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Introducing the new Alpha Series handheld XRF.ppt by shensengvf


									Radiation Safety & Start Up Training

          Innov-X Systems
                Ken Smith
          National Sales Manager
        Radiation Safety
        Innov-X Systems
       X-Ray Fluorescence
Bill Caughie – Regional Sales Mgr.
Office: 412-916-9286
Fax: 412-787-1552
Call Innov-X Systems !!!
            Training Objective
  – Understand Radiation!
  – Understand Regulations
  – Understand Instrumentation
         Electromagnetic Radiation
                    Radiation wavelength in angstrom units
     8      6                4              2                    -2     -4        -6
10        10               10             10        1        10       10     10

 Radio          Infrared         V   Ultra-Violet   X-Rays            Cosmic Rays
                                 i      Light
                                 e                  Gamma Rays

10-10     10-8             10-6          10-4       10-2     1        102    10

                 Photon energy in million electron volts (MeV)
              Radiation Overview
• Radiation - form of energy (particles/waves)
• Electromagnetic Radiation Spectrum -EMR
  –   Radio frequency
  –   Microwave
  –   Infra-red
  –   Visible Light
  –   Ultraviolet - UV
  –   X-Ray
  –   Gamma Radiation
            Types of Radiation
• Radiation - Form of Energy
• Ionizing >10eV
  – Cause ionization of atoms
  – Eject electrons atoms - Make “charged” atoms
• non - Ionizing
  – Does NOT Cause ionization
             Ionizing Radiation
• Particles (FAST!)
  – alpha particles (2 neutrons + 2 protons)
  – beta particles (electrons)
  – neutrons
• Waves (High Energy Light!)
  – X - Rays
  – Gamma Rays
Radiation Types
                     X-Ray Production
                    Vacuum Tube   Tube Leakage
                    Vacuum Tube   Tube Leakage
      Cathode - Electrons                        Anode - Target
                                                 (W) (Ag)

Wire Filament

Penetration of Ionizing Radiation
                       GAMMA & X-RAY


             Radiation Safety

• RAD = Radiation Absorbed Dose
• REM = Roentgen Equivalent Man
• REM = RAD X Factor
  – (Factors X-ray=1, Alpha=20)
Roentgen Equivalent Man?? Now that’s a mouthful!
It’s Everywhere!
     Biological Effects of Radiation
• Most Sensitive - Rapidly dividing cells
  – Bone Marrow
  – Lining of digestive tract
  – Some skin cells
• Least Sensitive
  – Bone
  – Muscle
  – Nerves
         Standards & Guidelines
• Maximum Permissible Limits (MPL’s)
  – National Council on Radiation Protection
  – International Commission on Radiological
• Radiation Doses
  – 5 rems per year (whole body)
  – 50 rems (extremity or individual organ)
  – 0.5 rems during pregnancy
         Exposure Calculations
•   <0.1 mREM/hr.
•   X 25 hr/day
•   = 2.5 mREM/day
•   X 400 days/year
•   = 1,000 mREM/year
•   or 1 REM/year
•   = 2% of reportable
               Safety Factors
• Time, Distance, Shielding
• Time - Limit Exposure Dose
• Distance - Maintain Safe Distance
  – Inverse square law
• Shielding - High Density Materials
         Radiation Safety Summary
•   Radiation Overview
•   Types of Radiation
•   Biological Effects of Radiation
•   Standards and Guidelines
•   Monitoring Instruments
•   Safety Factors (Time, Distance, Shielding)
•   Control Programs
XRF Work Practices
  A few words about Radiation Safety

• The Innov-X analyzers does produce
  radiation and the user should be aware of
• Radiation exposure is negligible with
  proper use and small with occasional
  incorrect use
  A few more words about radiation safety
• Practice “ALARA.” All radiation exposure
  should be “As Low As Reasonably Achievable”
• This means:
  – Do not put fingers, or any other body part in front of the
    analyzer window.
  – Verify that no one else stands within 3 paces of the
    analyzer window when instrument is on.
  – Correct operation of instrument involves leaving one
    hand on handle, and making sure the other hand is away
    from the window.
               Safety Factors
• Time, Distance, Shielding
• Time - Limit Exposure Dose
• Distance - Maintain Safe Distance
  – Inverse square law
• Shielding - High Density Materials
          Standards & Guidelines
• Maximum Permissible Limits (MPL’s)
  – National Council on Radiation Protection
  – International Commission on Radiological Protection
• Radiation Doses
  – 5 rems per year (whole body)
  – 50 rems (extremity or individual organ)
  – 0.5 rems during pregnancy
        Typical Radiation Exposures
•   Airline Attendant       1,000 mR/yr
•   Nuclear Power Worker    700 mR/yr
•   Grand Central Station   120 mR/yr
•   Medical Personnel       70 mR/yr
•   Lead Inspector          20 mR/yr
•   University Researcher   <10 mR/yr
•   Chest X-ray             100 mR/each
Exposure Calculations
     @ Trigger
           •   <0.1 mREM/hr.
           •   X 25 hr/day
           •   = 2.5 mREM/day
           •   X 400 days/year
           •   = 1,000 mREM/year
           •   or 1 REM/year
           •   = 2% of reportable
Misuse Example #1
         • Dose to fingers and/or
           hand in this example is
           a maximum of 28,000
         • Over exposure occurs
           in 2 hours of window
           exposure at the hand.
Misuse Example #2
         • Dose at exit of
           sampling window is
           approximately 28,000
           mrem/hr. A 10 second
           exposure in contact
           with Torso = 77.8
         • Repeat misuse 64
           times/year exceeds
           5,000 mrem limit.
               Safety Features
•   “Deadman” Trigger
•   Software trigger lock
•   Software “proximity sensor”
•   Test Stand
                 Deadman Trigger
• Trigger must be held for duration of test.
• Releasing the trigger ends test
• This ensure that users intentionally start each test

   – Prevents user from walking away and leaving
     instrument on
   – If user picks up analyzer and inadvertently pulls trigger,
     test will end as soon as trigger is released
                 Deadman Trigger
• This feature may be disabled upon customer
  request AFTER complete radiation safety training
   – It is recommended that this feature is only disabled for
     companies where only one or two users use the
     analyzer in a controlled setting
   – Deactivation is NOT recommended in situations where
     instrument is shared by many users or in spaces
     occupied by large numbers of people.
               Trigger Lock
• User must release software trigger lock
  before testing
• Once released, trigger lock remains disabled
  until 5 minutes elapse after the end of a test
Software Trigger Lock
       “Software Proximity Sensor”
• Instrument will shut off after 1-2 seconds if
  sample is not present.
  – Analyzer checks count rate, if count rate is not
    significantly above air rate, x-rays shut off
          Test Stand Option
• Allows for “Hands-
  Free” Operation of
• Ideal for turnings and
  other small parts, Soil
  Samples, etc.
           Use Common Sense!
• Remember, when energized, X-rays come
  out of the front of the analyzer and act
• Prevent exposure to front of analyzer when
  instrument is on
• Pay attention to all warning lights on
Basic Instrument Operation

    Innov-X Analyzers
Hardware and Accessories
         Trigger and Trigger Lock
• Tests can be started and stopped via either
  the trigger or the iPAQ.
• Trigger lock should be put on immediately
  after pulling trigger to prevent inadvertent
  start of test.
• Charge Batteries completely before use.
• Only use Innov-X approved charger
• Insert batteries in base of unit - Battery is
  keyed to fix in correct position
          iPAQ Power Considerations
• iPAQ is powered by analyzer main battery.
• iPAQ’s internal processes consume power, even when not in
   – A fully charge iPAQ can loose power sitting on a shelf for
      several weeks – leave iPAQ plugged in when not in use.
• If iPAQ battery is completely drained, it will not be possible to
  use iPAQ in analyzer until iPAQ is charged and date is set
   – Any programs added to the main memory will be deleted,
      but Innov-X program and data are fine.
               Storage Card
• All Innov-X Data and Programs are stored
  in storage card. They will not be erased
  even if iPAQ battery
• For proper operation, iPAQ must storage
  card firmly pushed into the card slot
        Placing iPAQ in Analyzer
• iPAQ must be seated properly to
• Be careful with the connector!
• Slide iPAQ forward (towards snout) before
  lifting. Do not angle iPAQ upwards until it
  is clear of connector
Instrument Start-up
            Power on instrument
• Main Power on rear of analyzer below LCD
  – Momentary on switch
  – Must hold for 3 seconds to turn off
• iPAQ has separate on/off switch
                Start Software
• Select Start from
  upper right hand
  corner of iPAQ screen.

• Select the Innov-X
  Systems Software
  from the drop down
            Radiation Notice
• Read Notice and click
                 Select Mode
• Select mode by
  clicking on name
• Analyzer electronics
  “warm up”
• Detector is cooled to
  proper temperature
• Takes 2 minutes
              Tap to Standardize
• Instrument requires
  standardization before
  measurements can be
• Place standardization
  mask on front of
• Tap to Standardize
• Standardization checks
  316 standard
• Checks detector
  resolution and peak
• Needs to be done
  when instrument is
  powered on or after 4
  hours of use
          Standardization finished
• Instrument displays
  result of
         Standardization Failures
• Make sure battery is completely charged
• Reset iPAQ
• Turn instrument on and off, remove battery,
  make sure it is seated correctly
                  Ready to Test
• Tap Start or pull
  trigger to begin test
                     Test info
• Click INFO
• Enter data
• Data is stored until
  changed or erased
                   Test in progress
• Screen displays elapsed
  time and “Test in
• LED on front of analyzer
  blinks indicating radiation
  is being emitted
• If view-live updates is on,
  results will be displayed
  after minimum time has
                 Results Display
• Results displayed—
  results in %.
• Error displayed is 1-

• Press start or pull
  trigger to start another
                  Results Options
• View menu can change
  the way results appear on
  the screen
• Results shows only grade
• Chemistry shows all data
• Test info shows stored test
Software Menus
                Match Numbers
• When determining Grade/Fingerprint
  Matches, software calculates a “Match
• This unit-less number is an indication of
  how good a match is.
  – The lower the number, the better
  – Typical cutoffs:
     • 3 Analytical
           Software overview
• Three screens
  – Main—Select program, change password
  – Analytical—Set analysis parameters
  – Results—view all results
           Searching Libraries
• Analyzer only searches selected library
• Make sure library being searched contains
  grades of interest
              Check the screen
• Match number and
  selected libraries are
  shown on screen
• Analytical 3
• Most general search
  includes all libraries
               Menu Options

• File Menu—Standardize & Select Libraries
• Edit Menu—Edit Library entries
                Menu Options

• View—Open results screen. Turn on/off live screen
• Options—Set testing and Match numbers. Exact match in
               Editing Libraries

• Password protected function
• Modify standard library with care
          When in doubt, reset!
• Like all computers, iPAQs can occasionally
  lock up or “get confused”
• Two possible resets. Use
  “soft” reset.
• Hard reset is only used in extreme
  circumstances, usually when soft reset
  doesn’t work.
                Exit Software!!
• Software has three
  layers of menus
  (Main, Analysis, and
  results). Must close
  Main to exit software.
• Use File-Exit to close
   Make sure iPAQ is correctly seated
• iPAQ must be firmly seated in analyzer.
  Must be attached to connector.
• iPAQ and storage card must be firmly
  pressed into the socket.
                 Verify settings
• If instrument is not matching, verify
  – Correct Library is being searched
  – Match number is set correctly
     • 3 Analytical
  – Exact Match is off in Analytical

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