Step up to Writing.ppt

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					Step up to Writing
     Training Workshop
          Jennifer Nehl
  Innovative Education Solutions
               Who is writing…
                 who isn’t?
• Students in urban fringe schools had higher
  average writing scores than their peers in
  central city schools and rural schools at all
  three grades. Fourth- and eighth-grade
  students in rural schools had higher scores
  than their peers in central city schools,
  while the reverse was true at grade 12.
•   The NCES National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 1998 and 2002 Writing
                                                                         Assessments.
        Who is writing…
          who isn’t?
• In 2005, females outperformed males, on
  average, by 17 points at grade 4, 21 points at
  grade 8, and 25 points at grade 12. The decline in
  the average score for male twelfth-graders in the
  last decade resulted in an increase in the gap
  between male and female students.


         •   NCES National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Writing Assessments
  WHO IS WRITING…
  WHO IS READING AND WHO IS
  NOT?
  WHO ISN’T?
•The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) shows that
40% of U.S. adolescents have difficulty comprehending specific factual
information.
•Research shows that 82 % of Americans that do not attend any form of
higher education will complete only seven forms of expository writing
pieces upon graduation and will compose less than one complete letter
(formal or informal) a year.
•80% of all material read upon high school graduation is expository.
•Few pre-teens and teens have progressed to advanced reading and
writing; fewer than 5% of the teens tested by NAEP could extend or
elaborate the meanings of text.
•Each day, people in the US spend 4 hours watching TV, 3 hours listening
to the radio and 14 minutes reading magazines.
                                --Veronis, Suhler & Associates investment banker
Who is writing…
who isn’t?
58% of the US adult population never reads another book after
      high school.
42% of college graduates never read another book.
80% of US families did not buy or read a book last year.
20% of adults in the U.S. Read at or below the fifth grade
      level.                       --National adult literacy survey reported
                                           in publishers weekly, January 6, 2005.


Research shows the #1 indicator of academic success of a
student is the frequency of being read to between the ages of
1-4
The #2 indicator of academic success was his/her writing
experience in grades k-4.
Who is writing…
who isn’t?
"HALF OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE
HAVE NEVER READ A NEWS-
PAPER. HALF HAVE NEVER VOTED
FOR PRESIDENT. ONE HOPES IT
IS THE SAME HALF."
                  --GORE VIDAL, AUTHOR.
    What is Step Up to
        Writing?
• Grandma said when you come on
  something good, first thing to do is
  to share it with whoever you can
  find; that way, the good spreads out
  where no telling it will go. Which is
  right.
         -Forrest Carter, The Education of Little Tree   (1.1)
Why do we need STEP UP
    to WRITING?
            We built good,
             elaborate
             “highways” for
             students to
             follow …

            (6 + 1 Writing
              Traits, etc.)
      But we forgot…
• They don’t
  know how to
  drive!
This is a way of
 starting out step
 by step.
Step Up to Writing is
About:
• Direct Instruction
• Guided Practice
• Opportunities for
  Independent Practice
• If you expect it, you must
 teach it!                 (1.2)
 How many golf balls has
   Tiger Woods hit?
• 4-14 repetitions to learn
  something new
• Students with disabilities
  need 250-350 repetitions
  over the years
• STEP UP provides practice!
                         (1.2)
Step Up to Writing is
About Tools for your
TeachingTool Box
• Multisensory (folding paper)
• Color (Strips, highlighters, dots)
• Word Lists (transitions, topic sentences,
  etc.)
• Informal Outlines (Many forms)
• Examples (Student & professional writers)
• Small Steps


                                       (1.1-1.5)
Step Up to Writing Is
About the Writing Process
• Prewriting and Planning

• Drafting, Revising, and Editing

• Creating a Final Copy, Proofreading,
  and Sharing

                                     (1.6)
Step Up to Writing is About
Promoting the Traits of
Good Writing
•   Content        • Vocabulary
•   Organization   • Sentence
•   Style            Structure
•   Idea           • Conventions
                   • Presentation


                                    (1.6-1.7)
Step Up to Writing is
About Common
Expectations
• Common Language
  – Same terminology
  – Builds on instruction
• Common high expectations
  – Quality writing required in all classes
  – Cross curricular transference
 Find an “elbow partner.”
• #1 Partner becomes the person
  whose birthday is closest to today.
  (Past or future…just closest!)
• #2 Partner is the other one.
• Read the following paragraph and
  comment on it to your partner. What
  is good? What could be better?
Golf is a great sport to play. It’s
fun to pound a golf ball around for
nine to eighteen holes. However, to
become good you need lots of
practice and mental toughness.
Practice is easy to come by, but we
need toughness too. Personally, I
need a lot of mental toughness.
Golf can be really fun if you are
playing well, but if you are playing
badly, it can cause frustration.
                            Refer to (1-33,34)
Why do we need to teach
expository writing to all
students at all grade levels?
1. Most school writing will be expository writing.
2. Expository writing teaches clear and logical
   thinking.
3. Expository writing helps students learn
   content.
4. Expository writing prepares students
      for the business world.
5. SUTW offers strategies and tools to teach
     expository writing if ‘we’ were never taught
     how!!
The keys to an effective
paragraph:
Expository paragraphs need:
• A title
• A topic sentence
• Transitions
• Good explanations and examples
• A conclusion
    Let’s say we will be
    writing about gangs.
• What can
  we do to get
  ideas for
  our
  paragraph?
                  Gang
                  Movies
Cause Problems




                   Gangs
                           Gang
                           Songs
                 Stay
                 Away
Gangs are just a bunch of people
with nothing better to do. Gangs
cause problems. I would not join a
gang. Well, maybe if I was with my
friends but probably not. My mom
is against gangs. The movies are
filled with gangs and there are a
lot of songs about gangs. Stay
away from gangs they are bad for
you.
                  Gang
                  Movies
Cause Problems




                   Gangs
                           Gang
                           Songs
                 Stay
                 Away
   What’s missing?

ORGANIZATION




               Refer to (1-8,11,12)
The keys to an effective
paragraph:
Expository paragraphs need:
• A title
• A topic sentence
• Transitions
• Good explanations and examples
• A conclusion
   The Five Elements of
    Expository Writing
• Organization is the key.
• Topic sentences and thesis
  statements are the heart.
• Transitions are the glue.
• Examples, evidence, and explanations
  are the meat.
• Conclusions tie it all together.
   Great Expository
      Paragraphs
Organization
   is the
    key.
Using Colors to Teach
    Organization
    Go!     Write a topic sentence

    Slow    Give a reason, detail, or fact. Use a
    Down    transition.

   Stop!    Explain. Give an example.

     Go
    Back!   Remind the reader of your topic.

                                        2.11
Topic Sentence:
• Green means “go.”
• Green asks the writer to decide—
  – “What am I going to prove?”
    (reason)
  – “What am I going to explain?”
    (detail)
  – “What information will I share?”
    (fact)
Reasons/Details/Facts:
• Yellow means “slow down.”
• Introduce key concepts to support the
  topic sentence.
• The main supporting ideas (reasons, details
  or facts) for the topic sentence.
• Look for common patterns or categories in
  the brainstorming.


                                      2.11
Explain:
• Red means “stop and explain.”
• Present evidence.
• Provide explanation and
  examples.



                              2.11
Conclusion:
•   Green means “go back to your topic.”
•   Restate the topic and the position.
•   Do not introduce new information.
•   Use synonyms and leave your reader
    with something to remember.



                                   2.11
  ACTIVITY ONE



Cats…
    Informal Outlines
Topic= Cats can protect themselves.
    R/D/F
    (First) Can get away
    from their enemies
                           Run fast
                           Climb trees
    R/D/F
    (Next) Good
    fighters               Sharp claws
                           Sharp incisors



                                            1-18 a,b,c
Brainstorm: Ways cats
  protect themselves


         Ways cats protect
           themselves
      ACTIVITY 2
  Practice Categorizing
• To get students to select the
  yellows, they must be able to look at
  the exmaples (reds) and pick
  categories that the reds will fit into.
• Practice categorizing “games.”
        Activity 3
     Informal Outline
• Create an
  informal
  outline of
  your ideas
  using “cave
  man talk.”
   Accordion Paragraph
Increase paragraph length by adding
  more supporting main ideas and/or
  details.
• Eight Sentence Paragraph
• Nine Sentence Paragraph
• Eleven Paragraph
         Activity 4
    Accordion Paragraph
     Begin at 2nd grade
• When teaching, even to older
  students, keep the concept simple
  the first time.
• Fold paper (hamburger, & again)
• Add colored dots
•     Fill in complete sentences.
TOPIC




REASON/DETAIL/FACT




EXPLAIN




EXPLAIN




                     1-24
REASON/DETAIL/FACT




EXPLAIN




EXPLAIN




CONCLUSION
TOPIC
Cats protect themselves in two ways.



REASON/DETAIL/FACT
First, they are able to get away quickly from
their enemies.


EXPLAIN
Cat are fast runners.



EXPLAIN
They can climb trees, too.




                                                2.8
REASON/DETAIL/FACT
Next, cats are good fighters.

EXPLAIN
Cats’ sharp claws can inflict pain and discourage
attackers.


EXPLAIN
They can also use their pointed incisors to bite
their enemies when necessary.


CONCLUSION
Felines can take care of themselves.




                                               2.8
 Informal Outlines:   Kindergarten


Topic= Plants
    Sun

    Water

    Soil



                                     1-18, 1-30
Other Kinds of Outlines:
        Decimal
• Topic=________________
1.0____________________
   1.1___________________
      1.1.1________________
      1.1.2_______________
   1.2___________________
      1.2.1________________
      1.2.2________________
Other Kinds of Outlines:
        Shapes
Topic=____________________
 _______________________




_______________________
Other Kinds of Outlines:
       Numbers
Topic=_____________________
1_________________________
  2_______________________
     3_____________________
      3_____________________
  2_______________________
      3____________________
      3____________________
Other Kinds of Outlines:
        Letters
Topic=____________________
R (reason)_________________
  e (explain)_______________
  e ______________________
R (reason)_________________
  e (explain)________________
  e ______________________
Other Kinds of Outlines:
  Traditional Formal
Topic = _____________________
I.__________________________
   A._______________________
       1._____________________
       2._____________________
            a. _________________
            b. _________________
    B.
     Informal Outlines
Topic= Fun ways to spend a million dollars




                                        2.9-2.13
     Informal Outlines
Topic= Fun ways to spend a million dollars
    Shopping

    Travel




                                        2.9-2.13
     Informal Outlines
Topic= Fun ways to spend a million dollars
    Shopping
                           New wardrobe,
                           Nordstroms
    Travel
                           Paris



                                        2.9-2.13
       Activity 5
 Write on colored strips
Write each sentence from the outline
 on the corresponding colored strip.
Green= topic and conclusion
Yellow= main supporting ideas (R/D/F)
Red= examples, explanations, evidence
    Outline to Paragraph
If I had a million dollars, I would have a good
 time spending it.
    Outline to Paragraph
If I had a million dollars, I would have a good
 time spending it.

First, I would go shopping.
    Outline to Paragraph
If I had a million dollars, I would have a good
 time spending it.

First, I would go shopping.


A new wardrobe from Nordstroms is a must.
      Outline to Paragraph
If I had a million dollars, I would have a good
 time spending it.

First, I would go shopping.

A new wardrobe from Nordstroms is a must.


Next, I would travel.
     Outline to Paragraph
If I had a million dollars, I would have a good
 time spending it.

First, I would go shopping.

A new wardrobe from Nordstrom is a must.


Next, I would travel.


Visiting Paris has always been a dream.
   Outline to Paragraph
If I had a million dollars, I would have a good
 time spending it.

First, I would go shopping.

A new wardrobe from Nordstrom is a must.

Next, I would travel.


Visiting Paris has always been a dream.

Being wealthy would clearly provide many interesting
benefits.
       Fun Being Rich

   If I had a million dollars, I would
have a good time spending it. First, I
would go shopping. A new wardrobe
from Nordstroms is a must. Next, I
would travel. Visiting Paris has always
been a dream. Being wealthy would
clearly provide many interesting
benefits.
      Reasons Outline
Topic= Reasons for Learning to Swim
    Safety reasons
                         Help yourself
                         Save others
    Social reasons
                         Parties
                         Vacations
                         Summertime


                                         2.15
      Details Outline
Topic= The Wedding
    Beautiful Bride
                      Simple and elegant

    Clever table
    decorations       Cages with birds


    Wonderful food
                      Ethnic


                                         2.15
       Facts Outline
Topic= Mountain Ranges
    Andes
    Mountains            4,500 miles
                         In South America
                         Longest mountain chain
                         Height 10,000 ft.

    Rocky
    Mountains            3,000 miles
                         Mexico to Alaska
                         Made by volcanic
                         activity



                                            2.15
 Fold paper: hotdog then
hamburger fold = 4 parts
• Create an informal outline of your
  own for the following ideas.
• Remember, write quickly in “cave man
  talk.”
• Topic= in green
• Main ideas Reasons/Details/Facts=
  yellow
• Examples/explanations/evidence= red
   Differentiation Idea
         Example
Same assignment:
• Give students with disabilities a frame
  outline asking for 1 yellow and 2 red
• Give students who need a challenge 3
  yellow and 7 red
• To begin, tell students how many yellow
  and red you want. Or you could have a
  minimum number. Later, they may decide.
      Reasons Outline
Topic= 2 reasons to send students to our school
     Reason



     Reason
      Details Outline
Topic= Description of _________school.
    Detail

    Detail

    Detail
       Facts Outline
Topic= Information about ______school.

    Fact



    Fact
     Great Expository
        Paragraphs
Topic sentences and thesis statements
             are the heart
3. However Statements
• Creates a compound sentence
• Independent clauses are joined by a
  conjunctive adverb
• The “however” is preceded by a
  semicolon and followed by a comma.

      My father is very strict; however, he has
      good reasons for all his rules.
  However Statements

• Conjunctive Adverbs
  –   As a result    -However
  –   Consequently   -Therefore
  –   Furthermore    -Nevertheless
  –   In fact
  –   Meanwhile
  –   Likewise
          “Things Trap”

• Weak:
   As I read about Ben Franklin, I learned
   two things.
• Better:
   As I read about Ben Franklin, I learned
   that his life was filled with challenges.
     Better Word Choices
•   Actions        •   Ideas
•   Benefits       •   Items
•   Features       •   Choices
•   Reasons        •   Qualities
•   Improvements   •   Thoughts
Expository Paragraphs
  Need Transitions



    Transitions are the glue
       for the key ideas
 Expository Paragraphs
   Need Transitions
• Transitions: (Direct attention like a
  ringmaster of the circus)
• Without them, it is like beginning to
  drive a stick shift…jerky!
  – Introduce new key ideas
  – Connect reasons, details, or facts
  – Help the writer and the reader
Placement of Transitions
• The transition goes with each yellow
  idea.

• On your outline, include the
  transition in the yellow section.
Topic= Advice to a new teacher




                                 4-5,6,7,8,9
Topic= Advice to a new teacher
          (First) Get Organized

          (Second) Get a mentor

 First, a new teacher should get organized.
 Second, a new teacher should get a mentor.
     Common Transition Sets-List A
         Give students a copy.
•   One way-Another way    • A good-A better-The
•   First-Another-Next       best
•   First-Second-Third     • One-Another-Finally
•   The first-The second   • First of all-Second-
•   One-Then-Another         Last
•   One-Also               • First of all-Next-The
                             final
•   One example-Another
    example                • First of all-in
                             addition-Finally
                           • First-In addition-
                             Equally important
        More Transition Sets
•   At first-After
•   One-Equally important
•   The first-The second
•   To begin-Then consequently
•   It started when-As a result-Then-Thereafter
•   At the beginning-Then-Following this-Finally
•   One important-Another important-The most
    important
•   Initially-Then-After that
•   As soon as-Next-Later-In the end
•   To begin-At the same time-Finally
•   To start-Furthermore-Additionally-Last
   Vary Your Transitions
First, a new teacher should get
  organized.

Change to:

One important idea is for a new
 teacher to get organized.
  Bury Your Transitions
• Instead of:
  Second, a new teacher should get a
  mentor.

• Try:
  Getting a mentor is a second key to
   success.
    Vary and Bury Your
       Transitions
• Instead of:
  Second, a new teacher should get a
  mentor.
• Instead of:
  Getting a mentor is a second key to
    success.
  – Try:
      Finding a mentor is another key to
      success.
Transitional Expressions

• Transitions for a specific text
  structure
  – To explain a cause or an effect
    •   Because of
    •   As a result
    •   Since
    •   Consequently
    Great Expository
        Paragraphs
• Examples, evidence, and
  explanations are the meat.
  –Information to back up
   your reasons, details, or
   facts.
              The “E”s

• The E’s support your topic sentence.
• E’s make your writing interesting and
  believable:
   -Examples             -Events
   -Explanations         -Experiences
   -Elaborations         -Expert opinions
   -Evidence             -Effective Illustrations
   -Everyday life
 Guided Highlighting
 A good way to have students
check their writing for sufficient
detail is to have them highlight
their paragraphs. If there is not
enough red, there is not enough
E’s, and the development is lacking.
   Guided Highlighting
Creatures of all sizes find ways to keep
themselves clean. Large animals like elephants
head to rivers to cool off and clean up. After
bathing in the cool water the elephant powders
itself. Elephants use dust as powder to keep the
bugs from biting. Smaller animals like rabbits also
take time to clean. They often lick their ears and
scrub them to keep them clean. Finally, little
creatures like birds enjoy bathing in puddles.
When they finish, they comb their feathers. This
is called preening. Bath time, it seems, isn’t just
for you and me.
   Guided Highlighting
Creatures of all sizes find ways to keep
themselves clean. Large animals like elephants
head to rivers to cool off and clean up. After
bathing in the cool water the elephant powders
itself. Elephants use dust as powder to keep the
bugs from biting. Smaller animals like rabbits also
take time to clean. They often lick their ears and
scrub them to keep them clean. Finally, little
creatures like birds enjoy bathing in puddles.
When they finish, they comb their feathers. This
is called preening. Bath time, it seems, isn’t just
for you and me.
   Writing Great
    Conclusions


Conclusions tie it all
     together.
   Tips for Writing
     Conclusions

Restate the position using different
words. Use the same idea as the
topic sentence, but state it
differently.
      Tips for Writing
        Conclusions

Avoid: (Weakens statement)

  As I have said
  As I have proved
  As you can see
      Tips for Writing
        Conclusions

6. Vary the sentence structure
7. Use a quotation
8. Imitate the professionals (Use
   literature for examples)
  Group Activity:
  Summing it up
T= Wyoming, a great place to live.
Get in groups of 6. (One note card for each.)
#1- Write topic sentence (Remember to
      use one of the 3 types)
#2 1st yellow with transition
#3 Red for 1st yellow idea
#4 2nd yellow with transition
#5 Red for 2nd yellow idea
#6 Writes concluding sentence
 Share with a partner
Within the content and grade
level that you teach, in what
way could you have students
write each of these types of
paragraphs that follow?
    Different Kinds of
        Paragraphs
Use the Accordion method for writing:

   • Summaries              •   Information
   • Process paragraph      •   Cause & effect
   • List paragraph         •   Problem/solution
   • Compare &              •   Entertaining
     Contrast               •   Current events
   • Persuasive             •   Math processes
                            •   Descriptive
     Writing Summaries
         Reflects the yellows

1. A summary is a shortened, condensed
   version.
2. The purpose of a summary is to share
   the main ideas.
3. Summaries keep the same tone as the
   original piece and do not contain opinion.
4. Summaries do not require a formal
   conclusion.
   A Four-Step Summary
        Paragraph
• Step 1      Write a topic sentence using the
              three-part topic sentence method
              (the burrito fold).
Identify the item   Select a verb   Finish your thought


• Step 2      Copy this sentence to look like a real
              sentence. Fix spelling and
              capitalization errors.
• Step 3      Create a fact outline (three yellows).
• Step 4      Use your fact outline to write the
              summary paragraph.
                                                          1-33
                    Step 1
• Write a topic sentence using the
  three part topic sentence method.
  (The burrito fold)

Identify the item    Select a verb   Finish your thought


 Chapter 2 of       describes         how Tom got
 The Adventures                       others to do his
 of Tom Sawyer                        work.
 by Mark Twain
     Verb Reference List for
           Summaries
Acknowledges Evaluates    Classifies   Adds
Defends      Asserts      Features     Depicts

Identifies   Entertains   Confirms     Names

Considers    Offers       Judges       Contrasts

Praises      Demonstrates Provides     Recommends

Endorses     Asks         Suggests     entices
Step 2- Copy this sentence to look
       like a real sentence.
Chapter two of The Adventures of Tom
Sawyer by Mark Twain describes how
Tom got others to do his work for him.
• Step 3- Create a fact outline (Yellows)
  -whitewash fence as punishment
  -plan to make the whitewashing look fun
  -buddies come by & beg for a turn
  -work gets done with no effort byTom
        Elementary
      Charlotte’s Web
WHO         ACTION      FINISH
              Elementary
            Charlotte’s Web
  WHO             ACTION       FINISH
Charlotte           helps       Wilber




Templeton           eats       leftovers



 Wilber            sleeps     in the straw
                   Elementary
                 Charlotte’s Web
    WHO                ACTION            FINISH
  Charlotte              helps            Wilber
  a brilliant       enables, rescues,   to have hope.
   spider,              befriends
                        comforts,
                       encourages

 Templeton                eats           leftovers
 a fat, greedy      consumes, devours    at the fair.
      rat
   Wilber                sleeps         in the straw
an innocent pig,    slumbers, snoozes    all day long.
 Read a story or piece of text
Do together:
T=_________________________
Brainstorm the details in random
  order.
Create an outline with a title and color
  coded items.
Write about the main ideas of
  narrative or expository writing.
     Compare and Contrast
Title = Shoes
Step 2: List 12 descriptors for each pair
First Pair             Second Pair
  Brown                Black
  Loafers              Lace up
  Rubber soles         New

                                        3.25
   Compare and Contrast
Step 4:     Create Categories (These will be the
            yellows)

Age               Decoration        Safety
Brand             Fasteners         Size
Color             Heels             Sole
Comfort           Height            Style
Condition         Material          Use
Cost              Purpose


                                                   3.25
   Compare and Contrast
Step 5:   Write a Topic Sentence

You may use any of these pairs of words
  or another pair like them.

          Alike – Different
          Compare – Differences
          Opposite – Varied
          In common - Unlike
                                          3.25
 Sample Topic Sentences
• Power number with a “compare” word:
___ and ___are wearing shoes that are alike in
  three noticeable ways.
• Occasion/position with a “contrast” word
While ___and ___are both wearing black shoes,
  their footwear is significantly different.
• However topic sentence with a “contrast” word
___and ____are both wearing black shoes;
  however, their footwear differs significantly.
  Compare and Contrast

Step 6:  Do an informal outline of your
         paragraph.
Step 7: Add transitions next to the
         categories you selected.
Step 8: Write draft
Step 9: Revise and edit
Step 10: Final copy

                                      3.25
     Persuading or Convincing
           Paragraphs
    Yellows are the arguments or reasons

•   A clear topic sentence
•   Obvious organization
•   Strong transitions
•   Specific examples & evidence
•   A memorable and very strong
•        conclusion
                                           3.30
  Persuade or Convince
• Who is my audience?
• What will my reader need to know?
• What emotions do I want my reader
  to feel?
• What do I want my reader to do?



                                      3.31
     Persuade or Convince

•   Start with a strong point.
•   Transition into a weaker point.
•   End with your strongest point.
•   If writer begins with a weak point or
    ends with a weak point, they will
    loose their audience.


                                            3.31
     Other kinds of
      organizers
There are a variety of
ways to helps students
organize their thinking
that may be used in many
different content
      areas.
         Writing in Math

Q=

Step 1           Ex.

Step 2           Ex.

Step 3           Ex.



                           3.53-3.55; 9.9-9.11
  Content Learning Logs
• Adding fractions is easy if you just
  follow these four instructions.
• _______, the main character in
  ______, is involved in two conflicts.
• The Civil War occurred for three
  reasons.
• The water cycle has three parts.

                                      3.56-3.57
    Framed Paragraphs

Framed paragraphs are great. You can
use them for science, history, art, and
social studies. You can even leave them
with a substitute teacher. Try them!
          You will like them!


                                          3.59
       Sample Framed
         Paragraph
Name________________ Date_____
 After completing my reading this week,
 there are several things I want to tell you
 about the book, _______, by ________.
 First, ___________________. Second,
 _______________. Then, ___________
 ________________. Finally, I predict __
 ________________________________
 _______________________________.
                                               3.59
A Thesis Statement (Step 2)
• Is the heart of your paper
• Gives the main idea of an essay
• Contains key words
• Presents a general idea that will be
  supported
• Might be called your position
  statement

                                         4.17-4.31
                   Steps 2-4
      Even though Ben Franklin was seventy years old at
(thesis)
the time of the Revolution, he still had a lot to do with the
independence of the colonies. (plan) Helping the colonists,
informing people of the world about the revolution, and
serving on many committees were some of the important
things that he did.


   Helping       Informing         Serving         Conclusion




                                                                4.20
Expository Vs. Narrative
• Purposes and processes are different
  in these two kinds of writing.
  Baseball and football
  require similar skills;
however, the goals of each
   game are different.
    Quick Sketch Stories
•   Step 1   Title
•   Step 2   Quick Sketch
•   Step 3   Quick Notes
•   Step 4   Get the Story Rolling
•   Step 5   Story transitions
•   Step 6   Smooth stop
•   Step 7   Revise, Edit, Proofread
    Narrative Outline
Topic= Narrative
                   Setting
    Beginning           •Time
                        •Place
                   Meet Characters
                   Glimpse of problem


    Middle         Learn more about problem
                   Conflict developed


    End            Solve problem
                   Conflict resolution



                                          2.15
Planning a Short Story
Step 1 Title___________
 Step 2 Quick sketch your
 plan for your story in
                             Step 3 Jot ideas,
 pictures. (May use sticky   descriptions, and plans
 notes)                      for your story
Quick Sketch Method


  •Sara fakes sick
  •Beach
  •Decides to skip school

  •Parents leave for work
  •Rides bike to beach
  •Swims
  •Sunburned

  •Trouble with parents and
  school
  •Stay home next day
  •Sick from sunburn
 Quick Sketch Organizer
          Title:_______________

   Who:




Where:      Problem:



   Beginning           Middle     End
       OK, so I have my story
  sketched out. How do I begin
            writing?


• Try one of
  these ideas
  to hook your
  reader into
  reading on.
          Get the Story Rolling
                  Provide a Where

• Step 4
  –   Near the park…
  –   Below the surface of the water…
  –   In Chicago…
  –   Behind the old shed near mother’s rake…
  –   Beyond the city limits…
  –   Throughout the crowded room…
        Get the Story Rolling
                Provide a When

• Step 4
  – Just as the bell rang…
  – After we left the movie…
  – Before I turned six…
  – Before my eighth birthday…
  - When the alarm went off…
  – When the firefighters arrived…
             Get the Story Rolling
                          Other Options

• Step 4
  – Provide an Action Verb           (Run. That’s all I could
   think—run for your life!)
  – Introduce a Character          (Uncle Charlie tops the list
   of weird folks I know. As a matter of fact, he is WAY at the
   top!)
  – Interesting Comment           (I glanced up and saw Death
   staring me in the face. )
  – Dialogue ( with younger students limit this)
               (“Mom, I think I’m going to be sick,” Timmy whined
                 from the back seat.)
  – Sound effect        (Br-r-r-ring!)
               Step 5
Story Transitions Move the Story Along

•   The next day       •   When we arrived
•   At dusk            •   Immediately
•   In between times   •   Hours went by
•   Some time later    •   After we walked a
•   In the afternoon       mile
       Writing the Story of Goldilocks

Once upon a time there were three bears, Papa Bear, Mama Bear,
and Baby Bear, who lived in a house in the woods.

Each morning Mama Bear would make wonderful porridge, Papa
Bear had a big bowl of porridge, Mama Bear had a medium–sized
bowl, Baby Bear had a little bowl for his porridge.

One morning Mama said the porridge was too hot to eat, so the
bears decided to go for a walk and let the porridge cool off.

While they were gone, a little girl by the name of Goldilocks came
to the house, She knocked on the door and looked in the window,
but no one was home. She tried the door and it opened. She went
in and she saw the bowls of porridge on the table.
       Writing the Story of Goldilocks

Once upon a time there were three bears, Papa Bear, Mama Bear,
and Baby Bear, who lived in a house in the woods.

Each morning Mama Bear would make wonderful porridge, Papa
Bear had a big bowl of porridge, Mama Bear had a medium–sized
bowl, Baby Bear had a little bowl for his porridge.

One morning Mama said the porridge was too hot to eat, so the
bears decided to go for a walk and let the porridge cool off.

While they were gone, a little girl by the name of Goldilocks came
to the house, She knocked on the door and looked in the window,
but no one was home. She tried the door and it opened. She went
in and she saw the bowls of porridge on the table.



                                                                6.8
Planning a Short Story
Step 1 Title___________



 Each morning




 Just as she



 About that time




                          10-46
  Step 6:Come to a Smooth Stop
Don’t write “THE END.” Instead, finish with a
 strong sentence that will help your reader
• Feel a feeling ending
   – Tori lived in Mobridge for the next fifteen years, and she never forgot
     the kindness that the children shared that first day.

• Remember a character ending
   – No one spoke up, but everyone knew that it was Edgar, the class clown,
     who gave Mrs. Anderson the flowers and the thank-you card.

• Get your point ending
   – The children finally understood what the police officer said about
     hitchhiking.

• Think about the story ending
   – Sometimes it pays to help someone, even if they don’t appreciate it!

                                                                6.9; 10-47
       Editing with CUPS

•   Capitalization
•   Usage
•   Punctuation
•   Spelling
 Head, Heart, Feet
• Head- Write down one thought you
  have that relates to what you
  learned today.
• Heart- How do you feel about that
  new learning?
• Feet- What will you do differently
  because of what you learned?
    Thanks!
• Please fill out
  the evaluation
  form and have a
  marvelous new
  school year!

				
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