Title of scheme: No. of lessons: 4 Group: 5th years The study of rococo and neo- classicism movement through the work of Houdon, David and Total time: 4 hours 48 minutes No. of pupils: 20 Goya Aims: To develop students knowledge of the movements of rococo and neo-classicism. To introduce the work of artists working during this time e.g. Houdon, David and Goya. To encourage students to analyse imagery in order to discover formal elements such as of form, colour and scale. To develop students knowledge of concepts and why an artist might choose to depict a certain object, figure or period in time. To develop students ability to visually record works of art to strengthen their drawing ability and ability to remember the work. To facilitate students in reading information and looking at imagery in order to answer a list of questions. Overall learning outcomes for the scheme: Students will be able to: Recognise the works from the rococo and neo-classical movement. Describe the backgrounds of Houdon, David and Goya and understand where they fit into the above movements. Analyse the sculptures and painting made by the artist and list the elements of colour, form and scale in order to better understand the piece. Define the reasons behind why the work was made and how this influences how we perceive the piece i.e. is the artist depicting a scene of violence and wants the audience to respond in sympathy to those who are suffering. Produce drawings based on the sculptures and paintings they are studying to develop their skills of memory and drawing accuracy. Houdon French sculptor Jean-Antoine Houdon is known for his lifelike portraits of prominent figures of the 1700s. He created bronze, marble, terra cotta, and plaster portraits of some of the most renowned and respected philosophers, politicians, and free thinkers of his time, including Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Voltaire, and Moliere. Born in Versailles, Houdon won the Prix de Rome in 1761 but was not greatly influenced by ancient and Renaissance art in Rome. His stay in the city is marked by two characteristic and important productions: the superb écorché  (1767), an anatomical model which has served as a guide to all artists since his day, and the statue of Saint Bruno in the church of Santa Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiri in Rome. After ten years stay in Italy, Houdon returned to Paris. Houdon's portrait sculpture of Washington was the result of a specific invitation by Benjamin Franklin to cross the Atlantic specifically to visit Mount Vernon, so that Washington could model for him. Washington sat for wet clay life models and a plaster life mask in 1785. These models served for many commissions of Washington, including the standing figure commissioned by the Legislature of Virginia, and located in the Virginia State Capitol in Richmond. Numerous variations of the Washington bust were produced, portraying him variously as a general in uniform, in the classical manner showing chest musculature, and as Roman Consul Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus clad in a toga. A cast of the latter is located in the Vermont State House. Houdon's sculptures were used as models for the engravings used on various U.S. Postage stamps of the late 19th and early 20th centuries which depict Washington in profile. Winter (cold girl) 1783 "Portrait bust of Madame Houdon, the wife of the artist 1778 Benjamin Franklin David Jacques-Louis David (30 August 1748 – 29 December 1825) was an influential French painter in the Neoclassical style, considered to be the preeminent painter of the era. In the 1780s his cerebral brand of history painting marked a change in taste away from Rococo frivolity toward a classical austerity and severity, heightened feeling chiming with the moral climate of the final years of the Ancien Régime. David later became an active supporter of the French Revolution and friend of Maximilien Robespierre (1758–1794), and was effectively a dictator of the arts under the French Republic. Imprisoned after Robespierre's fall from power, he aligned himself with yet another political regime upon his release, that of Napoleon I. It was at this time that he developed his Empire style, notable for its use of warm Venetian colours. David had a huge number of pupils, making him the strongest influence in French art of the early 19th century, especially academic Salon painting. The Death of Marat La Mort de Marat (French) is a 1793 painting by Jacques-Louis David, and is one of the most famous images of the French Revolution. This work depicts the radical journalist Jean-Paul Marat lying dead in his bath on 13 July 1793 after his murder by Charlotte Corday. Corday, who was from a minor aristocratic family, blamed Marat for the September Massacres and feared an all out civil war, claimed "I killed one man to save 100,000." It has been described as the first modernist painting. Jean-Paul Marat (May 24, 1743 – July 13, 1793), was a Swiss-born French physician, philosopher, political theorist and scientist best known as a radical journalist and politician from the French Revolution. Marat often sought the comfort of a cold bath to ease violent itching due to a skin disease long said to have been contracted years earlier, when he was forced to hide from his enemies in the Paris sewers. David was a close friend of Marat, as well as a strong supporter of the protestant Robespierre and the Jacobins. Due to his difficulty speaking (he had a benign but large facial tumor, the result of an injury sustained while fencing), David was overwhelmed by their natural capacity for convincing crowds with their speeches. Determined to memorialize his friend, David painted this portrait of Marat. Marat's figure is idealized. The Death of Marat is designed to commemorate a personable hero. Although the name Charlotte Corday can be seen on the paper held in Marat's left hand, she herself is not visible. Close inspection of this painting shows Marat at his last breath, when Corday and many others were still nearby (Corday did not try to escape). Therefore, David intended to record more than just the horror of martyrdom. In this sense, for realistic as it is in its details, the painting, as a whole, from its start, is a methodical construction focusing on the victim, a striking set up regarded today by several critics as an "awful beautiful lie"— certainly not a photograph in the forensic scientific sense and barely the simple image it may seem (for instance, in the painting, the knife is not to be seen where Corday had left it impaled in Marat's chest, but on the ground, beside the bathtub). David sought to transfer the sacred qualities long associated with the monarchy and the Catholic Church to the new French Republic. He painted Marat, martyr of the Revolution, in a style reminiscent of a Christian martyr, with the face and body bathed in a soft, glowing light. As Christian art had done it from its beginning, David also played with multileveled references to classical art. Suggestions that Paris could compete with Rome as capital and mother city of the Arts and the idea of forming a kind of new Roman Republic appealed to French Revolutionaries, who often formed David's audience. The Oath of the Horatii (Oil on Canvas, 10' 10" x 13' 11"" 1784 ,Musée du Louvre at Paris ) was commissioned by the Administrator of Royal Residences in 1784 and exhibited at the 1785 Salon under the title The Oath of the Horatii, between their Father's Hands. The story was taken from Titus-Livy. We are in the period of the wars between Rome and Alba, in 669 B.C. It has been decided that the dispute between the two cities must be settled by an unusual form of combat to be fought by two groups of three champions each. The two groups are the three Horatii brothers and the three Curiatii brothers. The drama lay in the fact that one of the sisters of the Curiatii, Sabina, is married to one of the Horatii, while one of the sisters of the Horatii, Camilla, is betrothed to one of the Curiatii. Despite the ties between the two families, the Horatii's father exhorts his sons to fight the Curiatii and they obey, despite the lamentations of the women. David succeeded in ennobling these passions and transforming these virtues into something sublime. Corneille and Poussin had already used this same subject and treated it as a sentimental and aristocratic game. Unlike these, David decided to treat the beginning, rather than the denouement of the action, seeing that initial moment as being charged with greater intensity and imbued with more grandeur. And, it was he who chose the idea of the oath (it is not mentioned in the historical accounts), transforming the event into a solemn act that bound the wills of different individuals in a single, creative gesture. He was not the first painter to do so, but certainly the first to do it in such a stirring manner. The viewer's eye spontaneously grasps two superimposed orders-that of the figures and that of the decor. The first is striking because it is organized into three different groups, each with a different purpose. To the appeal of the elder Horatius in the center, the reply on the left is the spontaneous vigor of the oath, upheld loudly and with a show of strength, while on the right it is a tearful anguish, movement turned in upon itself, compressed into emotion. The distance between the figures accentuates this contrast. To the heroic determination of the men the canvas opposes the devastated grief of the women and the troubled innocence of the children. The decor is reduced to a more abstract order, that of architectural space--massive columns, equally massive arches, opening out onto a majestic shadow. The three archways loosely correspond to the three groups. The contemplative atmosphere is softened by shades of green, brown, pink, and red, all very discreet. Instead of opening his painting out onto a landscape or an expanse of sky, David closes it off to the outside, bathes it in shadow. As a result, the light in this setting takes on a brick-toned reflection, which encircles his figures with a mysterious halo. Through David's rigorous and efficient arrangement, the superior harmony of the colors, and the spiritual density of the figures, this sacrifice, transfigured by the oath, becomes the founding act of a new aesthetic and moral order. He onsciously intended it to be a proclamation of the new neoclassical style in which dramatic lighting, ideal forms, and gestural clarity are emphasized. Presenting a lofty moralistic (and by implication patriotic) theme, the work became the principal model for noble and heroic historical painting of the next two decades. It also launched David's personal popularity and awarded him the right to take on his own students. Goya Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (30 March 1746 – 16 April 1828) was a Spanish romantic painter and printmaker regarded both as the last of the Old Masters and the first of the moderns. Goya was a court painter to the Spanish Crown, and through his works was both a commentator on and chronicler of his era. The subversive and imaginative element in his art, as well as his bold handling of paint, provided a model for the work of later generations of artists, notably Manet, Picasso and Francis Bacon. The third of May The Third of May 1808 (also known as El tres de mayo de 1808 en Madrid, or Los fusilamientos de la montaña del Príncipe Pío, or Los fusilamientos del tres de mayo) is a painting completed in 1814 by the Spanish painter Francisco Goya, now in the Museo del Prado, Madrid. In the work, Goya sought to commemorate Spanish resistance to Napoleon's armies during the occupation of 1808. Along with its companion piece of the same size, The Second of May 1808 (or The Charge of the Mamelukes), it was commissioned by the provisional government of Spain at Goya's suggestion. The painting's content, presentation, and emotional force secure its status as a groundbreaking, archetypal image of the horrors of war. Although it draws on many sources from both high and popular art, The Third of May 1808 marks a clear break from convention. Diverging from the traditions of Christian art and traditional depictions of war, it has no distinct precedent, and is acknowledged as one of the first paintings of the modern era. According to the art historian Kenneth Clark, The Third of May 1808 is "the first great picture which can be called revolutionary in every sense of the word, in style, in subject, and in intention". The Third of May 1808 has inspired a number of other major paintings, including a series by Édouard Manet, and Pablo Picasso's Massacre in Korea as well as his masterpiece Guernica. The Colossus (also known as Giant) is a painting at one time attributed to Francisco de Goya, but now The Colossus was painted between 1808 and 1812. The work has been interpreted in many ways, having received other names, including The Panic and The Storm. The enormous body of the giant takes up the centre of the composition. It seems to adopt an aggressive posture, judging by the position of the arm and the closed fist. The painting was painted during the Peninsular War, and could represent this war. Nigel Glendenning affirms that the painting is based in a patriotic poem by Juan Bautista Arriaza called The Pyrenean Prophecy. In this poem the Spanish population is presented as a giant emerging from the Pyrenees to confront the Napoleonic invasion. The giant's attitude has been the object of various interpretations. It is not known whether he is walking or standing. His posture is also ambiguous; he could be amongst the mountains or buried up to his knees, in a similar vein to other of the Black Paintings such as Fight With Cudgels. The giant's eyes are closed, which could represent blind violence. Contrasting with the stolid figure of the giant, small figures of villagers in the valley seem to be fleeing in all directions, with the exception of a donkey which remains calm, which Luna notes could symbolise the incomprehension of war. ICT: Use the computer and projector to show images of artists work. Photocopiers in the school to print out worksheets highlighting important aspects of the project. Key words/phrases: Rococo, neo-classicism, sculpture, painting, method, media, history, analyse, understand, reading, reflection, drawing, writing Teaching/learning strategies: Create posters based on the timeline of the movements and the artists that will be discussed during the weeks. Show the students’ imagery of sculptures made by Houdon and discuss methods, materials and concepts of the work. Demonstrate the work of David by showing students a video accompanied by a list of questions they must fill out on information they are given in the piece. Discuss the narrative/ concepts of Goyas painting and engravings, highlighting the historical and emotional significance at the time. Give comparative questions i.e. light/ dark. Create a crossword puzzle in which groups of students must come up with the questions for the clues that are given in the crossword. They will have to work together and solve missing clues by asking different groups for their questions. Materials: Projector, handouts, drawing/writing implements Safety precautions: Give the students a demonstration on how to properly use cutting tools. Remind students of the art room cleaning and safety rules. Count all borrowed materials before the class begins, reminding the students that they must return them at the end of the class. Differentiation: Create a plan which outlines everything that will be covered and the time allocated to each task. I will work one on one with those students who develop difficulties and I will assist them in coming up with the answers. I will commend those who are excelling in the group and advise them to continue with the task and communicate their thoughts to others in their group. Week 1 Lesson 1 : Looking at the sculptures of Houdon using handouts and visuals projected on board. Discussion of statement, exponent of 18th Century Neo- Classical style Discussion of illustrated work Name another work by Houdon Brief discussion of other work Sketch Week 2 Lesson 1: Looking at the paintings of David using handouts and visuals projected on board and video. What is the name of the painting? When was it made? What did David think of Marie Antoinette? Who was Marat? What did his paper do? What happened in June 1791? What happened in 1792? Fighting for France meant fighting against…… What did Rouget de Lille do? What happened in August 1792? On January 21st 1793 what happened? Did David vote for the death of Louis the 16th? David sat of the national convention as MP for …? Marat on Robespierre called for what? Who stopped Marat? She bought a black hat with green feathers and a... She pretended she was what? What was David asked to do? Who is the hero? There are two letters. Who wrote them? What does the box indicate? How is the painting a lie? Was Marat really a hero? What was he? Week 3: Lesson 1: Looking at the paintings of Goya using handouts and visuals projected on board and text books. Name the artist and the date of one of his works. What style is “the third of May” painted in? Discuss subject matter, composition and colour. Name 5 opposites you can see in the painting. Sketch Week 4: Lesson 1: Revision of artists using crossword puzzle.