Models of Communication communicative competence .ppt

Document Sample
Models of Communication communicative competence .ppt Powered By Docstoc
					     Models of Communication:
    communicative competence
   (monocultural) & the training of
       communicative skills

Seminar:    The training of cross-cultural competence and skills
Lecturer:   Prof. Dr. Jürgen Beneke
Speaker:    Antje Stillahn
Date:       6 November 2001
                  Contents

1. Models of Communication
  – What is communication?
  – What is communicative competence?


2. The Training of Communicative Skills
  (based on Schulz von Thun’s model)


3. Moving towards Intercultural Communication
  (discussion)
  1. Models of Communication

– What is communication?
– What is communicative competence?
                 A Definition

“communication
[Lat. communicatio ‘the action of imparting‘]

In its broadest sense, this term refers to every kind of
mutual transmission of information using signs or
symbols between living beings (humans, animals),
between people and data-processing machines. [...]”

                                      (Bussmann 1996:83)
       A Definition (continued)


“In its narrower, linguistic sense, communication is
the understanding which occurs between humans
through linguistic and non-linguistic means like
gestures, mimicry and voice ( non-verbal
communication). The basic components of
communication are shown in communication models.
[...]”

                                   (Bussmann 1996:83)
         Models of Communication


•   Aristotle‘s Rhetoric
•   De Saussure‘s Model of the Speech Circuit
•   Shannon‘s and Weaver‘s Model
•   Gerbner‘s General Model
•   Bühler‘s and Jakobson‘s Models
•   Watzlawick’s, Beavin’s, and Jackson’s Model
•   Schulz von Thun’s Model
              Aristotle’s Rhetoric

  Three elements of
  communication:

• the speaker
• the speech
• the audience



       (http://www.cultsock.ndirect.co.uk/MUHome/cshtml/introductory/aristotle.html)
         Models of Communication


•   Aristotle‘s Rhetoric
•   De Saussure‘s Model of the Speech Circuit
•   Shannon‘s and Weaver‘s Model
•   Gerbner‘s General Model
•   Bühler‘s and Jakobson‘s Models
•   Watzlawick‘s, Beavin‘s, and Jackson‘s Model
•   Schulz von Thun‘s Model
        De Saussure’s Model
    of the Speech Circuit (1916)
 Audition                                     Phonation




    c       c: concept                                c
            i: image acoustique
     i         (acoustic image)                       i



Phonation                                       Audition
            (http://www.uni-kassel.de/fb8/misc/lfb/html7text/6-1frame.html)
         Models of Communication


•   Aristotle‘s Rhetoric
•   De Saussure‘s Model of the Speech Circuit
•   Shannon‘s and Weaver‘s Model
•   Gerbner‘s General Model
•   Bühler‘s and Jakobson‘s Models
•   Watzlawick’s, Beavin’s, and Jackson’s Model
•   Schulz von Thun’s Model
      The Shannon-Weaver Model (1949)


                                              received
         message            signal             signal               message

information
              transmitter            channel             receiver         destination
   source


                                      noise
                                     source




                   (http://www.cultsock.ndirect.co.uk/MUHome/cshtml/introductory/sw.html)
      The Shannon-Weaver Model –
               Criticism

•   the ‘conduit metaphor’ (Reddy 1979)
•   linearity
•   content and meaning
•   instrumentalism
•   context
•   relationships and purposes
•   time
•   medium

                          (cf. http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Functions/mcs.html)
              The Shannon-Weaver Model –
                      Extension

information
                transmitter          channel              receiver           destination
   source


                                       noise
                                      source




                                     feedback



                  (cf. http://www.cultsock.ndirect.co.uk/MUHome/cshtml/introductory/sw.html)
              The Shannon-Weaver Model –
               Extension by Moles (1963)

information
                transmitter          channel              receiver            destination
   source


                                      noise
                                     source



                               code 1         code 2



                              (http://www.uni-kassel.de/fb8/misc/lfb/html7text/6-2frame.html)
         Models of Communication


•   Aristotle‘s Rhetoric
•   De Saussure‘s Model of the Speech Circuit
•   Shannon‘s and Weaver‘s Model
•   Gerbner‘s General Model
•   Bühler‘s and Jakobson‘s Models
•   Watzlawick’s, Beavin’s, and Jackson’s Model
•   Schulz von Thun’s Model
      Gerbner’s General Model (1956)
                            PERCEPTUAL DIMENSION

                       M
                                      Selection               E
                      E1               Context              Event
                                      Availability


                  Channels
                           MEANS AND CONTROL
                   Media
                           DIMENSION
                   Control

M2                 S    E
SE1               Form Con-
                       tent

                 (cf. Gerbner 1956, in: Corner; Hawthorn (eds.) 1989:18)
         Models of Communication


•   Aristotle‘s Rhetoric
•   De Saussure‘s Model of the Speech Circuit
•   Shannon‘s and Weaver‘s Model
•   Gerbner‘s General Model
•   Bühler‘s and Jakobson‘s Models
•   Watzlawick’s, Beavin’s, and Jackson’s Model
•   Schulz von Thun’s Model
   Bühler’s Organon Model (1934)
               Objects and
             States of Affairs
                                                Representation

Expression

                     S




                       Appeal
                   (http://www.uni-kassel.de/fb8/misc/lfb/html/text6.html)
        Jakobson’s Model
 of Communicative Functions (1960)
Type          Oriented     Function                Example
              towards
emotive       addresser expressing                 It’s bloody
                        feelings or                pissing down
                        attitudes                  again!
referential   context   imparting                  It’s raining.
                        information
conative      addressee influencing                Wait here till it
                        behaviour                  stops raining!


                          (cf. http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Functions/mcs.html)
          Jakobson’s Model
   of Communicative Functions (1960)
Type        Oriented Function                    Example
            towards
phatic      contact  establishing or             Nasty weather
                     maintaining                 again, isn’t it?
                     social relationships
metalingual code     referring to the            This is the
                     nature of the               weather
                     interaction                 forecast.
poetic      message foregrounding                It droppeth as
                     textual features            the gentle rain
                                                 from heaven.
                            (http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Functions/mcs.html)
         Models of Communication


•   Aristotle‘s Rhetoric
•   De Saussure‘s Model of the Speech Circuit
•   Shannon‘s and Weaver‘s Model
•   Gerbner‘s General Model
•   Bühler‘s and Jakobson‘s Models
•   Watzlawick’s, Beavin’s, and Jackson’s Model
•   Schulz von Thun’s Model
Watzlawick, Beavin, and Jackson (1967):
 Pragmatics of Human Communication


• One cannot not communicate. (Watzlawick and others 1967:51)

• Every communication has a content and a
  relationship aspect such that the latter classifies
  the former and is therefore a
  metacommunication.(Watzlawick and others 1967:54)
Watzlawick, Beavin, and Jackson (1967) –
    Content and Relationship Levels
Is that a
real
diamond




                               (cf. Birkenbihl 1987:256)
Watzlawick, Beavin, and Jackson (1967) –
    Content and Relationship Levels
              Hi

                   CONTENT




                               (cf. Birkenbihl 1987:25/)
Watzlawick, Beavin, and Jackson (1967) –
    Content and Relationship Levels
It’s nice to
see Mary...
                  CONTENT



                RELATIONSHIP




                               (cf. Birkenbihl 1987:258)
Watzlawick, Beavin, and Jackson (1967) –
    Content and Relationship Levels
analytical
thinking,                 CONTENT
words




                      RELATIONSHIP



             older parts of the brain: emotions
                                                  (cf. Birkenbihl 1987:258)
Watzlawick, Beavin, and Jackson (1967) –
    Content and Relationship Levels

                Information

               Information about
                this information


               verbal, nonverbal;
                    context



                                    (cf. Birkenbihl 1987:259)
         Models of Communication


•   Aristotle‘s Rhetoric
•   De Saussure‘s Model of the Speech Circuit
•   Shannon‘s and Weaver‘s Model
•   Gerbner‘s General Model
•   Bühler‘s and Jakobson‘s Models
•   Watzlawick’s, Beavin’s, and Jackson’s Model
•   Schulz von Thun’s Model
     Schulz von Thun's Model (1977) –
        Four Aspects of a Message

                            ..........
               ////////////////////////////////
                                                   Content



         Self-
Sender   dis-                                      Message       Appeal          Receiver
         closure



                                                  Relationship

                                                                 (cf. Schulz von Thun 1994:30)
Schulz von Thun's Model (1977) –
   Four Aspects of a Message


                   ........
           The traffic light is green.

                //////////////////////////
                                               THE      Put your
     I’m in                                  TRAFFIC    foot
     a hurry.                                LIGHT IS   down!
                                              GREEN

                  You need my help!

                                                          (cf. Schulz von Thun 1994:31)
   Schulz von Thun's Model (1977) –
Three Aspects of a Non-verbal Message


                  ........
               //////////////////////////
                                                           Please
        I am                                               comfort
        sad.                                               me!


                                            You hurt me!

                                                             (cf. Schulz von Thun 1994:34)
   Schulz von Thun's Model (1977) –
Three Aspects of a Non-verbal Message

                   ........
                //////////////////////////
                                                              Please
          I am                                  saying        go on
       listening.                               nothing       talking.


                                             Your ideas are
                                              interesting.

                                                               (cf. Schulz von Thun 1994:35)
  Schulz von Thun's Model (1977) –
      Receiving with Four Ears

What kind of             What are the
person is he?            facts?




How does he talk         What does he want
to me? Who does          me to think or do,
he think I am?           how does he want
                         me to feel?

                         (cf. Schulz von Thun 1994:45)
Schulz von Thun's Model (1977)
                       Well, if you don‘t like my
What are those green   cooking, you can go and have
things in the sauce?   your dinner elsewhere!




                                  (cf. Schulz von Thun 1994:62)
    Schulz von Thun's Model (1977) –
       Four Aspects of a Message

  There is something                        There is something

     ......
        green.
                                          ......  green.
                                                         Don‘t put
     ///////////////////




                                          ///////////////////
I don’t                    Tell                          green
know     sent              me       I don’t received things into
what it message            what     like it. message the sauce
is.                        it is!                        next time!
     You‘ll know it.                                        You are a bad
                                                                cook!


                                                                (cf. Schulz von Thun 1994:63)
    Schulz von Thun's Model (1977)
            .......
               .......
            ///////////////////////
                                           Sent




                                       ///////////////////////
Sender                                Message                                                       Receiver
                                          Received
                                          Message



                                  ......                         ///////////////////
                                      Feedback


                                                                                       (cf. Schulz von Thun 1994:81)
   Communicative Competence


“Communicative Competence describes
the speaker’s ability to select from the
totality of grammatical expressions
available to him, forms which
appropriately reflect the social norms
governing behavior in specific
encounters.” (Hymes 1972:270, in: Beneke (ed.) 1993:76)
      Communicative Competence
“From a sociolinguistic perspective, communicative
competence includes the following:

(a)   LINGUISTIC KNOWLEDGE: verbal and
      nonverbal codes, and the range of possible
      variants
(b)   INTERACTION SKILLS: sociolinguistic rules for
      appropriate use, discourse organization and
      processes, and strategies for achieving goals
(c)   CULTURAL KNOWLEDGE: social structure,
      values and beliefs, and cognitive maps or
      schemata for the content domains”
                            (Saville-Troike 1992, in: Bright 1992:273)
  2. The Training of
 Communicative Skills
(based on Schulz von Thun’s
          model)
Congruent versus Incongruent Messages

      .......                                             .......
   //////////////////////////




                                               //////////////////////////
                                Everything‘s                         My life is a total
                                 just fine!                             disaster.

                                                                            (cf. Schulz von Thun 1994:36)
    Receiving with One of Four Ears


Self-                             Facts
disclosure




Relationship                     Appeal



                           (cf. Schulz von Thun 1994:45)
Three Stages of Receiving a Message

              perceiving




              interpreting




                feeling


                             (cf. Schulz von Thun 1994:74)
              Metacommunication

analytical
thinking,                 CONTENT
words




                      RELATIONSHIP



             older parts of the brain: emotions
                                                  (cf. Birkenbihl 1987:258)
              Metacommunication

                        ..........                      Content


                    ////////////////////////////////
 2) I-messages                                         (Leave the      3) Wishes
(Self-disclosure)                                        content        (Appeal)
                                                          level!)



                                             1) Explicit
                                         Metacommunication
                                           (Relationship)
                                                                    (cf. Schulz von Thun 1994:201)
3. Moving towards Intercultural
       Communication
 Why is intercultural communication
      much more difficult than
  monocultural communication?
            (discussion)
                         References
Beneke, Jürgen (1993):
    “English as the medium of intercultural communication: Some teaching
    suggestions“. In: Beneke, Jürgen (ed.) (1993), pp. 69-101
Beneke, Jürgen (ed.) (1993):
    Communication in Aviation : A collection of papers edited on behalf of
    IACTFLAP. Bonn : Dümmler (Sprachen und Sprachenlernen: 312;
    Dümmlerbuch 6312)
Birkenbihl, Vera F. (1987):
    Kommunikationstraining : Zwischenmenschliche Beziehungen erfolgreich
    gestalten. 8. Aufl. Landsberg am Lech : mgv-Verlag
Bright, William (ed. in chief) (1992):
    International Encyclopedia of Linguistics : Volume 2 : Expl - Moot. New
    York : Oxford University Press
Bussmann, Hadumod (1996):
    Routledge Dictionary of Language and Linguistics. London : Routledge
                         References
Chandler, Daniel (1995):
   The Transmission Model of Communication. (last modified: 9 May 2000,
   last accessed: 5 November 2001)
   <http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Functions/mcs.html>
Corner, John; Hawthorn, Jeremy (eds.) (1989):
   Communication Studies : an introductory reader. 3rd ed. London : Arnold
Gerbner, George (1956):
   A generalized graphic model of communication. In : Corner, John;
   Hawthorn, Jeremy (eds.) (1989), pp. 17-18
Ipsen, Guido (1999):
   The Interactive MultiMedia Linguistics for Beginners : 6. Communication.
   (this version: May 1999, introduced: 20 July 2000, last accessed: 23
   October 2001)
   <http://www.uni-kassel.de/fb8/misc/lfb/html/text/6.html>
                         References
Schulz von Thun, Friedemann (1994):
   Miteinander reden 1 : Störungen und Klärungen : Allgemeine
   Psychologie der Kommunikation. Reinbek bei Hamburg : Rowohlt
   Taschenbuch Verlag (rororo ; 7489)
Saville-Troike, Muriel (1992):
   “Communicative Competence“. In : Bright, William (ed.) (1992), p. 273
Underwood, Mick (1997-2001):
   CCMS - Communication studies, cultural studies, media studies
   infobase. (last accessed: 23 October 2001)
   <http://www.cultsock.ndirect.co.uk/MUHome/cshtml/index.html>
Watzlawick, Paul; Beavin, Janet H.; Jackson, Don D. (1967):
   Pragmatics of Human Communication : A Study of Interactional
   Patterns, Pathologies, and Paradoxes. New York : W. W. Norton &
   Company

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:327
posted:5/16/2012
language:English
pages:48
censhunay censhunay http://
About