than one variable.
These variables are often identified as factors and are labeled "Factor A" and "Factor
B," etc. The Level refers to the degree or intensity of a factor. Any factor may be
presented in one or more of several levels, including a zero level.
(1) A term commonly used to refer to specific group of design patterns that deal with
the creation or instantiation of objects. Examples include Abstract Factory and Factory
Method [GAM94]. (2) JavaA nonvisual bean capable of dynamically creating new
instances of a specified bean.                                                               RUP
An operational mode in which the functions of a system are assumed by a secondary
system whenever the primary system becomes unavailable, through either failure or
scheduled down time.                                                                         ORA

The inability of a system or component to perform its required functions within specified
performance requirements [IEEE90]. A failure is characterized by the observable
symptoms of one or more defects that have a root cause in one or more faults.

The basis for privacy best practices, both online and offline. The Practices originated in
the Privacy Act of 1974, the legislation that protects personal information collected and
maintained by the U.S. government. In 1980, these principles were adopted by the
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and incorporated in its
Guidelines for the Protection of Personal Data and Transborder Data Flows. They were
adopted later in the EU Data Protection Directive of 1995, with modifications. The Fair
Information Practices include notice, choice, access, onward transfer, security, data
integrity, and remedy.
The price for which equipment could be sold in an arm’s-length transaction between
unrelated parties.                                                                           Gen
A mother and a father and the child(ren) of that relationship, and any custodial
person(s) of the child(ren) who is not the mother or the father.                             CSED
A group of related dimension values that correspond to the levels of the dimension
hierarchy. Dimension values within a family can relate to each other as ancestor,
parent, child, and descendant.                                                               ORA
An accidental condition that causes the failure of a component in the implementation
model to perform its required behavior. A fault is the root cause of one or more defects
identified by observing one or more failures.                                                RUP

A model for testing computer software, which uses the notion of a plausible fault as it's
basis and provides a test method to uncover the fault. The good fault model provides a
definition of the fault or root cause, discussion of the observable failures the fault can
produce, a test technique for uncovering the fault and a profile of appropriate test data.
The ability for a system to produce correct results even in the presence of faults or
errors by the use of one or more of several techniques such as redundancy in the
hardware, checking techniques (such as ECC), and check pointing (by either hardware
or software).                                                                                Gen
A technique for testing computer software using a test method and test data to
demonstrate the absence or existence of a set of pre-defined faults. For example, to
demonstrate that the software correctly handles a divide by zero faults, the test data
would include zero.                                                                          RUP
Commodities/Facilities & Central Services & Risk Management Applications                     ETS
Term used to describe statements made by a vendor who represents the short comings
of a competitors products either hardware or software. These statements are made to
increase the value (compatibility, stability, reliability, etc.) of the product(s) they are
selling to the customer. By inferring the short comings of a competitors product(s) they
create "Fear Uncertainty and Doubt" in the customers mind as decisions are made
during the acquisition of products.

This type of study examines a proposed plan that addresses a situation, problem, or
opportunity, and determines whether that plan is "feasible" or whether it is
technologically possible or practical in terms of current technology, economics, social
needs, etcetera. The feasibility report answers the question "Should we implement
Plan X?" by stating "yes," "no," or maybe." Not only does it give a recommendation, it
also provides the data and the reasoning behind that recommendation.
An externally observable service provided by the system, which directly fulfills a
stakeholder need. A property, like operation or attribute, which is encapsulated within a
classifier, such as an interface, a class or a data type.                                     RUP
A measure of the abundance and quality of the features offered by a product.                  BQ
(1) Standards that apply to computer systems purchased by the United States
government. Each FIPS standard is defined by the National Institute of Standards and
Technology (NIST). The current standard for SQL products is FIPS 127-2, which is
based on the ANSI SQL-92 standard. ANSI SQL-92 is aligned with ISO/IEC SQL-92.
(2) A set of standards produced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology
setting forth protocols, encryption, interoperability, hardware, and other specifications
for the federal government.                                                                   Gen

The flow of information back to its origin. The information could be about the results of
a process or the findings of research, which is used to change the process or influence
decision-making. Negative feedback reduces the error or deviation from a goal state.
Positive feedback increases the deviation from an initial state. Feedback is not the term
for a response to a stimulus rather for the circularity implied in both.

An operation that retrieves a row or block of rows from a cursor. Transact-SQL batches,
stored procedures, and triggers use the FETCH statement to fetch from Transact-SQL
cursors. Applications use application programming interface (API) fetch functions.
A high speed serial communication protocol developed by IBM and others; usually used
for storage subsystems.                                                                       Gen
An NIST standard for 100-Mbps fiber-optic LANs. It incorporates token processing and
supports circuit-switched voice and packetized data.                                          Gen

A high-bandwidth transmission media technology that uses light as a digital information
carrier. Fiber telephone transmission media to carry hundreds of thousands of voice
circuits. Fiber-optic cables (light guides) are a direct replacement for conventional
coaxial cables and wire pairs. The glass-based transmission facilities occupy far less
physical volume for an equivalent transmission capacity, which is a major advantage in
crowded ducts, and the fibers are immune to electrical interference. In addition, cable
manufacturing, installation and maintenance costs are lower.

(1) The smallest unit of named application data recognized by system software (A&D).
(2) An area in a window or record that stores a single data value. Some databases,
such as Microsoft Access, use field as a synonym for column.
In bulk copy, the maximum number of characters needed to represent a data item in a
bulk copy character format data file.                                                         MSN
A component or assembly which, if defective, is replaced rather than being repaired at
the user site.                                                                                Gen
In bulk copy, one or more characters marking the end of a field or row, separating one
field or row in the data file from the next.                                                  MSN
In SQL Server databases, a basic unit of storage for a database. One database can be
stored in several files. SQL Server uses three types of files: data files (which store
data), log files (which store transaction logs), and backup files (which store backups of
a database).                                                                                   MSN
[Microsoft] An index for mapping logical files to physical locations on a disk storage
device.                                                                                        Gen
Stores connection information for a database in a file that is saved on your computer.
The file is a text file with the extension .dsn. The connection information consists of
parameters and corresponding values that the ODBC Driver Manager uses to establish
a connection.                                                                                  MSN
Label located at the beginning of the volume followed by the file's data                       ESS
A procedure to insure data integrity. Allows only one user at a time to update a file; all
other users are locked out and unable to access the file.                                      Gen
Specifies the relative position of the dataset on a volume.                                    ESS

A designated location containing files available to all users connected to a LAN. In
some LANs, a microcomputer is designated as the files server, while in others a
computer with a large disk drive and specialized software acts as the file server. Some
file servers can also offer resources such as gateways and protocol conversion.

Defines the storage format used in the data file that transfers data from a bulk copy out
operation to a bulk copy in operation. In native mode files, all data is stored using the
same internal structures that SQL Server 2000 uses to store the data in a database. In
character mode files, all data is converted to character strings.

The movement of blocks of data, such as the text of a memo, from one data terminal
equipment to another. Often this will be from a central data store to the user's terminal,
requiring a high transmission rate to achieve acceptably fast transfer.

A standard method for sending files from one computer to another on TCP/IP networks
such as the Internet. FTP is also the name of the command used to initiate transfer of
files. Anonymous FTP is a common practice which permits users to access some parts
of an FTP site without needing an account and password for the site. Access usually is
gained by using the username "anonymous" or "ftp". By convention, the user should
enter their e-mail address as the password. A Transmission Control Protocol/Internet
Protocol (TCP/IP) standard used to log onto a network, list directories and copy files.
The OSI standard for file transfer (the communication of an entire file between
systems), file access (the ability to access remotely one or more records in a file) and
management (the ability to create/delete, name/rename, etc. a file).                           Gen
In SQL Server, a named collection of one or more files that forms a single unit of
allocation or for administration of a database.                                                MSN
An attribute of an index that defines the amount of free space on each page of the
index. FILLFACTOR accommodates future expansion of table data and reduces the
potential for page splits. FILLFACTOR is a value from 1 through 100 that specifies the
percentage of the index page to be left empty.                                                 MSN
(1) A set of criteria that controls the set of records returned as a result set. Filters can
also define the sequence in which rows are returned. (2) A pattern or mask through
which data is passed to separate specified items. For instance, a filter used in e-mail or
in retrieving newsgroup messages can allow users to automatically discard messages
from specific users.                                                                           Gen
The ability to restrict data based upon criteria set in the WHERE clause of an SQL
statement. For replication, filtering occurs on table articles defined in a publication. The
result is partitions of data that can be published to Subscribers. See also: partitioning,
vertical filtering                                                                             MSN
A special kind of state signifying that the enclosing composite state or the entire state
machine is completed.                                                                          RUP
See Graham-Leach-Bliley Act.                                                                   MSN
To execute a state transition. See: transition.                                                RUP
An obsolete term for default result set.                                                      MSN
Obsolete term for default result sets. See also: default result set                           MSN

(1) An application that acts as a boundary between networks to control access and
improve the flow of network traffic. Firewalls have become critical applications as the
use of the Internet has increased. A Firewall can help to insure that uninvited visitors do
not have access to proprietary resources stored on the network. (2) A combination of
hardware and software that provides a security system, usually to help prevent
unauthorized access from outside to an internal network or intranet.
A method of transmitting data through a switch to minimize delay.                             Gen
A relation which contains no multivalued attributes.                                          A&D
A predefined role that exists in each database. The scope of the role is limited to the
database in which it is defined.                                                              MSN
A predefined role that exists at the server level. The scope of the role is limited to the
SQL Server instance in which it is defined.                                                   MSN
Synonym: de-marshal.                                                                          RUP
An interface created to combine members of multiple interfaces.                               MSN
A multidimensional data set presented as a two-dimensional rowset in which unique
combinations of elements of multiple dimensions are combined on an axis. For more
information, see the OLE DB documentation.                                                    MSN

A data type that holds floating-point number data from -1.79E + 308 through 1.79E +
308. float , double precision , and float(n) are SQL Server float data types.
See Diacritic or Floating Diacritic                                                           MSN

A combining character that overlays the preceding base character; it can potentially
change position or shape according to the shape of the base character. The combining
right arrow above–character (U+20D7) is an example of a floating diacritic.
A Word table around which text can wrap.                                                      MSN
A flow of events is a sequence of transactions (or events) performed by the system.
They typically contain very detailed information, written in terms of what the system
should do, not how the system accomplishes the task.                                          A&D
FOCUS is the fourth-generation language developed and distributed by Information
Builders Inc. (IBI) of New York City. It belongs to the class called information
generators. FOCUS boasts easy-to-use English language commands with on-line
HELP and error correction. IBI has implemented "TALK" windows that are key features
for the end-user productivity. FOCUS provides integrated reporting, ad hoc queries,
graphs, statistics, financial modeling and a spread-sheet for building decision support
systems.                                                                                      Gen
Focus groups are in-depth, qualitative interviews with a relatively small number of
carefully selected people.                                                                    R&S

A symbol on a sequence diagram that shows the period of time during which an object
is performing an action, either directly or through a subordinate procedure.
Characters—such as closing quotation marks, closing parentheses, and punctuation
marks—that shouldn’t be separated from succeeding characters.                                 MSN
Any of numerous sets of graphical representations of characters that can be installed
on a computer, printer, or another graphic output device.                                     MSN
The automatic pairing of a font that contains ideographs with a font that does not
contain ideographs. This allows the user to enter ideographic characters regardless of
which font is selected.                                                                       MSN

Mechanism for providing an alternate font for runs of characters not representable by
the original font. Understands complex scripts and typographic effects. Font fallback is
a hard-coded list of standard fallback fonts according to the Unicode character range.
Mechanism for linking missing glyphs to the currently selected font (also called “base
font”) from alternative fonts (also called “linked font”). See Font association and Font
fallback.                                                                                     MSN
The explicit replacement of any reference or call to a given font face name with another
face name. For example, MS Shell Dlg is only a face name and has no associated
physical font. It is substituted by Microsoft Sans Serif in the English version of Windows
XP, and varies per localized version.                                                            MSN
(1) The column or combination of columns whose values match the primary key (PK) or
unique key in the same or another table. Also called the referencing key. (2) An
attribute in a relation of a database that serves as the primary key of another relation in
the same database.                                                                                A&D
A table that contains a foreign key.                                                             MSN

A group of one or more Active Directory trees that trust each other. All trees in a forest
share a common schema, configuration, and global catalog. When a forest contains
multiple trees, the trees do not form a contiguous namespace. All trees in a given forest
trust each other through transitive bidirectional trust relationships. Unlike a tree, a forest
does not need a distinct name. A forest exists as a set of cross-referenced objects and
trust relationships known to the member trees. Trees in a forest form a hierarchy for the
purposes of trust. See also tree, global catalog.
Following a set of prescribed or fixed procedures.                                               BQ
Synonym: parameter.                                                                              RUP
Forming or capable of forming. Susceptible to transformation by growth and/or
development.                                                                                     R&S
The ability for a Web container to provide an application-specific form for login.               ORA

A type of database object that represents a stored calculation, expression, or procedure
that produces a value. A formula provides a way to define and save complex or
frequently used relationships within the data without resaving the data itself.
A programming language developed primarily for numeric computations and chiefly
used in mathematics, science and engineering.                                                    Gen
The state in which the hearing is held or the responding court proceeding is filed to
establish or enforce a support order.                                                            CSED
A cursor that cannot be scrolled; rows can be read only in sequence from the first row
to the last row.                                                                                 MSN
A high-level language usable by non-data processing individuals for data access or
application development. Ideally, 4GLs are non-procedural and English-like, simplifying
data access and manipulation by freeing the user from tedious programming rules and
procedures.                                                                                      Gen
A relation which contains no multivalued dependencies.                                           A&D
A high level language usable by non-data processing individuals for data access or
application development. Ideally, 4GLs are non-procedural and English-like, simplifying
data access and manipulation by freeing the user from tedious programming rules and
procedures.                                                                                      Gen

4GLs are characterized by natural language-like commands and/or application
generators. 4GLs are typically easier to use than traditional procedural languages. They
can be employed by end users to develop applications quickly.

Occurs when data modifications are made. You can reduce fragmentation and improve
read-ahead performance by dropping and re-creating a clustered index.
An American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard (TISI) for an Integrated
Services Digital Network (ISDN) packet-ode bearer service that defines a user-to-
network interface. The two main benefits are bandwidth on demand and integrated
access. The standard currently addresses data communication speeds up to 2
magabits per second (Mbps) over permanent virtual circuits. By reducing the network
functions performed, frame relay takes advantage of more error-free physical facilities
to improve throughput.                                                                           Gen
A variable frame length version of asynchronous transfer mode (ATM).                             Gen
A Web page that divides a Web browser window into different scrollable areas that can
independently display several Web pages. One window can remain unchanged, while
the other windows change based on hyperlinks that the user selects.
A micro- architecture that provides an extensible template for applications within a
specific domain.                                                                                RUP
An expression of how frequently a periodic (repetitious) wave form or signal
regenerates itself at a given amplitude. It is usually expressed in cycles per second, or
hertz (Hz).                                                                                     Gen

A document that lists and answers the most common questions on a particular subject.
A communications processor that relieves a host computer of certain processing tasks,
such as line control, message handling, code conversion, error control and application
functions.                                                                                      Gen
See Input Method Editor (IME).                                                                  MSN

(1) A set of programs and scripts that support authoring in FrontPage and extend the
functionality of a Web server. (2) The Microsoft FrontPage Server Extensions are a set
of programs on the Web server that support: 1. Authoring FrontPage Webs. For
example, when an author moves a page from one folder to another in a FrontPage
Web, the Server Extensions automatically update all hyperlinks to that page from every
other page and Office documents in the FrontPage Web directly on the Web server. 2.
Administering FrontPage Webs. For example, a FrontPage Web administrator can
specify which users can administer, author, or browse a FrontPage Web. 3. Browse-
time FrontPage Web functionality. For example, users of a FrontPage Web can
participate in a discussion group. The Server Extensions maintain an index of
hyperlinks to articles in the discussion, separate discussion threads, tables of contents,
and search forms to locate pages of interest.

The version of Apache Web server used by FrontPage Server Extensions. The patch is
available as part of the FrontPage Server Extensions 2002 download for UNIX.
Family Support Services Division of OKDHS, includes services such as Medicaid,
TANF, and Food Stamps.                                                                          CCL
In data processing, the capability to transmit in two directions simultaneously.
(Contrast with "Half Duplex").                                                                  Gen
A technology used in hotfixes that replaces the currently installed files with new files.
Compare patching.                                                                               MSN
A type of outer join in which all rows in all joined tables are included, whether they are
matched or not.                                                                                 MSN
Stores all of the full-text indexes for tables within a database.                               MSN
The process of allowing full-text querying to occur on the current database.                    MSN
The portion of a full-text catalog that stores all of the full-text words and their locations
for a given table.                                                                              MSN
As a SELECT statement, a query that searches for words, phrases, or multiple forms of
a word or phrase in the character-based columns (of char , varchar , text , ntext , nchar
, or nvarchar data types). The SELECT statement returns those rows meeting the
search criteria.                                                                                MSN
An index that allows Web site users to perform a full-text search on a Web site. On the
Windows platform, full-text search is provided by Index Server. On UNIX, it is provided
by Wide Area Information Server (WAIS).                                                         MSN
The SQL Server component that performs the full-text querying.                                  MSN

Characters whose glyph image extends across the entire character display cell. In
legacy character sets, full-width characters are normally encoded in 2 or more bytes.
The Japanese term for full-width characters is “zenkaku.” See Half-width character.
A piece of code that operates as a single logical unit. A function is called by name,
accepts optional input parameters, and returns a status and optional output parameters.
Many programming languages support functions, including C, Visual Basic, and
Transact-SQL. Transact-SQL supplies built-in functions, which cannot be modified, and
supports user-defined functions, which can be created and modified by users.
The logic paths that are taken when a program function is executed.                         BQ

A synthetic software metric that is composed of the weighted totals of inputs, outputs,
inquiries, logical files or user data groups, and interfaces belonging to an application.
A test of program functions normally conducted from the user interface.                     BQ

Functionality, usability, reliability, performance, supportability + others. Described in
[GRA92], this acronym represents categories that can be used in the definition of
product requirements as well as in the assessment of product quality. Alternative
categorization methods can also be used. See: CRUPIC STMPL.
A measurement of a physical quantity, where what is measured is the name of the
metric, for example, errors per 100 lines of code.                                          BQ

The process of determining and evaluating the variance between two items' properties.

A physical or logical network station that interconnects two otherwise incompatible
networks, network nodes, sub-networks, or devices. Gateways perform protocol-
conversion operations across a wide spectrum of communications functions or layers.
The point at which a new product is available on the open market.                           Gen
Discussion comments that are associated with a whole document, rather than any
particular part of the document. General discussions are displayed in the discussion
pane.                                                                                       MSN
A model element that may participate in a generalization relationship. See:
generalization.                                                                             RUP

A taxonomic relationship between a more general element and a more specific
element. The more specific element is fully consistent with the more general element
and contains additional information. An instance of the more specific element may be
used where the more general element is allowed. See: inheritance.

A dimension table primary key that is created by modifying an existing key. Generalized
keys are also used with slowly changing dimensions and summary data.
A collection of two or more chronologically related versions of the same file that is
managed automatically.                                                                      ESS
Final release at the end of a cycle.                                                        RUP
IBM’s fifth generation of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) 9672
mainframe models - Rn6.                                                                     Gen
A macro, such as TCHAR, that resolves to either an ANSI type or a wide-character
(Unicode) type, depending on compile-time flags.                                            MSN
A macro representing an API call or a function call. The macro resolves to an entry
point that expects either ANSI parameters or wide-character (Unicode) parameters,
depending on compile-time flags.                                                            MSN

1,073,741,824 bits.                                                                         Gen
1,073,741,824 bits.                                                                         Gen
1,073,741,824 bytes.                                                                        Gen
1,073,741,824 bytes.                                                                        Gen
The room and facilities containing the mainframe computer system(s). Such a room
has often been considered a show piece particularly before concerns about security,
and hence given special prominence within a building complex.                               Gen
The global catalog contains a partial replica of every Windows 2000 domain in the
directory. The GC lets users and applications find objects in an Active Directory domain
tree given one or more attributes of the target object. It also contains the schema and
configuration of directory partitions. This means the global catalog holds a replica of
every object in the Active Directory, but with only a small number of their attributes. The
attributes in the global catalog are those most frequently used in search operations
(such as a user’s first and last names, logon names, and so on), and those required to
locate a full replica of the object. The GC allows users to find objects of interest quickly
without knowing what domain holds them and without requiring a contiguous extended
namespace in the enterprise. The global catalog is built automatically by the Active
Directory replication system.
A Windows 2000 domain controller that holds a copy of the global catalog for the forest.
See also global catalog.                                                                        MSN
A default that is defined for a specific database and is shared by columns of different
tables.                                                                                         MSN

(1) Can appear on ACLs anywhere in the forest and may contain users and other global
groups from its own domain. (2) A group of users with access to a workgroup.
The ability to change the language of the user interface without needing the localized
version of Office.                                                                              MSN
A Global Module is a system that can be used by any system. It is generally a module
that can be called or invoked to perform some general functionality when needed. It
also includes a “Maintenance” function if necessary to set up templates or other things
needed for the Global Module to operate correctly. Examples are Alerts, Notices,
Errors, Security, and Validity.                                                                 CCL

A Global module and database tables that allow text notes to be stored in a common
location and attached to any Case, Client or other entity within DHS databases.
General properties of an English Query application, such as the default year setting or
the start date of the fiscal year.                                                              MSN
A rule that is defined for a specific database and is shared by columns of different
tables.                                                                                         MSN
A subscription to a merge publication with an assigned priority value used for conflict
detection and resolution.                                                                       MSN

In SQL Server, a variable that can be referenced by multiple Data Transformation
Services (DTS) tasks. In earlier versions of SQL Server, the term referred to the
Transact-SQL system functions whose names start with two at signs (@@).

A file typically containing scripts that initialize application or session variables, connect
to databases, send cookies, and perform other operations pertaining to the ASP
application or to the user’s session with an ASP application as a whole.

The process of developing a program core whose features and code design are not
solely based on a single language or locale. Instead, their design is developed for the
input, display, and output of a defined set of Unicode-supported language scripts and
data related to specific locales. See Internationalization.
Functionality testing that has been enhanced to include verifying the world-readiness of
a product.                                                                                      MSN

(1) In order to maintain global uniqueness, each component is assigned a GUID that
appears in the registry. The GUID prevents collisions between components that are
meant to be distinct from one another. For more information on components, see
component Detection. (2) A 16-byte value generated from the unique identifier on a
device, the current date and time, and a sequence number. A GUID is used to identify a
particular device, component, user, or session.
The actual shape (bit pattern, outline, and so forth) of a character image. For example,
an italic “a” and a roman “a” are two different glyphs representing the same character.

An End toward which effort is directed. A preferred outcome in a particular situation that
can be obtained within a specified time period. A statement, expressed in the form of
an “Action Word”, plus an “Object”, plus a “Qualifying Phrase”.

A U.S. law containing provisions that require all financial institutions to disclose to
consumers and customers their policies and practices for protecting the privacy of non-
public personal information. Non-public personal information includes any personally
identifiable information (PII) provided by a customer, resulting from transactions with
the financial institution or obtained by a financial institution through providing products
or services. Also known as the Financial Modernization Act of 1999.
Applies permissions to a user account, which allows the account to perform an activity
or work with data.                                                                            MSN
The primary security access authority used within IBM's relational database products
(DB2, SQL/DS, OS/400, OS/2EE DM). User privileges, access to tables, views and
plans are authorized via GRANT/REVOKE SQL, statements.                                        Gen

(1) The ability to increase a system's capacity and performance through incremental
processor expansion. (2) The degree of specificity of information contained in a data
element. A fact table that has fine granularity contains many discrete facts, such as
individual sales transactions. A table that has coarse granularity stores facts that are
summaries of individual elements, such as sales totals per day.

Visual information in a document. There are two types: 1. Line art, or illustrations:
primarily composed of lines, but often including shading. 2. Scanned images:
previously existing visual information, photographs, graphics or typewritten pages.
A format manager that handles both graphics and alpha-numeric on display devices
and printers. Its major component is a set of functions for drawing pictures and handles
text. GDDM forms the basis of a graphics package.                                             Gen
A common format for image files, especially suitable for images containing large areas
of the same color. GIF files of simple images are often smaller than the same file would
be if stored in Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) format, but GIF does not
render photographic images as well as JPEG.                                                   ORA
A windowing, iconic user interface popularized by Apple Computer's Lisa and
Macintosh machines, and made available in the IBM arena through the DOS Windows
and OS/2 Presentation Manager environments. Examples of GUIs in the UNIX world
are Motif and Open Look. Because GUIs greatly facilitate user interaction with
applications and operate as event-driven interfaces, they are likely target for an object-
oriented programming approach.                                                                Gen

Computer user interface where the user can manipulate objects to accomplish tasks.

In Windows, a graphics display system used by applications to display or print
bitmapped text (TrueType fonts), images, and other graphic elements. The GDI, in
particular, is responsible for drawing dialog boxes, buttons, and other elements.
A component of a graphical user interface (GUI) that provides a high-level graphics
programming interface.                                                                        Gen

Development "starting from scratch", as opposed to "evolution of an existing system" or
"reengineering of a legacy piece". Origin: from the transformation that takes place when
building a new factory on an undeveloped site with grass on it.

A method of qualitative research and is an inductive approach, using a systematic set
of procedures to arrive at a theory about basic social processes. The objective of this
approach is to discover underlying social forces that shape human behavior, by means
of interviews with open-ended questions and through skilled observations.
See global group, domain local group, universal group, and Group Policy.                       MSN

(1) Centralized policy-based administration that enables an administrator to control or
specify registry-based policy settings, security settings, software installation, scripts to
run at computer startup and operating-system shutdown, Internet Explorer
maintenance, and folder redirection. Some group policy features may require the
installation of Active Directory to work. (2) Refers to applying policy to groups of
computers and/or users contained within Active Directory containers. The type of policy
includes not only registry-based policy found in Windows NT Server 4.0, but is enabled
by Directory Services to store many types of policy data, for example: file deployment,
application deployment, logon/logoff scripts and startup/shutdown scripts, domain
security, Internet Protocol security (IPSec), and so on. The collections of policies are
referred to as Group Policy objects (GPOs).
A virtual collection of policies. It is given a unique name, such as a globally unique
identifier (GUID). GPOs store group policy settings in two locations: a Group Policy
container (GPC) (preferred) and a Group Policy template (GPT). The GPC is an Active
Directory object that stores version information, status information, and other policy
information (for example, application objects). The GPT is used for file-based data and
stores software policy, script, and deployment information. The GPT is located on the
system volume folder of the domain controller. A GPO can be associated with one or
more Active Directory containers, such as a site, domain, or organizational unit. Multiple
containers can be associated with the same GPO, and a single container can have
more than one associated GPO. In addition, by default every computer receives a local
Group Policy object (LGPO) that contains only security-specific policies. It is also
possible for the administrator to set and apply different local group policies on individual
computers. This is useful for computers that are not members of a domain, or
computers that the administrator wishes to exempt from Group Policy inherited from the
domain. See Group Policy.

A condition that must be satisfied in order to enable an associated transition to fire.
Tandem's operating system, which resides in each processor of a multiprocessor
complex and manages the system resources as a single image.                                    Gen

A special user account that is present in all SQL Server 2000 databases and cannot be
removed from any database. If a connection is made using a login that has not been
assigned a user account in a database and the connection references objects in that
database, it has the permissions assigned only to the guest account in that database.

(1) A circuit designed for transmission alternately in either direction but not in both
directions simultaneously. (Contrast with ""Full Duplex""). (2) The capability to transmit
in two directions, but not simultaneously. (Contrast with ""Full Duplex"").

Characters whose glyph image occupies half of the character display cell. In legacy
character sets, half-width characters are normally encoded in a single byte. The
Japanese term for half-width characters is “hankaku.” See Full-width character.
(1) Putting string or character literals in the main body of code, such as the .C files or
the .H files, instead of in external resource files. (2) Basing numeric constants on the
assumed length of a string or having any assumptions about language- or culture-
specific matters fixed in the code (such as length of strings, formats of dates, and so
on).                                                                                           MSN
Computer equipment failure or outage caused by equipment failure. These outages
require equipment repair by the maintenance vendor before normal equipment
operation can continue. Hardfails are more severe and should not be confused with
Softfails (SF) in which the equipment has a error but is able to recover the error with out
interruption of service.                                                                       Gen
Data allocated in an algorithmically randomized fashion in an attempt to evenly
distribute it and smooth access patterns.                                                      ORA
The Hawthorne Effect refers to the behavior of interest being caused by the subject
being in the center of the experimental stage, such as, having a great deal of attention
focused on them. This usually manifests itself as a spurt or elevation in performance or
physical phenomenon measured. Although the Hawthorne Effect is much more
frequently seen in behavioral research, it is also present in other research when human
subjects are present. Having a control group that is subject to the same conditions as
the treatment groups, then administering a placebo to the control group handles dealing
with this problem. The study is termed a blind experiment when the subject does not
know whether he or she is receiving the treatment or a placebo. The study is termed
double blind when neither the subject nor the person administering the
treatment/placebo knows what is being administered knows either.
A sealed assembly containing magnetic disks, head and access arms. By reducing
contamination, a sealed HAD enables the head to fly closer to the disk surface,
increasing the areal density that can be obtained.                                           Gen

A U.S. regulation that gives patients greater access to their own medical records and
more control over how their personally identifiable health information is used. The
regulation also addresses the obligations of healthcare providers and health plans to
protect health information. In general, covered entities such as health plans, healthcare
clearinghouses, and healthcare providers which conduct certain financial and
administrative transactions electronically have until April 14, 2003, to comply.
A measure of electromagnetic frequency, in cycles per second.                                Gen
The description for an environment represented by several different operating systems,
vendors, or architectures.                                                                   Gen
Data stored in multiple formats. For example, data stored in a SQL Server database, a
text file, and an Excel spreadsheet.                                                         MSN
The process of learning by discovery.                                                        ORA
Computer manufacturer headquartered in Palo Alto, Calif.                                     Gen
It is System V-based, but with real-time extensions added. Eventually it will become
OSF/1-based, as HP is an OSF sponsor.                                                        Gen
A command-line tool that enables an administrator to check the update status of all
Microsoft(R) Windows NT(R) 4.0, Windows 2000, and Windows XP computers on a
network from a central location.                                                             MSN
A method of organizing data whereby some records are stored as subordinate to others
in a tree structure. The hierarchy is based on one-to-many relationships.
Consequently, there are limitations to a hierarchical model; for example, a "child" record
can point to only one "parent." Data is accessed by navigating through the hierarchy,
beginning at the root of the tree.                                                           Gen
A namespace, such as the DNS namespace and the Active Directory namespace, that
is hierarchically structured and provides rules that allow the namespace to be
partitioned. See also namespace.                                                             MSN
A logical tree structure that organizes the members of a dimension such that each
member has one parent member and zero or more child members. See also: level,
dimension hierarchy                                                                          MSN
An earlier version of IBM's DFHSM, introduced in 1975 with the IBM 3850 Mass
Storage Subsystem.                                                                           Gen
A logical structure that uses ordered levels.                                                ORA
A very high probability that a system, at any given time, will be operational for useful
work, and the ability to recover quickly and with minimum disruption to the user in case
of failure.                                                                                  Gen
An IBM RS/6000 product originally designed to provide a high-availability configuration
(by enabling automated failover from RS/6000 to another).                                    Gen
A general term for an expert system optimized for reasoning power. It may not be able
to process a large number of problems rapidly.                                               Gen
A bit-oriented data link protocol developed by the International Standards Organization
(ISO) and used in Open Systems Interconnection (OSI).                                        Gen
A general term for an expert system shell optimized for performance. It may not be
able to solve difficult problems.                                                           Gen

A service provided under the AT&T Accunet trade name and regulated under Tariff 11.
It provides for switched digital communications service at speeds of up to 1.5 Mbps.
(High-Performance Space) Introduced with ESA/370, a hiperspace is, in essence, an
address space occupied only by data and to which access is controlled by hardware via
special instructions.                                                                       Gen

(Holism) Focusing attention directly on the whole and its characteristics as a whole,
without any recourse to consideration of its parts. (Sahal, in Future Directions, or
Lendaris and Wakeland, "Structural Modeling - A Bird's Eye View").
A private storage space assigned to a user or group of users. Users typically store their
private data in their home directory, and they can normally restrict or grant access to
other users.                                                                                MSN
Main page of a Web site. Usually has hyperlinks to other pages, both within and outside
the site. One Web site can contain many home pages. For example, the Microsoft
home page contains a Products home page, which contains other home pages. See:
start page.                                                                                 MSN

Data that comes from multiple data sources that are all managed by the same software
(for example, data that comes from several Exchange spreadsheets, or data that
comes from several SQL Server 2000 instances). A SQL Server 2000 distributed query
is homogeneous if all the data comes from SQL Server 2000 instances.
An attribute that may have more than one meaning                                            A&D

In data communications, one segment of the path between routers on a geographically
dispersed network. A hop is comparable to one "leg" of a journey that includes
intervening stops between the starting point and the destination. The distance between
each of those stops (routers) would be a communications hop.

To segment a single table into multiple tables based on selected rows. Each of the
multiple tables has the same columns but fewer rows. See also: partitioning

Any computer that houses services available to other computers on the network.
A single cumulative package composed of one or more files used to address a problem
in a product. Hotfixes address a specific customer situation and may not be distributed
outside the customer organization. The terms QFE, patch, and update have been used
in the past as synonyms for hotfix.                                                         MSN
A Java-enabled Web and intranet browser developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc.
HotJava is written in Java.                                                                 RUP

In the financial services sector, assigning a customer account or individual person to a
collection of accounts, individuals, or locations for marketing purposes.

Web pages with options for managing your SharePoint team Web site or a FrontPage
2002-based Web. Use the Server Administration pages to set up a server and use the
Site Administration pages to manage Web settings such as accounts.
See: web browser.                                                                           RUP

The new HTML standard for Help. This help control replaces WinHelp used in earlier
versions of Office. This control ships with Office, Windows 98, and Internet Explorer 5.
A utility included in Microsoft Office Developer and the Microsoft Office 2000 Resource
Kit, used to develop Help topics that provide information and assistance specific to an
organization. For example, you can combine Help topics with custom Answer Wizard
databases to create a complete customized assistance solution. See also Answer
Wizard Builder.                                                                             MSN
A transaction initiated by a Web browser and adhering to HTTP. The server usually
responds with HTML data, but can send other kinds of objects as well.                            RUP
The Hub is the “spine” of the LAN. It connects all the pieces together. The wires that
lead from the workstations, printers, routers, and servers end at the hub. All the
communications of the LAN actually take place in the Hub.                                        Gen
In Analysis Services, a dimension that contains more than approximately ten million
members. Huge dimensions must use relational OLAP (ROLAP) storage mode. See
also: very large dimension.                                                                      MSN
A storage mode that uses a combination of multidimensional data structures and
relational database tables to store multidimensional data. Analysis Services stores
aggregations for a HOLAP partition in a multidimensional structure and stores facts in a
relational database. See also: multidimensional OLAP (MOLAP), relational OLAP
(ROLAP)                                                                                          MSN
A multidimensional model supporting more than three dimensions. You can visualize
this model by considering a number of three-dimensional cubes that are related to each
other. See also cube.                                                                            ORA

Colored and underlined text or a graphic that you click to go to a file, a location in a file,
an HTML page on the World Wide Web, or an HTML page on an intranet. Hyperlinks
can also go to newsgroups and to Gopher, Telnet, and FTP sites.
Areas on a Web page that, when clicked, connect you to other areas on the page or
other Web pages.                                                                                 RUP

Text in a document that contains a hidden link to other text. You can click a mouse on a
hypertext word and it will take you to the text designated in the link. Hypertext is used in
Windows help programs and CD encyclopedias to jump to related references elsewhere
within the same document. The wonderful thing about hypertext, however, is its ability
to link using HTTP over the Web to any Web document in the world, yet still requires
only a single mouse click to jump clear around the world.
(1) A system of marking up, or tagging, a document so that it can be published on the
World Wide Web. Documents prepared in HTML include reference graphics and
formatting tags. You use a Web browser (such as Microsoft Internet Explorer) to view
these documents. (2) A document-formatting language derived from the Standard
Generalized Markup Language (SGML), predominately used to create World Wide Web
pages.                                                                                           Gen
The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is the set of rules for exchanging files (text,
graphic images, sound, video, and other multimedia files) on the World Wide Web.
Relative to the TCP/IP suite of protocols (which are the basis for information exchange
on the Internet), HTTP is an application protocol.                                               Gen
The Internet standard for accessing and exchanging documents on the World Wide
Web.                                                                                             Gen
An Internet standard for creating and sharing electronic calendaring and scheduling
information                                                                                      MSN

Iceberg is based on redundant arrays of inexpensive disks (RAID). However, RAID is
not its key ingredient. That is Penguin, the system's highly intelligent, front end virtual
disk technology. This is intended to cut the apron strings (or shackles) of IBM
compatibility. Initially Iceberg will be IBM compatible, by 1993 virtual disk will allow the
same hardware to be software reconfigured to work with Unisys, Bull, DEC or any other
high end system. The basic architecture is applicable down to the desktop. The
second important ingredient is outboard data compression. This can reduce the
effective cost of storage by two to three fold, allowing StorageTek to provide lower cost
data storage. The third major element of the technology is snapshot backup which
will appear in the first half of 1993. This will allow automatic backup of all transactions
at user defined, frequent intervals in the range of every five (5) to fifteen (15) minutes,
without interruption of on line processing.
A symbol of pictorial representation of an object or idea. In graphical interfaces, an
icon is used to represent the different functions or applications available to the user. A
mouse is used to select the desired operation by pointing to one of the icons on the
screen.                                                                                         Gen
(1) An attribute (or combination of attributes) that uniquely identifies individual instances
of an entity type (A&D). (2) The name of an object in a database. An identifier can be
from 1 through 128 characters.                                                                  Gen
The relationship between a weak entity type and its owner.                                      A&D
A column in a table that has been assigned the identity property. The identity property
generates unique numbers.                                                                       MSN
A property that generates values that uniquely identify each row in a table. When
inserting rows into a table that has an identity column, SQL Server generates the next
identity value automatically based on the last used identity value and the increment
value specified during column creation.                                                         MSN
A character of Chinese origin representing a word or a syllable that is generally used in
more than one Asian language. Sometimes referred to as a “Chinese character.” See
Kanji, Hanzi, and Hanja.                                                                        MSN

[BUS96] defines idiom so: An idiom is a low-level pattern specific to a programming
language. An idiom describes how to implement particular aspects of components or
the relationships between them using the features of the given language. Also called
an implementation pattern. When taking a concrete design expressed in UML, say, and
implementing it in Java for example, recurring implementation patterns for that
language may be used. Idioms thus span design and implementation.

A SQL Server 2000 Agent condition that defines the level of CPU usage by the SQL
Server 2000 database engine that constitutes an idle state. SQL Server 2000 Agent
jobs can then be created to run whenever the database engine CPU usage falls below
the level defined in the idle time definition. This minimizes the impact the SQL Server
Agent jobs may have on other tasks accessing the database.
The physical and medium access control standards developed by the Institute of
Electrical and Electronics Engineers for CSMA/CD LANs, such as Ethernet.                        Gen
A SQL Server variable-length binary data type with a maximum length of 2^31 - 1
(2,147,483,647) bytes.                                                                          MSN
An area of cached memory that stores data about images in a Web site. In SharePoint
Team Services, the image file cache stores HEIGHT and WIDTH property information
about the images on a Web page.                                                                 MSN
An option available with snapshot replication and transactional replication that allows
data modifications to be made to replicated data at the Subscriber. The data
modifications are then immediately propagated to the Publisher using two-phase
commit protocol (2PC).                                                                          MSN
See definition for: immediate updating subscriptions                                            MSN

A subscription to a snapshot or transactional publication for which the user is able to
make data modifications at the Subscriber. The data modifications are then
immediately propagated to the Publisher using two-phase commit protocol (2PC).
The ability of a process to run in a specified security context--as a specified user, for
example--and thereby access resources authorized for that security context.
Impersonation is used in Web applications to provide a security-enhanced user context
for anonymous requests.                                                                         MSN

A discipline in the software-engineering process, the purpose of which is to implement
software components that meet an appropriate standard of quality. A definition of how
something is constructed or computed. For example, a class is an implementation of a
type; a method is an implementation of an operation.
The inheritance of the implementation of a more specific element. Includes inheritance
of the interface. Contrast: interface inheritance.                                              RUP
An architectural mechanism used during the implementation process. They are
refinements of design mechanisms, which specify the exact implementation of the
mechanism, and which will also very likely employ several implementation patterns
(idioms) in their construction. Again, there is not necessarily any difference in scale
between the design mechanism and the implementation mechanism. For example, one
particular implementation of the inter-process communication analysis mechanism is a
shared memory design mechanism utilizing a particular operating system's shared
memory function calls. Concurrency conflicts (inappropriate simultaneous access to
shared memory) may be prevented using semaphores, or using a latching mechanism,
which in turn rest upon other implementation mechanisms.
The implementation model is a collection of components, and the implementation
subsystems that contain them.                                                               RUP
See: idiom.                                                                                 RUP
A collection of components and other implementation subsystems used to structure the
implementation model by dividing it into smaller parts. Note that in the RUP, the
implementation model and the implementation subsystems are the target of the
implementation view and are, therefore, of primary importance at development time. It
is the physical analogue of the design package. The name "implementation subsystem"
reflects a common usage of the term "subsystem" to indicate something of a larger
scale than a component. In UML terms, however, it's a stereotyped package, not a
subsystem.                                                                                  RUP

An architectural view that describes the organization of the static software elements
(code, data, and other accompanying artifacts) in the development environment in
terms of packaging, layering, and configuration management (ownership, release
strategy, and so on). In the Unified Process, it's a view on the implementation model.
A connection option in which each SQL statement executed by the connection is
considered a separate transaction.                                                          MSN
Permission to perform an activity specific to a role. Implied permissions cannot be
granted, revoked, or denied.                                                                MSN
The process of compressing detailed data into a summary record or report.                   Gen
(1) Copying data from a client program, such as Microsoft Excel 2002, into the
SharePoint team Web site. (2) In the context of packages, a dependency that shows
the packages whose classes may be referenced within a given package (including
packages recursively embedded within it). Contrast: export.                                 MSN

A stereotyped dependency in the design whose source is a design package, and whose
target is a different design package. The import dependency causes the public contents
of the target package to be referenceable in the source package.

The 3480 feature announced in 1989 that improves the cartridge's effective capacity.

The part of IMS comprising only the database management services. It is possible to
license only the IMS/DB portion of IMS and use it as a powerful access method for
batch job processing. It is also possible to use IMS/DB together with either IMS/DC or
CICS/VS to provide on-line access to the database. About half of the 3,800 IMS/DB
users worldwide (MVS environments) use IMS/DC; the other half use CICS/VS.
The part of IMS that is needed for the implementation of OLTP applications. Roughly
speaking, IMS/DC is functionally equivalent to CICS/VS, but is rarely used except in
conjunction with IMS/DB. IMS/DC has a multi-address space architecture and is quite
fast - which explains why IBM tends to run its DB@ benchmarks with IMS/DC rather
than CICS.                                                                                  Gen
The first phase of the Unified Process, in which the seed idea, request for proposal, for
the previous generation is brought to the point of being (at least internally) funded to
enter the elaboration phase.                                                                RUP
A relationship from a base use case to an inclusion use case, specifying how the
behavior defined for the inclusion use case can be inserted into the behavior defined for
the base use case.                                                                          RUP
In FrontPage, you can use the Include Page component to insert other pages into the
current page. This area of cached memory stores data about these included files.
An include-relationship is a relationship from a base use case to an inclusion use case,
specifying how the behavior defined for the inclusion use case is explicitly inserted into
the behavior defined for the base use case.                                                  RUP

The difference (delta) between two releases at the end of subsequent iterations.
Qualifies an iterative development strategy in which the system is built by adding more
and more functionality at each iteration.                                                    RUP
A strategy for delivering a system to the users in increments. Each increment delivered
adds function to the previous product. Such systems are generally delivered using
incremental development or modular development techniques.                                   BQ

Modules that implement function to be delivered are developed and unit tested; then
they are assembled, integrated into the existing system, and tested as they become
available. The system is stabilized after each addition. Theoretically, this means that
there is always a stable version ready to be shipped.

The set of operations that either adds new members to an existing cube or dimension,
or adds new data to a partition. One of three processing options for a cube or partition.
One of two processing options for a dimension. See also: refresh data, process
The discrete logical paths that can be executed through a function in an application or a
system where each one is independent from the others.                                        BQ
A software producer that is not owned or controlled by a hardware manufacturer; a
company whose primary function is to distribute software.                                    Gen

(1) A table or other data structure used to determine the location of rows in a file that
satisfy some condition (A&D). (2) In a relational database, a database object that
provides fast access to data in the rows of a table, based on key values. Indexes can
also enforce uniqueness on the rows in a table. SQL Server supports clustered and
nonclustered indexes. The primary key of a table is automatically indexed. In full-text
search, a full-text index stores information about significant words and their location
within a given column. (2) A mechanism used to improve the efficiency of searches of
rows in a database table.
An execution strategy that consists of looking up rows of a single table using several
indexes, followed by producing the result (by combining the partial results). Usually
corresponds to an OR in the WHERE <search_conditions>. For example, WHERE R.a
= 6 OR R.b = 7 with indexes on columns R.a and R.b.                                          MSN
A database page containing index rows.                                                       MSN

A base service of Windows NT, Windows 2000, and Windows XP that extracts content
from files and constructs an indexed catalog to facilitate efficient and rapid searching.
Indexing Service can extract both text and property information from files on the local
host and on remote, networked hosts.

A word (or words) naming the one (or ones) indirectly affected by the action of the verb.
For example, Emily sliced me some cheese. (Me is the indirect object.)
The reverse of deductive (reasoning), moving from specific observations to broader
generalizations and theories. Frequently referred to as the "bottom up" approach
(Observation – Pattern - Tentative hypothesis – Theory). Inductive reasoning starts with
specific observations and measures, then begins to detect patterns and regularities,
followed by formulating some tentative hypotheses to be explored, and finally ends up
developing some general conclusions or theories. Inductive reasoning is more open-
ended and exploratory than deductive reasoning, especially at the beginning.
Doing fieldwork on a project to generate grounded theory, or theory which is directly
derived from the data.                                                                       R&S
A component of a knowledge-based system that operates upon the knowledge base.
Its mode of operation is based upon the knowledge representation and the methods
required for performing appropriate actions.                                                 Gen

(1) A collection of facts or data: statistical information. (2) A numerical measure of the
uncertainty of an experimental outcome. (3) Knowledge derived from study, experience,
or instruction. (4) Knowledge of specific events or situations that has been gathered or
received by communication; intelligence or news.

The exposure of information to individuals who normally would not have access to it.

IBM's strategic subsystem for very high speed DB/DC applications. DB2 is the vehicle
chosen for normal DBMS requirements. IMS involves customer written application
programs in response to transactions entered at teleprocessing terminals, and provides
those applications need to retrieve and update data in DL/1 databases. IMS
applications run in what are called message-processing regions. As needed, they
communicate with the IMS control region, which is located in a separate MVS address
space. This splitting of the program product into many components (called granularity)
is a major reason for IMS currently exploiting the 3090 architecture more fully than does
CICS; IMS also has somewhat superior integrity.


An object-oriented schema that defines meta data constructs used to specify the
structure and behavior of an application, process, component, or software artifact.

The use of and investment in computer technology by the principal or centralized
organization formally charged with the responsibility for computer technology.
This is the common title for the entire spectrum of technologies for information
processing, including software, hardware, communications technologies and related
services.                                                                                    Gen
In computing, the hardware and software on which applications are run. See also
integrated infrastructure.                                                                   ORA
The mechanism that makes generalization possible; a mechanism for creating full class
descriptions out of individual class segments. The mechanism by which more specific
elements incorporate structure and behavior of more general elements related by
behavior. See: generalization.                                                               RUP
The first population of data in a production data warehouse.                                 ORA
The first medium in each media family.                                                       MSN
The process of loading an operating system into a computer system.                           Gen

Files including schema and data, constraints, extended properties, indexes, triggers
and system tables necessary for replication. The initial snapshot is transferred to
Subscribers when implementing replication. See also: synchronization
A trigger that identifies the context associated with a servlet.                            ORA
Volume is relabeled (using the same vol-ser or a new vol-ser)                               ESS

Discussion comments that are associated with a particular paragraph, image or table.
In a Web browser, inline discussions are displayed in the body of the document; in a
Microsoft Word document, they are displayed in the discussion pane.
Graphic images that are embedded within a line of text.                                     MSN
Same as active memory. An area of cached memory that stores Web pages and allows
for quicker save and recalculation processes.                                               MSN

An operation that retrieves rows from multiple source tables by comparing the values
from columns shared between the source tables. An inner join excludes rows from a
source table that have no matching rows in the other source tables.

Renew, alter, introduce new methods, devices, and so on; to bring in as an innovation.
(1) An artifact used by a process. See: static artifact. (2) A value used in a given test
that stimulates the execution condition to occur. Input values are defined in the test
case.                                                                                       RUP
The various components of a computer system used to input or output data.                   Gen

An internal structure that stores IME-related status information. Windows supports
multiple IME contexts, automatically creating an input context for each active thread.
A data type to indicate language/layout pairs.                                              MSN
Pairing of input language (LANGID) and method of input determines what language is
currently being entered and how. See Locale, System locale, User locale, and User-
interface (UI) language.                                                                    MSN
A member whose value is loaded directly from the data source instead of being
calculated from other data. See also: calculated member                                     MSN
Any method used to enter text. These methods include different keyboard layouts and
IMEs, as well as newer input services such as voice-recognition engines or handwriting-
recognition engines.                                                                        MSN

(1) Dynamic-link libraries that allow you to type complex ideographic characters for
Japanese, Korean, and Chinese lauguages using a standard keyboard. IMEs are
available in Asian versions of Microsoft Windows and help minimize the effort needed
by users to enter text containing characters from Unicode and double-byte character
sets (DBCS). By using IMEs you don't need to remember all possible character values,
because the IMEs monitor the keystrokes you make, anticipate the characters you
want, and present a list of possible characters from which to choose. (2) A program
that performs the conversion between keystrokes and ideographs or other characters,
usually by user-guided dictionary lookup.
The module on Windows 2000 and Windows XP that handles communication between
IMEs and applications.                                                                      MSN
The set of data provided to a Multidimensional Expressions (MDX) value expression
upon which the expression operates. For more information about set value expressions,
see the OLE DB documentation.                                                               MSN

Any table, view, or schema diagram used as an information source for a query.
Input-output analysis shows the extensive process by which inputs in one industry
produce outputs for consumption or for input into another industry. The matrix devised
by Wassily Leontief (1906-99) is often used to show the effect of a change in production
of a final good on the demand for inputs.                                                   R&S
A cursor that does not reflect data modification made to the underlying data by other
users while the cursor is open.                                                             MSN
A query that copies specific columns and rows from one table to another or to the same
table.                                                                                      MSN
A query (SQL statement) that creates a new row and inserts values into specified
columns.                                                                                    MSN
(1) The process of examining something carefully and in detail. (2) As part of a
structured verification process, inspections are conducted in order to identify defects.
Inspections are generally a more formal process than reviews. (2) A formal evaluation
technique in which some artifact (model, document, software) is examined by a person
or group other than the originator, to detect faults, violations of development standards,
and other problems (R&S).                                                                    BQ

Components of a program are installed when you click the command. This saves space
and time and allows for greater customization. Only the components you use will be
installed. Also called Install on First Use. See also JIT Installation.
The templates that ship with Office; they appear in the New dialog box. Depending on
the type of installation performed, the templates may just be advertised and not actually
installed on your hard disk. See also advertisement.                                         MSN

(1) An instance is the single and unique occurrence of the thing, concept, event, or
state in which the business is interested. An instance appears as a “row” of data within
a table in the physical database (A&D). (2) A copy of SQL Server running on a
computer. A computer can run multiple instances of SQL Server 2000. A computer can
run only one instance of SQL Server version 7.0 or earlier, although in some cases it
can also be running multiple instances of SQL Server 2000. (3) An individual entity
satisfying the description of a class or type. An entity to which a set of operations can
be applied and which has a state that stores the effects of the operations. See: object.
In programming, the process of producing a more defined version of some object by
replacing variables with values (or other variables).                                        ORA

A SQL Server system data type that holds whole numbers from -2^31 (-2,147,483,648)
through 2^31 - 1 (2,147,483,647).                                                            MSN
Using intact groups is another way of selecting subjects. For example grouping all the
employees assigned to a given unit. Researchers are usually concerned with how
people were assigned to a group and whether it was done in a non-random way, or
whether certain people were self-selected to a group for a particular reason. The
problem is whether some subtle factors were operating to exert a bias of selection
factors in the assignment to groups.                                                         R&S
In SQL Server 2000, a data type category that includes the bigint , int , smallint , and
tinyint data types.                                                                          MSN
To take data in a variety of different formats and from a variety of different sources and
merge it into a single format.                                                               ORA
A family of storage products for the IBM AS/400 from EMC.                                    Gen
An assembly of electronic circuits contained on a single piece of semiconductor
material.                                                                                    Gen

The database management system introduced by Cullinet in 1973, based on
technology acquired from B.F. Goodrich.                                                      Gen
A software program comprising an editor, a compiler, and a debugger.                         RUP
Integrated Device Electronics                                                                ESS
A network employing both digital switches and digital transmission.                          Gen
A vital class of middleware services that integrates library services, document-
manufacturing and document-interchange technologies with critical business-process
applications.                                                                                Gen
A platform on which applications are run that allows the applications to share
functionality.                                                                               ORA

The label applied to second generation office information systems (IOS) originating
from the tight integration between the bundled applications, usually word processing,
filing, E-Mail, calendars, scheduling and basic decision support.
See definition for: Windows Authentication                                                    MSN

The technical standards according to which the all-digital local exchange will be
designed. ISDN will provide a high-speed, high-bandwidth channel to every subscriber
on the telephone network, achieving end-to-end digital functions with standard
equipment interface devices. The network will enable the accommodation of a variety
of mixed digital transmission services at a single interface (including voice and circuit
and packet-switched data). Access channels under definition include basic (144 Kbps,
or 2B + D) and primary (1,544 Mbps in North America, or 23B + D, and 2,048 Mbps in
Europe) interface rates. Common Channel Signaling #7 (CCS7), and out-of-band
signaling scheme, is key to current ISDN implementation, and a variant, CCITT 7, was
finalized by the CCITT general assembly in 1988.
The software development activity in which separate software components are
combined into an executable whole.                                                            RUP
Defines the order in which components are to be implemented and integrated in a
specific iteration. Typically enclosed within an Iteration Plan.                              RUP
This is the process where systems are built. Units that make up a system are
combined, and the interfaces and data flow within the system are tested. Units are
usually added one at a time, and the system's stability is reestablished before the next
unit is added.                                                                                BQ
One who integrates.                                                                           BQ

(1) The quality or state of being complete; unbroken condition; wholeness. (2) Integrity
is the ability to assure that only authorized users can get into a privileged state.
Integrity is not synonymous with security, but security is impossible without it.
A property defined on a table that prevents data modifications that would create invalid
data.                                                                                         MSN

The laws that govern the operations allowed on the data and structures of a database.
A term synonymous with ""programmable workstation (e.g., a personal computer). An
end user terminal providing both stand alone and communications processing
capabilities."                                                                                Gen

A lock placed on one level of a resource hierarchy to protect shared or exclusive locks
on lower-level resources. For example, before a SQL Server 2000 database engine
task applies shared or exclusive row locks within a table, it places an intent lock on the
table. If another task tries to apply a shared or exclusive lock at the table level, it is
blocked by the table-level intent lock held by the first task. The second task does not
have to check for individual page or row locks before locking the table, it only has to
check for an intent lock on the table.
(1) A specification of how stimuli are sent between instances to perform a specific task.
The interaction is defined in the context of collaboration (RUP). (2) Interaction refers to
variables in the treatment, which may interact with each other. It may make a difference
whether a variable is used by itself, with another, or with different levels or degrees of
another. Higher order interactions are possible. One factor may depend on the
presence or absence of two other factors; termed a second-order interaction. See:
collaboration.                                                                                R&S
A general term that applies to certain types of diagrams that emphasize object
interactions. These include: collaboration diagrams and sequence diagrams.                    RUP
A Web site component that stores and displays information that users can add to by
using their browsers.                                                                         MSN
The process of logging on to a local computer using a keyboard. Compare network
logon.                                                                                        MSN
An interactive command prompt utility provided with SQL Server that allows users to
execute Transact-SQL statements or batches from a server or workstation and view the
results returned.                                                                                MSN
ISPF is an IBM-licensed program that is used for writing application programs.                   Gen

A voice/call-processing option for improving call center functionality and integration.

Interactive Web pages support the following criteria: The page author must be able to
update any element of the page at any time -- during and after loading of the page. he
page should capture all user actions and enable authors to respond to these events
using simple scripts. The page should reflect the relationship among page elements. A
change to one element in the page may require readjusting other elements. An
interactive page should do this automatically. If authors so choose, users should be
able to freely change any element in the page at any time.

(1) Provides hardware and/or software compatibility at the connection between different
transmission systems or machines. (2) A defined set of properties, methods, and
collections that form a logical grouping of behaviors and data. Classes are defined by
the interfaces that they implement. An interface may be implemented by many different
classes. (3) A collection of operations that are used to specify a service of a class or a
component. A named set of operations that characterize the behavior of an element.
If an interface implies another interface, then any class that implements the first
interface must also implement the second interface. Interface implication is used in an
information model to get some of the effects of multiple inheritance.                            MSN
The inheritance of the interface of a more specific element. Does not include
inheritance of the implementation. Contrast: implementation inheritance.                         RUP
An input method that allows the user to select a character by typing in its Big-5 code-
point index.                                                                                     MSN
Data that resides in an organization's central processing complex.                               ORA

A more compact form of an object identifier in a repository. An internal identifier is
guaranteed to be unique only within a single repository. See also: object identifier
A typical set of formats used within Office programs that provide the best combination
of color fidelity, file size, rendering time, and compatibility for a given input graphic file
format. File types used are typically GIF, JPG, PNG, and metafiles like WMF and EMF.
In many cases the input file format is converted and stored internally, or linked to the
document in one of these formats.                                                                MSN
An Intranet is a secure, internal network that uses technologies developed for the
Internet - TCP/IP, the World Wide Web and browsers - to promote the sharing of
information and knowledge among employees of a single company.                                   Gen

A transition signifying a response to an event without changing the state of an object.

Internal validity is the inside logic of an experiment. Primarily, it asks the question: Does
it seem reasonable to assume that the treatment has really produced the measured
effect? Extraneous variables, which might have produced the effect with or without the
treatment, are often called "threats to validity."


One of two international standards bodies responsible for developing international data
communications standards. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) works
closely with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) to define standards
of computing. They jointly published the ISO/IEC SQL-92 standard for SQL.
An independent organization of Oracle database and application development
professionals that seeks to provide its members with opportunities for information,
education, networking, and advocacy.                                                             ORA
(1) A worldwide federation of national-standards bodies. (2) One of two international
standards bodies responsible for developing international data communications
standards. International Organization for Standardization (ISO) works closely with the
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) to define standards of computing.
They jointly published the ISO/IEC SQL-92 standard for SQL. ( 2) A voluntary, non-
treaty organization established in 1949 to promote international standards.

Term used outside of Microsoft to indicate globalization and localizability. I18N is a
common abbreviation for “Internationalization” because the “I” in “International” is
followed by 18 letters and ends with the letter “N.” See Globalization and Localizability.

(External Networks) The Internet is a public information highway, a vast network of
interconnected computers that facilitate communication around the world. It was
originally developed in the 1970s by the U.S. Government as a decentralized network
that could protect military communications from nuclear attack - destroying one
computer would not affect the rest of the network. It wasn’t until the early 1990s that
the National Science Foundation allowed commercial use of the Internet.

A component of Outlook that allows you to share calendar free/busy information over
the Internet and send and receive meeting requests and responses.

Send contact information over the Internet by using Internet vCards. For example, you
can attach an electronic business card as a vCard in your outgoing e-mail messages.
Easily import vCards you receive in e-mail or find on Web sites.
An international nonprofit group that has developed a content advisory service for the
Internet. ICRA's aim is to protect children from potentially harmful material on the
Internet.                                                                                    MSN
A route management protocol that is part of the Internet Protocol (IP), handling error
and control messages.                                                                        Gen
The body that defines standard internet operating protocols such as TCP/IP, standards
that are expressed in the form of Requests for Comments (RFCs).                              ORA
Microsoft web browser.                                                                       RUP
Microsoft Web server software utilizing Hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) to deliver
documents across the World Wide Web.                                                         MSN
A powerful Web server, Internet Information Services (IIS) 6.0 provides a highly
reliable, manageable, and scalable Web application infrastructure for all versions of
Windows Server 2003. IIS helps organizations increase Web site and application
availability while lowering system administration costs. IIS 6.0 supports the Microsoft
Dynamic Systems Initiative (DSI) with automated health monitoring, process isolation,
and improved management capabilities.                                                        A&D

An industry standard protocol that defines how General Inter-ORB Protocol (GIOP)
messages are exchanged over a TCP/IP network. The IIOP makes it possible to use
the Internet itself as a backbone ORB through which other ORBs can bridge.



Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP-IP) tracks the addresses of
nodes, routes outgoing messages, and recognizes incoming messages. Current
methods consists of several protocols, including IP, Inter-network Packet Exchange
(IPX), Decnet, AppleTalk, Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) and LLC2. This wide
diversity of protocols results from application suites that assume their own particular
protocols. Collapse from this wide variety is inevitable, but users will only be able to
reduce this diversity, not eliminate it. Most users will collapse networks into two main
protocols: IP and IPX. Installed base applications and the pain of change will prevent a
total reduction to a single backbone protocol.
A numeric address that uniquely identifies every computer connected to a network. For
example,                                                                           RUP
A Web server application-development interface, developed by Process Software and
Microsoft, that can be used in place of CGI. Stands for Internet Server Application
Programming Interface.                                                                          MSN
A company that provides Internet access to its customers.                                       Gen
An administration tool included with Windows 2000 used for administering Internet
Information Services.                                                                           MSN
A publication setting that enables replication to Internet Subscribers.                         MSN
A mechanism through which operating system processes and threads exchange data
and messages. IPCs include local mechanisms such as Windows shared memory, or
network mechanisms such as Windows Sockets.                                                     MSN
See "LATA."                                                                                     Gen
A private network inside a company or organization that uses the same kinds of
software that you would find on the public Internet, but that is only for internal use. As
the Internet has become more popular, many of the tools used on the Internet are being
used in private networks. For example, many companies have Web servers that are
available only to employees.                                                                    RUP
Whereas the neutral culture is associated with a language, but not with any particular
country or region, the invariant culture is neither associated with a language nor with a
particular country or region. It can be used in almost any method in the Globalization
namespace that requires a culture. The invariant culture must be used only by
processes that require culture- and-language-independent results, such as system
services; otherwise, it produces results that might be linguistically incorrect or culturally
inappropriate.                                                                                  MSN

1. To come upon, meet, or discover. 2. To think up; devise or fabricate in the mind [to
invent excuses]. 3. To think out or produce [a new device process, etc.]; originate, as by
experiment; devise for the first time. (Webster's New World Dictionary of the American
Language, Second College Edition, Prentice Hall, 1984)
A detailed list.                                                                                BQ

(Internet Protocol Address) A unique number consisting of 4 parts separated by dots
(e.g. Every machine that is on the Internet has a unique IP address - if
a machine does not have an IP address, it is not really on the Internet. Most machines
also have one or more Domain Names that are easier for people to remember.
An Internet address that is a unique number consisting of four parts separated by dots,
sometimes called a dotted quad (for example, Every Internet computer
has an IP number, and most computers also have one or more domain names that are
mappings or aliases for the dotted quad.                                                        RUP
Provides cryptographic security services at the network layer.                                  RUP
A form of an English word that is an exception to the standard rules of inflection. For
example, the past-tense of run is ran , not runned ; likewise, the plural of alumnus is
alumni , not alumnuses .                                                                        MSN

The type of inflection (plural, past tense, or unknown) for which a word uses an irregular
form. For example, the word woman has an irregular plural form (women), as you don't
form the plural of woman in the standard way by adding -s or -es.
A noun plural that is not formed by adding -s or -es, such as men or women.                     MSN
A verb that is not inflected in the usual ways. One example of an irregular verb is one
that does not add -ed to the root form to create the past tense and past participle.
There are several common types of irregular verbs classified according to how they
indicate past tense and past participle: vowel changes (begin, began, begun); -en
added (beat, beat, beaten); vowel changes (spin, spun, spun); -d changes to -t (lend,
lent, lent); no change (put, put, put).                                                         MSN
Clannish - In a clannish or insular culture, decision-making is focused on the clan’s
interests, not the customers’ interests. In many cases, decisions are made to protect
the clan, not to better the market standing of the enterprise. Parental - In this
environment, caution is the dominant mode of thinking. Decisions are usually made
from the top down, with the emphasis on avoiding risk. These IS organizations are not
entrepreneurial and are usually slow to respond to customer needs. Market Focused - A
market-focused culture focuses management and staff attention on meeting the needs
of IS’ customers and marketing IS services. Decisions in a market-focused culture take
into account customer needs and the market implications of the decisions.
The International Organization for Standardization’s encoding that is code-for-code
equivalent to Unicode.                                                                         MSN
Three-letter ISO codes for representing currencies and funds (such as CAD for the
Canadian dollar).                                                                              MSN
The International Organization for Standardization’s 8-bit encoding that served as the
basis for the Windows (ANSI) code page. Variants of this standard (for example, 8859-
2, 8859-5, 8859-13) target different scripts, and each variant corresponds to different
Windows code pages.                                                                            MSN

A standard approach to network design, which introduces modularity by dividing the
complex set of functions into more manageable, self-contained, functional slices.
These layers, from the innermost layer, are: Physical Layer - concerned with the
mechanical and electrical means by which devices are physically connected and data is
transmitted. Link Layer - concerned with how to move data reliably across the physical
data link. Network Layer - provides the means to establish, maintain and terminate
connections between systems; concerned with switching an routing of information.
Transport Layer - concerned with end-to-end data integrity and quality of service.
Session Layer - standardizes the task of setting up a session and terminating it;
coordination of interaction between end application processes. Presentation Layer -
relates to the character set and data code that is used, and to the way data is displayed
on a screen or printer. Application Layer - concerned with the higher-level functions,
which provide support to the application or system activities.
The property of a transaction that controls the degree to which data is isolated for use
by one process and guarded against interference from other processes. Setting the
isolation level defines the default locking behavior for all SELECT statements in your
SQL Server session.                                                                            MSN
In scripts, a character string having all the same script and direction attributes.            MSN
A distinct sequence of activities with a base-lined plan and valuation criteria resulting in
a release (internal or external).                                                              RUP

Title IV, Part D, of the Social Security Act, codified in Part D of Subchapter IV of
Chapter 7 of Title 42 of the United States Code, which requires that each state create a
program to locate noncustodial parents, establish paternity, establish and enforce child
support obligations, and collect and distribute support payments. All recipients of public
assistance, usually Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, are referred to their
state's IV-D child support program. States must also accept applications from families
who do not receive public assistance, if requested, to assist in collection of child
support. Title IV-D also established the federal Office of Child Support Enforcement.
Any deployable unit of J2EE functionality, typically engineered to be distributed across
multiple computing tiers.                                                                      ORA

(Java 2 Enterprise Edition platform) An environment for developing and deploying
enterprise applications in Java consisting of a set of services, application programming
interfaces, and protocols that provide for developing multitiered Web applications.
Java is a programming language invented by Sun Microsystems that is specifically
designed for writing programs that can be safely downloaded to your computer through
the Internet and immediately run without fear of viruses or other harm to your computer
or files. Using small Java programs called applets, Web pages can include functions
such as animations, calculators, and other fancy tricks. We can expect to see a huge
variety of features added to the Web using Java, since you can write a Java program to
do almost anything a regular computer program can do, and then include that Java
program in a Web page.
(J2EE platform)                                                                              ORA
(J2SE platform) The core Java technology platform.                                           ORA
The source code release of the Java Development Kit.                                         ORA
A set of Java technology-based APIs that support rapid development of telecom
products and services on the Java platform.                                                  ORA
A platform-independent file format that groups many files into one. JAR files are used
for compression, reduced download time, and security. Because the JAR format is
written in Java, JAR files are fully extensible.                                             RUP
In JDK 1.1, the specification that defines an API that enables programs to access
databases that comply with this standard.                                                    RUP

The Java Development Kit is available to licensed developers from Sun Microsystems.
Each release of the JDK contains the following: the Java Compiler, Java Virtual
Machine, Java Class Libraries, Java Applet Viewer, Java Debugger, and other tools.
Developed by Netscape, Sun, and IBM, JFCs are building blocks that are helpful in
developing interfaces to Java applications. They allow Java applications to interact
more completely with the existing operating systems.                                         RUP
A collection of Java programming language classes and interfaces that allow
developers to build system, network, and service-management applications.                    ORA
In Java, a set of APIs that assist with the interfacing to multiple naming and directory
services.                                                                                    ORA

In Java, a distributed object model in which the methods of a remote object can be
invoked from other Java virtual machines, possibly residing on different hosts.
A subset of the Java Development Kit for redistributing the runtime environment alone.
The Java runtime environment consists of the Java virtual machine, the Java core
classes, and supporting files.                                                               ORA

A specification for software, which interprets Java programs that have been compiled
into byte-codes, and usually stored in a ".class" file. The JVM itself is written in C and
so can be ported to run on most platforms. The JVM instruction set is stack-oriented,
with variable instruction length. Unlike some other instruction sets, the JVM's support
object-oriented programming directly by including instructions for object method
invocation (similar to subroutine call in other instruction sets).

A javabean is a component that can be integrated into an application with other beans
that were developed separately. This single application can be used stand-alone, within
a browser and also as an ActiveX component. Javabeans are intended to be local to a
single process and they are often visible at runtime. This visual component may be, for
example, a button, list box, graphic or chart.
A portable, platform-independent, reusable Java component model.                             ORA

A cross-platform, World Wide Web scripting language. JavaScript code is inserted
directly into an HTML page. JavaScript makes it possible to build Java programs.
(JSPs) An extensible Web technology that uses template data, custom elements,
scripting languages, and server-side Java objects to return dynamic content to a client,
usually a Web browser.                                                                       ORA
A set of Automation interfaces that allow you to perform actions specific to Microsoft Jet
databases. Using Jet and Replication Objects, you can compact databases, refresh
data from the cache, and create and maintain replicated databases.
The Joint Engine Technology database is a data store used by many Microsoft
products. It can be accessed using many standard connection technologies such as
DAO, ODBC, and OLEDB.                                                                        MSN
A Microsoft Installer technology that minimizes the amount of memory a program uses.
Using this technology, programs can install components that support specialized,
seldom-used features only when they are actually needed, saving space on most hard
disks.                                                                                       MSN
A specified series of operations, called steps, performed sequentially by SQL Server
Agent.                                                                                       MSN
(1) A language used under MVS to communicate with the operating system. JCL is
used to tell the system who a user is, what program(s) are being invoked and what
resources will be needed. (2) Describes a job by providing information that identifies
programs to be executed and data to be processed.                                            Gen
The generic name for the MVS component that reads in jobs, interprets their JCL,
schedules their MVS execution, spools the print and produces the output at the
appropriate destination.                                                                     Gen
A record of JES2 messages written to the operators console as well as the operators
reply where appropriate                                                                      ESS
A series of records containing instructions that tell the operating system how to run a
job.                                                                                         ESS

(1) As a verb, to combine the contents of two or more tables and produce a result set
that incorporates rows and columns from each table. Tables are typically joined using
data that they have in common. As a noun, the process or result of joining tables, as in
the term ""inner join"" to indicate a particular method of joining tables. See also: join
column, logical join. (2) A relational operation that causes two tables with a common
domain to be combined into a single table or view.
A column referenced in a join condition. See also: join                                      MSN

A comparison clause that specifies how tables are related by their join columns.
See definition for: join column                                                              MSN
A row filter used in merge replication that defines a relationship between two tables that
will be enforced during synchronization, which is similar to specifying a join between
two tables.                                                                                  MSN
A comparison operator in a join condition that determines how the two sides of the
condition are evaluated and which rows are returned.                                         MSN
A series of joins indicating how two tables are related. For example,
Sales.SalesRepIDSalesReps.ID, SalesReps.BranchIDBranches.ID.                                 MSN
See definition for: junction table                                                           MSN
An effective process for ensuring high levels of functional quality, since it requires
participation of the prospective end user. It is especially effective in developing
graphical user interface (GUI) requirements.                                                 Gen
See JET Database                                                                             MSN
A standalone Web application written using the JavaServer Pages technology.                  ORA
A container that provides both the same services as a servlet container and an engine
that interprets and processes JSPs into a servlet.                                           ORA
Automatic media handlers for optical disk drives, also called libraries.                     Gen
A table that establishes a relationship between other tables. The junction table contains
foreign keys referencing the tables that form the relationship. For example, an
OrderParts junction table can show what parts shipped with each order by having
foreign keys to an Orders table and a Parts table.                                           MSN
A method of controlling and reducing direct and wori-in-process inventory by having
suppliers deliver material “just-in-time” to manufacturing.                                  Gen
A technical document in the Microsoft(R) Knowledge Base accessible through                                                                               MSN
A security system that authenticates users. Kerberos doesn’t provide authorization to
services or databases; it establishes identity at logon, which is used throughout the
session. The Kerberos protocol is the primary authentication mechanism in the
Windows 2000 operating system.                                                                MSN
In SQL Server 2000, a subset of the storage engine that is referenced in some error
messages. In Windows 2000, the core of the operating system that performs basic
operations.                                                                                   MSN
(1) A column or group of columns that uniquely identifies a row (PRIMARY KEY),
defines the relationship between two tables (FOREIGN KEY), or is used to build an
index. (2) In encryption and digital signatures, a value used in combination with an
algorithm to encrypt or decrypt data. See also: key column                                    Gen
A column referenced by a primary, foreign, or index key. See also: key                        MSN
The key length for an algorithm is the number of bits that the key value occupies. With
automated algorithms, a larger numbert of bits in the key is an indication of the strength
of the algorithm.                                                                             A&D
A description of how an architectural pattern is realized in terms of patterns of
interaction between elements in the system. Typically presented in a software
architecture document.                                                                        RUP
A lock used to lock ranges between records in a table to prevent phantom insertions or
deletions into a set of records. Ensures serializable transactions.                           MSN
A standard arrangement of characters on a keyboard that defines which keys produce
particular characters or scan codes.                                                          MSN
An operating system mapping device that determines what ASCII code to use for each
keyboard character based on the code page and keyboard language selected in the
Keyboard control panel.                                                                       MSN

A cursor that shows the effects of updates made to its member rows by other users
while the cursor is open, but does not show the effects of inserts or deletes.
This is the file that is used to store keys and certificates used to protect and verify web
sites, web site content, files and message content. It also contains user notes on any
of the information stored in it, and is encrypted.                                            A&D
A software test tool that captures and saves the keystrokes typed by the user. Also
called capture/replay and capture/playback.                                                   BQ
A reserved word in SQL Server that performs a specific function, such as to define,
manipulate, and access database objects. (2) A predefined word reserved for Java, for
example, return, that may not be used as an identifier.                                       MSN
The PowerBuilder client/server system that supports “Child Welfare”                           CCL
1,024 bits.                                                                                   Gen
1,024 bits.                                                                                   Gen

A measure of data transmission rate - one thousand bits of information per second.
1,024 bytes.                                                                                  Gen
1,024 bytes.                                                                                  Gen
A unit equal to 1,000 hertz (cycles per second).                                              Gen
The knowledge, which may include assertions, rules, objects, constraints, used by the
expert or knowledge-based system. Its organization is based upon knowledge
representations. The developer of the system or the user may be unaware of the
underlying knowledge representations, seeing only the domain knowledge
representations.                                                                              Gen
A hardware platform used exclusively for running an expert system. It can be either a
conventional or special purpose hardware system. Physical connectivity can occur via
a direct channel connection, a node on a local-area network, a peer-to-peer
communication link or a master/slave link.                                                    Gen
A software system with two basic components: a knowledge base and an inference
engine. The system uses expert- system technology, but does not require the use of a
domain expert for its construction.                                                           Gen
A built-in service that runs on all domain controllers and automatically establishes
connections between individual machines in the same site. These are known as
Windows 2000 Directory Service connection objects. An administrator may establish
additional connection objects or remove connection objects. At any point, however,
where replication within a site becomes impossible or has a single point of failure, the
KCC will step in and establish as many new connection objects as necessary to resume
Active Directory replication.
The process of discovering meaningful new correlations, patterns, and trends by sifting
through large amounts of data stored in data warehouses using such technologies as
pattern recognition, statistics, and other mathematical techniques. Synonymous with
data mining.                                                                                 ORA
A discipline that requires an integrated approach to identifying, managing and sharing
all of an enterprise’s information assets.                                                   Gen
Specifies the label type of the volume (SL,NL)                                               ESS

The LAN operating system offered by Microsoft and originally developed by 3COM.
LAN Manager extends the interprocess communications (IPC) mechanisms of OS/2
across a network, enabling development of back-end server applications that
communicate with a variety of workstation front ends running on both DOS and OS/2
work-stations. The IPC mechanisms enable multiple users to access a data file or
communicate with a server-based application simultaneously. Further, with support
from vendors like Digital Equipment Corp. and Hewlett-Packard, LAN Manager-based
networks will be able to communicate with various host systems using the same IPC
mechanisms as between workstations and the PC server.
IBM's proprietary implementation that parallels LAN Manager. In November 1989,
Microsoft and IBM announced intentions to merge LAN Manager and LAN Server into a
common set of application programming interfaces (APIs).                                     Gen
Direct connection of closely located (collocated) local-area networks via router, bridge
or a similar device.                                                                         Gen
The process of connecting two or more remote local-area networks over a wide area
network.                                                                                     Gen

A language, usually part of a database management system, that is used to define all
attributes and properties of a database, especially row layouts, column definitions, key
columns (and sometimes keying methodology), file locations, and storage strategy.
The ability of the keyboard to automatically recognize what language is being typed and
use proofing tools, such as the Spelling and Grammar checker, and AutoCorrect, in the
correct language.                                                                            MSN
(1) Adding support to software for document content in a particular language. In this
sense, to enable an application for Japanese means to modify the software so that the
user can enter, display, edit, and print text containing Japanese. (2) Modifying software
so that it can be localized into a particular language. In this sense, enabling for
Japanese means to modify software so that it can display Japanese text correctly in
menus, dialog boxes, and other user-interface elements. Note that in either sense, an
enabled product can still have the user interface in English such as when the product is
not localized.                                                                               MSN
Term used to describe the supported script families in Windows 2000.                         MSN
A 16-bit value defined by Windows, consisting of a primary language ID and a
secondary language ID. Used as a parameter to several Win32 functions and
messages.                                                                                    MSN
See Microsoft Office Multi-Language Pack                                                     MSN
(1) A language installed on the system and the input method associated with it. (2) The
input language.                                                                              MSN
A dimension level that contains a number of members that equals or exceeds the
threshold for large levels. This threshold is variable and is set in the Properties dialog
box of Analysis Manager.                                                                     MSN
The amount of time that elapses when a data change is completed at one server and
when that change appears at another (for example, the time between when a change is
made at a Publisher and when it appears at the Subscriber).
Lateral thinking means thinking correctly about a problem, even if that entails
temporarily ignoring rote learning (mechanical, routine) and misconceptions.                  R&S
A specific way of grouping packages in a model at the same level of abstraction. The
organization of classifiers or packages at the same level of abstraction. A layer
represents a horizontal slice through an architecture, whereas a partition represents a
vertical slice. Contrast: partition.                                                          RUP
The order, positioning, and spacing of text or other user-interface elements.                 MSN
The first byte of a 2-byte code point in a DBCS code page. See Double-byte character
set (DBCS).                                                                                   MSN
Characters—such as opening quotation marks, opening parentheses, and currency
signs—that shouldn’t be separated from succeeding characters.                                 MSN
In a tree structure, an element that has no subordinate elements. For example, in
Analysis Services, a leaf is a dimension member that has no descendants. See also:
nonleaf                                                                                       MSN
The bottom level of a clustered or nonclustered index. In a clustered index, the leaf
level contains the actual data pages of the table. In a nonclustered index, the leaf level
either points to data pages or points to the clustered index (if one exists), rather than
containing the data itself.                                                                   MSN
A dimension member without descendants.                                                       MSN
A line rented exclusively to one customer for voice or data communications. Also
called a private line, tie line or dedicated facility.                                        Gen

A recommended security practice in which every user is provided with only the
minimum privileges needed to accomplish the tasks they are authorized to perform.
Least Restrictive Environment                                                                 OPPR

A type of outer join in which all rows from the left-most table in the JOIN clause are
included. When rows in the left table are not matched by rows in the right table, all
result set columns that come from the right table are assigned a value of NULL.
Left-to-right Embedding                                                                       MSN

In a document, it signals that a piece of text is to be treated as embedded left to right.
For example, an English quotation in the middle of an Arabic sentence could be marked
as being embedded left to right. (LRE affects word order, not character order.)

Left-to-right Override Mark: A Unicode control character (U+202D) that forces
characters following it to be treated as strong left-to-right characters. Allows for nested
directional overrides of bidirectional characters. See Right-to-left override (RLO) mark.
Text that flows from left to right. There are two primary kinds of text: left-to-right text
such as in English and Latin languages, and right-to-left (RTL) text such as in Arabic
and Hebrew.                                                                                   MSN
Law enacted by government officials empowered to make laws or pass resolutions
through public election or official appointment. Also known as legislation. (See also:
Administrative Law; Case Law)                                                                 CSED
(1) The basic element of an alphabet. (2) A higher level of abstraction than Character.
For example, both the Spanish “ch” and the Danish “aa” can be considered as single
letters for some purposes. (Both sort as a single character.) See Text element and
Alphabet.                                                                                     MSN
(1) A position in a hierarchy. (2) he name of a set of members in a dimension hierarchy
such that all members of the set are at the same distance from the root of the
hierarchy. For example, a time hierarchy may contain the levels Year, Month, and Day.
See also: dimension, hierarchy                                                                MSN
Data often held in dimension tables that relates to summary data stored in the central
fact table.                                                                                   ORA
See definition for: dimension hierarchy                                                     MSN
The amount of translation and customization necessary to create different language
editions. The levels, which are determined by balancing risk and return, range from
translating nothing to shipping a completely translated product with customized
features.                                                                                   MSN
In Analysis Services, a folder that contains shared objects such as shared dimensions
that can be used by multiple objects within a database.                                     MSN
This describes the SSILM.EXE program that is running and the computer on which it is
running in the network. The license server is installed as a service on the computer and
responds to license requests from SURPAC clients running on other computers in the
network.                                                                                    A&D

The process whereby a software program authenticates whether you are the valid
owner of the software. This process typically occurs during installation when a
Registration Wizard prompts you for your name, organization, and CD-key. If the
Registration Wizard validates your entry, the Setup program continues.

One complete pass through the four phases: inception, elaboration, construction and
transition. The span of time between the beginning of the inception phase and the end
of the transition phase. Synonyms: development cycle, cycle. See also: test cycle.
Two or more characters combined to represent a single typographical character. The
modern Latin script uses only a few. Other scripts use many ligatures that depend on
font and style. Some languages, such as Arabic, have mandatory ligatures. Other
languages have characters that were derived from ligatures, such as the German
ligature of long and short “s” (ß) and the ampersand (&), which is the contracted form of
the Latin word “et.”                                                                        MSN
See Combined Characters                                                                     MSN
A semiconductor that produces light when activated.                                         Gen
A protocol used to access a directory service. LDAP support is currently being
implemented in Web browsers and e-mail programs, which can query an LDAP-
compliant directory. LDAP is a simplified version of the Directory Access Protocol
(DAP), which is used to gain access to X.500 directories. It is easier to code the query
in LDAP than in DAP, but LDAP is less comprehensive. For example, DAP can initiate
searches on other servers if an address is not found, while LDAP cannot in its initial
specification. Lightweight Access Directory Protocol is the primary access protocol for
Active Directory.                                                                           MSN
A characteristic of some open-air transmission technologies where the area between a
transmitter and a receiver must be clear and unobstructed.                                  Gen

In GDI+, can be horizontal or vertical. For example, a horizontal gradient brush can be
configured to change color as you move from the left side of a figure to the right side.
A line that is independent of other lines. For system traversals, this means that each
linearly independent path through the system must traverse some unique path segment
that is not traversed by any other traversal through the system.                            BQ
The count of the lines of program code in a software module or system.                      BQ
A semantic connection between two objects. An instance of an association. See:
association.                                                                                RUP
A data link layer procedure using D channel communications.                                 Gen
A collection of graphic or text buttons representing hyperlinks to pages both within your
Web site and to external sites.                                                             MSN
An instance of an association end. See: association end.                                    RUP
The logical entity in the ISO model for the OSI model concerned with data transmission
between adjacent network nodes. It is the second layer of processing in the OSI
model, between the physical and the network layers.                                         Gen
A cube based on a cube defined on another Analysis server. See also: publishing
server, source cube, subscribing server                                                     MSN
A definition of an OLE DB data source used by SQL Server 2000 distributed queries.
The linked server definition specifies the OLE DB provider required to access the data,
and includes enough addressing information for the OLE DB provider to connect to the
data. Any rowsets exposed by the OLE DB data source can then be referenced as
tables, called linked tables, in SQL Server 2000 distributed queries. See also: local
server                                                                                       MSN

An OLE DB rowset exposed by an OLE DB data source that has been defined as a
linked server for use in SQL Server 2000 distributed queries. The rowsets exposed by
the linked server can be referenced as tables in distributed queries.
A table that has associations with two other tables and is used indirectly as an
association between those two tables.                                                        MSN
A freely distributed version of UNIX.                                                        ORA
A low-powered flat-panel device that displays characters created from liquid crystal
molecules that are controlled by an electrical field.                                        Gen
Ability to extend list formats and formulas to new cells.                                    MSN
One of a set of elements that comprises an item in a list, document library, discussion
board, survey. On a form, list fields enable users to enter data; in a view, list fields
display data.                                                                                MSN
A set of data-entry fields on a page that are processed on a Web server that is running
SharePoint Team Services. List forms enable users to add, modify, and remove items
in lists, document libraries, and surveys.                                                   MSN
In JDK 1.1, a class that receives and handles events.                                        RUP
In program code, a string surrounded by double quotation marks or a character
surrounded by single quotation marks.                                                        MSN
A computer architecture that stores multibyte numerical values with the least significant
byte values first. On systems using little endian architecture, the letter “A” (U+0041) is
stored as 0x41 0x00. See Big-endian.                                                         MSN
A request for an exclusive lock that is repeatedly denied because a series of
overlapping shared locks keeps interfering. SQL Server detects the situation after four
denials and refuses further shared locks. A livelock also occurs when read transactions
monopolize a table or page, forcing a write transaction to wait indefinitely. See also:
deadlock                                                                                     MSN
The process of moving extracted and transformed data into a data warehouse.                  ORA
Testing the load-bearing ability of a system. For example, verifying that the system can
process the required number of transactions per time period.                                 BQ
Specifies where a volume resides when it is not stored in our libraries.                     ESS
Onsite (local) location                                                                      ESS
One of 193 local telephone company serving areas generally encompassing the largest
standard metropolitan statistical areas (SMSAs). Circuits/calls within a LATA
(intraLATA) are generally the sole responsibility of the local exchange carrier, while
circuits/calls that cross LATA boundaries (interLATA) are handled by inter-exchange
carriers, such as AT&T or MCI.                                                               Gen
The group of users who have permission to perform administrative tasks on the local
server computer. The permissions for this group are set by using the administration
tools for the operating system.                                                              MSN
(1) A computer network technology designed to connect computers separated by a
short distance. A local area network (LAN) can be connected to the Internet and can
also be configured as an intranet. (2) A user-owned, user-operated, high-volume data
transmission facility connecting a number of communicating devices (e.g., computers,
terminals, word processors, printers, and mass storage units) within a single building or
campus of buildings. Examples are Ethernet, AT&T's Starlan, and IBM's Token-Ring
Network.                                                                                     Gen
A protocol within Digital Equipment’s DECnet for the exchange of small packets of data
between Digital Equipment hosts and terminal servers in a local-area network (LAN)
environment.                                                                                 Gen

An attack that targets the computer to which the attacker is interactively logged on.
A high-throughput device that provides direct connection of co-located LANs.                   Gen
A cube created and stored with the extension .cub on a local computer using
PivotTable Service.                                                                            MSN
A server that is configured as both a Publisher and a Distributor for SQL Server
Replication. See also: Distributor, remote Distributor                                         MSN
A group in Windows NT 4.0 or Windows 2000 containing user accounts and global
groups from the domain group in which they are created and any trusted domain. Local
groups cannot contain other local groups.                                                      MSN
The identification (ID) a user must use to log in to a local server. A login ID can have up
to 128 characters. The characters can be alphanumeric; however, the first character
must be a letter (for example, CHRIS or TELLER8).                                              MSN
See District Office.                                                                           CSED

In SQL Server 2000 connections, an instance of SQL Server 2000 running on the same
computer as the application. When resolving references to database objects in a
Transact-SQL statement, the instance of SQL Server 2000 executing the statement. In
SQL Server 2000 distributed queries, the instance of SQL Server 2000 executing the
distributed query. The local server then accesses any linked servers referenced in the
query. In SQL Server 2000 remote stored procedures, the instance of SQL Server
executing an EXEC statement that references a remote stored procedure. The local
server then passes the execution request to the remote server on which the remote
stored procedure resides. See also: linked server, remote server
A subscription to a merge publication using the priority value of the Publisher for conflict
detection and resolution.                                                                      MSN
A user profile specific to a given computer. See also user profile.                            MSN

A user-defined variable that has an assigned value. A local variable is defined with a
DECLARE statement, assigned an initial value with a SELECT or SET statement, and
used within the statement batch or procedure in which it was declared.
The collection of features of the user’s environment that is dependent on language,
country/region, and cultural conventions. The locale determines conventions such as
sort order; keyboard layout; and date, time, number, and currency formats. In Windows,
locales usually provide more information about cultural conventions than about
languages.                                                                                     MSN

(1) A 32-bit value defined by Windows that consists of a language ID, a sort ID, and
reserved bits. (2) An LCID is a DWORD value which contains the language ID in the
lower word and the sorting ID, as well as a reserved value in the upper word. The ID
supplied in an LCID is a standard international numeric abbreviation. This LCID has the
components necessary to uniquely identify one of the installed system-defined locales.
(2) The Windows operating-system attribute that defines certain behaviors related to
language. The locale defines the code page, or bit patterns, used to store character
data, and the order in which characters are sorted. It also defines language-specific
items such as the format used for dates and time and the character used to separate
decimals in numbers. Each locale is identified by a unique number, called a locale
identifier or LCID. SQL Server 2000 collations are similar to locales in that the collations
define language-specific types of behaviors for instances of SQL Server 2000. (3) A
number that identifies a Windows-based locale. See also: locale, collation.
Exhibiting different behavior or returning different data, depending on the locale. For
example, the Win32 sorting functions return different results depending on the locale
parameter sent to each function.                                                               MSN
Exhibiting different behavior or returning different data, depending on the locale. For
example, the Win32 sort functions return different results depending on the locale
parameter sent to each function.                                                               MSN

The design of the software code base and resources such that a program can be
localized into different language editions without any changes to the source code.
Any element of a program’s UI that requires translation or modification for different
languages. These elements are either UI resources or resources that need to be
modified for the adaptation of a localized product (font information, locale information,
folder names, account names, and so on).                                                      MSN
The process of adapting a program for a specific local market, which includes
translating the user interface, resizing dialog boxes, customizing features (if necessary),
and testing results to ensure that the program still works.                                   MSN

A subset of tools, source files, and binary files that can be used to create a localized
edition of a program. Generally given to translators or third-party contractors.
A restriction on access to a resource in a multiuser environment. SQL Server locks
users out of a specific row, column, or file automatically to maintain security or prevent
concurrent data modification problems.                                                        MSN
To restrict the functionality of a system. For example, a network administrator can lock
down client desktops so that users can perform only certain operations or access
certain locations on the Internet or Intranet. In a locked-down system, there are only
two places where a program can write: the Temp directory and the Application Data
hierarchy.                                                                                    MSN
The process of converting many fine-grain locks into fewer coarse-grain locks, thereby
reducing system overhead.                                                                     MSN
System files that ensure that information on the Web site can only be altered by users
with sufficient access rights.                                                                MSN
A file or set of files containing a record of the modifications made in a database. See
also: data file                                                                               MSN
Graphic depiction of the logic paths through a system, or some function that is modeled
as a system.                                                                                  BQ
A logic scheme, plan, or diagram.                                                             BQ
The logical data model is a conceptual representation of data without concern for its
physical existence and representing functional dependencies and relationships between
data items.                                                                                   A&D

In XML View Mapper, a description of correspondence between tables based on
equivalent values in one or more fields. Logical joins are automatically created during
import based on table relationships. User-defined logical joins can be added through
the user interface to describe additional relationships. See also: join
The phase of database design that is concerned with identifying the relationships
among the tables.                                                                             ORA
A name used by SQL Server to identify a file. A logical name for a file must correspond
to the rules for identifiers and can have as many as 30 characters (for example,
ACCOUNTING or LIBRARY).                                                                       MSN
The operators AND, OR, and NOT. Used to connect search conditions in WHERE
clauses.                                                                                      MSN

In the same order in which it is typed. Generally refers to text that might be displayed in
a different order, such as Arabic, Hebrew, or bidirectional text. See Visual order.
Specifies the length of the file's records for a data set                                     ESS

IBM's term for a logical entity that is the user's "port" into an SNA network. LU 1 is a
high-performance print data stream. LUs 2 and 3 are 3270 data streams. LU 6 enables
host-to-host data exchange. LU 6.2 provides a peer-to-peer data stream.
A relatively new SNA protocol that is the basis for revamping SNA's infrastructure. It is
IBM's strategic device- independent, process-to-process protocol and it also supports
asynchronous (store-and-forward) networking. It provides the facilities for peer-to-peer
communications between two programs (see "APPC"). Among other things, this
means that programs and small/midrange computer systems can use LU 6.2 (along
with PU 2.1) to establish and control sessions with each other, without host mainframe
participation. In this manner, IBM will evolve SNA away from its current host-based
centralized organization. Currently, LEN is the vehicle (LU 6.2 application) chosen to
accomplish this. When LU 6.2 is installed in devices such as PCs and cluster
controllers, necessities such as multiple sessions among those devices and S/370
hosts will be available. LU 6.2 will also be the foundation for a "network operating
system," meaning that all the devices on the network will use that protocol to talk
intelligently for the purposes of managing resources and performing network recovery.

An architectural view that describes the main classes in the design of the system: major
business-related classes, and the classes that define key behavioral and structural
mechanisms (persistency, communications, fault-tolerance, user-interface). In the
Unified Process, the logical view is a view of the design model.

An identifier that gives a user permission to connect to SQL Server 2000 using SQL
Server Authentication. Users connecting to SQL Server 2000 using Windows NT
Authentication are identified by their Windows 2000 login, and do not need a separate
SQL Server 2000 login. Note: When possible, use Windows Authentication.
A security mode that determines the manner in which a SQL Server 2000 instance
validates a login request. There are two types of login security: Windows Authentication
and SQL Server authentication.                                                              MSN
From the Greek “logo,” meaning “word”: a letter, symbol, or sign used to represent an
entire word. Chinese characters are more properly termed “logographic” than
“ideographic” because they represent words or parts of words rather than abstract
concepts.                                                                                   MSN
See Logograph                                                                               MSN

A .bat, .cmd, or .exe file that runs automatically when you log on to a Windows NT
network client, running either Windows NT Workstation or MS-DOS. A logon script can
automatically configure the environment to perform such tasks as making network
connections, running programs, and setting environment variables.

A table, either in a database or hard-coded in the English Query application, that
contains codes and the English word or phrase they represent. For example, a gender
lookup table contains the following code and English descriptions: M, Male
A configuration of several processors, each with its own memory, that executes
application and operating-system code independently.                                        Gen

Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program
Denotes letters that are not capitalized. For instance, the word “nationality” is all
lowercase. The notion of lowercase does not apply to East Asian and Middle Eastern
scripts.                                                                                    MSN
Stores connection information for a database in the system registry. The connection
information consists of parameters and corresponding values that the ODBC Driver
Manager uses to establish a connection.                                                     MSN
Machine recognition and digitization of magnetically charged characters printed on
paper (typically bank drafts and deposit slips).                                            Gen
Specified by a number and a unit, such as bugs per thousand lines of code or per
minutes of test.                                                                            BQ
An excessively large amount of e-mail data sent to a user's e-mail address in an
attempt to make the user's e-mail program crash or to prevent the user from receiving
further legitimate messages.                                                                MSN
A practice in which an attacker sends e-mail messages from another system's e-mail
server in order to use its resources and/or make it appear that the messages originated
from the other system.                                                                      MSN

A computer system with an configuration price over $700,000. The configuration price
includes the minimum set of peripherals sufficient to IPL the operating system.
A query (SQL statement) that creates a new table and then creates rows in it by
copying rows from an existing table.                                                        MSN

A person who has access to a system and poses a security threat to it. An example is
someone who tries to elevate their privileges to gain access to unauthorized data.
A right that allows a user to add, modify, and remove lists, document libraries,
discussion boards, and surveys.                                                             MSN
Code executed and managed by the Microsoft® .NET Framework, specifically by the
.NET Framework's common language runtime. Managed code must supply the
information necessary for the common language runtime to provide services such as
memory management, cross-language integration, code access security, and automatic
lifetime control of objects. All code based on Microsoft Intermediate Language executes
as managed code.                                                                            MSN
(1) The act, art, or manner of managing, or handling, controlling, directing, and so on.
(2) A discipline in the software-engineering process, whose purpose is to plan and
manage the development project.                                                             BQ
This was once the predominantly used name for the central data processing
organization in a commercial enterprise.                                                    Gen

(1) Relationship where one or more instances of entity relate to one or more instances
of another entity (A&D). (2) A relationship between two tables in which rows in each
table have multiple matching rows in the related table. Many-to-many relationships are
maintained by using a third table called a junction table and adding the primary key
columns from each of the other two tables to this table.
A relationship between two tables in which one row in one table can relate to many
rows in another table.                                                                      MSN
The process of matching data from source systems to the structures in a data
warehouse.                                                                                  ORA
Tools used to perform mapping.                                                              ORA

In typography, a glyph for a character like a diacritic or tone mark that combines with
other marks or characters. Marks can be spacing or nonspacing glyphs in a font.
Used in typography when marks need to be attached or positioned to other marks, base
glyphs, or ligatures.                                                                       MSN
Synonym: deserialize.                                                                       RUP
An architecture that uses hundreds or thousands of parallel processors.                     Gen
Indicates that this volume is a private volume which cannot be overwritten unless the
data set names match.                                                                       ESS

The database that controls the operation of each instance of SQL Server. It is installed
automatically with each instance of SQL Server and keeps track of user accounts,
remote user accounts, and remote servers that each instance can interact with. It also
tracks ongoing processes, configurable environment variables, system error messages,
tapes and disks available on the system, and active locks.
See definition for: Publisher                                                               MSN
The file installed with earlier versions of SQL Server used to store the master , model ,
and tempdb system databases and transaction logs and the pubs sample database and
transaction log.                                                                            MSN
See definition for: Distributor                                                             MSN
In an IMS or CICS environment the Master Terminal identified that has privileged and
priority control over the telecommunications monitor.                                      Gen
A mistake as to the facts that could not have been known at the time a signatory
executed an acknowledgment of paternity.                                                   CSED
A complete facility for creating, maintaining, and using summary tables.                   ORA
Mean Time Between Failures (MTF) is the number of hours between failures. The
Mean is the middle point between the two extremes the maximum and minimum hours
of availability.                                                                           Gen
An estimate average time, by either the vendor or the manufacturer, required to do
repairs on equipment.                                                                      Gen

(1) The act or process of determining extent, dimensions, and so on; especially as
determined by a standard, (according to Websters New World Dictionary). The IEEE
definition is A quantitative assessment of the degree to which a software product or
process possesses a given attribute. [IEEE043098]. (2) In a cube, a set of values that
are based on a column in the cube's fact table and are usually numeric. Measures are
the central values that are aggregated and analyzed. (3) Data within the core of a data
warehouse on which all online analytical processing (OLAP) queries depend. See also
fact data. See also: dimension

An S/390 software licensing arrangement offering by IBM. It yields charges based on
the amount of processing capacity being used by selected software products. IBM
provides a monitoring and measuring facility for establishing the charges for a system.

(1) In English Query, an option in the Adjective Phrasing dialog box. Using it, you can
specify some measurement that is represented in an entity. For example, the
relationship expressed as the city is some temperature might be represented by an
Area entity and a Temperature entity. (2) Measurement is the process of observing and
recording the observations that are collected as part of a research effort.

A mechanism is an instance of a pattern. It may require some further refinement to
become collaboration in a particular model. A mechanism is thus a specific solution (to
a recurring problem) in a single context. A mechanism can be said to fit or conform to a
pattern. Any collaboration could be termed a mechanism, but the term is usually
reserved for collaborations, which deliver a solution to a commonly recurring problem in
software applications, for example, to handle persistence, to which a pattern is
applicable. In analysis and design, the notion of a mechanism can be used as a
placeholder having identified that persistence is needed for example, the analyst and
designer can say that a persistence mechanism will be used, which will force that
problem to be addressed systematically and consistently.
The text describing the media set. See also: media set                                     MSN
All media in a set written by a single device (for example, an initial medium and all
continuation media, if any). See also: media set                                           MSN
Provides information about the backup media.                                               MSN
The descriptive name for the entire backup media set.                                      MSN

All media involved in a backup operation. See also: media description, media family
A measure of data transmission rate equal to one million bits per second.                  Gen
1,048,576 bytes.                                                                           Gen
1,048,576 bytes.                                                                           Gen
A measure of electromagnetic frequency equal to 1 million cycles per second.               Gen
An item in a dimension representing one or more occurrences of data. A member can
be either unique or nonunique. For example, 1997 and 1998 represent unique members
in the year level of a time dimension, whereas January represents nonunique members
in the month level because there can be more than one January in the time dimension
if it contains data for more than one year. See also: virtual dimension
A modeling concept that describes how interface members are mapped from one
interface to another.                                                                          MSN
A system-generated parent of a collection of consecutive dimension members. See
also: dimension                                                                                MSN
A dimension level's property that specifies the identifiers of the members of the level.
The value of this property can specify a column that contains the identifiers or an
expression that evaluates to the identifiers. See also: member name column, member
variable                                                                                       MSN

A dimension level's property that specifies the names of the members of the level. The
value of his property can specify a column that contains the names or an expression
that evaluates to the names. See also: member key column, member variable

Any member of the uniformed service on active duty, including the Army, Navy, Air
Force, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard. Also included are members of the National
Guard called to active service, certain members of the Public Health Service, and the
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, members of the Reserves when
ordered to report for active military duty, and United States citizens serving with the
military of other countries if their service is similar to military service. A servicemember
may be a noncustodial parent or a custodial person.
Information about the members of a dimension level in addition to that contained in the
dimension (for example, the color of a product or the telephone number of a sales
representative). For more information about member properties, see the OLE DB
documentation. See also: virtual dimension                                                     MSN

A computer running Windows NT Server used to run programs dedicated to specific
tasks, such as managing print or file servers, or high-volume tasks such as running
database programs. These servers do not authenticate accounts.

The value used internally by Analysis Services to identify a dimension member. The
MemberKeyColumn property specifies the member variables for a dimension. For
example, a number from 1 through 12 could be the member variable that corresponds
to a month of the year. See also: member key column, member name column
A type of column containing long strings of text, typically more than 255 characters.
This is the Access equivalent of a SQL Server text data type.                                  MSN
A program element that offers the user a number of choices; menus do not involve data
entry.                                                                                         BQ
The operation that combines two partitions into a single partition.                            MSN
Before adding a new contact, Outlook sends a message if the contact might be a
duplicate, and gives you the option to automatically merge the new information with the
existing contact entry.                                                                        MSN
A type of replication that allows sites to make autonomous changes to replicated data,
and at a later time, merge changes and resolve conflicts when necessary. See also:
snapshot replication, transactional replication                                                MSN
A specification of the conveyance of information from one instance to another, with the
expectation that activity will ensue. A message may specify the raising of a signal or the
call of an operation.                                                                          RUP
An algorithm that allows a receiver to ensure that a block of data has retained its
integrity from the time it was sent until the time it was received.                            MSN
Shows system messages concerning the execution of job steps and the allocation and
de-allocation of data sets.                                                                    ESS
A number that identifies a SQL Server 2000 error message.                                      MSN
A Win32 resource that uses sequential numbers rather than escape letters to mark
replacement parameters, making it convenient to store alert messages and error
messages that contain several replacement parameters.                                        MSN

A communication model whereby the distributed applications communicate by sending
messages to each other. A message is typically a short packet of information that does
not necessarily require a reply. Messaging implements asynchronous communications
method. A fragment of Java code within a class that can be invoked and passed a set
of parameters to perform a specific task.
(1) The Microsoft interface specification that allows different messaging and workgroup
programs including e-mail, voice mail, and fax to work through a single client, such as
the Exchange client included with Windows 95 and Windows NT. (2) An e-mail
application programming interface (API).                                                     MSN

Information about the properties of data, such as the type of data in a column (numeric,
text, and so on) or the length of a column. It can also be information about the structure
of data or information that specifies the design of objects such as cubes or dimensions.
A class whose instances are classes. Metaclasses are typically used to construct
metamodels.                                                                                  RUP
Data that describes the properties of characteristics of other data.                         A&D

An asset and inventory database that tracks and manages the information about the
applications and databases that have been developed for the organization.
An architectural component of a data warehouse that resides between the warehouse
data and the user and contains metadata.                                                     ORA
A model that defines the language for expressing a metamodel. The relationship
between a meta-metamodel and a metamodel is analogous to the relationship between
a metamodel and a model.                                                                     RUP
A model that defines the language for expressing a model.                                    RUP
A generic term for all meta-entities in a metamodeling language. For example,
metatypes, metaclasses, meta-attributes, and meta-associations.                              RUP

An OMG-defined technology: the meta-object facility (MOF) specification defines a set
of CORBA IDL interfaces that can be used to define and manipulate a set of
interoperable metamodels and their corresponding models. These interoperable
metamodels include the UML metamodel, the MOF meta-metamodel, as well as future
OMG adopted technologies that will be specified using metamodels. The MOF provides
the infrastructure for implementing CORBA-based design and reuse repositories. This
definition is taken from the MOF specification version 1.3.

(1) A regular and systematic way of accomplishing something. The detailed, logically
ordered plans or procedures followed to accomplish a task or attain a goal. (2) UML
1.1: The implementation of an operation, the algorithm or procedure that affects the
results of an operation. The implementation of an operation. It specifies the algorithm or
procedure associated with an operation. (3) A function that performs an action by using
a COM object, as in SQL-DMO, OLE DB, and ActiveX Data Objects (ADO). See also:
Component Object Model (COM)
Synonym: message.                                                                            RUP
A measure.                                                                                   BQ
A set or system of measures.                                                                 BQ
A technology, evolved from local-area network designs, that is optimized for longer
distances (over 50 kilometers), greater speeds (more than 100 Mbps) and diverse
forms of information (voice, data, image, video).                                            Gen
A computer system with a configuration price under $25,000, including peripherals
sufficient to contain the operating system, as well as a display and keyboard (if
required).                                                                                   Gen
(1) Micro Channel Architecture was introduced on the IBM PS/2, supporting peripheral
operations on the bus. It is IBM-proprietary, and may be the most important PS/2
innovation, because IBM is expected to unveil significant Micro Channel functionality
over the next few years. (2) The proprietary PC system bus introduced by IBM on the
PS/2 models 50 and above. IBM is expected to unveil significant MCA functionality
over the next few years.                                                                   Gen
The linkage between the operating system and the hardware. For example, the
execution of each S/370 instruction causes the hardware to enter a subroutine
composed of micro-instructions, which then cause the hardware to execute the function
defined for that instruction.                                                              Gen
Microsoft software for connecting information, people, systems, and devices. .NET
provides XML-based interoperability and is being incorporated across Microsoft's
clients, servers, services, and tools. For example, products like Microsoft Windows®
and Microsoft Office will use .NET to connect with other systems and applications. For
developers, .NET is manifested in the programming model delivered in the Microsoft
.NET Framework.                                                                            MSN
An integral Windows component that enables building and running the next generation
of software applications and Web services. It includes technologies for Web services
and Web applications (ASP.NET), data access (ADO.NET), smart client applications
(Windows Forms), and many others.                                                          MSN
A Web-based service that is designed to make signing in to Web sites fast and easy.
Passport enables participating sites to authenticate a user with a single set of sign-in
credentials, alleviating the need for users to remember numerous passwords and user
names.                                                                                     MSN
A set of programmable software services that supports the presentation of interactive
animated characters within the Windows interface. The Office Assistants (actors) use a
subset of this technology, allowing them to take on a more three-dimensional quality
and not be bounded by a control box window.                                                MSN

The Microsoft implementation of brief instant messages that content or service
providers, called Microsoft Alerts providers, can send to people who opt to receive
them. Microsoft Alerts are routed based on users' delivery preferences and can be
delivered directly to desktops, mobile devices, and any e-mail address.

A software tool that standardises web content publishing by allowing the users to create
and maintain templates. This tool also has the option for supervisors to approve content
for automatic publishing and date bound content on the intranet and the internet.
A leading independent software vendor located in Redmond, Wash. They are
considered a leading force in the PC software marketplace.                                 Gen

(1) Included in the Microsoft Office 2000 Professional, Premium and Developer
editions, this is a new data engine technology that provides local data storage and
offers compatibility with Microsoft SQL Server. (2) A data store based on Microsoft
SQL Server technology, but designed and optimized for use on smaller computer
systems, such as a single user computer or a small workgroup server.
An operating system written by Microsoft Corp. for personal computers and the basis
for IBM's PC_DOS. There are only trivial differences between the two operating
systems. All IBM PC-compatible machines use MS-DOS.                                        Gen
A Microsoft website that provides product updates and security updates for Microsoft
products.                                                                                  MSN
The CPU-independent instruction set that is generated by the Microsoft .NET
Framework compilers and consumed by the .NET Framework's common language
runtime. Before MSIL can be executed, it must be converted to native, CPU-specific
code by the common language runtime.                                                       MSN
Enables you to deploy, customize, and maintain Internet Explorer and Microsoft
Outlook Express from one central location across multiple computers.                       MSN
Enables Unicode applications to run on code page–based versions of Windows
(Windows 95, Windows 98, and Windows Me).                                                  MSN
(1) In Windows NT version 4.0 and Windows 2000, a utility designed to manage servers
and services through a common user interface. MMC snap-ins include FrontPage
Server Extensions, Internet Information Server (IIS), and SQL Server. (2) An ISV-
extensible, common console framework for managing programs. The MMC itself does
not provide any management behavior, but it provides a common environment for snap-
ins, which are written by both Microsoft and independent software vendors (ISVs). MMC
is available in the Windows NT 4.0 Option Pack.
A hosted, programmable Web service that integrates maps, driving directions, distance
calculations, proximity searches and other location intelligence into applications,
business processes, and Web sites.                                                             MSN
A program that lets people talk to each other face-to-face over the Internet using any
Video for Windows-compatible camera and equipment.                                             MSN
A utility that automatically arranges the physical location of the Office files on your hard
disk so that they can be read from the disk more quickly, leading to reduced startup
times in the programs. The file name is Otuneup.exe and this utility only works under
Windows 95 and later.                                                                          MSN
Office provides a virus scanning API tied to the Open dialog box. This new API allows
third-party vendors to scan Office documents before they are loaded.                           MSN
A specific clipboard for Office programs that can hold more than one copy, used by the
Collect And Copy feature.                                                                      MSN

Provides cross-language document sharing and collaboration features along with
features that increase the ease of use for individual locales. The Microsoft Office Multi-
language Pack, which can be installed by the administrator, contains all of the
languages supported by Office. The benefit of this type of interface is that an
organization can deploy a single program worldwide, but users can work with an
interface (both menus and Help) in their native language. This facilitates centralized
support because the help desk can switch its user interface to the same language as
the user interface, helping to reduce support costs.

A separate retail product for use with Office that provides the ability to proof a
document in another language. However, unlike the Language Pack, this product does
not include a localized Help and user interface such as toolbars, menus, and so on.
Included in the Microsoft Office 2000 Premium and Developer editions. Microsoft
PhotoDraw provides photo editing and illustration in one easy-to-use program to help
Office and small business users create custom looking graphics for use in Office
programs and the Web.                                                                          MSN
Office version of Microsoft Visual Studio scripting but tailored for Office. Similar to the
Visual Basic Editor, it gives only the relevant functionality to the user. The new and
improved scripting environment in Outlook, the Microsoft Script Editor, contains its own
Object Browser as well as Help topics for all of the Outlook objects, methods, and
properties.                                                                                    MSN
A document that describes a specific security issue in a Microsoft product and directs
the reader to a downloadable file that resolves the issue.                                     MSN

An announcement that describes a specific virus, the impact of potential attacks on
Microsoft software, and suggestions for preventing or recovering from such attacks.
An integrated development environment for helping developers to build scalable
applications and Web services.                                                                 MSN
Provides stand-alone programs with easy access to standard Internet protocols such as
Gopher, FTP, and HTTP, abstracting the protocols into a high-level interface that is
familiar to Win 32 developers.                                                                 MSN

The upper portion of the radio frequency range, specifically 890 MHz and higher.

Software that provides some functionality between the database and the end user.
The point at which an iteration formally ends; corresponds to a release point.                 RUP
An approximate figure to denote a computer's raw processing power. It is often
misleading, since it does not necessarily provide a good throughput figure of merit.
The cost for seven-day/24-hour service coverage from IBM. Before Dec. 1, 1987, the
fee provided five-day/11-hour coverage.                                                      Gen
An object that contains the definition of a data mining process and the results of the
training activity. For example, a data mining model may specify the input, output,
algorithm, and other properties of the process and hold the information gathered during
the training activity, such as a decision tree.                                              MSN
The process a data mining model uses to estimate model parameters by evaluating a
set of known and predictable data. Also, the act of causing a mining model to evaluate
training data. See also: training data set                                                   MSN
(1) System-provided support that offers a true right-to-left (RTL) look and feel to the
user interface when creating localized applications for RTL languages (such as for
Arabic and Hebrew versions of Windows 98, Windows Me, Windows 2000, and
Windows XP). (2) The process for protecting against the loss of data due to disk failure
by maintaining a fully redundant copy of data on a separate disk. Mirroring can be
implemented at several levels: in SQL Server 2000, in the operating system, and in the
disk controller hardware.                                                                    MSN
A computer environment, usually a network, in which the operating systems of different
computers are based on different character encodings.                                        MSN

(1) Allows domain controllers running both Windows 2000 and earlier versions of
Windows NT to co-exist in the domain. In mixed mode, the domain features from
previous versions of Windows NT Server are still enabled, while some Windows 2000
features are disabled. Windows 2000 Server domains are installed in mixed mode by
default. In mixed mode the domain may have Windows NT 4.0 backup domain
controllers present. Nested groups are not supported in mixed mode. Compare native
mode. (2) Combines Windows Authentication and SQL Server Authentication. Mixed
Mode allows users to connect to an instance of SQL Server, through either a Windows
NT 4.0 or Windows 2000 user account or a SQL Server login. Note: When possible,
use Windows Authentication.
A Component Object Model (COM) component that provides a variety of services.
These services include detecting the character encoding used by Web pages and e-
mails, converting text from one encoding to another as part of an import or export
operation, and displaying characters that are not included within the font specified for
parts of a Web page.                                                                         MSN
Unit of measure used to convert logical units to device units; it also defines the
orientation of the device’s x- and y-axes. GDI uses the mapping mode to convert logical
coordinates into the appropriate device coordinates. The MM_TEXT mode allows
applications to work in device pixels, where 1 unit is equal to 1 pixel. The physical size
of a pixel varies from device to device.                                                     MSN
The capability to dynamically change the bindings between code fragments and the
location where they are executed. Mobile code is code that traverses a network in its
lifetime, and executes on a destination machine.                                             A&D
An object that must be closed before you can use another part of the program. For
example, if you have a modal dialog box open, and you want to work in the document,
you first have to close the dialog box.                                                      MSN
Incorporation of logic that biases the method used for input (mode) toward the type of
input that is expected. For example, the name field on a Contacts dialog box will have
information telling the input method that people’s names are expected. With this
information, the input method biases toward those results and thus provides more
accurate input.                                                                              MSN
(1) In English Query, a model is the collection of all information that is known about the
objects in the English Query application. This information includes: the specified
database objects (such as tables, fields, and joins); semantic objects (such as entities,
the relationships between them, additional dictionary entries); and global domain default
options. (2) A semantically closed abstraction of a system. In the Unified Process, a
complete description of a system from a particular perspective ('complete' meaning you
don't need any additional information to understand the system from that perspective).
A set of model elements. Two models cannot overlap. A semantically closed
abstraction of a subject system. Usage note: In the context of the MOF specification,
which describes a meta-metamodel, for brevity the meta-metamodel is frequently
referred to as simply the model. (3) A type of database object that contains a set of
interrelated equations that are used to calculate data and assign it to a variable or
dimension value. See: system.
A dimension of modeling that emphasizes particular qualities of the metamodel. For
example, the structural model aspect emphasizes the structural qualities of the
metamodel.                                                                                    RUP
A database installed with SQL Server that provides the template for new user
databases. SQL Server 2000 creates a new database by copying in the contents of the
model database and then expanding it to the size requested.                                   MSN
A relationship between two or more models in which one model is dependent on the
information of another model.                                                                 MSN

The process of generating a repository type from a published model. Includes the
generation of interfaces and implementations which allows repositories to be
instantiated and populated based on, and in compliance with, the model elaborated.

An element that is an abstraction drawn from the system being modeled. Contrast: view
element. In the MOF specification model elements are considered to be meta-objects.

An application architecture, which separates the components of the application: the
model represents the business logic or data; the view represents the user interface and
the controller manages user input or, in some cases, the application flow.

An object that can remain open when using another part of the program. For example, if
you have a modeless dialog box open, such as the spelling checker dialog box in Word,
you can work in the document without closing the dialog box.
A method of entering East Asian–language input with an IME. In contrast with modal
input, modeless input allows you to easily and seamlessly switch back and forth
between the composition mode and the direct mode (the document itself). You can
easily correct, navigate, and make input to the general document, whereas with modal
input the rest of the document is temporarily unavailable as long as you are in
composition mode.                                                                             MSN
How concepts will be represented, restrictions on the modeling language that the
project team management have decided upon; that is, dictums such as "Do not use
inheritance between subsystems.” "Do not use extend or include associations in the
Use Case Model."; "Do not use the friend construct in C++.". Presented in the Software
Architecture Document.                                                                        RUP

Refers to something that occurs during a modeling phase of the software development
process. It includes analysis time and design time. Usage note: When discussing object
systems, it is often important to distinguish between modeling-time and run-time
concerns. See: analysis time, design time. Contrast: run time.
A conversion device installed in pairs one at each end of an analog communications
line. The transmitting-end modem modulates digital signals received locally from a
computer or terminal (sending analog signals over the line). The receiving-end modem
demodulates the incoming signal, converting it back to its original (i.e., digital) format,
and passes it to the destination business machine. The term is a contraction of
modulate and demodulate.                                                                      Gen
(1) A group of objects in a project. You can move objects between modules in a project,
thus organizing those objects for a dispersed development environment. (2) A software
unit of storage and manipulation. Modules include source code modules, binary code
modules, and executable code modules. See: component.
An arithmetic operator that provides the integer remainder after a division involving two
integers.                                                                                      MSN
A SQL Server system data type that stores monetary values from -2^63 (-
922,337,203,685,477.5808) through 2^63 - 1 (+922,337,203,685,477.5807), with
accuracy to a ten-thousandth of a monetary unit.                                               MSN
A pricing structure for software licensing. Users can usually terminate their software
license with a 30-day notice.                                                                   Gen
The smallest meaningful unit of a word. The word “dog” is one morpheme. The word
“dogs” is two morphemes: “dog” + the plural marker “s.” Many ideographs are based on
morphemes.                                                                                     MSN
The tests most likely to be of interest on the basis of probable importance and risk of
failure.                                                                                       BQ
Also; Media Access Control, and Message Authentication Code.                                   Gen
A file with a .msi extension which contains a relational-type database that stores all the
instructions and data required to install and uninstall the program across many
installation scenarios. This database replaces the Setup .stf and .inf text files as the key
components for installing programs.                                                            MSN
The Windows installer engine that interprets command line switches, packaged
command files, and installs the product. It is used whenever any Windows Installer
program is running setup, repair installation and such.                                        MSN

An Office-wide, language-specific, global dynamic-link library (DLL). Mso9.dll provides
many functions, some of which are Office license verification, and drawing the Office
menus and shared dialog boxes that are used by all Office programs.

The function name of the actual code used to migrate user settings from previous
versions of Office to Office 2000. Office programs make a call to the MSOMigrate
function early in their boot process to determine if migration should occur.
Multiattribute Utility Theory (MAUT) is a statistical method, employed to obtain the utility
(symbolized by the value U(X)) value of the subject. The premise is that some
numerical value (called its utility) can be derived statistically from a subject using by
using this method.                                                                             R&S
A character encoding in which the code points can be either 1, 2, or more bytes. See
Double-byte character set (DBCS) and CJK/CJKV.                                                 MSN
Another term for online analytical processing.                                                 ORA
Data that is organized by two or more dimensions. Two-dimensional data is structured
as an array with rows and columns. Three- or more-dimensional data is structured as a
cube in which each dimension, or group of dimensions, forms an edge. See also cube,
dimension, and edge.                                                                           ORA
A database management system where data can be viewed and manipulated in
multiple dimensions to support specialized query techniques, such as drill-down. See
also cube.                                                                                     ORA
A syntax used for defining multidimensional objects and querying and manipulating
multidimensional data.                                                                         MSN
A storage mode that uses a proprietary multidimensional structure to store a partition's
facts and aggregations or a dimension. The data of a partition is completely contained
within the multidimensional structure. See also: relational OLAP (ROLAP), hybrid
OLAP (HOLAP)                                                                                   MSN

Data stored and presented to the user over three or more dimensions.
A database paradigm that treats data not as relational tables and columns, but as
information cubes that contain dimension and summary data in cells. Each cell is
addressed by a set of coordinates that specify a position in the structure's dimensions.
For example, the cell at coordinates {SALES, 1997, WASHINGTON, SOFTWARE}
would contain the summary of software sales in Washington in 1997. See also: cube
A communications arrangement in which multiple devices share a common
transmission channel, although only one may transmit at a time.                                 Gen
The ability of a Web server to support more than one Internet address and more than
one home page. Also called multi-homing.                                                        MSN
Supporting more than one language simultaneously. Often implies the ability to handle
more than one script or character set.                                                          MSN
The ability to write in any language supported by the program.                                  MSN
A set of language-specific resources that can be added to the English version of
Windows XP Professional and the .NET Server. Once installed, MUI Packs allow the UI
language of the operating system to be changed to one of 33 supported languages,
depending on user preference. The MUI Pack is the same as the MultiLanguage
version of Windows 2000 Professional and Server, though it provides additional
functionality.                                                                                  MSN

A feature of Active Directory that provides and maintains copies of the directory across
multiple servers in a domain. Since all replicas of a given directory partition are writable,
updates can be applied to any replica of a given partition. The Active Directory
replication system propagates the changes from a given replica to all other replicas.
Replication is automatic and transparent. Active Directory multi-master replication
propagates every object (such as users, groups, computers, domains, organization
units, security policies, and so on) created on any domain controller to each of the other
participating domain controllers. If one domain controller in a domain slows or fails,
other domain controllers in the same domain can provide the necessary directory
access because they contain the same directory data. See also replication.
Applications and technologies that manipulate text, data, images, and voice and full-
motion-video objects.                                                                           Gen

A database containing other than relational data, such as video or audio information.
A semantic variation of generalization in which an object may belong directly to more
than one class. See: dynamic classification.                                                    RUP
MDF provides the capability to run multiple images on a single Amdahl mainframe
without a hypervisor. It is based upon a technique that subdivides a CPU into one to
four logical CPUs (called domains) and allocates resources between domains based
upon time-slices.                                                                               Gen

(1) A modeling term that describes how an interface receives the characteristics of
more than one parent interface. (2) A semantic variation of generalization in which a
type may have more than one supertype. Contrast: single inheritance.

Multiple copies of SQL Server running on the same computer. There can be one default
instance, which can be any version of SQL Server. There can be multiple named
instances of SQL Server 2000. See also: default instance, named instance

Unquestionably IBM's flagship operating system. Essentially all device support,
software functions, time-sharing aids and reliability improvements ever produced by
IBM are available with MVS. Most of the microcode assists for VM were designed so
that MVS guests can run more effectively in that environment. Of all IBM's software
products, MVS has received the greatest investment for development, documentation
and support. Unless qualified, MVS refers either to all versions of MVS currently in the
field (and these are legion), or to the latest version (the context may be a guide).
Unless qualified, MVS refers either to all versions of MVS currently in the field (and
these are legion), or to the latest version (the context may be a guide). MVS is
unquestionably IBM's flagship operating system. Essentially all device support,
software functions, time-sharing aids and reliability improvements ever produced by
IBM are available with MVS. Most of the microcode assists for VM were designed so
that MVS guests can run more effectively in that environment. Of all IBM's software
products, MVS has received the greatest investment for development, documentation
and support.                                                                                     Gen
A UI in an application that allows the user to have more than one document open at the
same time.                                                                                       MSN
A device that combines input from two or more terminals, computer ports or other
multiplexers, and transmits the combined data stream over a single high-speed
channel. At the receiving end, the high-speed channel is de-multiplexed, either by
another multiplexer or by software. Also called mux.                                             Gen

The use of a common physical channel to create two or more logical channels, either
by splitting the frequency band transmitted by the common channel into narrower
bands, each of which is used to constitute a distinct channel (FDM - frequency-division
multiplexing), or by allotting this common channel in turn to constitute different
intermittent channels (time-division multiplexing). (See also "FDM" and "TDM.")
A specification of the range of allowable cardinalities that a set may assume. Multiplicity
specifications may be given for roles within associations, parts within composites,
repetitions, and other purposes. Essentially a multiplicity is a (possibly infinite) subset of
the non-negative integers. Contrast: cardinality.                                                RUP
The description for a communications line to which three or more stations are
connected. It implies that the line physically extends from one station to another until
all are connected.                                                                               Gen
(1) A computer that incorporates multiple processors with access to common storage.
(2) Coupled processors which have the ability to share main storage and run one copy
of a processor control program, supported by MVS and VM.                                         Gen
The Internet standard for mail that supports text, images, audio, and video.                     RUP
An IBM software product that enables terminals on one host system to access
applications on another host within an SNA network.                                              Gen
A program designed to have parts of its code execute concurrently.                               ORA
An application that creates multiple threads within a single process to service multiple
user requests at the same time.                                                                  MSN
The ability of a computer to support many users operating at the same time, while
providing the computer system's full range of capabilities to each user.                         MSN
A model element with multiplicity defined whose Multiplicity Type: upper attribute is set
to a number greater than one. The term multi-valued does not pertain to the number of
values held by an attribute, parameter, and so on at any point in time. Contrast: single-
valued.                                                                                          RUP
Statistical techniques that are used to look at the pattern of relationships between
several variables simultaneously.                                                                R&S
A high-quality audio file format.                                                                ORA
Methods that an object provides to define the interface to its instance variables. The
accessor method to return the value of an instance variable is called a get method or
getter method, and the mutator method to assign a value to an instance variable is
called a set method or setter method.                                                            RUP

A synchronization object that ensures only one thread at a time can access a shared
resource. A thread must have ownership of the mutex before it can access the
resource. The thread becomes blocked if the mutex is owned by another thread.

The version of the MVS control program that supports the S/370 3033 extensions.

The version of the MVS control program that supports the S/370 XA extensions.

The version of the MVS control program that supports the S/370 ESA extensions.
The version of the MVS control program that supports the ES/9000 products
announced in September, 1990.                                                                 Gen

The latest version of MVS. Introduced by IBM in February 1988, it can address up to
16 terabytes of data and runs on the 3090 E and S models, as well as on the 4381 E.
A special data value indicating that data is not available and given to any cell to which a
specific data value has not been assigned or for which data cannot be calculated. See
also cell and sparsity.                                                                       ORA
A string used to identify a model element.                                                    RUP
An English description of a relationship in which one entity is the name of another
entity. For example, in the sentence "Custnames are the names of Customers",
Custnames and Customers are both entities.                                                    MSN

The process of translating a name into some object or information that the name
represents. A telephone book forms a namespace in which the names of telephone
subscribers can be resolved into telephone numbers. The Windows NTFS file system
forms a namespace in which the name of a file can be resolved into the file itself.
Similarly, Active Directory forms a namespace in which the name of an object in the
directory can be resolved into the object itself.
A name space extension is a shell extension that allows you to manage Web server file
operations directly from the Windows desktop by integrating your favorite editing places
into the shell view of Windows Explorer.                                                      MSN
An installation of SQL Server 2000 that is given a name to differentiate it from other
named instances and from the default instance on the same computer. A named
instance is identified by the computer name and instance name. See also: default
instance, multiple instances                                                                  MSN
An interprocess communication (IPC) mechanism that SQL Server uses to provide
communication between clients and servers. Named pipes permit access to shared
network resources.                                                                            MSN
A set of dimension members or a set expression that is created for reuse, for example,
in Multidimensional Expressions (MDX) queries.                                                MSN

(1) A name or group of names that are defined according to some naming convention;
any bounded area in which a given name can be resolved. Active Directory is primarily
a namespace, as is any directory service. A telephone directory is also a namespace.
The Internet uses a hierarchical namespace that partitions names into categories
known as top-level domains such as .com, .edu, and .gov, which are at the top of the
hierarchy. (2) A part of the model in which the names may be defined and used.
Within a namespace, each name has a unique meaning. See: name.

A naming convention that identifies the destination objects of that relationship by name.

An association among three or more classes. Each instance of the association is an n-
tuple of values from the respective classes. Contrast: binary association.

Now know as Hitachi Data Systems (HDS) and owned by Hitachi and Electronic Data
Systems, the company markets S/370 compatible products manufactured by Hitachi.

An optional report to be produced by the Child Welfare divisions within each state of the
United States that is submitted to the Federal Government on a yearly basis. This
report contains Child abuse and neglect cases that occurred in the calendar year.
The set of system functions in 32-bit Windows containing information that is based on
language and cultural conventions.                                                            MSN
A linguistic rule, measurement, educational guideline, or technology-related convention
as defined by a government or by the International Organization for Standardization.
Examples include character sets, keyboard layouts, and some cultural conventions,
such as punctuation.                                                                          MSN
A person who is an enrolled member of a federally recognized Indian tribe.                    CSED
Bulk copy data files in which the data is stored using the same internal data structures
SQL Server uses to store data in SQL Server databases. Bulk copy can quickly process
native mode files because it does not have to convert data when transferring it between
SQL Server and the bulk copy data file. See also: character format
When all the domain controllers in a given domain are running Windows 2000 Server.
This mode allows organizations to take advantage of new Active Directory features
such as Universal groups, nested group membership, and inter-domain group
membership. Compare mixed mode.                                                            MSN
The area of artificial intelligence that attempts to understand or generate languages
such as English, French and Japanese. Today it can understand information only
within strict boundaries.                                                                  Gen
Imitating or producing the effect or appearance of nature. Of or in accordance with the
doctrines of naturalism.                                                                   R&S
A fixed-length Unicode data type with a maximum of 4,000 characters. Unicode
characters use 2 bytes per character and support all international characters.             MSN
A SELECT statement that contains one or more subqueries, or another term for
subquery.                                                                                  MSN

A subweb is a segment of the Web server that has its own access control settings,
WebBot Search Component Word lists, copy of, or link to the FrontPage server
extensions, and its own entry in the list of Webs obtained by the FrontPage Explorer.
A data mining model configuration in which a column of a table contains a table.           MSN

The .NET Framework is an integral Windows component for building and running the
next generation of software applications and Web services. The .NET Framework:
Supports over 20 different programming languages. Manages much of the plumbing
involved in developing software, enabling developers to focus on the core business
logic code. Makes it easier than ever before to build, deploy, and administer secure,
robust, and high-performing applications. The .NET Framework is composed of the
common language runtime and a unified set of class libraries.

A SQL Server communications component that isolates the SQL Server client software
and database engine from the network APIs. The SQL Server client software and
database engine send generic network requests to a Net-Library, which translates the
request to the specific network commands of the protocol chosen by the user.

An IBM System Network Architecture (SNA) network management product that
includes some of the functions of NCCF, NLDM, NPDA, NMPF and VTAM. It was
announced in 1986 for the VM and OS operating systems. NetView 2.0 (announced in
June 1987) enables central management of distributed 9370 systems and is a formal
MVS/XA subsystem, a key enabler to NetView's addressing overall systems
management. NetView Release 2 also: Established a NetView hierarchy to support
distributed environments. Created for NetView/VM the capability to define and maintain
network definitions throughout a distributed network. Established a set of message
definitions to enable NetView to support other IBM and non-IBM software products.
We believe IBM must also bring network performance monitoring and security under
the NetView umbrella. Nonetheless, NetView is now established as the IBM-
designated platform for both network management (the SAA designation) and lights-out
A multi-tasking PC subsystem (software, plus adapter) that runs on an IBM PC AT or
XT. It collects and sends information upstream to the host from the Token Ring
Network, voice networks and/or non-SNA systems. It essentially is a gateway to pass
network management between two disparate networks (typically an SNA network and
an OSI network). NetView/PC is part of SAA.                                                Gen
A network operating system by Novell.                                                      Gen
NetWare Access Server                                                                          Gen
Software that provides additional functions to a NetWare server - for example, an
application (such as a DBMS) running directly under NetWare.                                   Gen

(Networking) A set of nodes (or stations), consisting of software and hardware, that
links a number of devices (computers, work-stations, printers) into a synergistic system.

The points from which Internet service providers (ISPs) drop down their lines and
establish peering arrangements to provide Internet connectivity to their customers.

The intersection of networking, network management and systems management.

Extension of IBM's PC BIOS; traps calls to the BIOS and, when necessary, reroutes
them to the local-area network. NetBIOS was developed as the interface for the PC
Network program, but is supported on the Token Ring Network and on a number of non-
IBM systems. It will likely be a long-term tactical solution for local networking; the long-
term strategic solution will be APPC/LU 6.2.

IBM mainframe resident software (a VTAM application) that provides network operator
control facilities in SNA (and BSC) networks. NCCF provides the environment for other
products, such as NPDA and NLDM. It enables a degree of automation of network
administration through the use of command lists. It is now part of NetView.


The IBM licensed program that controls the operation of an IBM 37XX front-end
processor. Communications with the host is through ACF/VTAM via a channel
interface; communication with terminals or another FEP is via tele- communications
lines. NCP off-loads certain line protocol and routing functions from the host CPU.
Version 5, announced in February 1988, includes PU 2.1 support.
The skeletal standard developed by the Conference on Data Systems Languages
(CODASYL) for an application programming interface (API) to network model database
management systems (DBMSs).                                                                    Gen
A group of users in a network who share a common set of shared resources, such as
server disk drives and printers. A large network may have several domains based upon
the needs of each set of users.                                                                MSN
A protocol for transparently sharing files across a computer network that is built on
TCP/IP and Ethernet. Pioneered by Sun Microsystems, it is now a de facto standard in
the UNIX world.                                                                                Gen
Copies files between any two nodes on a network, either interactively or
programmatically. It enables the user to copy remote files, translate file attributes and
access remote accounts.                                                                        Gen
The bus-specific adapter that connects an end station or server to a local-area network
(LAN).                                                                                         Gen
In the ISO model for OSI, the logical network entity that serves the transport layer. It is
responsible for ensuring that data passed to it form the transport layer is routed and
delivered through the network.                                                                 Gen
An IBM NCCF application that collects SNA session-related information and makes it
available to NCCF operators. NLDM helps operators detect network faults not explicitly
picked up by other network management tools. It is now a part of NetView network
management.                                                                                    Gen
The process of logging on to a computer by means of a network. Typically, a user first
interactively logs on to a local computer, then provides logon credentials to another
computer on the network, such as a server, that he or she is authorized to use.
Compare interactive logon.                                                                    MSN

Administrative services performed in managing a network, including network topology
and software configuration, down-loading of software, monitoring network performance,
network operations maintenance, and problem diagnosis and troubleshooting.
The center used for control of a network.                                                     Gen
Software for managing and controlling multi-point networks from a central or remote
location.                                                                                     Gen
The Internet protocol that governs the transmission of newsgroups.                            MSN

(1) The software program that provides the local-area network user interface and
controls network operation. An operating system communicates with the LAN hardware
and enables users to communicate with one another and share files and peripherals.
(2) A set of software utilities that, working in conjunction with an operating system (OS),
provides the local-area network (LAN) user interface and controls network operation.

A folder on a network file server, Web server, or Exchange 2000 server. Create a
shortcut to a network place to work with files there. Some network places, such as
document libraries, have features not available with local folders.
IBM software that enables network operators to detect and resolve problems relating to
SNA network failures. NPDA requires NCCF support, and collects errors reported by
communications controllers, modems, lines, cluster controllers, control units and
terminals. It also organizes and displays error statistics. S/38 can act as an NPDS
host. NPDS is now part of NetView.                                                            Gen
An application available on a network, such as electronic mail.                               Gen
A description of the physical and logical relationship of nodes in a network. It is the
schematic arrangement of the network links and nodes, typically either a star, ring, tree
or bus topology, of some hybrid combination thereof.                                          Gen
A character whose directionality (right-to-left or left-to right) is dependent on the
directionality of the characters that surround it. See Contextual analysis.                   MSN
In the .NET Framework, refers to cultures identified by language only (with no
associated geographic region). A neutral culture is indicated by a two-letter code, such
as “de” for German.                                                                           MSN
Today's electronically mediated global economy.                                               ORA
The designation used by Microsoft for its future, microkernel-based, portable operating
system. Often referred to as Windows-NT, it was known as OS/2 Version 3 before
Microsoft’s rift with IBM.                                                                    Gen
The federal government project to fund research and to build a high-speed network
designed to provide performance guarantees.                                                   Gen

When used with merge replication system tables, a name for another Subscriber that is
known to already have a specified generation of updated data. Used to avoid sending
an update to a Subscriber that has already received those changes.
Functions that do not have any input parameters. Most niladic SQL Server functions
return system information.                                                                    MSN
Specifies to prevent the volume from being ejected from the silo.                             ESS
A process of localization where the code is not recompiled.                                   MSN
(1) From the Latin nodus, meaning knot. A dilemma or complication; a point of
concentration. In logic flow mapping, both processes and decisions are nodes. (2) A
termination point for two or more communication links. The node can serve as the
control location for forwarding data among the elements of a network or multiple
networks and performs other functions, such as local processing. (2) A node is
classifier that represents a run-time computational resource, which generally has at
least a memory and often processing capability. Run-time objects and components may
reside on nodes.                                                                              Gen
An unwanted signal or disturbance.                                                            Gen
Words that do not participate in a full-text query search. For example, a, and, the, and
so on.                                                                                        MSN

Each member of a group shares their ideas. A recorder lists all the different ideas.
Everyone then ranks their preferences individually from the whole list from 1-(up to) 10.
These scores are added together and a group score is given. This gives priorities on a
group basis. If number 1 is used to rate an individual best choice, then the list item with
the smallest group score is the most desired.

A fact that cannot be logically added between records, such as average, and that must
be combined in a computation with other facts before being added across records.
An index in which the logical order of the index is different than the physical, stored
order of the rows on disk.                                                                    MSN
Activating mirroring for the binary dynamic-link library resource files of an application,
without the need for rebuilding the application.                                              MSN
Templates that Office programs use to create new workbooks, documents, databases,
and slides.                                                                                   MSN

State funded placement of a child(ren) removed from a home where the child(ren) does
not meet federal IV-E participation requirements. (See also: IV-E [Foster Care])
In a tree structure, an element that has one or more subordinate elements. For
example, in Analysis Services, a dimension member that has one or more
descendants. In SQL Server indexes, an intermediate index node that points to other
intermediate nodes or leaf nodes. See also: leaf                                              MSN
A member with one or more descendants.                                                        MSN
When a transaction reads the same row more than one time, and between the two (or
more) reads, a separate transaction modifies that row. Because the row was modified
between reads within the same transaction, each read produces different values, which
introduces inconsistency.                                                                     MSN
The ability to identify who has performed various actions on a computer, so that users
cannot deny responsibility for the actions they perform. Generally used in the sense of
creating unimpeachable audit trails to identify the source of commercial transactions or
malicious actions.                                                                            MSN
A character, such as a diacritic, that has no meaning by itself but overlaps an adjacent
character to form a third character.                                                          MSN
Tandem's relational database management system, comprising a data dictionary, SQL
language, report writer and utilities.                                                         Gen
See Non-PA Case.                                                                              CSED
A method of accessing shared memory on systems that have memory loosely coupled,
such as Oracle Parallel Server.                                                               ORA
A data store which retains data when power (electrical) is off.                               Gen
A state of relation that results from applying simple rules regarding functional
dependencies (or relationships between attributes) to that relation.                          A&D
A technique that eliminates data redundancy. See also normalized data.                        ORA
A set of database design rules that minimizes data redundancy and results in a
database in which the database engine and application software can easily enforce
integrity.                                                                                    MSN

Data that has been separated into groups linked by defining normal relationships where
all redundancy in the data and repeating groups of data are removed.
(1) A Notice is a document, which is normally a letter to be sent to someone (CCL). (2)
A privacy principle that requires reasonable disclosure to a consumer of an entity's
personally identifiable information (PII) collection and use practices. This disclosure
information is typically conveyed in a privacy notice or privacy policy. Notice is
addressed in Fair Information Practices.                                                      Gen
“Notices” is a Global module, which provides for storage, retrieval, and issuance of
Notices. Notices may be printed and mailed batch at a central location, at a specific
location specified by a user, may be printed or electronic (and sent via email), may be
automatically generated from a template based on business rules, may be ad-hoc, may
be edited by a user if required, conforms to state, federal, and DHS regulations and
policies governing issuing, return, management, storage and retrieval.

A part of speech that names a person, place, thing, idea, animal, quality, or action. A
noun usually changes form to indicate the plural and the possessive case.
Novell is the operating system developed for Local Area Networks (LANs) which is now
referred to as Netware. One of the strong features of the Novell operating system is
print services.                                                                                Gen
Originally NT Domain Services, but recently Microsoft has referred to it as NT Directory
Services.                                                                                      Gen
A variable-length Unicode data type that can hold a maximum of 2^30 - 1
(1,073,741,823) characters. ntext columns store a 16-byte pointer in the data row, and
the data is stored separately.                                                                 MSN

N-tier application architecture provides a model for developers to create a flexible and
reusable application. By breaking up an application into tiers, developers only have to
modify or add a specific layer, rather than have to rewrite the enitire application over, if
they decide to change technologies or scale up. In the term "N-tier," "N" implies any
number -- like 2-tier, or 4-tier; basically, any number of distinct tiers used in your
architecture. Application architectures are part of Layer 7 of the OSI model.

(1) An entry that has no explicitly assigned value. NULL is not equivalent to zero or
blank. A value of NULL is not considered to be greater than, less than, or equivalent to
any other value, including another value of NULL. (2) A value that may be assigned to
an attribute when no other value applies, or when the applicable value is unknown.
The attribute of a column, parameter, or variable that specifies whether it allows null
data values.                                                                                   MSN
Any expression that evaluates to a number. The expression can be any combination of
variables, constants, functions, and operators.                                                MSN
A variable-length Unicode data type with a maximum of 4,000 characters. Unicode
characters use 2 bytes per character and support all international characters. sysname
is a system-supplied user-defined data type that is a synonym for nvarchar(128) and is
used to reference database object names.                                                       MSN

(1) In databases, one of the components of a database: a table, index, trigger, view,
key, constraint, default, rule, user-defined data type, or stored procedure. (2) A distinct,
named set of attributes that represents something concrete, such as a user, a printer,
or an application. The attributes hold data describing the thing that is identified by the
directory object. Attributes of a user might include the user’s given name, surname,
and e-mail address. (3) An entity with a well-defined boundary and identity that
encapsulates state and behavior. State is represented by attributes and relationships;
behavior is represented by operations, methods, and state machines. An object is an
instance of a class. See: class, instance.
A template for defining the attributes and methods of an object. An object class can
contain other object classes. An individual representation of an object class is called an
object.                                                                                        RUP

References to other objects when the behavior of the first object can be affected by
changes in the object it references. For example, if a stored procedure references a
table, changes to the table can affect the behavior of the stored procedure.
A diagram that encompasses objects and their relationships at a point in time. An
object diagram may be considered a special case of a class diagram or a collaboration
diagram. See: class diagram, collaboration diagram.                                            RUP
A file system conceived by Microsoft as a base for the directory in a future version of
Windows NT, in which the name spaces of its file system and its Exchange electronic
mail (E-Mail) system would be unified.                                                        Gen
A state in an activity graph that represents the passing of an object from the output of
actions in one state to the input of actions in another state.                                RUP
(1) A number identifying an object class or attribute in a directory service. Object
identifiers are issued by issuing authorities and form a hierarchy. An object identifier is
represented as a dotted decimal string (for example, “”). Enterprises (and
individuals) can obtain a root object identifier from an issuing authority and use it to
allocate additional object identifiers. For example, Microsoft has been issued the root
object identifier of 1.2.840.113556. Microsoft manages further branches from this root
internally. One of these branches is used to allocate an object identifier for Active
Directory classes, another for Active Directory attributes, and so on. Most countries in
the world have an identified national registration authority (NRA) responsible for issuing
object identifiers to enterprises. In the United States, the NRA is the American National
Standards Institute (ANSI). An enterprise can register a name for the object identifier as
well. There is a fee associated with both root object identifiers and registered names.
For details, contact the NRA for your country. The International Standards Organization
recognizes NRAs and maintains a list of contacts on the ISO Web site. See also
object, attribute. (2) A unique name given to an object. In Meta Data Services, a unique
identifier constructed from a globally unique identifier (GUID) and an internal identifier.   MSN
Allline in a sequence diagram that represents the existence of an object over a period of
A objects must have an object identifier. See also: internal identifier
time. See: sequence diagram.                                                                  RUP

A technology for transferring and sharing infomation among programs. When an object,
such as an image file created with a paint program, is linked to a compound document,
such as a spreadsheet or a document created with a word processing program, the
document contains only a reference to the object; any changes made to the contents of
a linked object will be seen in the compound document. When an object is embedded
in a compound document, the document contains a copy of the object; any changes
made to the contents of the original object will not be seen in the compound document
unless the embedded object is updated.

(1) An abstraction of a system's implementation. (2) An object-oriented methodology. A
class of programming languages and techniques based on the concept of an "object"
which is a data structure encapsulated with a set of routines, called "methods" which
operate on the data. Operations on the data can only be performed via these methods,
which are common to all objects which are instances of a particular "class".
(or Object Orientation) The description for a software product that is highly modular,
reusable and that treats data and the software used to interpret or act upon it as one
entity - an object. The four central object-oriented concepts are encapsulation,
message passing, inheritance and late binding. An umbrella concept used to describe a
suite of technologies that enable software to be highly modular and reusable;
applications, data, networks and computing systems are treated as objects that can be
mixed an matched flexibly rather than as components of a system with built-in
relationships.                                                                                Gen
The security account that controls the permissions for an object, usually the creator of
the object. Object owner is also called the database object owner.                            MSN
An attribute that controls the ability to perform operations on an object. For example,
table or view permissions control which users can execute SELECT, INSERT,
UPDATE, and DELETE statements against the table or view.                                      MSN

A CORBA term designating the means by which objects transparently make requests
and receive responses from objects, whether they are local or remote.
The internal ram of the PDA, where files are stored.                                          A&D
A variable that contains a reference to an object.                                            MSN
A software design method that models the characteristics of abstract or real objects
using classes and objects.                                                                    ORA
A programming system where program functions and utilities are precompiled into
objects that have distinct properties and behaviors.                                            BQ
A programming approach based on the concepts of data abstraction and inheritance.
Unlike procedural programming techniques, object-oriented programming concentrates
on those data objects that constitute the problem and how they are manipulated, not on
how something is accomplished.                                                                 RUP

Occupational Therapist / Occupational Therapy
The location of a set of data that can be accessed using an ODBC driver. Also, a stored
definition that contains all of the connection information an ODBC application requires
to connect to the data source. See also: data source                                           MSN

A dynamic-link library (DLL) that an ODBC-enabled application, such as Excel, can use
to access an ODBC data source. Each ODBC driver is specific to a database
management system (DBMS), such as SQL Server, Access, and so on.
The ODBC driver manager, provided by Microsoft, is a DLL with an import library. The
primary purpose of the Driver Manager is to load ODBC drivers. The Driver Manager
also provides entry points to ODBC functions for each driver and parameter validation
and sequence validation for ODBC calls.                                                        RUP
The OEM code page is used for conversions of MS-DOS-based, text-mode
applications.                                                                                  MSN

The Office Assistant is a cental place for you to get tips on how to use product features
more efficiently and see visual examples and step-by-step instructions for specific
tasks. It uses Intellisense natural-language technology. It anticipates the kind of help
you need and suggests Help topics based on the work you're doing. You can also type
a Help request in your own words and get the answer you need. You can have the
Assistant offer to start a wizard when you begin certain tasks, such as creating a letter.
The updated version of Microsoft ClipArt Gallery. Unlike ClipArt Gallery, you can use
the Clip Gallery not only to locate and categorize the pictures on your system, but also
to locate and catalog multimedia files.                                                        MSN

A utility included in the Microsoft Office 2000 Resource Kit that bundles together a wide
array of file converters and filters. The Office converter pack was designed for
organizations that use Office 2000 in a mixed environment with previous versions of
Office, Office for the Macintosh, and or other Office-like productivity programs.

An e-mail header provided by a mail client such as Outlook, that allows you to send
documents as the body of an HTML e-mail message by publishing directly to the e-mail
recipient's Inbox. In each of the Office programs, Office e-mail is displayed below the
other menu bars and toolbars at the top of the program window.
The architectural reference frame for the construction of an office solution that meets
the needs that originate at all levels (individual, departmental and corporate), integrating
them in a functional sense.                                                                    Gen
A subset of Microsoft NetMeeting available from within an Office program. Office
meetings provides the presentation of live meetings and the ability of meeting
participants to perform live updating of the presented material by multiple meeting
participants without requiring a copy of the program on each participants computer. See
also Microsoft Net Meeting.                                                                    MSN

A utility included in the Microsoft Office 2000 Resource Kit used to save and restore
Office user modified program settings. For example, changes made in the Options
dialog box, custom dictionaries, toolbar modifications, and AutoCorrect lists can all be
saved and restored using the Office Profile Wizard.                                            MSN
All Office programs use this API to read and write settings between the Office programs
and the Windows registry.                                                                   MSN
A tool included in the Microsoft Office 2000 Resource Kit used to control which files
should be removed and which should remain during the removal of a previous version
of Office.                                                                                  MSN
Included in the Microsoft Office 2000 Standard, Professional, Premium, and Developer
Editions. With OSE, users can easily publish documents to a Web site, place in-context
comments and conversations in those documents, and be alerted automatically when
updates or changes occur. OSE is not integrated into Office Setup and must be
installed separately.                                                                       MSN

A Microsoft(R) website maintained by the Microsoft Office product group for the
purpose of providing critical updates, add-ins, converters, and viewers that increase the
performance and stability of currently released Office programs.
Included in the Microsoft Office 2000 Professional, Premium, and Developer editions.
Office ships with a number of Web components, the Spreadsheet component, the
PivotTable component, and the Chart component. These are COM controls for
publishing spreadsheets, charts, and databases to the Web.                                  MSN
A Web server with Office Server Extensions installed. Also known as Office Web
Server.                                                                                     MSN

An Offline folder file used in Microsoft Exchange Server to store Offline folders.

The Child Support Enforcement application to replace OSIS planned for development
using the OKDHS Enterprise framework.                                                       A&D



The IMS mainframe system that supports Child Support (CSED)                                  CCL

Oklahoma Teaching Hospitals applications

A multidimensional database providing a data structure that enables flexible access to
data and explores the relationship between summary and detail data.
A programming environment (for example, Visual Basic) that can drive Automation
objects.                                                                                    MSN
A Component Object Model (COM) object that provides Automation-compatible
interfaces.                                                                                 MSN

An application that exposes programmable automation objects to other applications,
which are called "automation clients." Exposing programmable objects enables clients
to "automate" certain functions by directly accessing those objects and using the
services they make available. For example, a word processor might expose its spell-
checking functionality so that other programs can use it.
A software module based on OLE and COM technologies and that, when called by a
program, produces a control that adds some desired feature to the program. OCX
technology is portable across platforms, works on both 16-bit and 32-bit operating
systems, and can be used with programs. With the installation of Office, OCXs are
provided for MSInfo version 4.1. These OCXs collect data about program settings, the
office environment, document properties, and document contents to provide MSInfo
with program-specific diagnostic information.

A COM-based application programming interface (API) for accessing data. OLE DB
supports accessing data stored in any format (databases, spreadsheets, text files, and
so on) for which an OLE DB provider is available. See also: OLE DB for OLAP

Any software that calls and uses the OLE DB application programming interface (API).
Formerly, the separate specification that addressed OLAP extensions to OLE DB.
Beginning with OLE DB 2.0, OLAP extensions are incorporated into the OLE DB
specification. See also: OLE DB                                                             MSN
A software component that exposes OLE DB interfaces. Each OLE DB provider
exposes data from a particular type of data source (for example SQL Server databases,
Access databases, or Excel spreadsheets).                                                   MSN

(1) Relationship where one instance of entity relates to one or more instances of
another entity (A&D). (2) In relational databases, a relationship between two tables in
which a single row in the first table can be related to one or more rows in the second
table, but a row in the second table can be related only to one row in the first table.

(1) A Relationship where one instance of entity relates to exactly one instance of
another entity (A&D). (2) In relational databases, a relationship between two tables in
which a single row in the first table can be related only to one row in the second table,
and a row in the second table can be related only to one row in the first table.

(1) The use of a set of graphical tools that provides users with multidimensional views
of their data, and allows them to analyze the data using simple windowing techniques
(A&D). (2) A technology that uses multidimensional structures to provide rapid access
to data for analysis. The source data for OLAP is commonly stored in data warehouses
in a relational database. (3) The focus of OLAP is flexibly analyzing aggregates across
dimensions that make sense to the business. It is a server that effectively serves up
pivot tables. The purpose is to enable business people to extract useful information
from the raw data that is often generated by SQL systems as well as other business
activities. This area is also often called Decision Support Systems, or Executive
Information Systems, or Knowledge Systems.
Integration with NetMeeting conferencing software lets users start a conference, and
share any Office document with others for collaborative editing. Using Outlook, users
can also schedule online meetings, set up reminders, and click a button to join the
meeting.                                                                                    MSN
See definition for: transaction log                                                         MSN
A data processing system designed to record all of the business transactions of an
organization as they occur. An OLTP system is characterized by many concurrent
users actively adding and modifying data.                                                   MSN

A mode of processing (compared to batch and decision support) characterized by low
cost, fast response time and high availability. In a broader sense, OLTP puts data on-
line where it can be updated instantly to reflect changes as they occur. In other words,
the data processing models the actual business in real time, and a transaction
transforms this model form one business state to another. Tasks such as reservation
scheduling and inventory control are especially complex; all the information must be
current, and each piece of information is related to every other piece. With constant
change as the norm, coordination and integrity of the information are the keys to a
successful business operation.
The transfer of personally identifiable information (PII) by the recipient of the original
data to a second recipient. For example, the transfer of PII from an entity in Germany to
an entity in the United States constitutes onward transfer of that data. Onward transfer
is addressed in Fair Information Practices.                                                   MSN
Systems that incorporate technologies generally perceived as capable of integration
among themselves and with other applications, without the use of proprietary
technology.                                                                                   Gen
The layer of the SQL Server database engine that transfers client requests to the
appropriate functions in the database engine. Open Data Services exposes the
extended stored procedure API used to write DLL functions that can be called from
Transact-SQL statements.                                                                      MSN

(1) A data access application programming interface (API) that supports access to any
data source for which an ODBC driver is available. ODBC is aligned with the American
National Standards Institute (ANSI) and International Organization for Standardization
(ISO) standards for a database Call Level Interface (CLI). (2) A standard protocol for
accessing information in SQL database servers, such as Microsoft SQL Server. You
can install ODBC drivers that enable Microsoft Access to connect to these SQL
database servers and access the data in the SQL database.
A standard in the Microsoft Windows operating system that provides a generic
application interface to any of a number of database systems that have a service
provider interface (SPI) available in the architecture.                                       Gen
An information model published by the Meta Data Coalition (MDC) and widely
supported by software vendors. The OIM is a formal description of meta data constructs
organized by subject area.                                                                    MSN
Network interconnection at a totally non-discriminatory level to all providers
accomplished by unbundling multifaceted network features.                                     Gen

A consortium founded to develop a UNIX standard. Its members include IBM, Digital
Equipment Corp., Hewlett- Packard, Siemens, Nixdorf and Group Bull. It was founded
in reaction to the working agreement between AT&T and Sun Microsystems to develop
a standard.                                                                                   Gen
A concept based on offering hardware and software capabilities defined by standards -
produced by standards committees as well as those supported or demanded by users
(i.e., de facto standards, such as those developed by UNIX International or the Open
Software Foundation).                                                                         Gen
(1) A standard approach to network design developed by the International Standards
Organization (ISO) that introduces modularity by dividing the complex set of functions
into more manageable, self-contained, functional slices. These seven layers, from the
innermost layer are: 1. Physical Layer - concerned with the mechanical and electrical
means by which devices are physically connected and data is transmitted. 2. Link
Layer - concerned with how to move data reliably across the physical data link. 3.
Network Layer - provides the means to establish, maintain and terminate connections
between systems; concerned with switching an routing of information. 4. Transport
Layer - concerned with end-to-end data integrity and quality of service. 5. Session
Layer - standardizes the task of setting up a session and terminating it; coordination of
interaction between end application processes. 6. Presentation Layer - relates to the
character set and data code that is used, and to the way data is displayed on a screen
or printer. 7. Application Layer - concerned with the higher-level functions, which
provide support to the application or system activities. (2) A model that defines a
networking framework for implementing protocols in seven layers. Control is passed
from one layer to the next, starting at the application layer in one station, proceeding to   EAS
the bottom layer, over the channel to the next station and back up the hierarchy.             Gen

An extension of the TrueType font format, adding support for PostScript font data.
An extension to the OpenType format designed to provide support for international and
high-end typography.                                                                          MSN
The operating system is the main control program that runs a computer and sets the
standard for running application programs.                                                    Gen
A unique address space and execution environment in which instances of classes and
subsystems reside and run. The execution environment may be divided into one or
more threads of control. See also: process and thread.                                        RUP
IBM’s proprietary operating system for the PS/2 personal computer.                            Gen

IBM's proprietary operating system for the PS/2, which features integrated
communications and database facilities. It is key to IBM's Office Vision strategy.

The next-generation operating system, jointly developed by Microsoft Corp. and IBM,
for IBM-compatible 80286 and 80386 PCs. A revolutionary advance over MS-DOS, it
enables the transition of the desktop to a real computing environment, offering
capabilities for large memory, multi-tasking and virtual machines. Microsoft
Windows/386 enables programmer access to the virtual machines. Further, OS/2 SE
bundles of database and communications facilities.
The operating system for IBM's AS/400 system.                                                 Gen

A service that can be requested from an object to effect behavior. An operation has a
signature, which may restrict the actual parameters that are possible.
The means by which a right or a liability is created for a party regardles of the party's
actual intent (because the court didn't rule on the motion for rehearing within 30 days, it
was overruled by operation of law).                                                           CSED
Data that is maintained and used for the day-to-day processing and functional
requirements of the business.                                                                 ORA
A data repository used for analysis that may act as a staging area for data to be moved
into a data warehouse.                                                                        ORA
A system that supports day-to-day transactional information for an organization. See
also online transaction processing.                                                           ORA

To clarify and map out the key research issues of the research topic, or to refine the
changes, treatments, programs or interventions or the outcome measures for a study.
In order to help isolate the key issues, concept-mapping techniques are frequently used
by research teams. It is important to convey the meaning of the construct and be able
to provide direct evidence that the operationalization of the construct is being controlled
and conforms to how they should theoretically appear.
Operations research (operational research) is synonymous with systems analysis. It is
a more concentrated area of activity that stresses quantitative methods and is not
concerned with tradeoffs between objectives and means or with problems of equity. It is
defined by the Operational Research Society of Great Britain as follows (Operational
Research Quarterly, l3(3): 282, l962): Operational research is the attack of modern
science on complex problems arising in the direction and management of large
systems of men, machines, materials and money in industry, business, government
and defense. Its distinctive approach is to develop a scientific model of the system,
incorporating measurements of factors such as change and risk, with which to predict
and compare the outcomes of alternative decisions, strategies or controls. The purpose
is to help management determine its policy and actions scientifically. (IIASA) (in Great
Britain Operational Research). Originally, the use of quantitative techniques in the
domain of decision making in management, government, industry and in the military.
Now, largely overlapping with systems analysis. It includes among others, optimization
techniques, dynamic programming, data analysis including statistics, decision theory,
simulation and planning theory. (Krippendorff)                                                R&S

To explicitly consent to participate. Typically used in marketing programs and offerings,
whereby an action (such as the use of personal information beyond the original, primary
purpose for which it was collected) is not undertaken unless an individual explicitly
consents. An element of choice. See also Fair Information Practices.
To explicitly decline to participate. Typically used in marketing programs and offerings,
whereby an action (such as the use of personal information beyond the original, primary
purpose for which it was collected) is undertaken unless an individual explicitly declines.
An element of choice. See also Fair Information Practices.
The ability of a computer to recognize written characters through some optical-sensing
device and pattern recognition software.                                                      Gen

Any filament or fiber made of dielectric materials that is used to transmit laser or LED-
generated light signals. Optical fiber usually consists of a core (which carries the
signal) and cladding (a substance with a slightly higher refractive index than the core),
which surrounds the core and reflects the light signal back into it.
See definition for: query optimizer                                                           MSN
The rule for entity participation in a relationship (Optional or Mandatory), and the degree
or range of participation that is allowed.                                                    A&D
A prominent relational database management system vendor located in Mountain View,
Calif.; also the name of their Data Base Management System.                                   Gen
An Oracle computer-aided systems engineering (CASE) tool.                                     ORA
The Oracle application-building tool for query, reporting, database manipulation, and
graphical display of database values.                                                         ORA
The Oracle end-user analysis, query, and reporting tool that is particularly good for use
in the data warehousing environment.                                                          ORA
An Oracle product that provides a GUI to systems and databases for enterprisewide
systems management.                                                                           ORA
A developer tool for creating, maintaining, and running full-screen interactive
applications called forms. A form enables users to see and change data in an Oracle
database.                                                                                     ORA

The Oracle component that splits a single database action into many processes.
The powerful, flexible developer report-writing tool.                                         ORA
A set of members returned in a specific order. The ORDER function in a
Multidimensional Expressions (MDX) query returns an ordered set.                              MSN
Primary component of an organization, providing a context for its management.
Organization structure relates a parent unit to its subsidiaries in a hierarchy, and each
unit is responsible for collections of other business components [MARS00]. See:
business system                                                                               RUP
A container object that is an Active Directory administrative partition. OUs can contain
users, groups, resources, and other OUs. Organizational Units enable the delegation of
administration to distinct subtrees of the directory.                                         MSN
An object in a repository that is the origin in a directional relationship. For example,
project is the origin object in the relationship project has component . See also:
destination object, sequenced relationship                                                    MSN

Refers to the manufacturer of a device that another vendor resells as part of a system.

An originator is anyone who submits a change request (CR). The standard change
request mechanism requires the originator to provide information on the current
problem, and a proposed solution in accordance with the change request form.
An option in merge replication that allows you to minimize network traffic when
determining whether recent changes have caused a row to move into or out of a
partition that is published to a Subscriber.                                                  MSN
A join that includes all the rows from the joined tables that meet the search conditions,
even rows from one table for which there is no matching row in the other join table. For
result set rows returned when a row in one table is not matched by a row from the other
table, a value of NULL is supplied for all result set columns that are resolved to the
table that had the missing row.                                                               MSN
A series of contours made up of straight lines and curves that define the shape of a
glyph.                                                                                        MSN
A utility included in the Microsoft Office 2000 Resource Kit that provides the ability to
clean out the nickname list. Outlook keeps a nickname list that is used by the automatic
name checking feature in Outlook. The nickname list is automatically generated as you
use Outlook. When the nickname list is corrupted, Outlook may not be able to identify
recipients, or may send the message to the wrong person. When this happens, you can
use the Nickname utility to clean out the nickname list.
(1) Any artifact that is the result of a process step. See: deliverable. (2) A raw outcome
or product that results from a test having been conducted. Expected outputs are
defined in the test case.                                                                    RUP
Synonym: external link                                                                       RUP
Out-sourcing is defined as the condition where various functions of the organization
including the related management and supervision are implemented by a contract with
one organization. That organization in turn may or may not contract a portion or all of
the work.                                                                                    CIO

Out-tasking is defined as the condition where selected components of work are
performed by contract(s) and the owner provides management oversight and control of
the contracts. An out-tasking situation would usually entail a combination of contract
workers and company employees but could also include the situation where all work is
contracted and company employees provide management oversight.
The characteristic of some data mining algorithms that assigns importance to random
variations in data by viewing them as important patterns.                                    MSN
Punctuation characters that are allowed to extend beyond the right margin for horizontal
text or below the bottom margin for vertical text.                                           MSN

Within the context of the .NET Framework, the concept of defining a procedure in
multiple versions, using the same name but different argument lists. The purpose of an
overload is to define several closely related versions of a procedure without having to
differentiate them by name. You do this by varying the argument list.
A general-purpose mechanism for organizing elements into groups. Packages may be
nested within other packages.                                                                RUP
File used by the Microsoft System Management Server (SMS) to install programs
remotely. The Microsoft Office 2000 Resource Kit includes sample PDFs that can be
used to install Office remotely using SMS.                                                   MSN

In a virtual storage system, a fixed-length block of contiguous virtual addresses copied
as a unit from memory to disk and back during paging operations. SQL Server allocates
database space in pages. In SQL Server, a page is 8 kilobytes (KB) in size.
The process of moving half the rows or entries in a full data or index page to two new
pages to make room for a new row or index entry.                                             MSN
See: beans palette.                                                                          RUP
Documentation printed on paper.                                                              BQ
A label used by IBM for its CMOS-based mainframes.                                           Gen

The solution of a single problem across more than one processor. The technology
must decompose tasks into independent parts, and the compiler technology does not
yet exits that will extensively parallelize existing applications code.
(Oracle Parallel Processor) The Oracle component that splits a single database action
into many processes.                                                                         ORA
The Oracle option that splits a single database query request into a series of parallel
query operations. See also parallel processor.                                               ORA
A product announced by IBM in April 1994 that uses complementary metal-oxide
semiconductor (CMOS) technology to provide parallelism to Information Management
System/Database Manager (IMS/DM) applications.                                               Gen
The cornerstone of IBM’s large systems operating-system strategy. It is designed to
allow multiple central electronics complexes (CECs) to share a common database so a
transaction can execute on one of several processors that share a single view of the
database. This implementation substantially improves parallelism, and therefore overall
system throughput, at a multitasking level.

A product announced by IBM in April 1994 that introduces CMOS-based parallelism to
Information Management System/Database Manager (IMS/DB) applications.

The specification of a variable that can be changed, passed, or returned. A parameter
may include a name, type, and direction. Parameters are used for operations,
messages, and events. Synonyms: formal parameter. Contrast: argument.
A connection that satisfies a parameter of an action or method by supplying either a
property's value or the return value of an action, method, or script. The parameter is
always the source of the connection. See also: connection.                                     RUP

The descriptor for a class with one or more unbound parameters. Synonym: template.
(1) An individual who has established a parent-child relationship.                             CSED
(2) A member in the next higher level in a hierarchy that is directly related to the current
member. The parent value is usually a consolidation of the values of all of its children.
For example, in a Time dimension containing the levels Quarter, Month, and Day, Qtr1
is the parent of January. (2) In a generalization relationship, the generalization of
another element, the child. See: subclass, subtype. Contrast: child. See also: child,
descendant, sibling, ancestor.                                                                 MSN
The class from which another bean or class inherits data, methods, or both.                    RUP
Parent entities have relationships with child entities in which there can be one or more
instances of data related to an instance in the parent entity.                                 A&D
The legal relationship between a child and a parent of the child. The term includes the
mother-child relationship and the father-child relationship.                                   CSED
The two-way, transitive trust relationship that is established when you add a domain to
an Active Directory tree. The Active Directory installation process automatically creates
a trust relationship between the domain you are creating (the new child domain) and the
parent domain.                                                                                 MSN

The connection of a model element to a relationship or to a reified relationship. For
example, a class participates in an association; an actor participates in a use case.

(1) In Analysis Services, one of the storage containers for data and aggregations of a
cube. Every cube contains one or more partitions. For a cube with multiple partitions,
each partition can be stored separately in a different physical location. Each partition
can be based on a different data source. Partitions are not visible to users; the cube
appears to be a single object. (2) A complete unit of replication within the store. (3)
Activity graphs: A portion of activity graphs that organizes the responsibilities for
actions. (4) Architecture: A subset of classifiers or packages at the same level of
abstraction. A partition represents a vertical slice through an architecture, whereas a
layer represents a horizontal slice. Contrast: layer. See also: swimlane, directory
Data that is physically divided across many hard disks, either horizontally or vertically,
to improve application performance and security.                                               ORA
One or more members ,each of which can be processed as if it were a separate
physical sequential file.                                                                      ESS
The process of replacing a table with multiple smaller tables. Each smaller table has
the same format as the original table, but with a subset of the data. Each partitioned
table has rows allocated to it based on some characteristic of the data, such as specific
key ranges. The rules that define into which table the rows go must be unambiguous.
For example, a table is partitioned into two tables. All rows with primary key values
lower than a specified value are allocated to one table, and all keys equal to or greater
than the value are allocated to the other. Partitioning can improve application
processing speeds and reduce the potential for conflicts in multisite update replication.
You can improve the usability of partitioned tables by creating a view. The view, created
by a union of select operations on all the partitioned tables, presents the data as if it all
resided in a single table. See also: filtering, vertical partitioning, horizontal partitioning

Partnering is defined as a formal agreement between parties to achieve specific
business objectives by maximizing the effectiveness of each participant’s resources. It
is an inclusive approach that is based on openness and trust between the parties.

The classes into which words may be grouped according to their form changes and
their grammatical relationships. The traditional parts of speech are verbs, nouns,
pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections.

The order of evaluation (from highest to lowest calculation pass number) and
calculation (from lowest to highest calculation pass number) for calculated members,
custom members, custom rollup formulas, and calculated cells in a multidimensional
cube. Pass order is used to determine formula precedence when calculating values for
cells in multidimensional cubes, across all calculation passes. See also: solve order
Indicates that the subject of the verb receives the action of the verb. For example, in the
sentence "The customers are sold products", the subject customers receives the action
of the verb are sold . See also: active voice                                                    MSN

An alternative to the password. This term is frequently used when the word password
is implied. A passphrase is generally longer than a password. For instance, a
password could be “Reckless”, but a passphrase would be something like, "Hell bent for
leather". A passphrase is generally longer than a password, and therefore, it cannot be
readily guessed by watching the user over their shoulder while they type. Dictionary
attacks are of little use since the length and content of the passphrase is very hard to
predict. As a result, passphrases do not have to be changed as often as passwords.
Passphrases are, however, long and take time to enter, and few systems really cater
for them. The user must be a good typist or they will spend all day trying to get the
passphrase right. See also Password and PIN.
A query passed uninterpreted to an external server for evaluation. The result set
returned by a pass-through query can be used in the FROM clause of a query like an
ordinary base table.                                                                             MSN
A SELECT statement that is passed directly to the source database without
modification or delay. In PivotTable Service, the PASSTHROUGH option is part of the
INSERT INTO statement.                                                                           MSN
A string of characters entered by a user to verify his or her identity to a network or to a
local computer. See also strong password, weak password.                                         MSN
A security protocol without encryption that uses password authentication to allow
access to a network or host.                                                                     Gen
See security update.                                                                             MSN

(1) A method of updating a file that replaces only the parts being changed, rather than
the entire file. Compare full file replacement. (2) The process of upgrading a program
by applying only the file bits necessary to update a file, rather than the entire file. As a
result, an upgrade patch can be downloaded that is much smaller than the entire
product and with user customization preserved through the upgrade.
A track or way worn by footsteps; also a line of movement or course taken; any
traversal through a system.                                                                  BQ
Examining and enumerating the paths through a program or system.                             BQ
In GDI+, a path gradient brush can be configured to change color as you move from the
center of a figure toward the boundary.                                                      MSN

A program traversal that follows a particular path regardless of the current data.

A solution template for a recurring problem that has proven useful in a given context.
Good patterns successfully resolve the conflicting forces that define the problem, and
one pattern are chosen over another based on the way it resolves those forces. To be
worthy of being called a pattern, at least three practical applications of the pattern
should already be evident. For software, the UML can support the representation of a
pattern by using a parameterized collaboration although UML does not directly model
other aspects of patterns such as lists of consequences of use, examples of use, and
so on text can be used for these. A software pattern is instantiated by binding values to
its parameters. Patterns can exist at various scales and levels of abstraction, for
example, as architectural patterns, analysis patterns, design patterns, test patterns and
idioms or implementation patterns.
An officer commissioned and employed by the Oklahoma Department of Human
Services within the Child Support Enforcement Division. It does not include peace
officers employed by entities under contract or agreement with OKDHS.                        CSED
A subset of Internet Information Services (IIS). Peer Web Services allows you to
publish Web pages on a small scale, such as your own home page on your company's
network. You can also use Peer Web Services to develop and test content and
programs for Internet Information Server without requiring that you run Windows NT
Server on the computer used to create the content.                                           MSN

Term used to describe, SNA Low-Entry Networking (LEN; also known as PU 2.1), that
provides dynamic multipath routing among S/36 and AS/400 nodes. Specifically, LU
6.2 provides a peer-to-peer data stream. A relatively new SNA protocol that is the basis
for revamping SNA's infrastructure. It is IBM's strategic device- independent, process-
to-process protocol and it also supports asynchronous (store-and-forward) networking.
It provides the facilities for peer-to-peer communications between two programs (see
"APPC"). Among other things, this means that programs and small/midrange computer
systems can use LU 6.2 (along with PU 2.1) to establish and control sessions with each
other, without host mainframe participation. In this manner, IBM will evolve SNA away
from its current host-based centralized organization. Currently, LEN is the vehicle (LU
6.2 application) chosen to accomplish this.
A synchronous controller-to-controller remote copy capability.                               Gen
The percent of all functions that are being tested.                                          BQ

Having completed all necessary legal steps to achieve a result, such as obtaining a lien
or other security by legal action or by completing and filing all documents with the
appropriate entity or public office (such as with the insurance carrier or in the Workers'
Compensation Court file) to inform others that there is a lien in place.
1. The act of performing; execution, accomplishment, fulfillment, and so on. 2.
Operation or functioning, usually with regard to effectiveness, as of a machine. 3.
Something done or performed; deed or feat. 4. (a) A formal exhibition or presentation
before an audience, as a play, musical program, show, and so on. (b) One's part in this.
(Webster's New World Dictionary of the American Language, Second College Edition,
Prentice Hall, 1984)                                                                         BQ
The method used by the federal government in the calculation of incentive dollars for all
states. Performance Measures assess state performance levels in six areas: (1)
Paternity Establishment; (2) Child Support Order Establishment; (3) Collections on
Current Support; (4) Collections on Arrears; (5) Cost-Effectiveness; and (6) Medical
(which is not yet tied to federal incentives). Each state earns five scores based on
performance in each of the five areas. These scores are then multiplied by the state's
Collections Base to arrive at an adjusted federal score. The better the adjusted federal
score, the more incentive dollars the state receives. States are accountable for
providing reliable data on a timely basis or they receive no incentives.
See load testing.                                                                             BQ
Settings shared by all users of a single computer.                                           MSN
Data set that existed before a job and remains after a job                                    ESS
Authorization to perform operations associated with a specific shared resource, such as
a file, directory, or printer. Permissions must be granted by the system administrator to
individual user accounts or administrative groups.                                           MSN
(1) The process of transferring the state of an entity between its instance variables and
an underlying database. (2) The saving of an object definition so it will be available
after the current session ends.                                                              MSN

An object that exists after the process or thread that created it has ceased to exist.
A microcomputer designed primarily for individual use.                                       Gen

The version of the MS-DOS operating system that IBM supplies with its PCs.
See personally identifiable information                                                      MSN

A PDA is a small hand-held device, sometimes referred to as ‘Pocket PC’, is generally
used as a note taking device and personal organizer, but does have the potential to
improve personal productivity in many other ways. The first simple generation of PDA’s
possessed a limited capacity, and was therefore somewhat protected from abuse,
because it could not hold complex viruses or store large amounts of sensitive data.
Newer PDA’s have a capacity that exceeds 128Mb in size, which is sufficient to store
10,000 personal or company addresses, 400 emails and 3000 documents with notes.
Extended memories, processors, diary synchronization and wireless connection to
Internet portal links for enterprise data have given the PDA a place in the corporate
You can create custom distribution lists consisting of contacts from one or more
Contacts folders and the Microsoft Exchange Server Global Address List.                      MSN

A case-sensitive alphanumeric string, 4 to 20 characters long, that Access uses in
combination with the account name to identify a user or group in an Access workgroup.
You enter the PID and the account name when you create a new user or group.
A unique access code number assigned, as with automatic teller machine cards, to the
authorized user.                                                                             MSN
See personally identifiable information.                                                     MSN
In a negligence action, any harm caused to a person, such as a broken bone, a cut, or
a bruise; bodily injury.                                                                     CSED

The process of customizing a Web page to include content or applications to suit
individual user preferences and enhance customer service or e-commerce sales.
Any information relating to an identified or identifiable individual. Such information may
include name, country, street address, e-mail address, credit card number, Social
Security number, government ID number, IP address, or any unique identifier that is
associated with PII in another system. Also known as personal information or personal
data.                                                                                        MSN
Settings that are written to the user profile and are specific to the current user and not
shared with other users of the same computer.                                                MSN
By one task, the insertion of a new row or the deletion of an existing row in a range of
rows previously read by another task that has not yet committed its transaction. The
task with the uncommitted transaction cannot repeat its original read because of the
change to the number of rows in the range. If a connection sets its transaction isolation
level to serializable, SQL Server uses key-range locking to prevent phantoms.
The time between two major project milestones, during which a well-defined set of
objectives is met, artifacts are completed, and decisions are made to move or not move
into the next phase.                                                                              RUP
A philosophy or method of inquiry based on the premise that reality consists of objects
and events as they are perceived or understood in human consciousness and not of
anything independent of human consciousness.                                                      R&S
A malicious user or website that deceives people into revealing personal information,
such as account passwords and credit card numbers. A phisher typically uses
deceptive e-mail messages or online advertisements as bait to lure unsuspecting users
to fraudulent websites, where the users are then tricked into providing personal
information.                                                                                      MSN
A unique individual sound used in a language.                                                     MSN

A sequence of grammatically related words lacking a subject or a predicate, or both.
A way to express a relationship in English. Types of phrasings include name, adjective,
subset, preposition, verb, and trait phrasings. For example, department names are
names of departments is an example of name phrasing.                                              MSN
The physical data model is a derivative of a logical data model and defines the structure
of the physical database.                                                                         A&D

The path where a file or mirrored file is located. The default is the path of the Master.dat
file followed by the first eight characters of the file's logical name. For example, if
Accounting is the logical name, and the Master.dat file is located in Sql\Data, the
default physical name is Sql\Data\Accounti.dat. For a mirrored file, the default is the
path of the Master.mir file followed by the first eight characters of the mirror file's logical
name. For example, if Maccount is the name of the mirrored file, and the Master.mir file
is located in Sql\Data, the default physical name is Sql\Data\Maccount.mir.
The description of the operational procedure for measuring the quantity.                          BQ

A request for a database page in which SQL Server must transfer the requested page
from disk to the SQL Server buffer pool. All attempts to read pages are called logical
reads. If the page is already in the buffer, there is no associated physical read
generated by the logical read. The number of physical reads never exceeds the number
of logical reads. In a well-tuned instance of SQL Server, the number of logical reads is
typically much higher than the number of physical reads.
A physical device used in IBM SNA communications that included the software in an
SNA node controlling the node's communications hardware. PU is synonymous with
"node type" within SNA. PU 1 devices are generally "dumb" controllers/terminals. PU 2
devices are intelligent cluster controllers/terminals. A PU 2.1 node enables local user
ports to communicate without going through a host node's SSCP services (see LU 6.2).
PU 4 devices are communications controllers, i.e., front-end processors. PU 5 devices
are mainframes.                                                                                   Gen

A technique that allows a Token Ring Network terminal to talk across an SNA network
to a host VTAM despite the differences of the SNA and TRN protocols (i.e., it is
basically a protocol converter). PU Passthru is implemented in IBM front-end
processors, 3174 cluster controllers and host communications adapters.

Failure to provide physical security for a computer, such as leaving an unlocked
workstation running in a workspace that is accessible to unauthorized users.
A language that is localized before other languages; this language is used to define the
localization process and to test for localizability issues. See localizability, localization.
A Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) procedure that uses the
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) echo to check whether a network device is
active.                                                                                         Gen

To rotate rows to columns, and columns to rows, in a crosstabular data browser. To
choose dimensions from the set of available dimensions in a multidimensional data
structure for display in the rows and columns of a crosstabular structure.
A chart and a pivot table combined.                                                             MSN
An interactive table that summarizes and analyzes data from existing lists and tables.
After you create a PivotTable, you can reorganize the data by dragging the fields and
items.                                                                                          MSN
A query technique that enables the arrangement of rows and columns to be changed in
a report.                                                                                       ORA

An ActiveX control that runs in a browser, enabling users to analyze data by sorting,
grouping, filtering, outlining, and pivoting. When an Excel user publishes a PivotTable
to the Web, a PivotTable List is displayed by the browser. Pivot Lists can also be
designed directly in the Access Data Pages Designer.

(1) A message that is not encrypted. Plaintext messages are also referred to as
cleartext messages. (2) Computer-encoded text that contains only code elements and
no other formatting or structural information (for example, font size, font type, or other
layout information). Plaintext exchange is commonly used between computer systems
that might have no other way to exchange information.

Term coined by Barry Boehm in his article, "Get Ready for Agile Methods, with Care" to
describe traditional waterfall-style development methods. See the "References."

An open privacy specification developed and administered by the World Wide Web
Consortium (W3C) that, when implemented, enables people to make informed
decisions about how they want to share personal information with websites.

A hardware vendor whose products are direct replacements for the products of a
computer systems manufactures. Initially PCMs provides peripherals that were "plug-
for-plug" compatible with IBM peripherals, but the PCM industry has since grown to
include IBM-compatible mainframes and peripherals for other vendors' systems.

A specific point in the procedural flow of a test at which either an observation is
recorded of the test environment, or a decision is made regarding the test's flow of
control. Closely related concepts, a point of control usually requires the details of one or
more points of observations to make the necessary control decision.
POS systems use personal computers or specialized terminals in combination with
cash registers, optical scanners or magnetic-stripe readers to capture and record data
at the time of transaction.                                                                     Gen

The description for a communications line to which exactly two stations are connected.
A networking scheme in which a node can establish a connection with another node
without having to involve other resources, such as other network components. In
addition, in typical implementations, the nodes establishing the connection act
independently, in that information flowing over the connection may be redirected over
other connections without affecting the status or conditions of the originating
connections.                                                                                    Gen
The System Policy Editor help file. A version of the System Policy Editor and help file
are included in the Microsoft Office 2000 Resource Kit.                                         MSN
The set of rules that govern the interaction between a subject and an object. For
example, when an Internet Protocol (IP) security agent (the subject) starts on a given
computer (the object) a policy determines how that computer will participate in secure
IP connections.                                                                               MSN

Software that executes at decision points to perform policy selection, to evaluate
conditions, and determine what actions must be performed. The concept of the policy
engine is quite diffuse; policy engine functionality will often be spread through many
parts of the distributed system. For example, Windows 2000 provides a policy
infrastructure that includes a policy store (Group Policy object), a policy engine that
runs as part of user logon (WinLogon), and an API for services to invoke the policy
selection process on demand (GetGPOList). Some applications and services will use
WinLogon integration to apply their policies to users; others will use GetGPOList to
implement their own policy decision and enforcement points.

A method of controlling transmission sequence by terminals on a multi-point line by
requiring that each terminal wait until the controlling processor requests it to transmit.
Specifies a subset of volumes for automatic processing.                                       ESS
See throttling.                                                                               MSN
In HTML, PDF terminates the effects of the last explicit code (either embedding or
override) and restores the bidirectional state to what it was before the last left-to-right
embedding (LRE), right-to-left embedding (RLE), right-to-left override (RLO), or left-to-
right override (LRO) control characters.                                                      MSN
(1) The entrance or physical access point to a computer, multiplexer, device or network
at which signals may be supplied, extracted or observed. (2) Ports are boundary
objects, acting as interfaces through which messages are passed, for a capsule
instance. Ports are "owned" by the capsule instance in the sense that they are created
along with their capsule and destroyed when the capsule is destroyed. Each port has
an identity and a state that are distinct from the identity and state of its owning capsule
instance (to the same extent that any part is distinct from its container). In TCP/IP
terminology, a port is a separately addressable point to which an application can
connect. For example, by default HTTP uses port 80 and Secure HTTP (HTTPS) uses
port 443. To modify (software) for use on a different machine or platform. (2) In TCP/IP
and UDP networks, different styles of network traffic, and different programs "listen" on
different ports. A port is analagous to a TV channel. To receive information, you have to
be tuned correctly. Therefore, if a SSILM licence server is listening on the default
"1234", then all clients trying to converse with this server also have to be using the
same port.
An extensible file format for the lossless, portable, well-compressed storage of raster
images. PNG provides a patent-free replacement for GIF and can also replace many
common uses of TIFF. PNGs are generally smaller than similar GIFs, are better quality
than JPEGs, and are far more flexible than either format.                                     MSN
A UNIX-based standard developed by the IEEE Posix committee. In August 1988, the
committee officially released the first installment of the standard (1003.1), a core set of
system calls. Other pieces, such as real-time extensions, are also under consideration
by various subcommittees. Posix has been adopted as a Federal Information
Processing Standard (FIPS), and is included in the Open Software Foundation's and
X/Open's basic specifications.                                                                Gen
A single point of information on the Web. See also enterprise portal.                         ORA

The current location of processing in a cursor. For example, after an application fetches
the first 10 rows from a cursor, it is positioned on the tenth row of the cursor. Database
APIs also have functions, such as the ODBC SQLSetPos function, that allow an
application to move directly to a specific position in a cursor without performing a fetch.
Refers to the shape of a character that varies with the character’s position in a word.
For example, the Arabic character “ha” can take any of four shapes, depending on
whether the character stands alone or whether it falls at the beginning, middle, or end of
a word.                                                                                       MSN
An update, insert, or delete operation performed on a row at the current position of the
cursor. The actual change is made in the rows of the base tables used to build the
current row in the cursor. Transact-SQL batches, stored procedures, and triggers use
the WHERE CURRENT OF clause to perform positioned updates. Applications use API
functions, such as the ODBC SQLSetPos function, to perform positioned updates.
A grammatical case that denotes ownership or a relation analogous to ownership, for
example, Mary's blood type, or John's movie.                                                        MSN

POP3 is a protocol that permits a workstation to dynamically access a mail drop on a
server in a useful fashion. Usually this means that a POP3 server is used to allow a
workstation to retrieve mail that an SMTP server is holding for it.                                 MSN
A textual description defining a constraint on the system when a use case has
terminated. A constraint that must be true at the completion of an operation.                       RUP

The maximum total number of decimal digits that can be stored, both to the left and
right of the decimal point.                                                                         MSN

A character that is equivalent to a sequence of one or more characters. It is also known
as a “composed character” or a “composite character.” Thus the combining character
sequence “a + ' ” forms the precomposed, composed, or composite character “á.”
A textual description defining a constraint on the system when a use case may start. A
constraint that must be true when an operation is invoked.                                          RUP
A basic grammatical division of a sentence that consists of what is said about the
subject. For example, in the sentence "The voters elected the incumbent", the subject
is voters and the predicate is elected the incumbent .                                              MSN
A data mining technique that analyzes existing data and uses the results to predict
values of attributes for new records or missing attributes in existing records. For
example, existing credit application data can be used to predict the credit risk for a new
application. See also: decision tree                                                                MSN
A set of 1 to 4 bytes that prefix each data field in a native-format bulk-copy data file.
The prefix characters record the length of the data value in the field, or contain -1 when
the value is NULL.                                                                                  MSN
The number of prefix characters preceding each noncharacter field in a bcp native
format data file.                                                                                   MSN

Full-text query searching for those columns where the specified character-based text,
word, or phrase, is the prefix. When using a phrase, each word within the phrase is
considered to be a prefix. For example, a prefix search specifying the phrase "sport
fish*" matches "sport fishing", "sportsman fishing supplies", and so on.
In the waterfall life cycle, the major review held when the architectural design is
completed.                                                                                          RUP
A part of speech that links and relates a noun or noun substitute to another word in the
sentence. For example, in the sentence "the dancers leaped across the stage", across
is the preposition. Words commonly used as prepositions include about , after , among
, before , between , but , during , for , from , in , into , near , of , on , over , to , until ,
with , and so on.                                                                                   MSN
A way of expressing a relationship in English in which an entity serves as a subject and
an entity serves as an object and are linked by a preposition. For example, in the
sentence, "stories are about subjects", stories is the subject entity, about is the
preposition, and subjects is the object.                                                            MSN
An assistant that provides tips to users helping them find what works and looks good in
their presentation. For example, the assistant can give tips about styles and shapes
that won't fit or look good on a slide.                                                             MSN
The integration of Microsoft NetShow to give a presentation over the Web showing the
full fidelity of the presentation. Using Presentation Broadcast, you can deliver a
presentation over an intranet, displaying presentation slides in HTML and streaming
audio and video (video requires a Microsoft NetShow server). Audience members
require only an Internet Explorer 4.0 or later browser to view the presentation, which
can be saved for later playback. Using Outlook, users can also schedule online
broadcasts, set up reminders, and click a button to join the broadcast.

In the OSI model, the layer of processing that provides services to the Application
Layer, enabling it to interpret the data exchanged, as well as to structure data
messages to be transmitted in a specific display and control format.

The graphical user interface in OS/2, which includes windowing, graphics, standards for
the keyboard interface and editors for icons and fonts. It is the first manifestation of
IBM's user interface architecture and is consistent with the CUA of SAA. (2) The OS/2
graphical user interface, which includes windowing, graphics, standards for the
keyboard interface, and editors for icons and fonts.

A man who, by operation of law, is recognized as the father of a child until that status is
rebutted or confirmed in a judicial proceeding. (See also: Acknowledged Father;
Adjudicated Father; Alleged Father; Legal Father; Putative Father)
Preventive Maintenance                                                                         Gen
The volume serial number of the previous volume for a multi-volume data set.                   ESS
In a snowflake schema in a data warehouse, a dimension table that is directly related to
and usually joined to the fact table. Additional tables that complete the dimension
definition are joined to the primary dimension table instead of to the fact table. See
also: dimension table, snowflake schema                                                       MSN

In a Windows NT Server 4.0 or earlier domain, the PDC is the computer running
Windows NT Server that authenticates domain logons and maintains the directory
database for a domain. The PDC tracks changes made to accounts of all computers on
a domain. It is the only computer to receive these changes directly. A domain has only
one primary domain controller. In Windows 2000, one of the domain controllers in each
domain is identified as the PDC for compatibility with downlevel clients and servers.
See domain controller, backup domain controller.

(1) A column or set of columns that uniquely identify all the rows in a table. Primary
keys do not allow null values. No two rows can have the same primary key value;
therefore, a primary key value always uniquely identifies a single row. More than one
key can uniquely identify rows in a table; each of these keys is called a candidate key.
Only one candidate key can be chosen as the primary key of a table; all other candidate
keys are known as alternate keys. Although tables are not required to have primary
keys, it is good practice to define them. In a normalized table, all of the data values in
each row are fully dependent on the primary key. For example, in a normalized
employee table that has EmployeeID as the primary key, all of the columns should
contain data related to a specific employee. This table does not have the column
DepartmentName because the name of the department is dependent on a department
ID, not on an employee ID. (2) An attribute (or combination of attributes) that uniquely
identifies each row in a relation.
The "one" side of two related tables in a one-to-many relationship. A primary table
should have a primary key and each record should be unique. An example of a primary
table is a table of customer names that are uniquely identified by a CustomerID primary
key field.                                                                                    MSN

A predefined basic datatype without any substructure, such as an integer or a string.
See security principal.                                                                       MSN
A flat board made of fiberglass or plastic, on which chips and electronic components
are interconnected via copper pathways.                                                   Gen
The control customers have over the collection, use, and distribution of their personal
information.                                                                              MSN
A scenario in which an unauthorized individual is able to gain access to personal or
confidential information about another user.                                              MSN

An organization's requirements for complying with privacy regulations and directives.
A document describing a company's position on privacy, detailing what information its
website collects, with whom the data is shared, and how users can control the use of
their personal data.                                                                      MSN
An access modifier associated with a class member. It allows only the class itself to
access the member.                                                                        RUP
(Protocol) The Private Communication Technology (PCT) protocol is designed to
provide privacy between two communicating applications (a client and a server), and to
authenticate the server and (optionally) the client. PCT assumes a reliable transport
protocol (e.g., TCP) for data transmission and reception.                                 A&D
A dimension created for and used by a specific cube. Unlike shared dimensions, private
dimensions are available only to the cube in which they are created. See also: shared
dimension                                                                                 MSN

An unofficial hotfix which may not be fully tested or packaged. It is released to the
customer to verify that it solves the problem before final testing and packaging.

One of two keys in public key encryption. The user keeps the private key secret and
uses it to encrypt digital signatures and to decrypt received messages.
The area in Unicode repertoire from U+E000 through U+F8FF, U+F0000 through
U+FFFFD, and U+100000 through U+10FFFD that is set aside for vendor-specific or
user-designed characters.                                                                 MSN
See user rights.                                                                          MSN
Middleware that enables data on a non-Oracle database to be viewed from Oracle
applications.                                                                             ORA
An extension to Oracle SQL enabling SQL to be embedded within third-generation
programming constructs, such as GOTO and LOOP statements, for finer programming
control.                                                                                  ORA

The part of the SQL Server memory pool that is used to store execution plans for
Transact-SQL batches, stored procedures, and triggers. Execution plans record the
steps that SQL Server must take to produce the results specified by the Transact-SQL
statements contained in the batches, stored procedures, or triggers.
(1) A thread of control that can logically execute concurrently with other processes,
specifically an operating system process. See also: thread. (2) A set of partially
ordered steps intended to reach a goal; in software engineering the goal is to build a
software product or to enhance an existing one; in process engineering, the goal is to
develop or enhance a process model; corresponds to a business use case in business
engineering. 1. A heavyweight unit of concurrency and execution in an operating
system. Contrast: thread, which includes heavyweight and lightweight processes. If
necessary, an implementation distinction can be made using stereotypes. 2. A
software development process. The steps and guidelines by which to develop a
system. 3. To execute an algorithm or otherwise handle something dynamically. (3) In
A Cube, the series of operations that rebuilds the cube's structure, loads data into a
multidimensional structure, calculates summaries, and saves the precalculated
aggregations. As a verb, to populate a cube with data and aggregations. It is one of
three processing options for a cube. In a dimension, the operation that loads data from
a dimension table in a data warehouse into the levels defined for a dimension and
rebuilds the structure of the dimension. It is one of two processing options for a        Gen
dimension. In a data mining model, the operation that retrieves training data from a
An architectural view that describes the concurrent aspect of the system: tasks
(processes) and their interactions.                                                       RUP
In logic flow mapping, a process is a collector node with multiple edges entering and
one edge leaving; a process node can represent one program statement or an entire
software system, as long as the contents are consistent throughout the logic flow
diagram.                                                                                       BQ
A type of node, which possesses the capability to run one or more processes.
Generally this requires a computational capability, memory, input-output devices, and
so on. See also: node, process, and device.                                                    RUP

A hardware feature for advanced models of IBM's 3090 and ES/9000 computers. It is a
logical partitioning facility that enables the computer architecture to be separated from
its physical implementation to provide a logical organization of resources, thereby
allowing multiple operating systems (or copies of the same system) to run on one
physical CPU or complex. IBM allows up to seven partitions on a uni-processor or
single-image multiprocessor, and 14 partitions on a partitioned multiprocessor.
Collects events in a specific event category and sends the data to a SQL Server Profiler
queue.                                                                                         MSN
Software that is the result of development, and some of the associated artifacts
(documentation, release medium, training).                                                     RUP
A high-ranking individual who is the sponsor for the vision of the product and acts as an
advocate between the development team and the customer.                                        RUP
A numbering process used to uniquely identify copies of Microsoft software.                    MSN
A high level description of the product (system), its intended use, and the set of
features it provides.                                                                          RUP
A security-related bug in a product that is addressed by a Microsoft security bulletin or a
service pack.                                                                                  MSN
Source data subject to change.                                                                 ORA
The act of watching a production system; the object is to detect anomalies or failures as
they occur.                                                                                    BQ
Defines element types, how they interact, and how the product functionality is mapped
to them. It may also go further by defining some of the instances of the architecture
elements. This term generally applies to a set of products within an organization or
company. See also: [HOF99].                                                                    RUP

A collection of information selected and applied to the interaction between a subject
and an object by an action that is the outcome of evaluation of policy conditions. The
content of a profile is specific to the subjects and objects in question. Profiles can
further simplify administration by reducing the total number of policies. For example, a
given server application may have a large number of configuration parameters. A policy
for that application can reference the profile; this is simpler than using multiple policies
to accomplish the same thing. See policy, object.
A file included in the Microsoft Office 2000 Resource Kit that contains a list of the
specific files and registry settings included in the .ops file created by the Office Profile
Wizard.                                                                                        MSN
A type of database object that contains a series of commands. Programs can be
nested, with one calling another to create a complete application or a sophisticated
database maintenance tool. If a program returns a value, it is called a user-defined
function.                                                                                      ORA
The logic flow through the code statements in a program.                                       BQ
An early scientific programming language now rarely used.                                      Gen
(1) In English Query, a file that contains the structure of the relational database and
definitions of semantic objects, such as entities, relationships, and dictionary entries. Its
extension is *.eqp. It is used to test how English Query translates English questions into
SQL statements. Later, it can be compiled into a deployable application file with an
*.eqd extension. (2) Projects are performed by people, constrained by limited
resources, and planned, executed, and controlled. A project is a temporary endeavor
undertaken to create a unique product or service. Temporary means that every project
has a definite beginning and a definite ending. Unique means that the product or
service is different in some distinguishing way from all similar products and services.
Projects are often critical components of the performing organizations' business

Includes resources that cross all inter-departmental agencies, divisions, and units.
Usually the individual that holds the position as assigned when the Project is Created
by PMO.                                                                                         PMO
The role with overall responsibility for the project. The Project Manager needs to ensure
tasks are scheduled, allocated and completed in accordance with project schedules,
budgets and quality requirements.                                                               RUP

The organizational entity to which the Project Manager reports. The PRA is responsible
for ensuring that a software project complies with policies, practices and standards.
A mapping from a set to a subset of it.                                                         RUP

Within a Java Bean, to make features of a contained bean available to be used for
making connections. For example, a bean consisting of three push buttons on a panel.
If this bean were placed in a frame, the features of the push buttons would have to be
promoted to make them available from within the frame.
A part of speech that takes the position of a noun and functions as one, for example,
she, he, and we.                                                                                MSN
A noun that is capitalized; a specific name, for example, John Smith.                           MSN
A named attribute of a control, field, or object that you set to define one of the object's
characteristics (such as size, color, or screen location) or an aspect of its behavior
(such as whether the object is hidden).                                                         MSN

(1) A named attribute of a control, field, or database object that you set to define one of
the object's characteristics (such as size, color, or screen location) or an aspect of its
behavior (such as whether it is hidden). (2) A named value denoting a characteristic of
an element. A property has semantic impact. Certain properties are predefined in the
UML; others may be user defined. See: tagged value.

A tabbed dialog box where you can identify the characteristics of tables, relationships,
indexes, constraints, and keys. Every object in a database diagram has a set of
properties that determine the definition of a database object. Each set of tabs shows
only the properties specific to the selected object. If multiple objects are selected, the
property pages show the properties of the first object you selected.
A connection from a property of one object to a property of another object. See also:
connection.                                                                                     RUP
(1) Privately owned and operated. Held under patent, trademark, or copyright by a
private person or company. (2) In Data Processing usually used to describe software
developed by a vendor that performs a special function or process that is only
compatible with, 1. other software packages (subsets) also developed by the vendor,
or 2. in the case of a computer hardware manufacturer, the software will only run on
their computer equipment.                                                                       Gen
(1) This term refers to information that cannot be accessed unless the user has the
necessary authority. Protection is applied using cryptography. When information is
protected it is encrypted. The cryptographic key needed to remove that protection is
made available to authorized users. Once it is in their keystore, they will be able to
access that protected information. (2) An access modifier associated with a class
member. It allows the class itself, sub-classes, and all classes in the same package to
access the member.                                                                              RUP
(1) A set of formal rules describing how to transmit data between two devices. (2) A set
of procedures for establishing and controlling data transmission. Examples include
IBM's BSC and SDLC protocols. (2) A specification of a compatible set of messages
used to communicate between capsules. The protocol defines a set of incoming and
outgoing messages types (for example, operations, signals), and optionally a set of
sequence diagrams which define the required ordering of messages and a state
machine which specifies the abstract behavior that the participants in a protocol must
provide.                                                                                        Gen

The process of translating the protocol native to an end-user device (e.g., a terminal)
into a different protocol (e.g., ASCII to BSC), enabling that device to communicate with
another device (e.g., a computer) with which it would otherwise be incompatible.
Protocol conversion can be performed by a dedicated device ("protocol converter"), by
a software package in an existing system (e.g., general-purpose computer, FEP, or
PBX) or by a value-added network (e.g., Telenet).
A release that is not necessarily subject to change management and configuration
control.                                                                                        RUP
An OLE DB provider. An in-process dynamic link library (DLL) that provides access to
a database.                                                                                     MSN
Full-text query searching for those occurrences where the specified words are close to
one another.                                                                                    MSN

An application gateway from one network to another for a specific network application
such as Telnet of FTP, for example, where a firewall's proxy Telnet server performs
authentication of the user and then lets the traffic flow through the proxy as if it were not
there. Function is performed in the firewall and not in the client workstation, causing
more loads in the firewall. Compare with socks.

A firewall component that manages Internet traffic to and from a local area network
(LAN) and can provide other functions, such as document caching and access control.
Family Support applications                                                                     ETS
The IMS mainframe computer system that supports Family Support services.                        CCL
A vertex in a state machine that has the form of a state, but doesn't behave as a state.
Pseudo-states include initial and history vertices.                                             RUP

Of, concerning, or affecting the community or the people. Maintained for or used by the
people or community. Participated in or attended by the people or community.
Capitalized in shares of stock that can be traded on the open market.
One of two keys in public key encryption. The user releases this key to the public and
anyone can use it to encrypt messages to be sent to the user and decrypt the user's
digital signature. Compare private key.                                                         MSN

An asymmetric encryption scheme that uses a pair of keys for encryption: the public
key encrypts data, and a corresponding secret key decrypts it. For digital signatures,
the process is reversed: the sender uses the secret key to create a unique electronic
number that can be read by anyone possessing the corresponding public key, which
verifies that the message is truly from the sender. See also private key, public key.
(1) Generally, the laws, policies, standards, and software that regulate or manipulate
certificates and public and private keys. (2) A policy for establishing a secure method
for exchanging information within an organization, an industry, or a nation. PKI is also
an integrated set of services and administrative tools for creating, deploying, and
managing public-key-based applications. It includes the cryptographic methods, the use
of digital certificates and certification authorities (CAs), and the system for managing
the process.
A publication is a collection of one or more articles from one database. This grouping of
multiple articles makes it easier to specify a logically related set of data and database
objects that you want to replicate at the same time.                                              MSN
A database on the Publisher from which data and database objects are marked for
replication as part of a publication that is propagated to Subscribers.                           MSN
A predetermined length of time that regulates how long subscriptions will receive
updates during synchronizations and remain activated in databases.                                MSN
Data at the Publisher that has been replicated.                                                   MSN
A model, which has been frozen, and becomes available for instantiating repositories
and for the support in defining other models. A frozen model's model elements cannot
be changed.                                                                                       RUP
A server that makes data available for replication to other servers, detects changed
data, and maintains information about all publications at the site.                               MSN
An Analysis server that stores the source cube for one or more linked cubes. See also:
linked cube, subscribing server                                                                   MSN
The table at the Publisher in which data has been marked for replication and is part of a
publication.                                                                                      MSN
A sample database provided with SQL Server.                                                       MSN
A subscription created and administered at the Subscriber. Information about the
publication and the Subscriber is stored. See also: push subscription                             MSN
A subscription created and administered at the Publisher. Information about the
publication and Subscriber is stored. See also: pull subscription                                 MSN
An association attribute or tuple of attributes whose values partition the set of objects
related to an object across an association.                                                       RUP

Qualitative data is not in numerical form. Qualitative data could be much more than just
words or text. Photographs, videos, sound recordings and so on, can be considered
qualitative data. The qualitative data is 'sensitive', 'nuanced', 'detailed', and 'contextual'.
Qualitative research is exploratory and inductive in nature.
Looking for regularities and differences in text, exploring the whole text (QDA -
qualitative data analysis). There is no common paradigm of QDA, but there are many
approaches.                                                                                       R&S

(1) The totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its
ability to satisfy stated or implied needs. (2) The word “Quality” has almost as many
different meanings as there are people who like to use the word. Many can’t define it,
but will say they “know it when they see it”. For others it means “an inherent or
distinguishing characteristic or property”, or a “degree or grade of excellence”. For the
purposes of the DSD Research Methodology, quality means “conformance to
requirements”. If the research is designed and conducted in conformance with the
requirements of the customer and according to all known internal standards; and if the
results conform to those requirements, then the research project will be a “quality”
project. Quality does not mean that the research is flawless, as that is almost
impossible to ensure, but the research will be conducted in a professional manner, and
the documentation and findings will be satisfactory to the customer. (3) The degree of
excellence that a thing possesses. The degree of conformance to a standard (BQ).
(1) According to the British Standard 4778, this standard cites all those planned and
systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product or service
will satisfy given requirements for quality. (2) The historic focus of the National
Committee on Quality Assurance (NCQA), fundamentally based on measures of
compliance to standards or processes. (3) All those planned and systematic actions
necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product or service will satisfy given
requirements for quality.                                                                      BQ
According to the British Standard 4778, the operational techniques and activities that
are used to fulfill requirements for quality.                                                  BQ
See also: quality assurance                                                                    RUP
A set of quality assurance standards and mechanisms for data transmission.                     MSN
The quality review is another technique employed to ensure that quality is built into the
application rather than attempting to “test” it in at the end of the project. To this end,
Quality Assurance must be in at the inception of the project. In this methodology,
Quality Reviews occur at the end of the Project Planning Phase, which implies that the
appropriate Quality Assurance representative is identified at the same time as other key
project team members.                                                                          R&S
An upcoming or ongoing concern that has a significant probability of adversely affecting
the quality of the software product. While the is arguably a limitless number of quality
dimensions on which to assess quality risks, RUP uses the FURPS+ requirements
model as a basis to discuss dimensions of quality.                                             RUP

Quantitative data is in numerical form. The quantitative data is 'hard', 'rigorous',
'credible', and 'scientific'. Quantitative research is confirmatory and deductive in nature.

A quasi-experimental design is similar to an experimental design but lacks the random
assignment. A quasi-experimental design involves the manipulation of the change
(treatment) variable, without equating the groups prior to the manipulation of the
independent variable. Quasi-experimental designs are often considered to be inferior to
randomized experiments, but they do have a place in IT research.
IBM’s strategic query and report-writing product for relational database management
systems (RDBMSs).                                                                              Gen
The SQL Server database engine component responsible for generating efficient
execution plans for SQL statements.                                                            MSN

Software that allows a user to create and direct specific questions to a database.

In English Query, an English form of a query, for example, "How many customers
bought products last year?" Questions may also be posed as statements to an English
Query application, for example, "List the customers that bought products last year."
A tool that supports users' needs to know more about the domain objects so that they
can construct questions. They can find out what the domain objects contain, what kind
of basic relationships are represented in the domain, and what English phrases can be
used to ask about the relationships.                                                           MSN
An ASCII text file (.eqq) that contains questions (one to a line) that are ready for testing
with the English Query engine. Question files are denoted with the .eqq extension.
Questions can be submitted to the question file automatically with the test tool, or a
developer can create a list of questions.                                                      MSN
A structure that describes a set of questions that can be asked using a particular
relationship or set of relationships.                                                          MSN
(1) Any series of data streams such as a print queue, waiting to access a device. (2) A
SQL Server Profiler queue provides a temporary holding place for server events to be
captured.                                                                                      Gen
The time a job waits at a work center before setup or work is performed. It is one
element of total manufacturing lead time. Increases in queue time result in direct
increases in manufacturing lead time.                                                          Gen
A team within Microsoft that produces hotfixes. Most of these teams now refer to
themselves as Sustained Engineering teams.                                                    MSN
(1) A link bar that appears on the home page of a SharePoint team Web site and
contains hyperlinks to specific pages within the team Web site. (2) A Windows 98
toolbar that provides shortcuts to several often-used features, such as the Web
browser, Outlook Express, and channels. The toolbar is provided on Windows 95 and
Windows NT 4.0 by Internet Explorer 4.0.                                                      Gen

A feature that allows you to easily find and open a contact from anywhere in Outlook.
A condition caused by the timing of events within or among software components. Race
conditions typically are associated with synchronization errors that provide a window of
opportunity during which one process can interfere with another, possibly introducing a
security vulnerability.                                                                       MSN
A shelf location in the removable media library where RMM stores the volume.                  ESS

A group of strokes in a Chinese character that are treated as a unit for the purposes of
sorting, indexing, and classification. A character can contain more than one element
that is recognized as a radical, but each character contains only one element, called the
“main radical,” that is used as the indexing radical. The main radical often gives a hint
as to the general meaning of the character, and other radicals in the character might
indicate how the character is pronounced.
A dimension hierarchy in which one or more levels do not contain members in one or
more branches of the hierarchy. For example, the state or province level in a geography
hierarchy contains no members for countries or regions that do not have states or
provinces. See also: unbalanced hierarchy                                                     MSN
Without specific order.                                                                       BQ
The primary memory in a computer.                                                             Gen
Randomization, or random assignment, refers to a technique of assignment or ordering
such that no consistent or systematic effect in the assignment is tied in with the
method. Elimination of such systematic influence upon assignment or selection allows
for chance assignment. Approved ways of generating chance assignments involve
tables of random numbers or the use of computer software with random number
generators. However, typically, researchers frequently resort to simple counting off,
flipping a coin, and other short cuts.                                                        R&S
See Random Assignment                                                                         R&S

Randomness refers to the property of completely chance events that are not
predictable. If they are truly random, examining past instances of occurrence should
give the researcher no clues as to future occurrences. Randomness is important in the
design of the experiments primarily in the assignment of subjects to groups.
Researchers feel more secure about the results of their studies if subjects have been
randomly assigned to groups. Random assignment of subjects to groups tends to
spread out differences between subjects in unsystematic (random) ways so that there is
no tendency to give an edge to any group.
A query that specifies a range of values as part of the search criteria, such as all rows
from 10 through 100.                                                                          MSN

(1) For full-text and SQL Server Books Online searches, a value indicating how closely
rows or topics match the specified search criteria. For Meta Data Services and Analysis
Services, a value indicating the relative positions of elements such as dimension
members, hierarchy levels, or tuples in a set. (2) An attribute of a use case, or scenario
that describes its impact on the architecture, or its importance for a release. (3) An
orderly arrangement; a relative position, usually in a scale classifying persons or things.
(1) Provides the ability to develop and deploy applications quickly by automating much
of the development process and eliminating repetitive tasks. (2) An application
development (AD) approach that includes small teams (typically two to six people, but
never more than 10) using joint application development (JAD) and iterative-prototyping
techniques to construct interactive systems of low to medium complexity within a time
frame of 60 to 120 days.                                                                    Gen

A development process that evolves a product through multiple trial-and-error cycles.

An approach to large-scale application development (AD) that includes the following
phases, which are executed by up to 10 teams of 10 people each during a period of no
more than 18 months: Phase-1: Business and technical architecture reconciliation.
Phase-2: Functional requirements gathering and specifications. Phase-3: Initial
architecture design, building and implementation. Phase-4: First building and testing
of application, including user interface, data access and business logic. Phase-5:
Initial installation of application. Phase-6: Concurrent engineering for subsequent
builds. Phase-7: Rapid release plan.

Rational's configuration management tool, which can be used to store copies of
Rational RequisitePro projects. If you are implementing a Unified Change Management
model, you can use ClearCase to create baselines of RequisitePro projects.
Rational's defect and change tracking tool. ClearQuest offers a flexible approach to
track and manage all the change activities that are associated with an organization,
such as defects and enhancement requests.                                                   A&D
A process customization and publishing tool that enables process engineers to
accelerate delivery of customized software development process, visually model
process using Unified Modeling Language, and leverage the best practices captured in
the RUP.                                                                                    RUP
Rational's visual modeling tool for designing and visualizing object-oriented and
component-based applications. Rational RequisitePro is integrated with Rational Rose
through Integrated Use Case Management.                                                     A&D
Rational’s Software Documentation Automation tool.                                          A&D
Rational XDE Professional has been designed for developers as an eXtended
Development Environment that is fully integrated into the IBM WebSphere Workbench,
IBM WebSphere Studio Application Developer, and Microsoft Visual Studio .NET. Its
capabilities inc                                                                            A&D
A custom Windows resource element.                                                          MSN
The process by which online analytical processing (OLAP) tools directly access data in
a relational database.                                                                      ORA
Specifies when the data set was last read.                                                  ESS

Data stored in computer memory that can be accessed and read by the user but not
modified. ROM is often permanent, and stores system-controlled software.
The overall direction of a sequence of text. Whereas words in a given script always flow
in the direction associated with that script (for example, LTR for Latin, RTL for Arabic
and Hebrew), the flow of the sentence itself depends on the reading order. For
example, a mixture of Arabic and French text can be regarded as French-embedded in
an overall Arabic sentence, implying RTL reading order, or as Arabic-embedded in
French, implying LTR reading order.                                                         MSN
A SQL Server system data type that has 7-digit precision. Floating precision number
data from -3.40E + 38 through 3.40E + 38. Storage size is 4 bytes.                          MSN

A computer-based system that monitors, controls and is controlled by external events,
and that contends with changing inputs and conditions outside its control.
A feature that checks a Web site's hyperlinks to see if they are valid. This feature also
performs other tasks such as deleting unused themes and updating component
information on the server.                                                                  MSN

The handling of a stimulus passed from a sender instance. See: sender, receiver.
The object handling a stimulus passed from a sender object. Contrast: sender.                RUP
A declaration that a classifier is prepared to react to the receipt of a signal.             RUP

This type of report starts from a stated need, a selection of choices, or both and then
recommends one, some, or none. For example, an organization might be looking at a
particular type of software and want a recommendation on which product is the best.
The report writer on this project could study the market for this type of application and
recommend one particular product, a couple of products (differing perhaps in their
strengths and their weaknesses), or none (maybe none of them are any good). The
recommendation report answers the question "Which option should we choose?" (or in
some cases "Which are the best options?) by recommending Product B, or maybe both
Products B and C, or none of the products.

(1) A group of related fields (columns) of information treated as a unit. A record is more
commonly called a row in an SQL database. (2) A word used in describing a Use
Case. The term “record” is meant to assume inclusion of adding, updating, deleting,
and searching for information. For example “Record Case” means to add a new case,
update or delete an existing case, or search for a case.
Specifies the format of the file's records for a data set                                    ESS
The ActiveX Database Objects (ADO) object used to contain a result set. It also exhibits
cursor behavior depending on the recordset properties set by an application. ADO
recordsets are mapped to OLE DB rowsets.                                                     MSN
The maximum amount of time that the database engine should require to recover a
database. The database engine ensures that the active portion of the database log is
small enough to recover the database in the amount of time specified for the recovery
interval.                                                                                    MSN

Data Center or facility utilized for resumption of information services in the event the
primary Data Center or facility becomes inoperational due to a disaster. xc

A foreign key in a relation that references the primary key values of that same relation.
The iterative process, used by data mining algorithm providers, of dividing data into
groups until no more useful groups can be found.                                             MSN
See definition for: backup file                                                              MSN
A processor architecture that shifts the analytical process of a computational task from
the execution or runtime to the preparation or compile time.                                 Gen
Duplication of essential components such as data paths, electronic circuitry, etc. If the
first component fails, the second will take over. This will insure that the redundant
process will continue without interruption.                                                  Gen
A method of mirroring or striping data on clusters of low-end disk drives; data is copied
onto multiple drives for faster throughput, error correction, fault tolerance and improved
mean time between failures.                                                                  Gen
(1) A denotation of a model element. (2) A named slot within a classifier that facilitates
navigation to other classifiers. Synonym: pointer.                                           RUP
Data held in reference tables.                                                               ORA
A table holding textural data describing data resident in a dimension table.                 ORA
A primary key or unique key referenced by a foreign key.                                     MSN
See definition for: foreign key (FK)                                                         MSN
(1) An integrity constraint specifying that the value (or existence) of an attribute in one
relation depends on the value (or existence) of a primary key in the same or another
relation (A&D). (2) A state in which all foreign key values in a database are valid. For a
foreign key to be valid, it must contain either the value NULL, or an existing key value
from the primary or unique key columns referenced by the foreign key. (3) One of the
four basic types of business rules that must be defined and implemented within a
database management system. If a table (detail) contains a foreign key to another
table (master), there must exist a row in the master for each occurring value of the
foreign key. The other three rules are: 1. Entity Integrity. Each stored row in a table
must have a unique key. 2. Domain Integrity. Each column must belong to a single
domain, and JOIN operations may be performed only across domain-compatible
columns. 3. Null Value Support. Two types of nulls must be supported: "unknown but
applicable" and "inapplicable."
A rule that states that wither each foreign key value must match a primary key value in
the other relation or else the foreign key value must be null.                                A&D
A relationship that represents a fuller specification of something that has already been
specified at a certain level of detail. For example, a design class is a refinement of an
analysis class.                                                                               RUP
A relationship from a column or combination of columns in a table to other columns in
that same table. A reflexive relationship is used to compare rows within the same table.
In queries, this is called a self-join.                                                       MSN
The series of operations that clears data from a cube, loads the cube with new data
from the data warehouse, and calculates aggregations. Refresh data is used when a
cube's underlying data in the data warehouse changes but the cube's structure and
aggregation definitions remain the same. One of three processing options for a cube.
See also: incremental update, process                                                         MSN
Any area that is completely surrounded by edges and processes.                                BQ
A Windows file that stores user preferences, including international settings as well as
application-specific settings.                                                                MSN

An Excel spreadsheet containing an in-depth list of registry entries made during the
installation of Office. This file is included in the Microsoft Office 2000 Resource Kit.
Retesting something that has been tested previously. Usually conducted after some
part of the system has been changed. Regressing; going back, returning.                       BQ
A cube that is based on tables and has its own aggregations.                                  MSN
A dimension that is neither a parent-child dimension nor a virtual dimension.                 MSN

A type of database object that establishes a correspondence between the values of a
given dimension or the values of that dimension and other dimensions in the database.
For example, in a relation between cities and sales regions, the relation would be
dimensioned by CITY. Each cell would hold the corresponding value of the REGION
dimension. See also cell, dimension, dimension value, and variable.

(1) A database based upon the relational model developed by Codd in the 1970s. It
contains tables, each of which can be manipulated in isolation or combined with other
tables. Its primary advantage is flexibility in manipulating data. (See also ""SQL""). (2)
A system that organizes data into related rows and columns. SQL Server is a relational
database management system (RDBMS).
(1) A database management system (DBMS) that incorporates the relational-data
model, normally including a Structured Query Language (SQL) application
programming interface. (2) A database management system that manages data as a
collection of tables in which all data relationships are represented by common values in
related tables.                                                                               A&D
(1) A collection of information organized in tables. Each table models a class of objects
of interest to the organization (for example, Customers , Parts , Suppliers ). Each
column in a table models an attribute of the object (for example, LastName , Price ,
Color ). Each row in a table represents one entity in the class of objects modeled by the
table (for example, the customer name John Smith or the part number 1346). Queries
can use data from one table to find related data in other tables. (2) A storage mode
that uses tables in a relational database to store multidimensional structures. See also:
multidimensional OLAP (MOLAP), hybrid OLAP (HOLAP).
A study designed to look at the relationships between two or more variables. The
impact of memory size on application performance might be a good example of this
type of study. This type of study might also be used when comparing one product to
another.                                                                                     R&S
(1) In Meta Data Services, a relationship is an association between a pair of objects,
where one object is an origin and the other object is a destination. The association
repeats for each subsequent pair of objects, so that the destination of one relationship
becomes the origin in the next relationship. In this way, all objects in an information
model are associated through a chain of relationships that extend from one object to
the next throughout the information model. (2) A link between tables that references
the primary key in one table to a foreign key in another table. The relationship line is
represented in a database diagram by a solid line if referential integrity between the
tables is enforced, or a dashed line if referential integrity is not enforced for INSERT
and UPDATE transactions. The endpoints of a relationship line show a primary key
symbol to denote a primary key-to-foreign key relationship, or they show an infinity
symbol to denote the foreign key side of a one-to-many relationship. In English Query,
an association between entities that describes what those entities have to do with one
another. Relationships can be described concisely in English as simple statements
about entities (for example, customers purchase products ). More than one join may be        Gen
A staff member who acts as an organizational liaison, typically between an information
services (IS) department and business-unit or function.                                      Gen
An object representing a pair of objects that assume a role in relation to each other.
See also: sequenced relationship                                                             MSN
A definition of a relationship between two interfaces, as defined in an information
model. A relationship type is similar to a class in that it describes characteristics to
which specific instances must conform.                                                       MSN
The part of the name of an object that is an attribute of the object itself. The attribute
that provides the RDN for an object is referred to as the naming attribute. See also
distinguished name.                                                                          MSN
The Internet address of a page relative to the Internet address of the current page. For
example, the relative URL Doc/Sample.htm refers to the page Sample.htm in the folder
Doc, below the current folder.                                                               MSN

A subset of the end product that is the object of evaluation at a major milestone. A
release is a stable, executable version of product, together with any artifacts necessary
to use this release, such as release notes or installation instructions. A release can be
internal or external. An internal release is used only by the development organization,
as part of a milestone, or for a demonstration to users or customers. An external
release (or delivery) is delivered to end-users. A release is not necessarily a complete
product, but can just be one step along the way, with its usefulness measured only from
an engineering perspective. Releases act as a forcing function that drives the
development team to get closure at regular intervals, avoiding the "90% done, 90%
remaining" syndrome. See also: prototype, baseline.
The time between the release of the domestic product and the release of the localized
edition.                                                                                     MSN
A release manager is responsible for ensuring that all software assets are controlled
and configurable into internal and external releases as required.                            RUP
An independent organization that measures hardware reliability in terms of meantime
between failures for processors, memory, channels, disk drives and tape drives. The
company gathers failure statistics from IBM and PCM equipped data centers each
month and produces reports, which are sold worldwide to users and vendors. It
provides relative rankings and highlights trends.
A reference to a product’s quality, availability of optional features, and ease of
diagnosis and repair.                                                                        Gen
Offsite (remote) location                                                                    ESS
A remote-node access feature of NT.                                                          Gen
An attack that targets a computer other than the one that the attacker is interactively
logged on to. For example, an attacker can log on to a workstation and attack a server
on the same network or on an entirely different one.                                         MSN

A high-throughput device for connecting remote LANs via a wide area network.
Data stored in an OLE DB data source that is separate from the current instance of
SQL Server. The data is accessed by establishing a linked server definition or using an
ad-hoc connector name.                                                                       MSN
An object-oriented data access tool featured in the Enterprise edition of Microsoft Visual
Basic 4.0. RDOs have no native file format of their own; they can be used with
databases complying with the most recent ODBC standards.                                     MSN
An OSI standard being developed for database query.                                          Gen
A server configured as a Distributor that is separate from the server configured as the
Publisher. See also: Distributor, local Distributor                                          MSN

Permits user applications in most languages, as well as most Hewlett-Packard-provided
utility programs, to access remote files and remote peripherals transparently.
A Web server on a separate server computer. A remote host is connected to other
servers by way of a network connection.                                                      MSN
A set of communications protocols for input and output of information to a mainframe in
a batch mode (as opposed to interactive).                                                    Gen
The login identification (login ID) assigned to a user for accessing remote procedures
on a remote server.                                                                          MSN

In JDK 1.1, the API that allows you to write distributed Java programs, allowing
methods of remote Java objects to be accessed from other Java virtual machines.
A partition whose data is stored on an Analysis server other than the one used to store
the meta data of the partition.                                                              MSN

A communication mechanism that allows a client and a server application to
communicate with each other through function calls sent from the client to the server.
A definition of an instance of SQL Server used by remote stored procedure calls.
Remote servers are still supported in SQL Server 2000, but linked servers offer greater
functionality. See also: local server                                                        MSN

A stored procedure located on one instance of SQL Server that is executed by a
statement on another instance of SQL Server. In SQL Server 2000, remote stored
procedures are supported, but distributed queries offer greater functionality.
A table stored in an OLE DB data source that is separate from the current instance of
SQL Server. The table is accessed by either establishing a linked server definition or
using an ad-hoc connector name.                                                              MSN
In the .NET Framework, remoting allows objects to interact with one another across
application domains. The framework provides a number of services, including activation
and lifetime support, as well as communication channels responsible for transporting
messages to and from remote applications.                                                    MSN
Software product that manages media/data                                                     ESS
The way in which a character or a character sequence is graphically displayed. See
Complex scripts, Contextual analysis, and Uniscribe.                                          MSN
A type of longitudinal design having two or more waves of measurement.                        R&S

1. n digital transmission, equipment that receives a pulse train, amplifies it, re-times it
and reconstructs the signal for transmission. 2. In fiber optics, a device that decodes
a low-power light signal, converts it to electrical energy and retransmits it via an LED
or laser-generating light source. 3. In satellites, a transponder that does not include
antennas. 4. A network topology in which stations are connected in a closed logical
circle, with access to the medium passing sequentially from one station to the next by
means of polling from a master station, or by passing an access token from one station
to another. Also called a loop.
Data at the Subscriber that has been received from a Publisher.                               MSN

(1) In database management, the function that keeps distributed databases
synchronized by routinely copying the entire database or subsets of the database to
other servers in the network. There are several methods of replication, including
primary site replication, shared or transferred ownership replication, symmetric
replication, (also known as update-anywhere or peer-to-peer replication), and failover
replication. See the Tech Encyclopedia for complete definitions of the different methods
of replication. Active Directory provides multi-master replication, which is a form of
symmetric replication (see multi-master replication). (2) A process that copies and
distributes data and database objects from one database to another and then
synchronizes information between databases for consistency.

Allows users to view and resolve conflicts that occurred during the merge replication
process and to review the manner in which conflicts have been resolved.
Allows users to view and manage replication agents responsible for various replication
tasks and to troubleshoot potential problems at the Distributor.                              MSN

The generation of .sql scripts that can be used to configure and disable replication.
Defines the relationship between servers and the copies of data and clarifies the logic
that determines how data flows between servers.                                               MSN

(1) A tabular presentation of multidimensional data. (2) An automatically generated
description, describing one or several artifacts. A report is not an artifact in itself. A
report is in most cases a transitory product of the development process, and a vehicle
to communicate certain aspects of the evolving system

(1) A database containing information models that, in conjunction with the executable
software, manage the database. The term can also refer to an installation of Meta Data
Services. (2) The storage container for the meta data used by Analysis Services. Meta
data is stored in tables in a relational database and is used to define the parameters
and properties of Analysis server objects. (3) A centralized knowledge base of all data
definitions, data relationships, screen and report formats, and other system
components (A&D). (4) A storage place for work products (artifacts) output during
process enactment, such as requirements, results (i.e. metrics), object models,
interfaces, and implementations.
Object-oriented software that provides management support for and customer access
to a repository database.                                                                     MSN

A COM object that represents a data construct stored in a repository type library.
A set of standard tables used by the repository engine to manage all repository objects,
relationships, and collections. Repository SQL schema maps information model
elements to SQL schema elements.                                                              MSN
A core object model that represents repository type definitions for Meta Data Services.
This object model is composed of abstract classes upon which instances of information
models are based.                                                                             MSN
When a Subscriber publishes data received from a Publisher to another Subscriber.
A Subscriber that publishes data that it has received from a Publisher.                       MSN

The ability of a user to deny having performed an action that other parties cannot prove
otherwise. For example, a user who deleted a file can successfully deny doing so if no
mechanism (such as audit files) can contradict that claim.
(1) A buyer or seller request to spend contract funds on an engineering change
proposal for a change. The request states the technical or contractual issue being
addressed, the impact on or benefit to the project, and an assessment of the cost and
schedule impact. (2) Request for comment. Internet Standards are defined in
documents known as RFCs.                                                                      RUP
(Documents) The written definitions of Internet protocols and policies.                       MSN
Notification of an intended acquisition sent to potential suppliers to determine interest
and gather general descriptive product materials, though not prices.                          Gen
An invitation for vendors to bid on supplying goods and services.                             Gen
A formal invitation to submit a price for goods and/or services as specified.                 RUP
A requirement describes a condition or capability to which a system must conform;
either derived directly from user needs, or stated in a contract, standard, specification,
or other formally imposed document. See: software requirements. A desired feature,
property, or behavior of a system.                                                            RUP
Information associated with a particular requirement providing a link between the
requirement and other project elements, for example, priorities, schedules, status,
design elements, resources, costs, and hazards.                                               RUP

A categorization of requirements based on common characteristics and attributes.
Sometime requirement types are based on the requirement source or area of effect, for
example, stakeholder need, feature, use case, supplementary requirement,
documentation requirement, hardware requirement, software requirement, and so on.
Requirements may also be categorized based on the dimension of software quality that
they represent, for example, FURPS+.
A discipline in the software-engineering process, whose purpose is to define what the
system should do. The most significant activities are to develop vision, use-case model,
and supplementary specification artifacts.                                                    RUP
A systematic approach to eliciting, organizing and documenting the software
requirements of the system, and establishing and maintaining agreement between the
customer and the project team on changes to those requirements.                               RUP
The linking of a requirement to other requirements and to other artifacts and their
associated project elements.                                                                  RUP
The practical application of scientific and engineering knowledge for enhancing
technology, military developments, management techniques and social practices.
(Krippendorff)                                                                                R&S
See Research                                                                                  R&S
An application that is self-maintaining and fault tolerant. In other words, it knows how to
fix itself when files are missing or damaged. The application will know how to retrieve or
provide all necessary information and files to maintain a functional state, with a minimal
amount of effort by the user.                                                                 MSN
A set of criteria that the repository engine evaluates sequentially when selecting an
object, where multiple versions exist and version information is unspecified in the
calling program.                                                                              MSN

(1) An element, such as a string, icon, bitmap, cursor, dialog, accelerator, or menu, that
is included in a Windows resource (.RC) file. (2) Any item that needs to be translated.
The IBM program product offering back-end security in the S/370 MVS and VM
environments. RACF has been difficult to use, but Release 1.7 achieved a level of
flexibility and usability close to what is offered by leading-edge, third-party software.
Computer Associates' Top Secret and Access Control Facility-2 (ACF2) are the leading
ISV offerings.                                                                                Gen
A file that is referred to from your Java program. Examples include graphics and audio
files.                                                                                      RUP
An IBM program product which builds online or batch reports on MVS system
performance, device utilization and response.                                               Gen
The period between a terminal operator's completion of an inquiry and the receipt of a
response. It includes the time taken to transmit the inquiry, process it by the computer
and transmit the response back to the terminal. Response time is frequently used as a
measure of interactive system performance.                                                  Gen
A contract or obligation of a classifier.                                                   RUP

An English query, returned by the English Query engine, that is a check on the query
entered by the end user. Restatements give end users a check that the English Query
engine interpreted their question correctly. If the restatement is accurate, the correct
SQL statements will be generated, and thus the returned answer will be valid.
In English Query, an English answer to a question that has been posed to an English
Query application. Synonym of output. See also: deliverable.                                MSN
The set of rows returned from a SELECT statement. The format of the rows in the
result set is defined by the column-list of the SELECT statement.                           MSN
See: deserialize.                                                                           RUP

Retained support occurs when the custodial person has kept support payment(s) in
violation of the assignment of support rights. (See also: Overpayment)

Specifies the number of days RMM retains the volume before considering it for release
A measure of a company’s financial performance (net income divided by the value of
the stockholder’s equity, and expressed in percent).                                        Gen

Financial gain expressed as a percentage of funds invested to generate that gain.
A legacy term for stored procedure output parameters, used in the Open Data Services
and DB-Library APIs.                                                                        MSN
A bookmark that can be consumed from a rowset for a given table and used on a
different rowset of the same table to position on a corresponding row.                      MSN
Further use or repeated use of an artifact. The use of a pre-existing artifact.             RUP
(1) To look at or go over again. (2) A review is a group activity carried out to discover
potential defects and to assess the quality of a set of artifacts.                          Gen
Removes a previously granted or denied permission from a user account, role, or group
in the current database.                                                                    MSN
Text saved with formatting instructions that multiple applications, including compatible
Microsoft applications, can read and interpret.                                             MSN

Used to enable the display of characters used in any language (and in some cases,
multiple languages) in dialog box controls such as drop-down lists. By using Rich Edit
technology, some Office programs can use Unicode characters for text in locations
where the lack of multiple font support could create issues, such as the Most Recently
Used (MRU) list, and the Save As and Open dialog boxes.
An adaptation of Document Content Architecture (DCA) that is used for transferring
formatted text documents between programs, even those programs running on different
platforms, such as between IBM-compatible computers and Apple Macintosh
computers.                                                                                  MSN
A type of outer join in which all rows in the right-most table in the JOIN clause are
included. When rows in the right table are not matched in the left table, all result set
columns that come from the left table are assigned a value of NULL.                         MSN
Permission to perform specific actions with site content, such as viewing or modifying a
page. Rights are enabled or disabled for a user role. Users can perform only those
actions allowed by the rights assigned to their role.                                       MSN
In a document, it signals that a piece of text is to be treated as embedded right to left.
For example, a Hebrew phrase in the middle of an English quotation could be marked
as being embedded right to left. (RLE affects word order, not character order.)
A Unicode control character (U+202E) that forces characters following it to be treated
as strong right-to-left characters. Allows for nested directional overrides of bidirectional
characters. See Left-to-right override (LRO) mark.                                             MSN
Text flows from right to left. Examples are Arabic and Hebrew.                                 MSN
A network topology in which stations are connected to one another in a closed logical
circle, with access to the medium passing sequentially from one station to the next by
means of polling form a master station, or by passing an access token from one station
to another. Also called a loop.                                                                Gen
An ongoing or upcoming concern that has a significant probability of adversely affecting
the success of major milestones.                                                               RUP
The process of discovering and analyzing risk factors and providing decision-makers
with risk/return models.                                                                       ORA

The compiler that generates stub and skeleton files that facilitate RMI communication.
This compiler can be automatically invoked from the Tools menu item.

A server program that allows remote clients to get a reference to a server bean.
A user who moves between different computers on a network. Also known as roving or
traveling user.                                                                                MSN
A user profile that is stored on a network share and can be accessed from any
computer on the same network. See also user profile.                                           MSN

(1) A SQL Server security account that is a collection of other security accounts that
can be treated as a single unit when managing permissions. A role can contain SQL
Server logins, other roles, and Windows logins or groups. (2) In Analysis Services, a
role uses Windows security accounts to limit scope of access and permissions when
users access databases, cubes, dimensions, and data mining models. (3) A collection
of rights that can be assigned to a user account. You can use the default roles, modify
them, or create your own custom roles. (4) A definition of the behavior and
responsibilities of an individual, or a set of individuals working together as a team,
within the context of a software engineering organization. The named specific behavior
of an entity participating in a particular context. A role may be static (for example, an
association end) or dynamic (for example, a collaboration role). See also: rule

A type of authorization that uses roles to determine access rights and privileges. A role
is a symbolic category of users that share the same security privilege.
To remove the updates performed by one or more partially completed transactions.
Rollbacks are required to restore the integrity of a database after an application,
database, or system failure. See also: commit                                                  MSN
To apply all the completed transactions from a database or log backup in order to
recover a database to a point in time or the point of failure (for example, after events
such as the loss of a disk).                                                                   MSN

To automatically restore the original state of the computer after an unsuccessful
installation of a program. The rollback ability of the Windows Installer means that you
can cancel the Office 2000 installation in the middle of overwriting your Office 97 files
and still be able to run Office 97 when Office 2000 setup quits successfully.
A file containing a linear sequence of operations to perform such as file and registry
updates, configuration information updates, user interface notifications, and state
information for other operations. This file is used by the Windows Installer to roll back
an Office installation.                                                                        MSN
See update rollup.                                                                             MSN
Queries that summarize data at a level higher than the previous level of detail.              ORA
In a hierarchy of items, the one item from which all other items are descended.               ORA

The simplest form of a word. For example, the root form of generating is generate. For
other verbs, the present, infinitive form should be used when defining dictionary entries
in English Query (use run, not ran or runs). For nouns, use the singular, not the plural
form as the base word (animal, not animals).

The default, top-level Web provided by a Web server or virtual server. To access the
root Web, you supply the URL of the server without specifying a page name or subweb.
To change the dimensional orientation of the data, including swapping and moving
dimensions among the row, column, and page positions.                                         ORA

Mapping a character from one character encoding to another and back. Of particular
interest is how well information is preserved during round-trip conversion.
A device that performs a function similar to a local or remote bridge. Routing however,
occurs at Layer 3 of the OSI reference model.                                                 Gen
A LAN/WAN inter-networking device that uses sophisticated algorithms to choose the
best path among multiple active loops and redundant links based on delay time and
cost.                                                                                         Gen

(1) The set of information, stored in a set of columns, that constitutes an item in a list,
document library, discussion board, or survey. (2) In an SQL table, the collection of
elements that form a horizontal line in the table. Each row in the table represents a
single occurrence of the object modeled by the table and stores the values for all the
attributes of that object. For example, in the Northwind sample database, the
Employees table models the employees of the Northwind Traders Company. The first
row in the table records all the information (for example, name and title) about the
employee who has employee ID 1. See also: column.
A function, which generates summary values that appear as additional rows in the
query results (unlike aggregate function results that appear as new columns). It allows
you to see detail and summary rows in one set of results. Row aggregate functions
(SUM, AVG, MIN, MAX, and COUNT) are used in a SELECT statement with the
COMPUTE clause.                                                                               MSN
Specifies a subset of rows from a table to be published and when specific rows need to
be propagated to Subscribers.                                                                 MSN
A lock on a single row in a table.                                                            MSN
The OLE DB object used to contain a result set. It also exhibits cursor behavior
depending on the rowset properties set by an application.                                     MSN
A long established standard interface connection for data equipment. It provides for
only modest transmission rates, and is often used with modems. RS232 cables have
25-pin, D-type connectors on either end. Compared to an AUI cable, which contains
only 15-pins.                                                                                 Gen
An annotation or pronunciation guide for a string of text. The string of text annotated
with ruby text is referred to as the “base text.”                                             MSN

(2) A database object that is bound to columns or user-defined data types, and
specifies which data values are acceptable in a column. CHECK constraints provide the
same functionality and are preferred because they are in the SQL-92 standard. (2) In
Analysis Services, a rule specifies restrictions such as Unrestricted, Fully Restricted, or
Custom for security read and read/write role permissions. See also: role
(1) Rule as defined by the Oklahoma Administrative Procedures Act (APA) means any
agency statement or group of related statements of general applicability and future
effect that implements, interprets, or prescribes law or policy, or describes the
procedures or practice requirements of the agency. The term includes the amendment
or revocation of an effective rule. OKDHS interprets this APA definition to mean a rule
is a statement that informs the public and describes the: rights of applicants,
recipients, and providers; program requirements that applicants, recipients, and
providers must meet; and federal and state requirements that OKDHS must meet.
OKDHS rules are in Title 340 of the Oklahoma Administrative Code and all OKDHS
administrative rule numbers begin with "340:"
The period of time during which a computer program executes. Contrast: modeling
time.                                                                                         RUP
In scripts, portions of an item that have continuous formatting attributes.                   MSN
Functions included with a C compiler that programs can call to perform various basic
operations.                                                                                   MSN
In Java, the software environment in which programs compiled for the Java virtual
machine can run.                                                                              ORA
An agreement between the United States and the European Union (EU) regarding the
transfer of personally identifiable information (PII) from the EU to the United States,
which is consistent with Fair Information Practices. Companies that register for Safe
Harbor with the U.S. Department of Commerce and abide by the agreement are
deemed by the EU to provide adequate data protection for PII transferred from the EU
to the United States.                                                                         MSN

Seven principles agreed to by the United States and the European Union (EU) for the
transfer of personally identifiable information (PII) from the EU to the United States to
which a company must adhere if it registers for Safe Harbor. The seven principles are
categorized into the following subjects: notice; choice; access; onward transfer;
security; data integrity; and enforcement. See also Safe Harbor Agreement.
A technology, policy, or procedure that counters a threat or protects assets.                 MSN

Samba is a free software re-implementation of SMB/CIFS networking protocol released
under the GNU General Public License. As of version 3, Samba not only provides file
and print services for various Microsoft Windows clients but can also integrate with a
Windows Server domain, either as a Primary Domain Controller (PDC) or as a Domain
Member. It can also be part of an Active Directory domain.
Artificially generated data presented instead of actual data when a cube is queried
before it has been processed. Sample data enables you to view the effects of structure
changes while modifying a cube.                                                               MSN
A protective mechanism used in some programming environments that limits a
program's access to system resources. A sandbox restricts a program to a set of
privileges and commands that make it difficult or impossible for the program to cause
any damage to the user's data.                                                                MSN
A marker that allows an application to roll back part of a transaction if a minor error is
encountered. The application must still commit or roll back the full transaction when it is
complete.                                                                                     MSN
The frequency range of 2 to 4 GHz.                                                            Gen
The ability to reach higher levels of performance by adding processors.                       Gen
An aggregate function, such as MIN(), MAX(), or AVG(), that is specified in a SELECT
statement column list that contains only aggregate functions. When the column list
contains only aggregate functions, then the result set has only one row giving the
aggregate values calculated from the source rows that match the WHERE clause
predicates.                                                                                   MSN
The value sent from the keyboard to the keyboard driver that represents which key was
pressed.                                                                                      MSN
A specific sequence of actions that illustrates behaviors. A scenario may be used to
illustrate an interaction or the execution of one or more use-case instances. See:
interaction, test scenario.                                                                   RUP
An automatic backup accomplished by SQL Server Agent when defined and scheduled
as a job.                                                                                    MSN
(1) That structure which contains descriptions of objects created by a user, such as
base tables, views, constraints, etc., as part of a database (A&D). (2) The definition of
an entire database; the universe of objects that can be stored in the directory is defined
in the schema. For each object class, the schema defines what attributes an instance
of the class must have, what additional attributes it may have, and what object class
can be a parent of the current object base. See also object, attribute. (3) In the SQL-92
standard, a collection of database objects that are owned by a single user and form a
single namespace. A namespace is a set of objects that cannot have duplicate names.
For example, two tables can have the same name only if they are in separate schemas;
no two tables in the same schema can have the same name. In Transact-SQL, much of
the functionality associated with schemas is implemented by database user IDs. In
database tools, schema also refers to the catalog information that describes the objects
in a schema or database. In Analysis Services, a schema is a description of
multidimensional objects such as cubes and dimensions. In XML View Mapper, a
schema is a description of XML elements and database definitions that can be mapped
to create a mapping schema.                                                                  Gen
The domain controller assigned to control all updates to the schema within a forest. At
any time, there can be only one schema master in the forest. See also domain
controller, forest, schema.                                                                  MSN
In the context of the MOF, a schema is analogous to a package, which is a container of
model elements. Schema corresponds to an MOF package. Contrast: metamodel,
package corresponds to an MOF package.                                                       RUP

A special OLE DB or Analysis Services rowset that reports catalog information for
objects in databases or multidimensional cubes. For example, the OLE DB schema
rowset DBSCHEMA_COLUMNS describes columns in tables, and the Analysis
Services MDSCHEMA_MEASURES schema rowset describes the measures in a cube.

1. Systematized knowledge derived from observation, study, and experimentation
carried on in order to determine the nature and principles of what is being studied. 2. A
branch of knowledge or study, especially one concerned with establishing and
systematizing facts, principles, and methods, as by experiments and hypotheses. 3. (a)
The systematized knowledge of nature and the physical world. (b) Any branch of this. 4.
Skill or technique based upon systematized training. (Webster's New World Dictionary
of the American Language, Second College Edition, Prentice Hall, 1984)
The systematic attempt to construct theories that correlate wide groups of observed
facts and are capable of predicting the results of future observations. Such theories are
tested by controlled experimentation and are accepted only so long as they are
consistent with all observed facts.                                                          BQ
The process of prioritizing and determining the set of requirements that can be
implemented in a particular release cycle based on the resources and time available.
This process continues throughout the lifecycle of the project as changes occur. See
also: change management.                                                                     RUP
(1) Indicates that the volume is free and available for use. (2) Volume is returned to a
scratch pool to be recreated with new data.                                                  ESS
The system and applications specify the position of a window on the screen in screen
coordinates. The full position of a window is often described by a RECT structure
containing the screen coordinates of two points that define the upper-left and lower-right
corners of the window.                                                                       MSN
A bitmap of an element in a program’s graphical user interface, such as a dialog box or
menu.                                                                                        MSN
(1) A collection of Transact-SQL statements used to perform an operation. Transact-
SQL scripts are stored as files, usually with the .sql extension. (2) A collection of
characters for displaying written text, all of which have a common characteristic that
justifies their consideration as a distinct set. One script can be used for several different
languages (for example, Latin script, which covers all of Western Europe). Some written
languages require multiple scripts (for example, Japanese, which requires at least three
scripts—the hiragana and katakana syllabaries and the kanji ideographs imported from
China). This sense of the word “script” has nothing to do with programming scripts such
as Perl or Visual Basic Scripting Edition (VBScript).

Component that handles character line measurement, display, caret movement,
character selection, justification, shaping, and line breaking for complex scripts.
A programming language designed specifically for Web site programming. Examples
include JavaScript and VBScript.                                                                MSN
The ability to move around a cursor in directions other than forward-only. Users can
move up and down the cursor.                                                                    MSN

In a WHERE or HAVING clause, predicates that specify the conditions that the source
rows must meet to be included in the SQL statement. For example, the statement
SELECT * FROM Employees WHERE Title = 'Sales Representative' returns only those
rows that match the search condition: Title = 'Sales Representative'.
A relation that is in first normal form and has every non-key attribute fully functionally
dependent on the primary key.                                                                   A&D

Uses of personal information for purposes other than those for which the information
was collected. The Fair Information Practices state that a person can provide personal
information for a specific purpose without the fear that it may later be used for an
unrelated purpose without that person's knowledge or consent.
A SAP AG initiative intended to identify products that will protect the communication
links between the distributed components of SAP R/3 software.                                   Gen

(1) A proposed open standard that was developed by Netscape Communications for
establishing a secure communications channel to prevent the interception of critical
information, such as credit card numbers. (2) A protocol for establishing an encrypted
communications channel to help prevent the interception of critical information, such as
credit card numbers on the World Wide Web and other Internet services.
See computer security.