IPv6 Multicast in VANET

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					                                                        (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                        Vol. 10, No. 4, April 2012



                                      IPv6 Multicast in VANET

                   Prof. Uma Nagaraj                                                     Ms. Deesha G. Deotale
          Department of Computer Engineering                                       Department of Computer Engineering
                  M.A.E Alandi (D)                                                         M.A.E Alandi (D)
                      Pune India                                                              Pune, India
              umanagaraj67@gmail.com                                                  disha.deotale21@gmail.com

Abstract-- VANET is the Mobile ad-hoc network, to provide                side units (RSU) are installed around the road. IEEE802.11 is
communications among nearby vehicles and between vehicles and            used to connect between OBUs, and between OBU and RSU.
nearby fixed equipment, usually described as roadside                    Application Unit (AU) is a portable or built-in device
equipment. VANET turns every participating car into a wireless           connected temporarily or permanently to the vehicle’s OBU.
router or node, allowing cars approximately 100 to 300 meters of         OBU also can be connected to the Internet with cellular
each other to connect and, in turn, create a network with a wide
                                                                         networks, WiMAX, etc. These terminologies are proposed in
range. As cars fall out of the signal range and drop out of the
network, other cars can join in, connecting vehicles to one              Car2Car communication consortium (C2C-CC [13]).
another so that a mobile Internet is created. IPv6 support is            For the VANET networks now a day’s support of IPv6 is
needed in vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) with geographical             needed with the geographical routing. The present IPv6
routing. Basic IPv6 protocols such as address auto-configuration         protocols (like auto configuration) assuming that they having
assume multicast capable link. In this we take the geographical          multicast capable link. But, for VANET, the definition of link
information of each car which is in defined Geographical area            becomes ambiguous and it is difficult to support link-scope
through the GPS system, and also capturing the graph of all the          multicast. Artificial emulation of multicast capable link like
car in the network through Google Mapit is presented in the              Ethernet is possible but may cause low efficiency and high
paper, which aims at combining IPv6 networking and C2CNet..
                                                                         cost. Hence the new way to efficiently run IPv6 over VANET
.
                                                                         is needed with minimal cost. we are presenting the new
   Keywords— VANET, IPv6,           Multicasting   V2V,    C2C,          approach for running the IPv6 in VANET for efficiency as
Multicasing, Geonetworking.                                              well as lower cost. Instead of emulation, we rely on
                                                                         geonetworking specific features for IPv6 operation. Our
                     I.       INTRODUCTION                               solution exploits inherent location management’s functions to
     By now the rapid growth of the Internet and the                     efficiently perform fundamental IPv6 protocols, i.e. Neighbor
impending shortage of Internet Protocol (IP) addresses have              Discovery and Stateless Address Auto configuration. This new
been well documented. Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) is              proposed approach is implemented with C2C communication
the next-generation protocol developed by the Internet                   consortium as reference system and exploits its inherent
Engineering Task Force (IETF) to replace the current                     functions in order to perform the IPv6 multicast operations
addressing scheme, Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4).                   with link scope multicast. we have to first design C2C
Vehicles are expected to exchange information beyond their               architecture with IPv6.
immediate surroundings, with other vehicles and the road
infrastructure. Nowadays, communications become essential                The main objective is to combining IPv6 networking and Car-
in the society. Everyone can get information anywhere, even              to-Car       Communication         Consortium’s   (C2C-CC)
in mobility conditions. The vehicle is another place where               GeoNetworking capabilities into a single protocol stack for
users stay for long periods.                                             Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). We see in the
   These day Most of the time human spend in the vehicle.                architecture what is IPv6 GeoNetworking: what functions are
ITS are going to be more and more important technologies in              to be provided, under which conditions it shall operate (e.g.
our life, that enhance safety, driving efficiency and amusing            communication scenarios, communication environment with
by allowing various service such as fleet management,                    or without infrastructure support) and how it shall perform
navigation, billing multimedia application and game. IPv6 is             (e.g. scale to a large number of vehicles).
considered as the most appropriate technologies to support
communication in ITS thanks to its extended address space,                  The organization of this paper as follows: Section II
embedded security, enhanced mobility support and ease of                 explains Design Goal. Section III presents the short overview
configuration. Future vehicles will embed a number of sensors            of Methodology of communication between vehicles. Section
and other devices that could be IPv6 enabled[12] .                       IV describes the      Communication using IPv6 in C2C
                                                                         Architechture. Section V explain IPv6 Multicast overview
In vehicular networks, vehicles equip with on board units                and in Section VI explain communication flow example .
(OBU) to enable the communication with other vehicles.                   Section VII conclusion of the paper.
Vehicle-to-vehicle ad hoc networks are multihop
communication using geographic position, which has been
investigated on GeoNet Project [6]. On the other hand, road-



                                                                   135                             http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
                                                                                                   ISSN 1947-5500
                                                         (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                         Vol. 10, No. 4, April 2012


                     II.      DESIGN GOALS
The design goals which have led to the architecture the
motivations behind IPv6 geonetworking, The type of
applications to be supported i.e. safety, traffic efficiency and
infotainment, and deployment considerations i.e.in-vehicle
networks, backward compatibility, security, scalability,
performance, etc.

The first design goal of the architecture is IPv6 support in the                             Figure 1 IPv6 over C2C Network
architecture shall combine the geonetworking with IPv6
networking. This combination referred as IPv6 Geonetworking               Once the C2CNet ID of OBU2 is obtained, C2CNet generates
                                                                          a new GeoUnicast packet and sends it to OBU2 with the IPv6
The second goal is communication end point in this the                    packet attached as payload. The packet is transmitted to the
architecture support communication between two end points                 nearest OBU to OBU2, i.e. OBU1 and there from
1) Vehical to Vehical(V2V), 2) road side end points i.e vehical           retransmitted up to OBU2. Once at OBU2, the GeoUnicast
to infrastructure (V2I) and infrastructure to Vehical (I2V) or            packet is decoded and its payload (IPv6 packet) is delivered to
3) internet end points.                                                   AU2 through tun0. Overall process of IPv6 over C2CNet is
                                                                          illustrated in Figure 1. AU1 sends IPv6 packets to OBU1 that
Third goal of the architecture is Geographic data transmission            is the default router of in-vehicle network. OBU1 receives the
shall support data transmission from a vehicle node or an                 packets on the ingress interface (eth0 in Figure 2) and removes
infrastructure node to                                                    MAC header of the packets. Then IP header and payload part
 i)       another vehicle or infrastructure node in a certain             are transmitted into the tun0 virtual interface by the
          geographic position,                                            preconfigured rules of IP Filter 1. The C2CNet module reads
 ii)       a set of vehicles or infrastructure nodes in a certain         the data from tun0 and parses the information of the IP header.
          geographic zone or                                              The destination IPv6 address is used to distinguish
 iii)      an arbitrary vehicle or infrastructure node in a               communication type whether unicast or multicast by the first 8
          certain geographic zone.                                        bits which are correspondent to GeoUnicast and
                                                                          GeoBroadcast, respectively. In unicast case, the next hop IPv6
The fourth goal is communication mode vehicle shall able to               address is resolved from the routing table via netlink library by
form self organized ad-hoc communication network without                  the destination IPv6 address. The last 64-bits of the next hop
infrastructure coordination or the network may or may not be              IPv6 address is correspondent to the destination C2CNet.
connected to the infrastructure
                                                                          ID. In multicast case, destination C2CNet information are pre-
                                                                          configured depending on the destination IPv6 address (i.e. if
The fifth goal is destination set routing function efficiently            the destination address is link-local all node multicast address
support point-to- point ,point-to-multipoint communication                (ff02::1), the latitude and longitude are as well as those of
                                                                          OBU1 and the radius is 500 meter). The data with C2CNet
   In vehicle embedded IP nodes shall be accessible from the              header, IPv6 header and payload are sent to LowerLayer
                                                                          module via local UDP socket. LowerLayer module adds MAC
internet and be able to communicate with any peer nodes
                                                                          eader over C2CNet header and transmits the frame into the
attached to the internet.                                                 air.The intermediate node (OBU3) receives the frame and re-
                                                                          transmits the frame when C2CNet modules find that the frame
                                                                          should be retransmitted to reach the destination with multihop
                       III. METHODOLOGY                                   manner. Finally, OBU2 receives the frame and on the egress
   The implementation of IPv6 geonetworking. On RSU, the                  interface. Then Lowerlayer module removes the MAC
C2CNet layer gets IPv6 unicast packets from AU1 through                   header.And C2CNet module finds that the destination of the
tun0. By checking the IPv6 packet destination address, it looks           C2CNet packet is OBU2. The IPv6 header and payload are
up the routing table via Routing Netlink to obtain the IP next            sent to the tun0 virtual interface. The packet is routed to egress
hop. From the IP Next Hop, C2CNet gets the C2CNet ID of                   interface (eth0). And AU2 receives the IPv6 packet that sent
OBU2, which corresponds to the last 64bits in the IP Next                 from AU1.
Hop address.
                                                                                      IV.       C2C-CC ARCHITECTURE MODEL
                                                                          We consider the Car-to-Car Communication Consortium
                                                                          (C2C-CC) architecture as the reference of our work. The main
                                                                          objective of C2C-CC is to ensure car-to-car and multihop
                                                                          communication for both safety and non-safety applications
                                                                          taking into consideration both the availability and non-
                                                                          availability of the roadside infrastructure.




                                                                    136                                http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
                                                                                                       ISSN 1947-5500
                                                       (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                       Vol. 10, No. 4, April 2012


C2C-CC is designing an original network protocol (C2C)                  nodes hosting other networking functions (e.g. DNS) and other
tailored for vehicular environments and relying on position             third parties.
based routing. This protocol defines a separate the C2C header
with a separate C2C identifier, tentatively 64-bit length,              The architecture supports safety, non safety and infotainment
identifying C2C nodes. The C2C header is planned to carry               types of applications and considers communications involving
the source C2C identifier, the destination C2C identifier, the          nodes located in the vehicle sub-system.
source geographic location and the destination geographic               • Infrastructure-less communications: between vehicles alone
location.                                                               without infrastructure support;
Some applications are directly running over the C2C layer and
                                                                        • Infrastructure-based communications: between vehicles and
some are indirectly over IPv6. We focus on the second case.
                                                                        roadside peers or Internet peers.
C2C-CC also requires IPv6 support for its system to run such
applications as infotainment. This demands results in                   The mode of communication could be either point-to-point
including an IPv6 stack in the main protocol architecture .             (uncast or any cast), or point-to multipoint (multicast). For
                                                                        both modes, introduces a geographic range of communication
                                                                        (respectively GeoUnicast, GeoAnycast and GeoBroadcast).
                                                                        The geonetworking features are only implemented into the
                                                                        mobile routers and access routers which are respectively
                                                                        referred to as OBUs and RSUs. All of these system
                                                                        components are independent IPv6 networks linked over the
                                                                        Internet. OBUs and RSUs form a vehicular ad-hoc network
                                                                        (VANET) cloud. Routing is performed using geonetworking
                                                                        addressing and routing. Among several options, it was
                                                                        concluded that IPv6's multicast capabilities would best fit the
                                                                        objective of combining IPv6 and geonetworking into a single
                                                                        communication architecture. IP multicast is used to efficiently
                                                                        propagate data packets to a set of recipients .The principle of
                                                                        IP multicast is that only one copy of a given packet is
                                                                        transmitted on any given link, and only to the condition that
                                                                        there is are known destinations reachable through this link.
                 Figure 2 C2C-CC Architechture                                                V.         IPV6 MULTICAST

The communication system components include the vehicle
                                                                        Multicast mechanism is communication is one packet send to s
sub-system, the roadside sub-system, the central sub-system
                                                                        set of receiver vehicle node in selected area. Source address is
i.e in charge of providing application and network services and
                                                                        send to the multicast receiver known as listener .The source
other functions to vehicles and the roadside and the personal
                                                                        needed the multicast destination address so that it can send to
subsystem i.e third parties located in the Internet
                                                                        all the receiver at a time in selected area of the source location.
communicating with ITS-dedicated components and typically
                                                                        So multicast listener protocol Discovery protocol(MLD) used
belonging to the users, possibly portable and themselves
                                                                        to manage the group membership on link . it provide separate
brought into vehicles.
                                                                        behavior for multicast address i.e. host or router to multicast
IPv6 nodes located in any of these sub-systems or anywhere in           packet. Here we used the MLDv2 protocol ,it include the
the Internet and communicating end-to-end using on one hand             source filtering mechanism which enable router or hosts.
IPv6 and on the other hand GeoNetworking capabilities. The
IPv6 entities involved in GeoNet communications are:                    For the geographical IPv6 multicast addressing in VANET. To
                                                                        analyzing the first the probability to adapt IPv4 multicast
 1. IPv6 nodes located in the vehicle sub-system: the IPv6              address with the target area. The lower layer manage the
Mobile Router (MR) and its attached IPv6 nodes (respectively,           geographical area such as geo broadcast. The communication
the On-Board Unit (OBU) and Application Units (AUs));                   is done one node to all nodes in the destination area is called
                                                                        Geo-broadcast . The structure of the IPv6 Geo-broadcast .
 2. IPv6 nodes located in the roadside sub-system: the IPv6             address in C2C network have total 128 bit long divided in to
Access Router (AR) and its attached IPv6 nodes (respectively            six parts
the Roadside Unit (RSU) and AUs);

 3.IPv6 nodes located in the Internet: IPv6 nodes located in
the central or personal sub-systems or anywhere in the Internet
and corresponding with vehicles and the roadside. These
typically include ITS-dedicated servers, the Home Agent,                   Figure 3 structure of IPv6 multicast address using C2C Geo-broadcast




                                                                  137                                  http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
                                                                                                       ISSN 1947-5500
                                                                     (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                     Vol. 10, No. 4, April 2012




    Figure 4. IPv6 multicast address for square destination
In C2C NET layer, C2C NET ID represents also a location
information maintained in a specific location table. For
example, we can consider the following cases:
• In around Geo-broadcast approach, the packet is delivered to
a circular area around the source. When Radius is 1500
(0x5dc), GroupID is 1. The IPv6 multicast address could be
considered as: ff00:0000:0000:0000:0000:05dc:0001
• In Area Geo-broadcast approach, the packet is delivered to
the specific geographic circular area. When Radius is 1500
(0x5dc),     GroupID      is    1,    C2C      NET     ID     is                                   Figure 6. IP multicast in vehicular network
AAAABBBBCCCCDDDD. The IPv6 multicast address of
this       area       could        be      considered        as:
ff0e:AAAA:BBBB:CCCC:DDDD:05dc:0001.                                                 At the same time, car A sends the same warning message to a
Geograpical IP multicast is one of the great challenge.                             traffic hazard control centre. The message is forwarded by
Multicast group is closely depend on the geographical area.                         RSU1 and reaches the control center through the Internet. The
Size of location is depend on the application it may be circular                    control centre periodically dispatches the warning to RSUs
or square are consider.                                                             serving the target geographic area (here only RSU2). RSU2
                                                                                    transmits the warning to all the cars located in the target
                                                                                    geographic area (cars D, E, F).
                                                                                    The road traffic hazard information (black ice) is transmitted
                                                                                    to all the vehicles located in a target geographic area
                                                                                    (GeoDestination). Transmission is performed immediately to
       Figure 5 . IPv6 multicast address for circular destination area
                                                                                    the set of nearby vehicles and repetitively to all the vehicles

all vehicles are equipped with powerful digital maps. The                                      VII.      CONCLUSIUON AND FUTURE WORK
information provided by the latter could be used in order to
define the target area. Several works exploit this information
for data forwarding and dissemination geographic area or there
is no vehicle able to forward it further                                            to analyze the possibility to perform IPv6 multicast for
                                                                                    VANET by considering the availability of geographical
                                                                                    information and digital maps. One of the main contributions of
                            VI.        EXAMPLE                                      this paper is the definition of new address format in order to
Vehicles are expected to be able to exchange information with                       encode geographical and analysis the possibility to integrate
other vehicles as well as with the road infrastructure and                          the digital maps information into IPv6 address. In addition to
Internet peers. The exchange of information with vehicles in a                      IPv6 multicast addressing format, two operational multicast
particular geographic area - potentially far away from the                          solutions, which could be adapted to VANET are presente
information source - requires reliable and scalable                                 forwarding proxy and static multicast routing. To shows that
communication capabilities. To refer these capabilities as                          how to enable IPv6 networking over C2CNet which is specified in
                                                                                    Car2Car Communication Consortium as a geographic routing
IPv6 geonetworking allows for both IPv6 and non-IPv6
                                                                                    protocol. Then the system is divided into three functionalities and
communications, opening the door for new applications that
                                                                                    implemented as three modules in Java. In future Dynamically
require data to be transmitted to explicit geographical areas,
                                                                                    locate necessary services.
either for infotainment or safety.

In the fig:6 is simple example of the different communication                                                   REFERENCES
mode and the destination range .
Car A detects a Black Ice area ahead. It sends the warning
message to all vehicles in a specified surrounding target
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geographic area. The message is received by car B. Car B
                                                                                    valuation for IPv6 over VANET Geographic routing,”
forwards in turn the warning to car C, and so on, until the
                                                                                    WCMC ’10, June 28 - July 2, 2010, Caen, France
message reaches the boundary of the specified target
                                                                                    [2] Prof. Uma Nagaraj,Ms. Deesha Deotale “study of
                                                                                    Communication using IPv6 inVANET” International journal
                                                                                    IJCSCN vol1(3).




                                                                              138                                 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
                                                                                                                  ISSN 1947-5500
                                                      (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                      Vol. 10, No. 4, April 2012


[3] Yacine Khaled, Ines Ben Jemaa, Manabu Tsukada and
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[4] JinHyeock Choi, Yacine Khaled, Manabu Tsukada and
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 [13] Car-to-car communication consortium:
http://www.car-to-car.org.




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