# Fixed rate mortgage

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```					Fixed rate mortgage
Outcomes
•   Understand the kinds of interest rates
•   Calculate fixed rate Mortgages
•   Understand How Real Estate Investors Use Financing
•   Book 10
•    Choose When Is Cash Better Than Financing?
•
•   Analyze Residential Financial Analysis
•
•    Understand Institutional Lenders
•
•   Compare Primary versus Secondary Mortgage Markets
•
•   Compare Mortgage Bankers versus Mortgage Brokers
•   Conventional versus Nonconventional Loans
•
•   Analyze Conforming Loans Nonconforming Loans
•
Basic Time Value Concepts

• The time value of money is the
relationship between time and money.
• According to the present value of
money concept, a dollar earned today
is worth more than a dollar earned in
the future.
• This concept is used to choose among
alternative investment proposals.
Simple and Compound Interests

• Simple interest is determined on the
principal only.
principal x interest rate (%) x time
• Compound interest is determined on:
the principal, and any interest earned (and
not withdrawn).
• Compound interest is the typical
computation applied in most time value
applications.
Variables in Interest Computations

•     Principal: The amount borrowed or
invested
•     Interest rate: A percentage of the
outstanding principle.
•     Time: the number of years or
fractional portion of a year that
principal is outstanding.
Basic Time Diagram
Simple and Compound Interests

• Simple interest is determined on the
principal only.
principal x interest rate (%) x time
• Compound interest is determined on:
the principal, and any interest earned (and
not withdrawn).
• Compound interest is the typical
computation applied in most time value
applications.
Interest Rates and Frequency Compounding

Assumed interest rate per year: 12%
Frequency of               Interest rate per   Number of compounding
Compounding                compounding         periods

Annual                     12%                One (1)

Semi-annual                6%                 Two (2)

Quarterly                  3%                 Four (4)

Monthly                    1%                 Twelve (12)
Complex Situations

Valuation of Long-term Bonds:
• Two cash flows: principal paid at
maturity and periodic interest
payments
Determining Bond Prices: Example

Given:
• Face value of bond issue: \$100,000
• Term of issue:             5 years
• Stated interest rate: 9% per year, payable
annually end of the year
• Market rate of interest:      11%

What is the issue price of the bonds?
10
Determining Bond Prices: Example: Cash Flows

Year 1         Year 2          Year 3       Year 4      Year 5

Interest \$9,000           \$9,000           \$9,000      \$9,000     \$9,000

\$100,000
Redemption at maturity ==>
face value
Interest = \$100,000 x 9% per year stated rate
11
Determining Bond Prices: Example: Present Value of Cash Flows

Year 1          Year 2          Year 3         Year 4         Year 5

Interest \$9,000          \$9,000           \$9,000          \$9,000     \$9,000

\$ 33,263                    Discount at market rate, 11%
\$9,000 x 3.69590
plus
Discount at market rate, 11%
\$100,000 x 0.59345                         \$100,000
\$ 59,345
=\$92,608 is the issue price                                                12
• Copmare between pv and fv
•   How Financing Affects Particular Transactions
•   When valuing residential properties, real estate appraisers generally
•   follow a series of standards set forth by professional associations
•   (the most well-known is the Appraisal Institute). Sales of comparable
•   properties are the general benchmark for value. Appraisers look not
•   just at housing sale prices of comparable houses, but also at the
•   financing associated with the sales of these houses. If the house was
•   owner-financed (discussed in Chapter 9), the interest rate is generally
•   higher than conventional rates and/or the price is inf lated. The price
•   is generally inf lated because the seller’s credit qualifications are
•   looser than that of a bank, which means the buyer will not generally
• Appraisals on income properties are done in a variety of
ways,
• one of which is the “income” approach. The income
approach looks
• at the value of the property versus the rents the property
can produce.
• While financing does not technically come into the
equation, it
• does affect the property’s profitability to the investor. Thus,
a property
• that can be financed at a lower interest rate will be more
attractive
• to the investor if cash f low is a major concern
•   Tax Impact of Financing
•   Down payments made on a property as an investor
•   are not tax-deductible. In fact, a large down payment
•   offers no tax advantage at all because the investor’s
•   tax basis is based on the purchase price,
•   not the amount he or she puts down. However, because
•   mortgage interest is a deductible expense,
•   the investor does better tax wise by saving his or
•   her cash. Think about it: the higher the monthly
•   mortgage payment, the less cash f low, the less taxable
•   income each year. While positive cash f low is
•   desirable, it does not necessarily mean that a property
•   is more profitable because it has more cash
•   f low. A larger down payment will obviously increase
•   monthly cash flow, but it is not always the
•   best use of your money.
•   When Is Cash Better Than Financing?
•   Using all cash to purchase a property may be better than financing
•   in two particular situations. The first situation is a short-term deal,
•   that is, you intend to sell the house shortly after you buy it (known as
•   “f lipping”). When you have the cash to close quickly, you can generally
•   get a tremendous discount on the price of a house. In this case,
•   financing may delay the transaction long enough to lose an opportunity.
•   Cash also allows you to purchase properties at a larger discount.
•   You’ve heard the expression, “money talks, BS walks.” This is particularly
•   true when making an offer to purchase a property through a real
•   estate agent. The real estate agent is more likely to recommend to his
•   or her client a purchase offer that is not contingent on the buyer
•   obtaining bank financing

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