Plants and Humanity
Dr. WJ Mueller
Southeast Missouri State University
Class Syllabus .......................................................................................... 2
Class Outline ............................................................................................ 6
Plagiarism (lecture #2) ............................................................................. 7
History of Agriculture (Lecture #3) ......................................................... 8
Water (Lecture #4) ................................................................................. 10
Critical Thinking (Lecture #5) ............................................................... 14
Introduction to Plants (Lecture #6) ........................................................ 16
Water Movement in Plants (Lecture #7) ................................................ 19
Photosynthesis and Respiration (Lecture #8) ......................................... 21
Genetics and Breeding (Lecture #9) ...................................................... 24
Vegetative Reproduction (Lecture #10) ................................................. 26
Radiation Lecture (Lecture #11) ............................................................ 28
Common Grammar Problems (Lecture #12).......................................... 29
Classification of Organisms (Lecture #13) ............................................ 31
An Amazing Story (Lecture #14) ........................................................... 34
Human Nutrition (Lecture #15) ............................................................. 36
Hemp (Lecture #16; no notes)
Grass Family (Lecture #17) ................................................................... 40
Group Projects (Lecture #18; no notes)
Legume Family (Lecture #19) ............................................................... 45
Starchy Staples (Lecture #20) ................................................................ 50
Weather (Lecture #21) ........................................................................... 53
Greenhouse Effect (Lecture #22) ........................................................... 58
UI 344 Office Hours:
Plants and Humanity M 10-11
Dr. Wesley J. Mueller T 9-10
Spring 2010 W 10-11
Telephone: 573/651-2740 (Office), 651-2106 (Administrative Asst.)
Office Magill 109
UI 344. Plants and Humanity. The psychological, physiological, and social responses of people to
plants in their environment and the effects plants have on human health. Prerequisites: Artistic
Expression; Oral Expression; Behavioral Systems; Social Systems. (University Studies Course) (3)
Levetin, E and K McMahon. 2006. Plants and Society, Fourth Edition. WCB/McGraw-Hill,
You can obtain a copy through Textbook Rental by going to the basement of Kent Library and
picking it up, or by contacting Textbook Rental to have a copy mailed to you.
Contact Textbook Rental at:
Phone: (573) 651-2538 mail: One University Plaza, MS 1100
Fax: (573) 651-5020 Cape Girardeau, MO 63701
Regular attendance at class. Access to a computer with Microsoft Word and Microsoft PowerPoint.
What You Can Expect of Me?
I will return graded papers and presentations within one week. Tests will be recorded within one
day of the closing date. I will do what I can to help you if you are having problems, if you ask, and
if you are willing to work with me.
It is my wish that you would think and dream about plants this semester. Think about what they do
for you, and how they affect your every-day life. I would like you to do a fair amount of critical
thinking. I also hope you gain an appreciation for just how complex and interactive this world is we
live in, and the role that plants play in it.
Grades will be based on:
Five opinion discussions, using Forum, (10 pts. each)
Five readings and discussions, using Forum (15 pts. Each)
Two topic papers, topic chosen by you; it must relate to plants (35 pts. each)
Two PowerPoint presentations based on the topics papers (25 pts. each)
Evaluate a peer paper (25 pts.)
Submit a plan for completion of the group project (5 pts.)
One group paper, topics assigned (50 pts.)
One group PowerPoint presentation based on group paper (50 pts.)
Three 35-minute, online exams (50 pts. each)
Grades will be determined by percentage. The total points possible for the course are 525.
A 90 to 100 percent 472-525 pts.
B 80 to 89 percent 420-471 pts.
C 70 to 79 percent 367-419 pts.
D 60 to 69 percent 315-366 pts.
F Below 60 percent 314 pts. or less
All assignments to be handed in via Drop Box will be due on or before 11:59:59pm on date
shown (unless otherwise indicated). The official clock will be “Server Time,” meaning the
computer server at Southeast Missouri State Univ. You can also check “Server Time” by going to
the class main web page and clicking on the link. If for any reason, papers and presentations are not
turned in on time, 10 percent will be subtracted each day after the due date. This includes Topic
Papers that are turned in without meeting the minimum requirements. There is no makeup for
Opinion Discussions (Use Forum; 10 pts. Each): Five Opinion Discussion topics will be
assigned. I want each of you to write a paper on the subject and come to class prepared to discuss
your opinions on the subject. It is fine to disagree with another person, but it is not appropriate to
be rude or cutting to the other person. In other words, talk about the issues, don’t personalize it.
Points will be based on meeting the basic requirements of the assignment, showing that you put
some thought into your opinions and responses in class and for being grammatically correct. No
points will be awarded for late work.
Assignment Goal: to direct thinking toward the importance of plants in our lives; to develop critical-
thinking skills; to improve communication skills and interactions with others; to help students
realize that not everything in life has a black and white answer, and not every person thinks exactly
like you do.
Readings Discussions (Use Forum; 15 pts. Each): Five Topics will be assigned throughout the
semester that will require you to do some research. I then want you to write a summary of what you
read about, and express your opinion. Make sure that you write down the reference(s) that you
used. I then want you to come prepared to discuss the topic in class.
Assignment Goal: Develop skills in gathering information about topics from resources available,
summarize them, and discuss them; develop critical-thinking skills; to keep up to date on topics of
broad interest; to improve communication skills and interactions with others.
Topic-papers (30 pts. Each): Select a topic that has something to do with plants. Yes, anything
that has to do with plants will do, you have all kinds of latitude on the subject. The papers should
□ double-spaced (do not use enters after every line, use the double-space feature)
□ 12 pt. font
□ Times New Roman font
□ 1-inch margins on all sides
□ Written in 3rd person
□ Use at least three references (internet, books, whatever), except do not use Wikipedia (many
things are good in Wikipedia, but anyone can contribute).
□ Use MLA format (use end notes and cite them properly in the text)
□ A cover sheet (with title, your name, UI 344-(section #), Plants and Humanity, assignment
number, the name of the paper reviewer (see below), date turned in and word count), no
headers or footers please. I know that MLA does not have cover sheets, but it also gives
discretion to the instructor. Since you have a cover sheet, I do NOT want you to have the
information at the top of the paper, in a header, etc. as MLA prescribes.
□ *Your paper should be no less than 325 words and no more than 350 (excluding cover sheet and
Works Cited). If you are over or under the word count by a little, your grade will be dinged a
little. If you give me the wrong word count, you will be dinged more.
□ I want you to have someone review your paper prior to you turning it in. You may use the
writing center if you wish (yes, even online and it’s free:
http://ustudies.semo.edu/writing/owl.asp). Write the name of the reviewer on the title page.
□ At the end of the paper I want you to write four questions, two multiple-choice and two true-
□ Submit one MS Word file containing the requested information via the Drop Box, which can be
accessed by the link near the top of the Class Home Page.
*To determine the word count in MS Word 2003, highlight the words in the body of the paper, click on Tools
(Menu Bar), then click Word Count. Using Office 2007, highlight the text, and look at the lower left of the screen
for the word count. Record the results of the word count near the bottom of the cover sheet.
The grade will be based on:
□ Grammatical correctness (at least 3 references properly cited with end notes)
□ Formatted properly as described above
□ I also look for an introduction and conclusion, and a thesis statement in the right place
□ Quality of the questions-A significant portion of your grade will be based on your questions.
Ask well-thought-out questions that do not have obvious answers, like “T/F All people love
peanuts.” Another thing to look out for: usually when a student puts one of the answers as “all
of the above,” that is the correct answer. Teachers often do this as well!
You may get back up to half of the points lost for grammatical correctness and formatting, by
correcting the paper and returning it. To get correction points, it has to be returned within one week
from the time I return the paper to you.
Assignment Goal: Improve writing skills; learn to be concise in writing; learn proper citation
methods; learn to follow instructions.
Be sure to check the following before submitting your paper
□ A cover sheet with the information requested above, including an accurate word count
□ A “Works Cited” page (last page) with complete references used in the text
□ All references properly cited in the text as outlined
Redoing Topic Papers: I will correct Topic Papers by using a grading rubric. You can get up to
half the points back for Grammar and Formatting, by redoing the Topic Papers. It is your job to
look at the filled-out rubric and my suggestions below it (I will insert the rubric below the Cover
Sheet of your paper). Make changes to your paper, using the Track Changes feature of MS Word.
To access Track Changes in MS Word 2007, click on Review, then click Track Changes. To access
the same feature in MS Word 2003, go to Format, Toolbars. Check the Reviewing Toolbar and it
will show on your paper somewhere. Click on the Track Changes button. From then on, everything
you type will be added in a different color, and the things you delete will have a line through it.
Reviewing Another Person’s Topic Paper: For the second Topic Paper, I will e-mail you another
student’s paper for you to review. I want you to fill out the rubric and make comments on the paper
below the rubric, similar to what I did for your first Topic Paper. Return it and I will then grade the
paper, and compare my evaluation with yours.
Topic-paper Presentations (30 pts. Each): Your presentation will be a summary of the associated
Topic Paper. The presentations should be between five and seven minutes long. I want you to use a
Power Point presentation as support for your in-class talk on the subject of the Topic Paper. During
your talk, you will answer the questions you submitted with your paper. I want the questions to be
about the most important points in your paper. I may use some of the same questions that are on the
presentations for the test, or I may modify the questions somewhat on the test. The grades for the
presentation will be based on the following:
Content and Quality, ease of following the presentation
Assignment Goal: Improve presentation skills; disseminate information relevant to people today.
Group Paper (50 pts.): Group participants will be assigned a topic to do their paper and
presentation on. It should be 900 to 1000 words in length. Use the same guidelines as used in the
Topic Papers. Grades will be based on the following:
□ Grammatical correctness (at least 5 references properly cited with end notes)
□ Formatted properly as described
□ Participation (as determined by group members)
(Note: each person on the team does not have to participate in both the paper and the
presentation, but each person should do their share of the overall project)
Assignment Goal: Learn to work in a group setting online. Learn and use available communication
skills; develop writing and information-gathering skills; learn to follow instructions precisely.
Include four multiple-choice questions and four True/False questions at the end of the paper.
Group Presentation (50 pts.): The presentations should be between 10 and 15 minutes long.
Answer the questions written in the paper while giving the presentation. Again, I may use some of
the same questions that are on the presentations, or I may modify some. The grades for the
presentation will be based on the following:
□ Content and Quality of the Presentation
□ Quality of the questions
□ Participation (as determined by teammates)
Assignment Goal: Develop communication skills; present pertinent information to the class.
Tests: Test #1 will cover materials from the first third of the class. That includes my presentations
and materials, questions from the text and questions from the first student Topic Presentations. Test
#2 will cover materials from the second third of the class, the text questions, and questions from the
second student Topic Presentations. Final Exam will be worth the same as the other tests, but it will
be comprehensive, with an emphasis on the materials since the second test, including Group
Presentation questions. All the tests will be online. They will have 25 questions and will be open
book/note BUT you will have a time limit of 35 minutes. You can take the test anytime during the
assigned testing period, but you will only have one opportunity to do so. The tests will be a mix of
multiple-choice and True-False questions.
Academic Honesty: In this class, I will follow the guidelines set forth by the University as related
to Code of Student Conduct.
Semester Outline (This table is for your use only; use it if it helps you keep organized)
January 19-23 Week 1 Folder materials Date Completed
January 24-30 Week 2 Folder materials
25 Opinion Discussion #1 due
Jan 31- Feb 6 Week 3 Folder materials
1 Reading Discussion #1 due
Februray 7-13 Week 4 Folder materials
8 Opinion Discussion #2 due
February 14-20 Week 5 Folder materials
15 Topic Paper #1 due
17 Topic Presentation #1 due
February 21-27 Week 6 Folder materials
22 Reading Discussion #2 due
Feb 28-Mar 6 Week 7 Folder materials
1-2 Test #1
1 Opinion Discussion #3 due
March 7-13 Week 8 Folder materials
8 Reading Discussion #3 due
March 21-27 Week 9 Folder materials
22 Topic Paper #2 due
Mar 28-Apr 3 Week 10 Folder materials
29 Opinion Discussion #4 due
2 Return Evaluation of Topic Paper #2
April 4-10 Week 11 Folder materials
5 Reading Discussion #4 due
April 11-17 Week 12 Folder materials
12-13 Test #2
12 Opinion Discussion #5 due
April 18-24 Week 13 Folder materials
19 Reading Discussion #5 due
Apr 25-May 1 Week 14 Folder materials
26 Turn in Group Paper (One for the whole group)
28 Turn in Group Presentation (One for the whole group)
May 2-8 Week 15 Folder materials
Prepare for final (May 10-12)
Plagiarism (Lecture #2)
Dr. WJ Mueller
What is Plagiarism?
Definition: “To take the thoughts, writings, inventions, etc., of another and use as one’s own,
especially to take and use a passage, plot, etc., from the work of another writer.”
The World Book Dictionary. Doubleday & Company, Inc. 1974
Types of Plagiarism
Three General Categories
Copy the work of another and call it your own
Quote or use the thoughts of another and not give credit to the person
Improper citation of someone else’s work
Copy a Work—It is the worst
Go to the internet and copy a paper off
Use the work of a student from a previous class
Have someone else write the paper for you
Quote or Use Thoughts of Another
Whenever you use the words of someone else, put quotes around it and reference it
Whenever you reword the thoughts of another, give credit to the author with a reference
What do you NOT have to Reference?
Things that are common Knowledge
Examples might include:
The earth surface is 70 percent water
Plants belong to the Kingdom Plantae
The United States declared their independence from Great Britain in 1776
Most things in a common-knowledge encyclopedia
Use quotes sparingly!
One can tell whether or not to quote something by asking the following question:
Am I quoting it because it is worded so well, that I could not do better paraphrasing it? If
so, don’t quote it! Paraphrase almost always!
What are Footnotes and Endnotes
Works Cited, or
Are these words synonyms or are there some differences?
Which should you use as a heading on your papers?
Bibliography: Definition: A relatively complete collection of all references on a given subject.
References: Definition: A list of references cited in the text, plus other references used for
background information, but not specifically cited in the text.
Works Cited: Only the references cited in the text of the paper are listed
History of Agriculture (Lecture #3)
Hunters and gatherers
What promoted community?
Food preservation and preparing
Division of labor
Manufactured steel plow
Spindle-type cotton picker
Number of Tractors exceeds number of horses
Morrill Act (1862)
Establish Land-grant schools
Timeline of USA Agriculture
1790 3,929,214 Farm Population 90% of labor force
1800 5,308,483 Louisiana Purchase 1803
1840 17,069,453 Agriculture made up 69% of labor force
1845-55 Potato Famine, Ireland—migration
1880 50,155,783 Farmers made up 49% of labor force
1920 105,710,620 Farmers made up 27% of labor force
1960 180,007,000 Farmers made up 6.4% of labor force
2000 281,421,906 Farmers make up 1.5% of labor force*
Most of this information is from: http://www.usda.gov/history2/text3.htm
*From US Census Data: http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/BasicFactsServlet
Water: Do we take it for granted? (Lecture #4)
Importance of Water
Aristotle referred to water as one of the four elements
Fire (chemical change)
Water Distribution and Occurrence on Earth
The world’s largest lakes are:
Lake Baikal (Southern Siberia; 26,000 km3)
Lake Tanganyika (Congo Border; 20,000 km3)
Lake Malawi (SE Africa; 13,000 km3)
Lake Superior (USA border; 12,000 km3)
Underground water is important in all areas. There are two type of groundwater:
Ogallala aquifer is the largest underground aquifer
Demonstration of Hydrogen Bonding
Is this how a steel ship floats?
Usefulness of Water
Proton exchange medium
Water stabilizes molecules
Promotes hydrolysis (digestion)
Thermoregulation (high specific heat)
Usefulness of Water (cont.)
Water-Solid, Liquid, Gas
Most compounds can exist in any of three phases
Gas (water vapor or steam)
Density of Water in the various states
What would happen if water acted like every other molecule and became denser in the
solid (ice) state?
Water Heat Capacity
Water has a tremendous capacity to hold energy in the form of heat.
Water Chemical Properties
One of the most reactive chemicals
One of the most corrosive substances known
It is only slightly compressible
One of two naturally occurring inorganic liquids at room temperature. Can you name the
High surface tension (this was demonstrated earlier in the Hydrogen Bonding Experiment)
Hydrophobic means water hating
Hydrophilic means water loving
Sources of water for agriculture
Methods of Applying Water
Drip or trickle
Ground water contamination
Water movement past the root zone
Problems with irrigated Farming
Limited amount of water
Tail water management
Management of salts in the soil
Irrigation stresses to plants
Problems with House Plants
Solutions to Irrigated farming Problems
Use different irrigation systems
Do not apply excess water
Plant salt-tolerant crops
Water only when the crop needs it
Problems with Dryland Farming
Solutions to Dryland Farming Water Management
Role of organic matter
Change cultivation practices
Practice conservation tillage
Terraces and other containment structures
Critical Thinking (Lecture #5)
Why Critical Thinking?
Feeling and Thinking are not Synonymous Terms
Feel: “An emotional state or reaction”
Think: “To form or have in the mind”
(Webster’s Ninth Collegiate Dictionary)
Two Forms of Thinking
What is Critical Thinking?
What is involved in Critical Thinking?
How to Critically Evaluate an Issue
Basic Steps to Critical Thinking
What Critical Thinking is NOT
Things to Ask Yourself
How Does Critical Thinking Apply to this Class?
Introduction to Plants (Lecture #6)
What I hope for this class
I would hope that you would look at plants and think about plants for the entire semester
That you would gain an appreciation of what plants do for us as humans
Gain an appreciation of what producers do for us
I also hope you become a better communicator in the process
Classification of Organisms
Categorize organisms according to characteristics
Binomial System of Classification
Classifies organisms from the most general to the most specific
Animals are in the Kingdom Animalia and Plants are in the Kingdom Plantae
Differences between Plants & Animals
1. Food Source
3. Cell Walls
4. Cell Pressure
There are exceptions to all five of these?
The source of all food
Animals fit into two categories
Most Common Plants
Most of what we talk about in this class will be Angiosperms
Four basic plant parts
Classification by Stem Type
Classification by longevity
Plants can be categorized according to use
Plants can be categorized according to water requirements
Xerophytes or xerophytic plants
Hydrophytes or hydrophytic plants
Water Movement in Plants (Lecture #7)
Water use efficiency in plants
Average Plants, Beans (C3)
Water-efficient Plants, Corn (C4)
Very Efficient Plants, Cactus (CAM)
How much water does it take to produce a breakfast of:
2 eggs, 2 slices of bacon, 2 slices of toast and 8 oz. orange Juice?
What happens to water lost from a plant?
Ways water is lost when applied to a field:
Two Conductive Tissues in plants
How does water gets to the top of a tree?
Water-potential gradient (Cohesion Hypothesis)
Photosynthesis and Respiration (Lecture #8)
Ultraviolet Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red Far-red Infrared
Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR)
What is happening when we see color?
Energy from the Sun
80,000 calories . cm-2 . Sec-1
(Same as: 80,000 cal/cm2/sec)
2 calories . cm-2 . Sec-1 Reach the earth’s atmosphere
1 calorie . cm-2 . Sec-1 Reach the earth’s surface
Radiation Striking a surface
Three things can happen to radiation that strikes a surface:
Absorbed Radiation by a leaf
On average 1 calorie in 100 that reaches a leaf is used in Photosynthesis
Heats the leaf
Photosynthesis & Respiration
6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2
More General (Any Carbohydrate)
CO2 + H2O CH2O + O2
Mechanics of Photosynthesis
Glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle
Genetics and Breeding (Lecture #9)
The Basics of Genetics
The principles of genetics apply to both plants or animals
Chapter 7 in the book does a good job of explaining the basics of heredity. Understand the
Homozygous vs. Heterozygous
Recessive vs. Dominant
Know who Gregor Mendel was and what he did
Terms and Concepts
Understand Figure 7.2 in the book
Difference between Phenotype and Genotype
Punnett Squares (see pp. 108-109)
Identical set of chromosomes in all cells
Meiosis is the creation of half chromosomes
Plant and Animal Breeding is an Ancient Art and Science
• In the Old Testament, Jacob was doing some creative breeding, increasing his flocks at the
expense of Laban (Genesis 30:37-42).
Genesis 30: 37-43
37 And Jacob took him rods of green poplar, and of the hazel and chesnut tree; and pilled white
strakes in them, and made the white appear which was in the rods.
38 And he set the rods which he had pilled before the flocks in the gutters in the watering troughs
when the flocks came to drink, that they should conceive when they came to drink.
39 And the flocks conceived before the rods, and brought forth cattle ringstraked, speckled, and
40 And Jacob did separate the lambs, and set the faces of the flocks toward the ringstraked, and all
the brown in the flock of Laban; and he put his own flocks by themselves, and put them not unto
41 And it came to pass, whensoever the stronger cattle did conceive, that Jacob laid the rods before
the eyes of the cattle in the gutters, that they might conceive among the rods.
42 But when the cattle were feeble, he put them not in: so the feebler were Laban’s, and the stronger
43 And the man increased exceedingly, and had much cattle, and maidservants, and menservants,
and camels, and asses.
Chromosomes are made up of DNA and segments of DNA are called genes. Genes codes for
proteins (see Figure 7.8)
Know the four letters for the code and how they pair up
Know the role of RNA
Know how they manipulate amino acids to make proteins
Vegetative Reproduction (Lecture #10)
Natural Vegetative Propagation
– Bermuda grass
– Spider Plant
– Johnson grass
Bulbs and Corms
Propagation with human intervention
Grafting and Budding
• Scion wood
Equipment that you need
Why do grafting?
Radiation (Lecture #11)
12 2 2
Earth Surface Area: 512 x 10 m (196,804,000 mi )
70% Oceans: 360 x 1012 m2 (138,920,500 mi2)
30% Land: 150 x 1012 m2 (57,883,523 mi2)
Sun is 93 million miles away
Radiation produced by the sun
Radiation Striking a surface
Incoming Shortwave Radiation from the Sun
Common Grammar Problems (Lecture #12)
That-Which. Which one should be used?
I have found in 90 percent of the cases, the word THAT should be used. Use the word WHICH to
delineate an independent clause within a sentence. If one removes the independent clause from a
sentence the sentence still is complete and makes sense. The independent clause is also delineated
with comas. Examples below:
1. Johnny rode the red wagon that/which went down the hill.
2. Johnny’s wagon, that/which was red, was very fast.
3. Plants that/which survive in the desert are very drought tolerant.
4. The cactus, that/which was found by the cliff, survived in a very dry area.
5. The text book for the class was very wordy, that/which made it hard to follow.
6. I need a book that/which will give me more information about genetics.
In general, don’t start sentences with conjunctions
Conjunctions include the following words: however, and, but, yet, or, nor, neither, so, therefore,
but also, and yet (you get the idea). If you are a good writer and understand their use, then you may
start certain sentences with a conjunction. This is done for emphasis. The trick is not to overuse
them because the impact is lost, with overuse.
However, Johnny did not get clear to the bottom of the hill.
Johnny did not get clear to the bottom of the hill, however.
Therefore, it is imperative that we act now
It is therefore imperative that we act now.
It looked like the case was cut and dry. The man they caught running from the scene had to be the
perpetrator of the crime. However, there was one little problem…
Compound Adjectives are hyphenated
Remember that an adjective describes the noun, and when two descriptive words are placed
together, they are hyphenated.
50 mm camera
15 in. length of wood
a blue green sweater
an over active child
a bright shiny star
an up and coming technology
Do not start sentences with abbreviations, acronyms or numbers. Write them out, OR reword the
Dr. Wilson said that we should have this assignment done Friday.
Doctor Wilson said…
According to Dr. Wilson…
C3 photosynthesis is most common among plants.
Photosynthesis using the C3 pathway is most common among plants.
The Calvin-Benson pathway for photosynthesis is most common among plants.
19 people tried to get to the top.
Nineteen people tried…
There where 19 people who…
Spell out numbers less than 10, unless they are decimals, then it is ok to use the numerals.
A survey showed that 6 out of 7 people preferred UI 344.
A survey showed that six out of seven people preferred UI 344.
A survey showed that sixteen out of seventeen people preferred UI 344.
A survey showed that 16 out of 17 people preferred UI 344.
Of all the attendees, only 3.4 percent had purple noses and pink ears.
There can be some problems like:
A survey showed that 9 out of 10 people preferred UI 344. (Should you have one written out and
the other in numeral form?)
Try to avoid using the same word twice in the same sentence.
Herbal medicine is a form of medicine that usually comes from plants.
Herbal medicine usually comes from plants.
The green leaves are green in color because of chlorophyll.
The green leaves are that color because of the chlorophyll.
These doctors have the ability to doctor a variety of illnesses
These doctors have the ability to treat a variety of illnesses
Often it is a problem using the same word in adjoining sentences.
The live oak is a common tree in Missouri. The live oak produces acorns that many forms of
wildlife rely on for food.
The live oak is a common tree in Missouri. It produces acorns that many forms of wildlife rely on
Classification of Organisms (Lecture #13)
What is Classification?
Different Classification Systems
Classify plants according to use
Different Classification Systems (cont.)
Classify plants according to Growth Habit (longevity)
A life cycle is from seed germination, growth, reproduction, to death of the plant
Deciduous plants vs. Evergreens
Woody vs. Herbaceous
Beginnings of Classification
In the book, it tells who is considered the Father of Botany. Know who he is, and know what he
did as far as classification is concerned
Karl von Linné
“Binomial System of Nomenclature”
Karl Linné Carolus Linnaeus?
Binomial System of nomenclature: single classification system was a single scientific name for any
given organism, regardless of language or region.
Word corn being misunderstood by us in literature:
In the Old and New Testaments of the Bible it refers to Corn a number of times
“Therefore God give thee of the dew of heaven, and the fatness of the earth, and plenty of
corn and wine: (Genesis 27:28)”
Is the corn referred to here Zea mays?
If you learn about the origin of corn, you find that it originated in the Americas, and was
not brought to the Old World until Columbus returned from his first voyage
In the Dickens book the Mayor of Castorbridge, he was a corn merchant—he dealt in small
grains, not corn
Classification system groups organisms with similar characteristics from the most general to the
most specific (know the words below).
Kingdom (most general)
Phylum or Division (the word division is used by plant people)
Genus These two words together make up the scientific name
Kingdom Know-Animalia and Plantae
What does sp. and spp. mean?
Know also the definition for species first proposed by Ernst Mayr in 1942, in your book
Subdivision: Angiospermae and Gymnospermae
Class: Monocotyledonae and Dicotyledonae
Gramineae or Poaceae (grass family)
Leguminoseae or Fabaceae (legume family)
Rosaceae (rose family)
Liliaceae (lilly family)
(I would like you to know these four/six)
Scientific Names (Genus and species names)[=
Rules to follow when writing scientific names
Capitalize the Genus
Species lower case
Italicize both (or underline both)
An Amazing Story (Lecture #14)
Second Law of Thermodynamics
Everything is moving from a state of order to a state of disorder. Entropy
Evolutionists vs. Creationists
Present the second law of thermodynamics
There are exceptions
Look at the Fossil record
Stephen J. Gould “Punctuated Equilibrium”
Species separated evolve
Make proteins from ammonia and water, with energy
At the same time there has to be a reproductive system in place
Study of evolution can be instructive
From the Book
I would like you to read the part of Chapter 8 on the theory of evolution and be able to know
about the following:
Who Charles Darwin is, when he lived, and a little about his educational background
What does the Beagle have to do with Darwin?
What did he do with the Beagle?
What is Darwin’s most famous book called (the first part of the title is enough)
Human Nutrition (Lecture #15)
How are proteins and amino acids related?
Difference between essential & non-essential amino acids
How many amino acids are necessary for humans?
OH OH OH
How many are essential?
The difference between fats and oils
H 2C C CH2
A fat is a glycerol molecule with three fatty-acid molecules attached to it
Saturated fatty acid
Unsaturated fatty acid Double bond
C C C C
H H H H
Polyunsaturated H H H
C C C C C C C
H H H H H H H
Oils and Fats
• Olive Oil
• Canola Oil
pressure, hydrogen, and nickel catalyst
What does hydrogenation do?
Partially hydrogenated vegetable oil
H H H H H
C C C C C C C
H H H H H
How are Trans-fatty acids made?
Are they bad?
The cholesterol molecule is closely related to fats
Plants make no cholesterol
Only animals make cholesterol
Even if you never eat any cholesterol, you may be in danger of having high cholesterol
The current thinking (always subject to change) is that saturated fats are bad for you
Increases LDL cholesterol
Monounsaturated fats tend to be good for you
Decrease LDL and increase HDL
Polyunsaturated fats neither raise or lower cholesterol
It is also said that animal fats are bad for you
They are made up of saturated fatty acids
Tropical oils are bad for you (coconut and palm oil)
Also made of saturate fatty acids
So what is true?
My Take-home Lesson
The Grass Family (Lecture #17)
Remember the Classification of Organisms
Attempt to Standardize Family Names
End with the suffix –aceae
Name should refer to a genus within the family
Grass Family: Gramineae
Many accept the Family name of Poaceae for the grasses.
Know both names
Which Name is Correct?
Grasses are Monocots
Subclass of plants the grasses are in:
Subclass for broadleaf plants:
Leaves Monocot Stem
Blade, sheath collar
Nodes and Internodes
See Figure 3.5 (a) and (b)
Monocot Stems hollow or solid
See Figure 3.7 (a) & (b)
A fruit is defined as a mature ovary
Kernel or Caryopsis
Food from Grasses
Three most important crop plants
Look at Page 192, Figure 12.1
Wheat is the most widely grown crop in the world
# 1 State
There are a number of species. Most common bread wheat is:
Triticum aestivum or Triticum aestivum
Products from wheat include:
Grains that Rise
Process of raising bread dough
See page 195
One other grain has gluten in it. What is it?
Corn is the newest crop
Europeans call it:
The scientific name: Zea mays
It’s origin Mexico/Central America
A warm-season crop
#1 country :
There are a lot of products made from corn
Ethanol (gas additive)
Corn sweeteners (High-fructose Corn Syrup)
Look on product labels around your house and see which ones contain corn. I think you will
Different varieties of corn
Dent corn (most of what is grown in the USA)
Flour corn (Indian corn)
Dent corn sweet?
Where does the sweetener come from then (see p. 159)?
What makes popcorn pop?
Rice is a staple for more people than any other crop
The scientific name: Oryza sativa
# 1 Country
Where does Missouri Rank?
Milling of Rice, read about it on page 205
Brown rice problem
Four types of rice, know three:
Your light fluffy rice
People in the Far east prefer
Other grasses of importance include:
The Legume Family (Lecture #19)
Second most important crop family
What is the most important?
Legume Family name is:
Type of fruit (see Figure 13.1)
Legume Flower (Five petals
Many are able to fix nitrogen
This means what?
Legumes are a varied Family
Familiar Legumes Less Familiar Legumes include:
Bean Locust Trees
Pea True Clovers
Find the names for another 25 legumes
Most limiting plant nutrient
Air made up of 78 percent Nitrogen
Why is it in short supply in plants?
NH4+ (Ammonium ion)
NO3 (Nitrate ion)
see also Fig. 13.2
Nitrogen For Other Plants
What do other plants do without this symbiotic relationship?
See “A Closer Look” – 13.1
Became an important crop after WW II in USA. Why?
Next time you are in the store, I would like you to go to the isle with oil, and see how many
different plants the various oils come from
George Washington Carver
What two crops did he work with primarily?
Known as what?
Products from Soybeans
Nut or not?
What precipitated the growth of peanut as a corp?
Slaves were growing peanuts in their gardens
How did the peanut arrive in the USA?
The most important forage crop in the USA.
Beans and Peas
Difference between Beans and Peas?
Would you expect beans or peas to be most cold tolerant? Why?
We have misnamed some beans and peas
Beans come in many varieties, colors and shapes (see book, Figure 13.3)
Starchy Staples (Lecture #20)
Five types of stems—know an example of each
Utilized for storage
Where it originated
Irish Potato Famine
What caused it and when it was?
Common name of the disease
Scientific name of the disease
How many people died and how many immigrated?
What did the Poor Law Extension Act do?
Difference between a stem and a root
What is the node of a potato called?
Warm-, or cool-season crop?
Hash-browns and starch
Grate Potatoes into a bowl. Add water and wring them out with your hands. Heat the skillet with
three table spoons of butter. Wring as much of the water as you can from the grated potatoes and
put them in the skillet to a depth of about 3/4-inch. Salt and pepper to taste (first timers tends to use
too much salt). Cook over medium heat with lid on before they are turned. The goal is to have a
nice brown layer, and if you lift the potatoes before they brown, you do not get the nice crisp layer.
To know when to turn the potatoes, dig a little with your spatula until you come to the bottom layer
that is browning. You can tell when it is time to turn when they are golden brown.
Turn them, this time leaving the lid off. If you had the right temperature, the potatoes should be
cooked through at this point.
Turn it so the browned layer is on top. If you put a lid on it, this layer will no longer be crispy,
which is the best part. Brown the second layer and serve.
One modification I like sometimes is to cut onions into rings and place them on top of the potatoes.
I like them on top while the first side is crisping because they tend to burn before the potatoes get
cooked if mixed in.
It is also good with a small dash or two of garlic powder (just a little bit)
Is not a stem, what is it?
How does the sweet potato compare to the potato nutritionally?
Difference between a sweet potato and a yam
What is a true yam?
A product from cassava
What part is eaten?
How soon after picking should one eat or process cassava?
They contain what toxin?
What is it related to?
How is it eaten?
Where did it originate?
Is it an annual, biennial or perennial?
Is it woody or herbaceous?
Know about the nutritional value
Where is it grown
What is a Hawaiian dish made from taro?
Know the two types of starch
How can one make sweeteners from starch?
Name two other products made from starch.
Weather (Lecture #21)
Why talk about Weather in a Plants Class?
Difference between Weather and Climate
Watch your local weather forecast on three different consecutive evenings. See if you better
understand what they are saying and see if you can better understand why temperatures, and
other conditions change over time.
Components of Weather
List the different things that can be measured and recorded for a weather forecast. See if you can
also write down what is used to measure it.
Components of Weather and What Measures it.
You probably know what the significance of the following temperatures are:
More Difficult ones:
Know Also the Conversions for the Following
Standard human body temperature in both F and C
Know C for 75F
What does a barometer measure?
Measured in what units?
If there is all that weight of air on us, why are we not crushed?
Wind Direction and Speed
We are familiar with this
The weather person says “the wind is out of the west at 15 mph”
What is kph?
At -21C one cubic meter of air can hold a maximum of 1 gram of water
At 11C, 1 m3 of air can hold 10g H2O
At 22.5C, 1 m3 of air can hold 20g H2O
At 29.8C, 1 m3 of air can hold 30g H2O
At 33.2C, 1 m3 of air can hold 40g H2O
So if the temperature was 11C, and the relative humidity (RH) was 100%, there would be how
many grams of water per m3
If the temperature was 30C, and the RH was 100%, there would be how many grams of H2O per m3
How much water would be in the air if the temperature was 22.5C and the RH was 50%?
Dew Point-Related to Relative Humidity
What is the dew point?
If the dew point is 11C then the air has how many grams of water?
If the dew point is 11C, but the temperature is 29.8C, then the RH is what?
What happens when temperature drops below the dew point?
Precipitation is water falling from the air in the liquid or solid form
Liquid forms include:
Solid forms include:
Understanding Weather Maps
Satellite photos are taken by geo-stationary weather satellites
High- & Low-pressure Systems
What makes a high or low?
Highs are usually associated with what kind of weather?
Lows are usually associated with what kind of weather?
Highs spin which way?
Low-pressure systems spin which way
If you want to better understand why these systems spin the way they do, look up the Coriolis
Effect. (I find it very interesting)
Lows often look like clouds wrapped into a comma shape.
What is a front?
There are three types of fronts:
Note the symbols for each on the types of fronts
What is the Jet Stream?
How does the jet stream flow in relation to highs and lows?
Prevailing winds in our area blow which way?
Nearer the tropics the weather systems move which direction?
Nearer the North Pole weather systems tend to move which direction?
What is Doppler radar?
Click on www.weather.com and you will see a map of the USA made with Doppler radar.
Why are Farmers Amateur Weather Watchers?
The Greenhouse Effect (Lecture #22)
What exactly is the Greenhouse Effect?
All objects with a temperature over absolute zero (-273 C) emit radiation
The hotter the object, the shorter the wavelengths emitted (Wein’s Law)
The hotter an object, the more energy it emits (Stephan-Boltzmann Law)
Remember from the radiation lecture that there are three things that can happen to radiation striking
Glass and radiation:
Sunlight passes through the glass, is absorbed by plants, benches, walkways, soil, etc.
That radiation warms the object, which then re-radiates it at longer wavelengths (longer
wavelengths because the objects warmed are much cooler than the sun).
What does this have to do with the earth?
Atmosphere: composed of 78% Nitrogen, 21% Oxygen and 1% other gasses
The gasses in this 1% act much like the glass of a greenhouse
Is Global Warming Real?
If we did not have global warming with the atmosphere, we would be about -17C!
How can we tell temperatures are rising?
Not so easy—
To be accurate, one area may be cooler and another area warmer, so one must average temperatures
over all areas
Ocean levels may be the best indicator
Estimated 30 cm (6 in) since 1900
Even this is difficult to measure –
Ocean levels have risen an estimated 100 meters (328 ft) since the last ice age 12,000 years ago
This means that the earth has been in a warming cycle for the last 12,000 years (of which, only the
last 100 years can be attributed to burning of fossil fuels)
Is the Earth Warming Even More Due to Human Activity?
Is it human caused?
There is evidence to suggest that CO2 levels are rising because of global warming (not visa versa)
Warmer temperatures naturally increase the concentration of atmospheric CO2
The temperature of the sun is not perfectly constant, could this change earth’s temperature?
Data from NASA shows that temperatures on Mars have risen about the same as it has on the Earth
over the past 30 years
How much has CO2concentrations gone up in the last 30 years?
Water dissolves CO2 forming carbonic acid and that it is a very weak buffer!
Oceans are large sinks for CO2.
Calcium + carbonate = calcium carbonate (limestone).
What does this have to do with global warming??
The ocean acts as a great buffer for absorbing CO2
Other Greenhouse Gasses?
Is that all the Greenhouse Gasses?
#1 Greenhouse gas
Rainforests and CO2
Ice Ages have dominated most of the last million years (in excess of 90 percent of that time)
We are in an inter-glacial ice age period.
The dire warnings?
Warming increases decomposition, hence releasing CO2 (respiration)
Are we spending megabucks:
to try to solve a problem that does not exist?
with little or no good coming from it?
making some promoters of it wealthy?
o Including scientists, politicians
o Other countries
Where does Agriculture fit?