Class Notes by fanzhongqing


									                     Plants and Humanity
                            UI 344

                           Class Notes

Dr. WJ Mueller
Southeast Missouri State University
Spring 2010

Class Syllabus .......................................................................................... 2

Class Outline ............................................................................................ 6

Plagiarism (lecture #2) ............................................................................. 7

History of Agriculture (Lecture #3) ......................................................... 8

Water (Lecture #4) ................................................................................. 10

Critical Thinking (Lecture #5) ............................................................... 14

Introduction to Plants (Lecture #6) ........................................................ 16

Water Movement in Plants (Lecture #7) ................................................ 19

Photosynthesis and Respiration (Lecture #8) ......................................... 21

Genetics and Breeding (Lecture #9) ...................................................... 24

Vegetative Reproduction (Lecture #10) ................................................. 26

Radiation Lecture (Lecture #11) ............................................................ 28

Common Grammar Problems (Lecture #12).......................................... 29

Classification of Organisms (Lecture #13) ............................................ 31

An Amazing Story (Lecture #14) ........................................................... 34

Human Nutrition (Lecture #15) ............................................................. 36

Hemp (Lecture #16; no notes)

Grass Family (Lecture #17) ................................................................... 40

Group Projects (Lecture #18; no notes)

Legume Family (Lecture #19) ............................................................... 45

Starchy Staples (Lecture #20) ................................................................ 50

Weather (Lecture #21) ........................................................................... 53

Greenhouse Effect (Lecture #22) ........................................................... 58

UI 344                                                                     Office Hours:
Plants and Humanity                                                        M      10-11
Dr. Wesley J. Mueller                                                      T      9-10
Spring 2010                                                                W      10-11
Telephone: 573/651-2740 (Office), 651-2106 (Administrative Asst.)
    Home: 573/334-4555
Office Magill 109

Catalog Description
UI 344. Plants and Humanity. The psychological, physiological, and social responses of people to
plants in their environment and the effects plants have on human health. Prerequisites: Artistic
Expression; Oral Expression; Behavioral Systems; Social Systems. (University Studies Course) (3)

Required Textbook
Levetin, E and K McMahon. 2006. Plants and Society, Fourth Edition. WCB/McGraw-Hill,
Boston MA
You can obtain a copy through Textbook Rental by going to the basement of Kent Library and
picking it up, or by contacting Textbook Rental to have a copy mailed to you.
    Contact Textbook Rental at:
    Phone: (573) 651-2538                                 mail: One University Plaza, MS 1100
    Fax: (573) 651-5020                                   Cape Girardeau, MO 63701

Course Requirements
Regular attendance at class. Access to a computer with Microsoft Word and Microsoft PowerPoint.
What You Can Expect of Me?
I will return graded papers and presentations within one week. Tests will be recorded within one
day of the closing date. I will do what I can to help you if you are having problems, if you ask, and
if you are willing to work with me.

My Goals
It is my wish that you would think and dream about plants this semester. Think about what they do
for you, and how they affect your every-day life. I would like you to do a fair amount of critical
thinking. I also hope you gain an appreciation for just how complex and interactive this world is we
live in, and the role that plants play in it.

Grades will be based on:
    Five opinion discussions, using Forum, (10 pts. each)
    Five readings and discussions, using Forum (15 pts. Each)
    Two topic papers, topic chosen by you; it must relate to plants (35 pts. each)
    Two PowerPoint presentations based on the topics papers (25 pts. each)
    Evaluate a peer paper (25 pts.)
    Submit a plan for completion of the group project (5 pts.)
    One group paper, topics assigned (50 pts.)
    One group PowerPoint presentation based on group paper (50 pts.)
    Three 35-minute, online exams (50 pts. each)
Grades will be determined by percentage. The total points possible for the course are 525.
A      90 to 100 percent     472-525 pts.
B      80 to 89 percent      420-471 pts.
C      70 to 79 percent      367-419 pts.
D      60 to 69 percent      315-366 pts.
F      Below 60 percent      314 pts. or less

All assignments to be handed in via Drop Box will be due on or before 11:59:59pm on date
shown (unless otherwise indicated). The official clock will be “Server Time,” meaning the
computer server at Southeast Missouri State Univ. You can also check “Server Time” by going to
the class main web page and clicking on the link. If for any reason, papers and presentations are not
turned in on time, 10 percent will be subtracted each day after the due date. This includes Topic
Papers that are turned in without meeting the minimum requirements. There is no makeup for
missed discussions.

Opinion Discussions (Use Forum; 10 pts. Each): Five Opinion Discussion topics will be
assigned. I want each of you to write a paper on the subject and come to class prepared to discuss
your opinions on the subject. It is fine to disagree with another person, but it is not appropriate to
be rude or cutting to the other person. In other words, talk about the issues, don’t personalize it.
Points will be based on meeting the basic requirements of the assignment, showing that you put
some thought into your opinions and responses in class and for being grammatically correct. No
points will be awarded for late work.
Assignment Goal: to direct thinking toward the importance of plants in our lives; to develop critical-
thinking skills; to improve communication skills and interactions with others; to help students
realize that not everything in life has a black and white answer, and not every person thinks exactly
like you do.

Readings Discussions (Use Forum; 15 pts. Each): Five Topics will be assigned throughout the
semester that will require you to do some research. I then want you to write a summary of what you
read about, and express your opinion. Make sure that you write down the reference(s) that you
used. I then want you to come prepared to discuss the topic in class.
Assignment Goal: Develop skills in gathering information about topics from resources available,
summarize them, and discuss them; develop critical-thinking skills; to keep up to date on topics of
broad interest; to improve communication skills and interactions with others.

Topic-papers (30 pts. Each): Select a topic that has something to do with plants. Yes, anything
that has to do with plants will do, you have all kinds of latitude on the subject. The papers should
□ typed
□ double-spaced (do not use enters after every line, use the double-space feature)
□ 12 pt. font
□ Times New Roman font
□ 1-inch margins on all sides
□ Written in 3rd person
□ Use at least three references (internet, books, whatever), except do not use Wikipedia (many
       things are good in Wikipedia, but anyone can contribute).
□ Use MLA format (use end notes and cite them properly in the text)

□ A cover sheet (with title, your name, UI 344-(section #), Plants and Humanity, assignment
     number, the name of the paper reviewer (see below), date turned in and word count), no
     headers or footers please. I know that MLA does not have cover sheets, but it also gives
     discretion to the instructor. Since you have a cover sheet, I do NOT want you to have the
     information at the top of the paper, in a header, etc. as MLA prescribes.
□ *Your paper should be no less than 325 words and no more than 350 (excluding cover sheet and
     Works Cited). If you are over or under the word count by a little, your grade will be dinged a
     little. If you give me the wrong word count, you will be dinged more.
□ I want you to have someone review your paper prior to you turning it in. You may use the
     writing center if you wish (yes, even online and it’s free: Write the name of the reviewer on the title page.
□ At the end of the paper I want you to write four questions, two multiple-choice and two true-
     false questions.
□ Submit one MS Word file containing the requested information via the Drop Box, which can be
     accessed by the link near the top of the Class Home Page.
  *To determine the word count in MS Word 2003, highlight the words in the body of the paper, click on Tools
    (Menu Bar), then click Word Count. Using Office 2007, highlight the text, and look at the lower left of the screen
    for the word count. Record the results of the word count near the bottom of the cover sheet.

The grade will be based on:
□ Content
□ Grammatical correctness (at least 3 references properly cited with end notes)
□ Formatted properly as described above
□ I also look for an introduction and conclusion, and a thesis statement in the right place
□ Quality of the questions-A significant portion of your grade will be based on your questions.
    Ask well-thought-out questions that do not have obvious answers, like “T/F All people love
    peanuts.” Another thing to look out for: usually when a student puts one of the answers as “all
    of the above,” that is the correct answer. Teachers often do this as well!
You may get back up to half of the points lost for grammatical correctness and formatting, by
correcting the paper and returning it. To get correction points, it has to be returned within one week
from the time I return the paper to you.

Assignment Goal: Improve writing skills; learn to be concise in writing; learn proper citation
methods; learn to follow instructions.
Be sure to check the following before submitting your paper
□ A cover sheet with the information requested above, including an accurate word count
□ A “Works Cited” page (last page) with complete references used in the text
□ All references properly cited in the text as outlined

Redoing Topic Papers: I will correct Topic Papers by using a grading rubric. You can get up to
half the points back for Grammar and Formatting, by redoing the Topic Papers. It is your job to
look at the filled-out rubric and my suggestions below it (I will insert the rubric below the Cover
Sheet of your paper). Make changes to your paper, using the Track Changes feature of MS Word.
To access Track Changes in MS Word 2007, click on Review, then click Track Changes. To access
the same feature in MS Word 2003, go to Format, Toolbars. Check the Reviewing Toolbar and it
will show on your paper somewhere. Click on the Track Changes button. From then on, everything
you type will be added in a different color, and the things you delete will have a line through it.

Reviewing Another Person’s Topic Paper: For the second Topic Paper, I will e-mail you another
student’s paper for you to review. I want you to fill out the rubric and make comments on the paper
below the rubric, similar to what I did for your first Topic Paper. Return it and I will then grade the
paper, and compare my evaluation with yours.

Topic-paper Presentations (30 pts. Each): Your presentation will be a summary of the associated
Topic Paper. The presentations should be between five and seven minutes long. I want you to use a
Power Point presentation as support for your in-class talk on the subject of the Topic Paper. During
your talk, you will answer the questions you submitted with your paper. I want the questions to be
about the most important points in your paper. I may use some of the same questions that are on the
presentations for the test, or I may modify the questions somewhat on the test. The grades for the
presentation will be based on the following:
     Content and Quality, ease of following the presentation
Assignment Goal: Improve presentation skills; disseminate information relevant to people today.

Group Paper (50 pts.): Group participants will be assigned a topic to do their paper and
presentation on. It should be 900 to 1000 words in length. Use the same guidelines as used in the
Topic Papers. Grades will be based on the following:
□ Content
□ Grammatical correctness (at least 5 references properly cited with end notes)
□ Formatted properly as described
□ Participation (as determined by group members)
    (Note: each person on the team does not have to participate in both the paper and the
    presentation, but each person should do their share of the overall project)
Assignment Goal: Learn to work in a group setting online. Learn and use available communication
skills; develop writing and information-gathering skills; learn to follow instructions precisely.
Include four multiple-choice questions and four True/False questions at the end of the paper.

Group Presentation (50 pts.): The presentations should be between 10 and 15 minutes long.
Answer the questions written in the paper while giving the presentation. Again, I may use some of
the same questions that are on the presentations, or I may modify some. The grades for the
presentation will be based on the following:
□ Content and Quality of the Presentation
□ Quality of the questions
□ Participation (as determined by teammates)
Assignment Goal: Develop communication skills; present pertinent information to the class.

Tests: Test #1 will cover materials from the first third of the class. That includes my presentations
and materials, questions from the text and questions from the first student Topic Presentations. Test
#2 will cover materials from the second third of the class, the text questions, and questions from the
second student Topic Presentations. Final Exam will be worth the same as the other tests, but it will
be comprehensive, with an emphasis on the materials since the second test, including Group
Presentation questions. All the tests will be online. They will have 25 questions and will be open
book/note BUT you will have a time limit of 35 minutes. You can take the test anytime during the
assigned testing period, but you will only have one opportunity to do so. The tests will be a mix of
multiple-choice and True-False questions.

Academic Honesty: In this class, I will follow the guidelines set forth by the University as related
to Code of Student Conduct.

Semester Outline (This table is for your use only; use it if it helps you keep organized)

January 19-23 Week 1 Folder materials                                                       Date Completed

January 24-30 Week 2 Folder materials
     25 Opinion Discussion #1 due
Jan 31- Feb 6 Week 3 Folder materials
       1 Reading Discussion #1 due
Februray 7-13 Week 4 Folder materials
        8 Opinion Discussion #2 due
February 14-20 Week 5 Folder materials
      15 Topic Paper #1 due
      17 Topic Presentation #1 due
February 21-27 Week 6 Folder materials
        22 Reading Discussion #2 due
Feb 28-Mar 6 Week 7 Folder materials
       1-2 Test #1
         1 Opinion Discussion #3 due
March 7-13 Week 8 Folder materials
           8 Reading Discussion #3 due
March 14-20
           Spring Break
March 21-27 Week 9 Folder materials
      22 Topic Paper #2 due
Mar 28-Apr 3 Week 10 Folder materials
      29 Opinion Discussion #4 due
        2 Return Evaluation of Topic Paper #2
April 4-10 Week 11 Folder materials
        5 Reading Discussion #4 due
April 11-17 Week 12 Folder materials
      12-13 Test #2
      12 Opinion Discussion #5 due
April 18-24 Week 13 Folder materials
      19 Reading Discussion #5 due
Apr 25-May 1 Week 14 Folder materials
     26 Turn in Group Paper (One for the whole group)
     28 Turn in Group Presentation (One for the whole group)
May 2-8 Week 15 Folder materials
         Prepare for final (May 10-12)

Plagiarism (Lecture #2)
UI 344
Dr. WJ Mueller
What is Plagiarism?
Definition: “To take the thoughts, writings, inventions, etc., of another and use as one’s own,
especially to take and use a passage, plot, etc., from the work of another writer.”
                                     The World Book Dictionary. Doubleday & Company, Inc. 1974
Types of Plagiarism
Three General Categories
             Copy the work of another and call it your own
             Quote or use the thoughts of another and not give credit to the person
             Improper citation of someone else’s work
Copy a Work—It is the worst
        Go to the internet and copy a paper off
        Use the work of a student from a previous class
        Have someone else write the paper for you
Quote or Use Thoughts of Another
        Whenever you use the words of someone else, put quotes around it and reference it
        Whenever you reword the thoughts of another, give credit to the author with a reference
What do you NOT have to Reference?
        Things that are common Knowledge
        Examples might include:
            The earth surface is 70 percent water
            Plants belong to the Kingdom Plantae
            The United States declared their independence from Great Britain in 1776
            Most things in a common-knowledge encyclopedia
Use quotes sparingly!

  One can tell whether or not to quote something by asking the following question:
       Am I quoting it because it is worded so well, that I could not do better paraphrasing it? If
      so, don’t quote it! Paraphrase almost always!
What are Footnotes and Endnotes

Works Cited, or
       Literature Cited
Are these words synonyms or are there some differences?
Which should you use as a heading on your papers?

Bibliography: Definition: A relatively complete collection of all references on a given subject.
References: Definition: A list of references cited in the text, plus other references used for
background information, but not specifically cited in the text.
Works Cited: Only the references cited in the text of the paper are listed

History of Agriculture (Lecture #3)
 Pre-agricultural Times

   Agricultural Times

   Agro-Industrial Times

Pre-agricultural Times
 Hunters and gatherers

   Tools

   What promoted community?

   Food preservation and preparing

Agricultural Times

   Domestication

       Plants

       Tools

       Agrarian villages

    Division     of labor

       Animal Power

       Irrigation

       Water mills

       Ag plants

       Slavery

    Agro-Industrial Times
     Genetic manipulation
     Plant nutrition
     Pest Control
     Machinery development
      Cotton Gin
      Moldboard Plow
      Manufactured steel plow
      Threshing Machine
      Grain Drill
      Steam Engines
      Barbed Wire
      Cotton Stripper
      Rubber-tire Tractor
      Spindle-type cotton picker
      Number of Tractors exceeds number of horses

 Morrill Act (1862)
    Homestead land
    Establish Land-grant schools
 Conservation Tillage
 No-tillage
 Precision Agriculture

Timeline of USA Agriculture


1790              3,929,214   Farm Population 90% of labor force

1800              5,308,483   Louisiana Purchase 1803

1840            17,069,453    Agriculture made up 69% of labor force

                                    1845-55 Potato Famine, Ireland—migration

1880            50,155,783    Farmers made up 49% of labor force

1920           105,710,620    Farmers made up 27% of labor force

1960           180,007,000    Farmers made up 6.4% of labor force

2000            281,421,906     Farmers make up 1.5% of labor force*
Most of this information is from:
*From US Census Data:
Water: Do we take it for granted? (Lecture #4)
Importance of Water

Water (history)
 Aristotle referred to water as one of the four elements
    Earth (mixture)

    Air (mixture)

    Fire (chemical change)

    Water (molecule—1781)

Water Distribution and Occurrence on Earth

The world’s largest lakes are:
    Lake Baikal (Southern Siberia; 26,000 km3)

    Lake Tanganyika (Congo Border; 20,000 km3)

    Lake Malawi (SE Africa; 13,000 km3)

    Lake Superior (USA border; 12,000 km3)

 Underground water is important in all areas. There are two type of groundwater:

 Ogallala aquifer is the largest underground aquifer

Demonstration of Hydrogen Bonding

 Is this how a steel ship floats?

Usefulness of Water
 Proton exchange medium
 Lubricant
 Water stabilizes molecules

 Promotes hydrolysis (digestion)
 Thermoregulation (high specific heat)
Usefulness of Water (cont.)

Water-Solid, Liquid, Gas
 Most compounds can exist in any of three phases
   Solid (ice)

   Liquid (water)

   Gas (water vapor or steam)

Density of Water in the various states

 What would happen if water acted like every other molecule and became denser in the
  solid (ice) state?

Water Heat Capacity
 Water has a tremendous capacity to hold energy in the form of heat.

Water Chemical Properties
 One of the most reactive chemicals
 One of the most corrosive substances known
 It is only slightly compressible
 One of two naturally occurring inorganic liquids at room temperature. Can you name the

 High surface tension (this was demonstrated earlier in the Hydrogen Bonding Experiment)
 Universal Solvent

 Hydrophobic means water hating
 Hydrophilic means water loving

Water Management
 Sources of water for agriculture

Methods of Applying Water
 Sprinkler
 Flood
 Furrow
 Drip or trickle
 Underground tiling
 Subsurface
Water Problems
 Salinity
 Erosion Control

 Nutrient Losses
 Ground water contamination
 Tail water
 Water table
 Water-holding capacity
 Infiltration rate
 Water movement past the root zone
Problems with irrigated Farming
 Limited amount of water
 Water quality
 Soil quality
 Erosion
 Even distribution
 Tail water management
 Management of salts in the soil
 Irrigation stresses to plants

Problems with House Plants

Solutions to Irrigated farming Problems
 Use different irrigation systems
 Laser leveling
 Deep pre-irrigation
 Do not apply excess water
 Plant salt-tolerant crops
 Water only when the crop needs it

Problems with Dryland Farming

Solutions to Dryland Farming Water Management
 Role of organic matter

 Change cultivation practices

 Practice conservation tillage

 Terraces and other containment structures
Critical Thinking (Lecture #5)

Why Critical Thinking?

Feeling and Thinking are not Synonymous Terms
 Feel: “An emotional state or reaction”
 Think: “To form or have in the mind”

                    (Webster’s Ninth Collegiate Dictionary)
Two Forms of Thinking

What is Critical Thinking?

What is involved in Critical Thinking?

How to Critically Evaluate an Issue

Basic Steps to Critical Thinking

What Critical Thinking is NOT

Things to Ask Yourself

How Does Critical Thinking Apply to this Class?

Introduction to Plants (Lecture #6)

What I hope for this class
 I would hope that you would look at plants and think about plants for the entire semester
 That you would gain an appreciation of what plants do for us as humans
 Gain an appreciation of what producers do for us
 I also hope you become a better communicator in the process

Classification of Organisms

Categorize organisms according to characteristics
 Binomial System of Classification

 Classifies organisms from the most general to the most specific

Animals are in the Kingdom Animalia and Plants are in the Kingdom Plantae
Differences between Plants & Animals

   1. Food Source

   2. Mobility

   3. Cell Walls

   4. Cell Pressure

   5. Vacuole

There are exceptions to all five of these?

The source of all food



Animals fit into two categories

   Primary Consumers--herbivores

   Secondary Consumers--carnivores


Most Common Plants



Most of what we talk about in this class will be Angiosperms

Four basic plant parts

Classification by Stem Type

Classification by longevity

Life Cycle

Plants can be categorized according to use

Plants can be categorized according to water requirements

   Xerophytes or xerophytic plants

   Hydrophytes or hydrophytic plants

Water Movement in Plants (Lecture #7)

Water use efficiency in plants
   Average Plants, Beans (C3)

      Water-efficient Plants, Corn (C4)

      Very Efficient Plants, Cactus (CAM)

How much water does it take to produce a breakfast of:
     2 eggs, 2 slices of bacon, 2 slices of toast and 8 oz. orange Juice?

What happens to water lost from a plant?

       Animal waste

Ways water is lost when applied to a field:





Two Conductive Tissues in plants



How does water gets to the top of a tree?


       Root Pressure



       Water-potential gradient (Cohesion Hypothesis)

Photosynthesis and Respiration (Lecture #8)
 Electromagnetic radiation


Ultraviolet  Violet  Blue  Green  Yellow  Orange  Red  Far-red  Infrared

Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR)

Electromagnetic Radiation




What is happening when we see color?

Energy from the Sun
 80,000 calories . cm-2 . Sec-1
       (Same as: 80,000 cal/cm2/sec)
 2 calories . cm-2 . Sec-1 Reach the earth’s atmosphere
 1 calorie . cm-2 . Sec-1 Reach the earth’s surface

Radiation Striking a surface
 Three things can happen to radiation that strikes a surface:

Absorbed Radiation by a leaf
 On average 1 calorie in 100 that reaches a leaf is used in Photosynthesis
 The rest
    Heats the leaf
    Is reradiated
    Reflected
    Transmitted
Photosynthesis & Respiration


6CO2 + 6H2O        C6H12O6 + 6O2


More General      (Any Carbohydrate)

CO2       + H2O      CH2O     + O2

Mechanics of Photosynthesis
 CO2
 O2
 H2O


 Chlorophyll
 Carbohydrates




Glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle

Genetics and Breeding (Lecture #9)
Genetics Definition

Breeding Definition

The Basics of Genetics
The principles of genetics apply to both plants or animals
Chapter 7 in the book does a good job of explaining the basics of heredity. Understand the
     Chromosome

      Allele

           Homozygous vs. Heterozygous

           Recessive vs. Dominant

      Know who Gregor Mendel was and what he did

Terms and Concepts
    Understand Figure 7.2 in the book

      Difference between Phenotype and Genotype

      Punnett Squares (see pp. 108-109)

      Mitosis

      Identical set of chromosomes in all cells

 Meiosis is the creation of half chromosomes

Plant and Animal Breeding is an Ancient Art and Science
• In the Old Testament, Jacob was doing some creative breeding, increasing his flocks at the
   expense of Laban (Genesis 30:37-42).

Genesis 30: 37-43

37 And Jacob took him rods of green poplar, and of the hazel and chesnut tree; and pilled white
strakes in them, and made the white appear which was in the rods.

38 And he set the rods which he had pilled before the flocks in the gutters in the watering troughs
when the flocks came to drink, that they should conceive when they came to drink.

39 And the flocks conceived before the rods, and brought forth cattle ringstraked, speckled, and

40 And Jacob did separate the lambs, and set the faces of the flocks toward the ringstraked, and all
the brown in the flock of Laban; and he put his own flocks by themselves, and put them not unto
Laban’s cattle.

41 And it came to pass, whensoever the stronger cattle did conceive, that Jacob laid the rods before
the eyes of the cattle in the gutters, that they might conceive among the rods.

42 But when the cattle were feeble, he put them not in: so the feebler were Laban’s, and the stronger

43 And the man increased exceedingly, and had much cattle, and maidservants, and menservants,
and camels, and asses.
 Chromosomes are made up of DNA and segments of DNA are called genes. Genes codes for
   proteins (see Figure 7.8)
     Know the four letters for the code and how they pair up

      Know the role of RNA

      Know how they manipulate amino acids to make proteins

Vegetative Reproduction (Lecture #10)


Natural Vegetative Propagation

    – Strawberries
    – Bermuda grass
    – Spider Plant
Rooted Stems

   – Potato
   – Johnson grass

Bulbs and Corms

Propagation with human intervention

Grafting and Budding
•   Scion wood

Equipment that you need

Grafting techniques

Why do grafting?

Wrap Up

Radiation (Lecture #11)
Earth Facts
                               12  2                2
 Earth Surface Area: 512 x 10 m (196,804,000 mi )
 70% Oceans:               360 x 1012 m2 (138,920,500 mi2)
 30% Land:          150 x 1012 m2 (57,883,523 mi2)
 N. Hemisphere:
    ~50%-50% land-ocean
 S. Hemisphere:
    ~25%-75% land-ocean

Sun is 93 million miles away
Radiation produced by the sun

Radiation Striking a surface

Incoming Shortwave Radiation from the Sun


Common Grammar Problems (Lecture #12)

That-Which. Which one should be used?
I have found in 90 percent of the cases, the word THAT should be used. Use the word WHICH to
delineate an independent clause within a sentence. If one removes the independent clause from a
sentence the sentence still is complete and makes sense. The independent clause is also delineated
with comas. Examples below:

1.   Johnny rode the red wagon that/which went down the hill.
2.   Johnny’s wagon, that/which was red, was very fast.
3.   Plants that/which survive in the desert are very drought tolerant.
4.   The cactus, that/which was found by the cliff, survived in a very dry area.
5.   The text book for the class was very wordy, that/which made it hard to follow.
6.   I need a book that/which will give me more information about genetics.

In general, don’t start sentences with conjunctions
Conjunctions include the following words: however, and, but, yet, or, nor, neither, so, therefore,
but also, and yet (you get the idea). If you are a good writer and understand their use, then you may
start certain sentences with a conjunction. This is done for emphasis. The trick is not to overuse
them because the impact is lost, with overuse.

However, Johnny did not get clear to the bottom of the hill.
Johnny did not get clear to the bottom of the hill, however.
Therefore, it is imperative that we act now
It is therefore imperative that we act now.
It looked like the case was cut and dry. The man they caught running from the scene had to be the
perpetrator of the crime. However, there was one little problem…
Compound Adjectives are hyphenated
Remember that an adjective describes the noun, and when two descriptive words are placed
together, they are hyphenated.

50 mm camera
15 in. length of wood
a blue green sweater
an over active child
a bright shiny star
an up and coming technology

Do not start sentences with abbreviations, acronyms or numbers. Write them out, OR reword the

Dr. Wilson said that we should have this assignment done Friday.
Doctor Wilson said…
According to Dr. Wilson…
C3 photosynthesis is most common among plants.
Photosynthesis using the C3 pathway is most common among plants.
The Calvin-Benson pathway for photosynthesis is most common among plants.
19 people tried to get to the top.
Nineteen people tried…
There where 19 people who…

Spell out numbers less than 10, unless they are decimals, then it is ok to use the numerals.
A survey showed that 6 out of 7 people preferred UI 344.
A survey showed that six out of seven people preferred UI 344.
A survey showed that sixteen out of seventeen people preferred UI 344.
A survey showed that 16 out of 17 people preferred UI 344.
Of all the attendees, only 3.4 percent had purple noses and pink ears.
        There can be some problems like:
A survey showed that 9 out of 10 people preferred UI 344. (Should you have one written out and
the other in numeral form?)

Try to avoid using the same word twice in the same sentence.
Herbal medicine is a form of medicine that usually comes from plants.
Herbal medicine usually comes from plants.
The green leaves are green in color because of chlorophyll.
The green leaves are that color because of the chlorophyll.
These doctors have the ability to doctor a variety of illnesses
These doctors have the ability to treat a variety of illnesses

Often it is a problem using the same word in adjoining sentences.
The live oak is a common tree in Missouri. The live oak produces acorns that many forms of
wildlife rely on for food.
The live oak is a common tree in Missouri. It produces acorns that many forms of wildlife rely on
for food

Classification of Organisms (Lecture #13)
What is Classification?

Different Classification Systems
 Classify plants according to use

Different Classification Systems (cont.)
 Classify plants according to Growth Habit (longevity)

      A life cycle is from seed germination, growth, reproduction, to death of the plant
     Annuals
     Biennials
     Perennials

Other Classifications

  Deciduous plants vs. Evergreens

Other Classifications

  Woody vs. Herbaceous

Beginnings of Classification
 In the book, it tells who is considered the Father of Botany. Know who he is, and know what he
  did as far as classification is concerned

Karl von Linné

“Binomial System of Nomenclature”


    Scientific name

     Karl Linné  Carolus Linnaeus?


Binomial System of nomenclature: single classification system was a single scientific name for any
given organism, regardless of language or region.


Word corn being misunderstood by us in literature:
  In the Old and New Testaments of the Bible it refers to Corn a number of times
     “Therefore God give thee of the dew of heaven, and the fatness of the earth, and plenty of
       corn and wine: (Genesis 27:28)”
     Is the corn referred to here Zea mays?
     If you learn about the origin of corn, you find that it originated in the Americas, and was
       not brought to the Old World until Columbus returned from his first voyage
  In the Dickens book the Mayor of Castorbridge, he was a corn merchant—he dealt in small
    grains, not corn

   Classification system groups organisms with similar characteristics from the most general to the
    most specific (know the words below).
     Kingdom (most general)
     Phylum or Division (the word division is used by plant people)
     Class
     Order
     Family
     Genus         These two words together make up the scientific name
     Species

   Kingdom Know-Animalia and Plantae

   What does sp. and spp. mean?
   Know also the definition for species first proposed by Ernst Mayr in 1942, in your book

    Subdivision: Angiospermae and Gymnospermae

    Class: Monocotyledonae and Dicotyledonae

      Gramineae or Poaceae (grass family)
     Leguminoseae or Fabaceae (legume family)
     Rosaceae (rose family)
     Liliaceae (lilly family)
    (I would like you to know these four/six)

   Scientific Names (Genus and species names)[=
   Rules to follow when writing scientific names
     Capitalize the Genus
     Species lower case
     Italicize both (or underline both)

An Amazing Story (Lecture #14)
Second Law of Thermodynamics
 Everything is moving from a state of order to a state of disorder. Entropy

 Evolutionists vs. Creationists

   Creationist
     Present the second law of thermodynamics

   Evolutionist
     There are exceptions

   Creationist

 Evolutionist

    No examples
   Evolutionist

    Look at the Fossil record

   Creationist

    Transition species???

   Evolutionist

    Stephen J. Gould “Punctuated Equilibrium”

   Creationist

    Not provable

   Evolutionist
    Species separated evolve

   Creationist

   Evolutionist
     Make proteins from ammonia and water, with energy

   Creationist

  At the same time there has to be a reproductive system in place
 Study of evolution can be instructive

From the Book
 I would like you to read the part of Chapter 8 on the theory of evolution and be able to know
  about the following:
   Who Charles Darwin is, when he lived, and a little about his educational background
   What does the Beagle have to do with Darwin?
   What did he do with the Beagle?
   What is Darwin’s most famous book called (the first part of the title is enough)

Human Nutrition (Lecture #15)
Chapter 10
Nutrient Requirements
 Macronutrients

 Micronutrients

 Sugars

 How are proteins and amino acids related?

 Difference between essential & non-essential amino acids

 How many amino acids are necessary for humans?
                                                             OH   OH     OH
 How many are essential?

 The difference between fats and oils
                                                         H 2C     C      CH2

   A fat is a glycerol molecule with three fatty-acid molecules attached to it

                                                                             H        H
Fatty Acids
                                                                             C        C
                                                                             H        H

 Saturated fatty acid

 Unsaturated fatty acid                                     Double bond

                                                      H                           H
       Monounsaturated
                                                      C      C         C          C
                                                      H     H          H          H


       Diunsaturated

       Polyunsaturated                                              H            H       H
                                                                     C C C C C C C
                                                                     H H H H H H H

 Oils and Fats

 Healthy Fats

     • Olive Oil
     • Canola Oil
 Trans-fatty acids”

 hydrogenation
    pressure, hydrogen, and nickel catalyst
    What does hydrogenation do?

 Partially hydrogenated vegetable oil

 Cis-fatty acids

                                                    H H   H H   H
 Trans-fatty acids
                                                    C C C C C C C
                                                    H   H H   H H

    How are Trans-fatty acids made?

      Are they bad?

Fat Facts
 The cholesterol molecule is closely related to fats
 Plants make no cholesterol
 Only animals make cholesterol
 Even if you never eat any cholesterol, you may be in danger of having high cholesterol
 The current thinking (always subject to change) is that saturated fats are bad for you
     Increases LDL cholesterol
 Monounsaturated fats tend to be good for you
     Decrease LDL and increase HDL

 Polyunsaturated fats neither raise or lower cholesterol
 It is also said that animal fats are bad for you
    They are made up of saturated fatty acids
 Tropical oils are bad for you (coconut and palm oil)
    Also made of saturate fatty acids

So what is true?

My Take-home Lesson

The Grass Family (Lecture #17)
Chapter 12
Remember the Classification of Organisms

Attempt to Standardize Family Names
     End with the suffix –aceae
     Name should refer to a genus within the family

Grass Family: Gramineae

Many accept the Family name of Poaceae for the grasses.

Know both names
Which Name is Correct?

Grasses are Monocots
 Subclass of plants the grasses are in:

 Subclass for broadleaf plants:

Grass Characteristics
 Leaves                                     Monocot      Stem

       Parallel Veins

       Blade, sheath collar
                                                                 Dicot Stem

 Stems

   Nodes and Internodes

       See Figure 3.5 (a) and (b)
       Monocot Stems hollow or solid

 Roots
      Monocot: Fibrous
      Dicot: Tap
      See Figure 3.7 (a) & (b)

 Flowers

 Fruits

   A fruit is defined as a mature ovary
   Kernel or Caryopsis

Food from Grasses

    Three most important crop plants

    Look at Page 192, Figure 12.1

 Wheat is the most widely grown crop in the world

   Nutritious

   Origin

   cool-season crop

 #1 Country
 #2 Country
   # 1 State
 There are a number of species. Most common bread wheat is:

                 Triticum aestivum or Triticum aestivum

 Bran

 Germ

 Endosperm

 Products

 Products from wheat include:
   Breads
   Cakes
   Pastries
   Noodles (semolina)

 Grains that Rise

 Gluten

     Process of raising bread dough

     See page 195
     One other grain has gluten in it. What is it?
 Corn is the newest crop

 Europeans call it:
 The scientific name: Zea mays
 It’s origin Mexico/Central America
A warm-season crop

 #1 country :
 Top States:

There are a lot of products made from corn
    Ethanol (gas additive)
    Corn sweeteners (High-fructose Corn Syrup)
    Chips
    Flakes
    Livestock feed
    Look on product labels around your house and see which ones contain corn. I think you will
       be surprised

 Different varieties of corn
   Sweet corn
   Dent corn (most of what is grown in the USA)
   Popcorn
   Flour corn (Indian corn)
 Dent corn sweet?
   Where does the sweetener come from then (see p. 159)?

 What makes popcorn pop?

 Rice is a staple for more people than any other crop

 Rice origin
 Warm-season crop
 The scientific name: Oryza sativa

 # 1 Country
 #1 State
 Where does Missouri Rank?

Rice Production

 Milling of Rice, read about it on page 205

 Brown rice problem

 Four types of rice, know three:

 Your light fluffy rice
 People in the Far east prefer
 Wild rice

 Other grasses of importance include:
    Barley
    Oats
    Rye
    Sorghum
    Sugar cane—sugar
    Bamboo
 Turfgrasses
    Fescue
    Bluegrass
    Bermudagrass

 Forage grasses
   Fescue
   Big Bluestem
   Timothy
   Bluegrass

The Legume Family (Lecture #19)
Chapter 13

Second most important crop family

What is the most important?

Legume Family name is:

    dicots

      Type of fruit (see Figure 13.1)

      Legume Flower (Five petals

      Many are able to fix nitrogen
        This means what?

Legumes are a varied Family

Familiar Legumes                          Less Familiar Legumes include:

        Bean                                      Locust Trees

        Pea                                       True Clovers

        Peanut                                    Alfalfa

        Soybean                                   Kudzu

 Find the names for another 25 legumes

Most limiting plant nutrient

  Air made up of 78 percent Nitrogen

  Why is it in short supply in plants?

Nitrogen Fixation

  NH4+ (Ammonium ion)
    NO3 (Nitrate ion)

Symbiotic relationship

 Symbiosis definition

 see also Fig. 13.2

Nitrogen For Other Plants
 What do other plants do without this symbiotic relationship?
 See “A Closer Look” – 13.1


Scientific Name:
 Became an important crop after WW II in USA.        Why?

 Next time you are in the store, I would like you to go to the isle with oil, and see how many
  different plants the various oils come from

 Where grown?
 Crop Rotation

George Washington Carver
 What two crops did he work with primarily?
 Known as what?

Products from Soybeans


Nut or not?


What precipitated the growth of peanut as a corp?

Slaves were growing peanuts in their gardens

How did the peanut arrive in the USA?

Peanut Growth


The most important forage crop in the USA.


Beans and Peas
    Difference between Beans and Peas?

      Would you expect beans or peas to be most cold tolerant? Why?

We have misnamed some beans and peas

Peas are:

beans are:

Beans come in many varieties, colors and shapes (see book, Figure 13.3)

Edible fruit

Top States
 Soybean—
 Peanut—

Starchy Staples (Lecture #20)
Chapter 14

Modified Stems
 Five types of stems—know an example of each
 Utilized for storage

 Where it originated
 Scientific name
 Family name
 Irish Potato Famine

   What caused it and when it was?
   Common name of the disease
   Scientific name of the disease
   How many people died and how many immigrated?
   What did the Poor Law Extension Act do?

 Difference between a stem and a root

 What is the node of a potato called?
 Warm-, or cool-season crop?
Hash-browns and starch

Hash-brown Recipe

Grate Potatoes into a bowl. Add water and wring them out with your hands. Heat the skillet with
three table spoons of butter. Wring as much of the water as you can from the grated potatoes and
put them in the skillet to a depth of about 3/4-inch. Salt and pepper to taste (first timers tends to use
too much salt). Cook over medium heat with lid on before they are turned. The goal is to have a
nice brown layer, and if you lift the potatoes before they brown, you do not get the nice crisp layer.
To know when to turn the potatoes, dig a little with your spatula until you come to the bottom layer
that is browning. You can tell when it is time to turn when they are golden brown.

Turn them, this time leaving the lid off. If you had the right temperature, the potatoes should be
cooked through at this point.

Turn it so the browned layer is on top. If you put a lid on it, this layer will no longer be crispy,
which is the best part. Brown the second layer and serve.

One modification I like sometimes is to cut onions into rings and place them on top of the potatoes.
I like them on top while the first side is crisping because they tend to burn before the potatoes get
cooked if mixed in.

It is also good with a small dash or two of garlic powder (just a little bit)

Sweet Potato
 Scientific name
 Family name
 Is not a stem, what is it?
 How does the sweet potato compare to the potato nutritionally?

 Difference between a sweet potato and a yam
 What is a true yam?

 A product from cassava
 Origin
 What part is eaten?
 How soon after picking should one eat or process cassava?
 They contain what toxin?
 What is it related to?
 How is it eaten?
  Where did it originate?
  Is it an annual, biennial or perennial?
  Is it woody or herbaceous?
  Know about the nutritional value
 Where is it grown
 What is a Hawaiian dish made from taro?

 Starch molecule

 Know the two types of starch

 How can one make sweeteners from starch?

 Name two other products made from starch.

Weather (Lecture #21)
Why talk about Weather in a Plants Class?


Difference between Weather and Climate
 Weather-


 Watch your local weather forecast on three different consecutive evenings. See if you better
  understand what they are saying and see if you can better understand why temperatures, and
  other conditions change over time.
Components of Weather
List the different things that can be measured and recorded for a weather forecast.   See if you can
  also write down what is used to measure it.
Components of Weather and What Measures it.

 You probably know what the significance of the following temperatures are:
 More Difficult ones:
Know Also the Conversions for the Following
 Standard human body temperature in both F and C

 Know C for 75F
Barometric Pressure
 What does a barometer measure?

 Measured in what units?
 If there is all that weight of air on us, why are we not crushed?

Wind Direction and Speed
 We are familiar with this
 The weather person says “the wind is out of the west at 15 mph”

   What is kph?

Relative Humidity

 At -21C one cubic meter of air can hold a maximum of 1 gram of water
 At 11C, 1 m3 of air can hold 10g H2O
 At 22.5C, 1 m3 of air can hold 20g H2O
 At 29.8C, 1 m3 of air can hold 30g H2O
 At 33.2C, 1 m3 of air can hold 40g H2O

So if the temperature was 11C, and the relative humidity (RH) was 100%, there would be how
many grams of water per m3

If the temperature was 30C, and the RH was 100%, there would be how many grams of H2O per m3

How much water would be in the air if the temperature was 22.5C and the RH was 50%?

Dew Point-Related to Relative Humidity
 What is the dew point?

 If the dew point is 11C then the air has how many grams of water?

 If the dew point is 11C, but the temperature is 29.8C, then the RH is what?

 What happens when temperature drops below the dew point?

 Precipitation is water falling from the air in the liquid or solid form
 Liquid forms include:
 Solid forms include:
Understanding Weather Maps
 Great Sites:
 Satellite photos are taken by geo-stationary weather satellites

High- & Low-pressure Systems
 What makes a high or low?

 Highs are usually associated with what kind of weather?
 Lows are usually associated with what kind of weather?
 Highs spin which way?

 Low-pressure systems spin which way

 If you want to better understand why these systems spin the way they do, look up the Coriolis
  Effect. (I find it very interesting)
 Lows often look like clouds wrapped into a comma shape.

 What is a front?
 There are three types of fronts:

 Note the symbols for each on the types of fronts

 What is the Jet Stream?

 How does the jet stream flow in relation to highs and lows?

 Prevailing winds in our area blow which way?

 Nearer the tropics the weather systems move which direction?
 Nearer the North Pole weather systems tend to move which direction?

What is Doppler radar?

 Click on and you will see a map of the USA made with Doppler radar.

Why are Farmers Amateur Weather Watchers?

The Greenhouse Effect (Lecture #22)

What exactly is the Greenhouse Effect?

Electromagnetic radiation



All objects with a temperature over absolute zero (-273 C) emit radiation

The hotter the object, the shorter the wavelengths emitted (Wein’s Law)
The hotter an object, the more energy it emits (Stephan-Boltzmann Law)

Remember from the radiation lecture that there are three things that can happen to radiation striking
a surface.

Glass and radiation:

Sunlight passes through the glass, is absorbed by plants, benches, walkways, soil, etc.
That radiation warms the object, which then re-radiates it at longer wavelengths (longer
wavelengths because the objects warmed are much cooler than the sun).

What does this have to do with the earth?

Atmosphere: composed of 78% Nitrogen, 21% Oxygen and 1% other gasses
The gasses in this 1% act much like the glass of a greenhouse

Is Global Warming Real?
If we did not have global warming with the atmosphere, we would be about -17C!

How can we tell temperatures are rising?

Not so easy—

To be accurate, one area may be cooler and another area warmer, so one must average temperatures
over all areas

Ocean levels may be the best indicator

Estimated 30 cm (6 in) since 1900
Even this is difficult to measure –

Ocean levels have risen an estimated 100 meters (328 ft) since the last ice age 12,000 years ago
This means that the earth has been in a warming cycle for the last 12,000 years (of which, only the
last 100 years can be attributed to burning of fossil fuels)

Is the Earth Warming Even More Due to Human Activity?

Is it human caused?

There is evidence to suggest that CO2 levels are rising because of global warming (not visa versa)
       Warmer temperatures naturally increase the concentration of atmospheric CO2

The temperature of the sun is not perfectly constant, could this change earth’s temperature?

Data from NASA shows that temperatures on Mars have risen about the same as it has on the Earth
over the past 30 years

How much has CO2concentrations gone up in the last 30 years?
13 percent
83 percent
130 percent

Another Story

Water dissolves CO2 forming carbonic acid and that it is a very weak buffer!
Oceans are large sinks for CO2.
Calcium + carbonate = calcium carbonate (limestone).
Geology class.

What does this have to do with global warming??
The ocean acts as a great buffer for absorbing CO2

Other Greenhouse Gasses?

Is that all the Greenhouse Gasses?
#1 Greenhouse gas

Scientific Consensus??:

Rainforests and CO2

Earth’s History
Ice Ages have dominated most of the last million years (in excess of 90 percent of that time)
We are in an inter-glacial ice age period.

The dire warnings?

Warming increases decomposition, hence releasing CO2 (respiration)

My Question
Are we spending megabucks:
    to try to solve a problem that does not exist?
    with little or no good coming from it?
    making some promoters of it wealthy?
          o Including scientists, politicians
          o Other countries

Where does Agriculture fit?

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