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					 DECEMBE
  R 2011
  NEWS
JERRY BROWN’S “12-
   POINT PLAN”
  DOESN’T AFFECT
         CITIES OR
          UTILITY
         DISTRICTS
          (YET…)
In October, Governor Brown
unveiled a proposal for the
massive overhaul of the Public
Employment Retirement System.
Although the plan could NOT
affect cities or utility districts
immediately (because they all
have independent contracts with
PERS) it holds real potential for
future benefit losses. They key
points of the “12-point plan,”
most of which are aimed at state
employees,” would:

          Raise      the
           retirement
           age for new,
           non     safety


                                     1
   workers from
   55 to 67;
 Do away with
  the     “single
  highest year”
  option      for
  calculating
  benefits, and
  return to the
  average of the
  three highest
  years’
  earnings;
 Force      new
  employees’
  pensions onto
  a      “hybrid”
  plan,
  combining
  social security,
  a       defined
  pension plan
  (which is what
  we have now)
  and      401(k)
  that would be
  “professionall
  y managed.”
 Require       a
  50%-50%
  split       in
  contributions
  between
  employees
  and
  employers;
 Reduce
  “double
  dipping”
  (retired

                     2
              employees
              returning to
              their jobs in
              part-time or
              contractor
              capacity)
           Reduce
            spiking (cease
            counting
            bonuses, leave
            time or other
            benefits    as
            pay)
           Cancel
            pension
            benefits    for
            employees
            convicted of
            felonies in the
            course       of
            employment;
             Eliminate “air
              time”
              (employees’
              purchase    of
              service credit
              for more time
              than      they
              worked)

IS THIS A REAL THREAT OR JUST
POLITICAL POSTURING?

These changes are drastic, but
they are still in the early
discussion phase. They may not
make much headway in the
legislature, which is still composed
mostly        of       pro-employee
Democrats. In fact, many analysts
are suggesting that this “Plan” is

                                       3
Brown’s way of showing a lot of
public interest in pension costs,
without
really
expecting
to




accomplish much. (For example,
it’s unlikely that ANYONE expects
public employees’ retirement age
to be moved back by 12 years!)
And it is also unlikely that the
current legislature would move to
make ANY PART of the PERS
program subject to privately
managed investments. However, it
is possible (in fact, probable) that
PERS will crack down on spiking
and double-dipping, take benefits
away from felons, and do away
with “air time” purchases.

WHO WOULD        PLAN    CHANGES
AFFECT?
If current PERS contract options
(such as the “2.7% @ 55” or “3%
@ 60”) are eliminated, these
changes could be applied to the
cities. However, they could NOT
be applied to active employees.
The current state of the law is that
benefits for current employees are
“locked in” at the point of hire.
They can be negotiated up; but
they cannot go down.

Right now, all cities and utility
districts that contract with PERS

                                       4
are covered by a set of plan
options which are fixed by
contract. These can’t be changed
without bargaining, and can’t be
reduced for any current employee.
PERS is a defined benefit plan. The
amount        of   the      employee
contribution is fixed, and the “pay
off” at retirement is fixed, too.

The only part of your retirement
benefit which can be changed to
your detriment is the part
involving “who pays.” And, as
most public employees have
learned in the last few years, your
employer         can,      through
negotiations, force you to share in
the cost of the monthly retirement
contributions.




THREAT OF PENSION
  REFORM LEADS
TO 50% INCREASE IN
     “AIRTIME”
    PURCHASES!
              Fearing that the
              legislature     may
              soon take away a
              public employees’
              right to purchase
“airtime,” CalPERS offices have
been flooded with requests for the
purchase cost estimates.

Right now, the PERS members
have the option of purchasing up

                                       5
to five years of service time, based
on a rate that is equal to the cost of
both the employer and employee
contributions. The payout can
enhance your retirement A LOT:
an investment with much higher
returns than most other forms of
investment today.

So far this year, the number of
employees seeking actuarial on
the cost of airtime purchases has
increased by 50% over the
previous two years… So much for
the purchasing power of a good
threat!




 ECONOMIC POLICY
INSTITUTE FINDS NO
  LINK BETWEEN
  PUBLIC SECTOR
 BENEFITS & STATE
 BUDGET DEFICITS
Last month the Institute for Public
Policy published a study which
demolishes the myth that public
employees’ retirement benefits are
a cause for the states’ budgets
crises. Nationwide, it says, the
average public employee collects
$19,000      after     retirement.
Similarly, “pension obligations
currently account for 3.8 percent
of the average state’s spending.
That’s not where the current crisis
is coming from.”

                                         6
So, what IS the cause of our states’
financial crises? According to the
Institute, most of the public
agencies were quite well off until
2009. With the collapse of Wall
Street, however, followed by the
collapse of the housing market,
public agencies lost the taxes they
were collecting from property,
incomes, and sales. The states’
drop in revenues became a direct
reflection of the slowing economy
and rising unemployment. Further,
the rising unemployment rate
created a huge demand for social
services at the same time that
revenues were going down.

WHAT   DOES
ALL OF THIS
HAVE TO DO
WITH PUBLIC
EMPLOYEES?
Not a thing.
“State and local
public employees make 11 to 12
percent less in salary than those in
the private sector.” And when
education and experience are
factored in, the gap is even greater.
Further, if public employees were
to receive even less than their
meager retirement benefits, they
would be unable to pay their own
taxes,    unable       to     support
themselves in the economy, and
they would become a drain on the
social services in their states.

HOW MUCH CAN WE BLAME ON
STATE PENSIONS?


                                        7
The fact is that most state and
local governments have been
rapidly reducing their labor (and
benefits) costs for nearly three
years now – and their economic
problems are only becoming
worse. The problem is the lack of
jobs and buying power and, thus
taxation power, in the overall
economy. Public employees and
their benefits are irrelevant,
“except for their role as
scapegoats.”




  RECENT LEGAL
DECISIONS
The     following
are significant
legal decisions
that further the
rights of public
employees      in
California. Please keep in mind
that each case is unique. If you
have a specific legal question or
problem, call your Board
Representative        or      our
Professional Staff at (562) 433-
6983 or cea@cityemployees.net.

EMPLOYER’S FAILURE TO APPLY
DISCIPLINE CONSISTENTLY MAY BE
GROUNDS FOR DISCRIMINATION
COMPLAINT
A 59 year-old recruiter for Nielsen
Media Research received several
verbal warnings for small errors


                                      8
on the job between 2005 and
2006. In 2006 she was placed on a
“DIP”                (Developmental
Improvement Program), but was
also      commended        in   her
performance review for “strong
abilities” and a high level of
production. At the end of 2006,
she made another small, work-
related error and the Company
terminated her. The Company
replaced her with a much younger
staff     recruiter.   The    (now
unemployed) recruiter sued the
company for age discrimination.

If an employee can establish a
“prima      facie”      case     of
discrimination, the burden shifts
to the employer to prove that
discrimination was NOT the
reason for the termination.
Although the company was able to
show that this employee had made
several errors on the job, she was
able to show that at least three
employees, between the ages of 37
and 42 had made similar errors
and violated numerous policies
without serious consequences. The
Court ultimately held the errors
were merely a “pretext” and the
company really terminated the
recruiter so it could hire younger,
more attractive recruiters.




                                      9
    NEW LAW RAISES
     PENALTIES FOR
    EMPLOYERS WHO
    MISCHARACTERIZE
     EMPLOYEES AS
     CONTRACTORS
  Governor Brown has signed SB 459,
  which has the capacity to impose
  big penalties on employers that
  willfully misclassify employees as
  independent contractors. Currently,
  millions (if not billions) of dollars
  are lost each year to both state and
  federal      governments       when
  employers force employees to
  absorb the cost of their own payroll
  taxes.

  THE NEW LAW TAKES EFFECT
  JANUARY 1, 2012. KEY POINTS
  ARE:
 The law prohibits the willful
  misclassification of employees as
  independent contractors.




                                          10
 The law prohibits charging
  misclassified employees any fees
  or making deductions from their
  compensation where these would
  not apply if employees had been
  properly classified.

 The law gives the State Labor and
  Workforce Development Agency
  authority to assess penalties and
  take    other    action    against
  violators.

 The law requires the Labor and
  Workforce Development Agency to
  report agencies that are licensed
  contractors to the Contractors’
  License Board and requires the
  Board to bring an action against
  the contractor.

 The law subjects violators to civil
  penalties of $5,000 to $15,000 per
  violation in addition to any other
  penalties or fines permitted. If the
  employer is engaged in a pattern
  of violations, it subjects them to
  potential penalties of $10,000 to
  $25,000 for each violation.

 Subjects non-lawyers who advise
  an employer to misclassify an
  employee to joint liability with the
  employer.

   SB 459 does apply to the public
   sector. If your employer is hiring
   contractors to fill positions
   normally filled by employees, they
   may be reported.

   Further, if they are filling positions
   with contractors (or temps or
   part-timers) that normally are

                                            11
represented by your Association,
the City may ALSO be violating
your MOU. Your union has the
right to grieve this “erosion” of the
bargaining unit.




                         YOUR




 “LYBARGER RIGHT:
   YOUR RIGHT TO
 CONFIDENTIALITY
DURING AN ON-THE-
JOB INVESTIGATION
If you are called into a questioning
meeting with management, you do
not have against self incrimination
under the 5th Amendment. You
DON’T have “Miranda Rights.”
Miranda applies to criminal
investigations; your management
cannot         prosecute        you
criminally. But it CAN compel
you to answer questions, and does
have the right to discipline you --
even to terminate you -- if you
refuse to cooperate.
Therefore, if you are called in for
questioning on the job, you should
do two things: (1) call your
Association Board rep or staff and

                                        12
(2) be prepared to answer
questions truthfully. You DO have
the right to know the subject
matter of the questioning, and
telling the truth is a very big deal
with public agencies. Lying in an
investigative    meeting      almost
always results in discipline, even if
the underlying issue was minor.
What if the underlying issue
ISN’T minor? What if you are
being accused of stealing, or
something else, which COULD lead
to criminal prosecution? In this
case, you have what is called your
“Lybarger Right,” the right to your
employer’s guarantee that the
information you provide in an
administrative setting will not be
provided to criminal authorities,
nor used against you, for criminal
prosecution. In other words, you
can’t refuse to answer questions
from the employer, under threat of
losing your job, but you should be
assured that your answers will not
be used in any other setting.
We say “should be assured,”
because, in reality, this protection
can be a very thin wall – especially
in cities that have their own Police
forces. After all, especially in
serious matters, the cities use their
police detectives to conduct their
administrative interviews! If the
Police Department is ALSO
conducting          a       criminal
investigation of the same matter, it
is hard to believe that information
provided to a detective in one


                                        13
room cannot make its way into
another room.
NO      REAL




“IMMUNITY…”
This lack of REAL immunity
against       prosecution       was
challenged by Thomas Spielbauer,
a Santa Clara County attorney,
who was terminated for refusing
to answer questions during an
administrative investigation in
2003. He argued that the 5th
amendment         “protects      the
individual     against    answering
official questions put to him in any
proceeding, civil or criminal,
formal or informal, where the
answers might incriminate him in
future criminal proceedings.”
The superior court upheld
Spielbauer’s argument, and said
that employers could no longer
force employees to answer
questions on matters involving
possible criminal prosecution
unless they provided IMMUNITY
from prosecution. The County
appealed, however, and the
“Spielbauer Decision” was struck



                                       14
   down by the State Supreme Court
   in 2008.
   So, today, public employees enjoy
   the “Lybarger Right:” the right to
   be promised that no information
   provided in an investigative
   meeting with management will be
   provided to authorities who may
   prosecute you criminally. If you
   are called into a meeting, in
   addition to answering questions
   truthfully,   you     and    your
   representative should:
 Make        sure        that     the
  questioner(s)        affirm    your
  Lybarger Right (and make sure
  that it is part of the record of the
  meeting.)

 Make sure you not waive any
  rights guaranteed under the
  law, if asked

 If your employer, refuses to
  provide your Lybarger Right,
  you and your representative
  might consider       leaving the
  meeting, as the issue at hand
  may be more serious than the
  potential discipline for refusing
  to answer questions; and

 If the City DOES “read you your
  MIRANDA rights,” you should
  consider that the information
  gathering at the meeting might
  very well be used against you
  criminally – and you may refuse
  to answer questions under the
  5th Amendment.



                                         15
Recent court decisions have had
effects on your Lybarger Right,
rendering it even weaker. The
current state of the law is that a
prosecutor or Federal Grand Jury
may subpoena your statements
made during an administrative
hearing, but they may not “base
the case” on statements you might
have made. Criminal prosecutors
have the burden of proof to show
that any charges filed against you
are based entirely on information
gathered independently of your
administrative investigation.




  A
 FEW



  MORE NEW LAWS…
The California legislature has
passed a whole slew of new laws
that would be of no interest to
anyone but a public employee – or
someone who represents them.
Here’s a good summary:

AB 195. Cities Must Provide
Accurate Financial Information
It is now specifically illegal for a public
agency     to     discriminate      against
employees for exercising their rights
under the Meyers-Milias-Brown Act (the

                                              16
state bargaining law for cities and
special districts.) “Discrimination” now
includes “knowingly providing an
employee           organization      with
inaccurate information regarding the
financial       resources       of    the
employer…”

SB 299. No Discontinuation of
Health Benefits for Employees
on Pregnancy Leave
Existing law prohibits discrimination
based on race, sex, age or disability.
Pregnancy disability law requires
employers to provide reasonable time off
(up to four months) for pregnant
employees before and after childbirth.
The new law makes it illegal for
employers to discontinue health care
contributions during the period of
that leave.

AB 592. Accommodation for
Pregnant Employees

This law “piggybacks” on SB 299, also
making it unlawful for employers to fail to
offer       reasonable          workplace
accommodation for an employee who is
temporarily, partially “disabled” due to
pregnancy-       or      childbirth-related
conditions.

AB210. Health Plans Must
Provide Maternity Services.
Effective January 1, 2012, all group
health insurance plans must provide
maternity care for anyone insured under
their plan.

AB 22. Limits on Employers’
Ability  to  Gather  Credit
Reports on Employees

                                              17
This law prohibits employers, except in
financial institutions, from considering
credit reports for most classes of
employees (or prospective employees.)
Classes for which employer CAN obtain
reports are 1) jobs at the Department of
Justice, 2) managerial jobs, 3) peace
officers (and certain other law
enforcement positions, 4) a job which
requires regular access to personnel
information or 5) a position which has
regular access to $10,000 or more of
cash. The law also specifies that
employers must give written notice to
any employee (in one of the categories
above) for whom it does request credit
report information.

AB23.



Transparency
of Compensation for Attending
Public Meetings
This law requires public officials who
“constitute a quorum of any legislative
body that convenes a meeting” to
publicly announce the amount of
compensation they receive for attending
that meeting.

AB506. Raises Threshold for
Declaration of Bankruptcy for
California Public Agencies
Currently, a public agency in California
may declare bankruptcy under the same
conditions as apply to private companies
or individuals. The new law prohibits an
agency from filing bankruptcy unless it
has participated in a “specified neutral
evaluation process” or has declared

                                           18
AND ESTABLISHED a state of fiscal
emergency. “Fiscal emergency” is
defined as “findings that the financial
state of the public entity jeopardizes the
health, safety or well-being of the
residents…”

AB 1028. PERS Law: Greater
Restrictions on    “Double
Dipping”
Current law prohibits any person who
has retired under PERS from being re-
employed unless s/he is reinstated from
retirement. The exception to this lies with
positions “of limited duration and
requiring specialized skills or during an
emergency to prevent stoppage of public
business.” These appointments cannot
exceed 960 hours in a fiscal year.
The changes in this law allow the interim
appointment only if the position is
deemed to require specialized skills or
during an emergency to prevent
stoppage of public business.. The law
also prohibits the compensation for the
interim appointment from exceeding the
published pay schedule for the vacant
position, and it prohibits the agency
from appointing a retired person
under this provision more than once.




  IRS CLARIFIES TAX
    TREATMENT OF
      EMPLOYER-


                                              19
     PROVIDED CELL
        PHONES
                                        The
                                   IRS has
                                     issued




clarification on the subject of taxation of
employer-provided cell phones. The
notice provides guidance on two issues:
First, if an employer provides an
employee with a cell phone for business
reasons, the IRS will treat the
employee’s use of the phone as a
“working condition fringe benefit.” This
means that the value of this use has
nothing to do with the employee’s
income. It isn’t taxed.
Second, if the employee uses the
employer-provided phone for personal
calls, the value of the personal use will
also be excluded from the employee’s
income because it is a “de minimus”
fringe benefit. In other words, the
personal benefit is so small, that it is not
counted as income.
According to the IRS, a cell phone is
provided      for    “non-compensatory
business reasons” if there are
substantial business related reasons for
giving the phone to the employee. A
phone is NOT provided for “non-
compensatory business reasons” if it is
given to the employee “to promote the


                                               20
morale or good will of the employee,” to
recruit him, or to provide a form of
compensation.
Until 2010, employers and employees
were required to keep detailed records of
whether calls made on employer
provided cell phones were for work or
personal purposes. This put an
enormous record keeping burden on
employers. If no records were kept, the
value of the cell phone was considered a
“perk” that had to be been treated as
taxable income to the employee. As a
result, employers were being hit with
back tax charges by the IRS. This IRS’
clarification resolves that problem. As
long as your employer’s phone policy
clearly states that the phone is intended
to be used for business purposes,
neither employees nor employers will
hold tax liability.




             WHEN
            CAN YOU
             FILE A
    WORKERS COMP
     CLAIM OVER A
    PSYCHOLOGICAL
       ILLNESS?
                                            o
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                                                21
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        26
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        27
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        31
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        32
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        33
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        34
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        35
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        36
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        37
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        38
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        39
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        40
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        41
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        42
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        43
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        44
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        45
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        46
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        47
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        48
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        49
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        50
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        51
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        52
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        53
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        54
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        55
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        56
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        57
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        58
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        59
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        60
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        61
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        62
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        63
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        64
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        65
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        66
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        67
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             68
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        69
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        70
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        71
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P   a

        72
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s   g

        73
               f
c              i
l              c
a              u
i              l
m              t

o              t
f              o

p              w
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j              s
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r              c
y              l
.              a
               i
               m
IF YOU THINK
               u
YOU HAVE A     n
STRESS         l
CLAIM…         e
I              s
t              s

i              y
s              o
               u
d
i              h
f              a
               v

                   74
e
    r
d   a
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n   e
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    y
s
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r
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s   g
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d   n
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o
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k   h
.   a
    t
B
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c   a
a   u
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s   e
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t   t
h   h
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r
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    l
i   l
s   n

        75
e
s   t
s   h
,   e

y   e
o   v
u   e
    n
w   t
i   s
l
l   o
    r
n
e   a
e   b
d   u
    s
a   e
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g
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d   a
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w
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i   a
t   v
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n   l
    e
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c
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d
    y
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f   u

        76
r   e

c   a
o   b
n   l
d   e
i
t   t
i   o
o
n   s
.   h
    o
I   w
t
’   t
s   h
    a
a   t
l
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i
m   e
p   m
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t   o
a   y
n   e
t   r

t   k
h   n
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y   o
o   f
u
    y
b   o

        77
u   t
r
    i
d   t
i   .
s
t   I
r   f
e
s   t
s   h
,   i
    s
a
n   g
d   r
    o
d   u
i   n
d   d
    w
l   o
i   r
t   k
t
l   h
e   a
    s
o
r   n
    o
n   t
o
t   b
h   e
i   e
n   n
g
    l
a   a
b   i
o   d
u   ,

        78
y   p
o   r
u   i
    o
s   r
h
o   t
u   o
l
d   f
    i
p   l
r   i
o   n
b   g
a
b   a
l
y   c
    l
c   a
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n   m
t   .
a
c   Y
t   o
    u
y
o   h
u   a
r   v
    e
u
n   s
i   o
o   m
n   e

r   o
e   b
p   l

        79
i   e
g
a   j
t   o
i   b
o
n   b
    e
t   f
o   o
    r
t   e
r
y   f
    i
t   l
o   i
    n
r   g
e
s   a
o
l   l
v   e
e   g
    a
t   l
h
e   c
    o
p   m
r   p
o   l
b   a
l   i
e   n
m   t
    .
o
n
    WHEN DO YOU
t   NEED      A
h   LAWYER?

             80
P   s
e   s
o   m
p   e
l   n
e   t
    ,
A
R   d
E   i
    s
m   c
a   r
d   i
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    i
p   n
s   a
y   t
c   i
h   o
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l
o   o
g   r
i
c   o
a   t
l   h
l   e
y   r

i   k
l   i
l   n
    d
b   s
y
    o
h   f
a
r   a
a   b

        81
u
s   m
i   u
v   c
e   h

w   g
o   r
r   e
k   a
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c   e
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n
d   -
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t
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s
.   t
    h
B   e
u
t   “
    t
t   h
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    s
p   h
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f   d
a   ”
l
l   f
s   o
    r
a
r   w
e   i

        82
n   o
n   r
i   k
n   e
g   r
    s
i
s   c
    o
m   m
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r
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s   .
t
r   M
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-
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l   i
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e
d   a
    r
w   e

        83
    d
i
n   a
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t   p
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a   a
l   l
l
y   i
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d
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n   h
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d   c
.   l
    a
T   i
o   m

a   i
p   s
p
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a   e
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,   i
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a   i
n   m
d   a
    t
y   e
o   ,
u
    y
s   o
h   u
o
u   w
l   i

        84
l   u
l   r

p   A
r   s
o   s
b   o
a   c
b   i
l   a
y   t
    i
n   o
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e
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n   f
    f
a
t   f
t   o
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r
n   a
e
y   r
.   e
    f
C   e
a   r
l   r
l   a
    l
y   .
o




        85
        QUESTIONS &
       ANSWERS ABOUT
          YOUR JOB
    Each month we receive dozens of
    questions about your rights on the
    job. The following are some
    GENERAL answers. If you have a
    work-related problem, feel free to
    talk to your Board Rep or
    Association Staff at (562) 433-
    6983.
                                         C
Q                                        K
U
E                                        D
S                                        A
T                                        Y
I                                        S
O
N                                        L
:                                        A
                                         S
I                                        T

U                                        Y
S                                        E
E                                        A
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                                         ,
1
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                                         O
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I                                        T
                                         L

                                             86
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W   G
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        87
N   B
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    I

        88
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T
H   S
O   I
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G   K
H
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I   A
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A
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T   F
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A   M
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R   E
T   R
A   S
I   .
N
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M   N
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U   T
N
T   T
    H
O   I

        89
S   v
    e
T
R
U
    A
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?   t
    ,
A
n   y
s   o
w   u
e
r   h
:   a
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n
d   t
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r   e

t   r
h   i
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    h
F   t
a
m   t
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l
y   u
    s
M   e
e
d   u
i   p
c
a   t
l   o

L   t
e   w
a   e
    l
        90
v   i
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    k
w
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k   m
s   i
    l
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f
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o
f   (
f   o
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t
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j   r
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b   e
    l
t   f
o   ,

c   i
a   f
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f   u
o
r   a
    r
a   e

s   s
        91
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.   n
)   g

I   t
f   h
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y
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u   i
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m
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a   a
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m
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n   o
t
    t
k   a
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w
s   c
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t   r
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a
t   o
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y
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u
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r   r
e   i
    o
        92
u
s   y
l   o
y   u

i   a
l   b
l   o
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l   y
a   o
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        93
n   a
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y   a
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c   f
a   o
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t   ,
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h
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a
n   d
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f   t
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l   ’
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o
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        94
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n
.   r
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n
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t   t
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s   n
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o
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b
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        95
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t   u
h
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y   r
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p
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m   t
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I   o
f   f
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y
        96
w   c
a   a
s   n

d   p
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t   a
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s   l
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,
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        97
u   r

n   A
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h   i
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l   t
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w   n
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t   B
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l
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t
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u
        98
I   R
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C   O
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O   M
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        99
I   O
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.
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M   H
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C
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        100
c   b
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f
    t
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’
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a   g
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p
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t   v
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l   .
u
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n   t
c   ’
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        101
a   m
    p
c   l
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m   y
p   e
l   e
e
t   t
e   o

c   t
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n   k
f   e
l
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t   y

o   g
f   i
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n
t   (
e   o
r   r
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s   l
t   o
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f   n
o   )
r
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C   m
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        102
m   t
e
m   p
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r   s
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p   b
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I
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w   C
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e   .

i   E
f   v
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t   n
h
a   i
        103
f   n
    t
t   e
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e   .

l   Y
o   o
a   u
n   r

w   s
a   m
s   a
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d
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d   i
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,
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i
        104
t   l
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l   w
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a   t
s   o

q   g
u   o
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c   t
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p   e
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.   d

Y   t
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m
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h   e
t   m

a   t
        105
h   w
a   a
t   r
    d
y
o   t
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    a
t   t
o
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k   t

t   w
h   a
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s
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a   n
c
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r
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l   v
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        106
e   R
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m
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n
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c   S
k
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Q
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C   B
H   E

        107
P   H
R   R
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C   P
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    M
B   E
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C   R
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    :
T

H   T
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        108
r   o
e   r

a   t
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f   e
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c   Y
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b   e
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e   a
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g   l
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f   1
        109
2   e
5   a
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h
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u   s
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i   u
n   p

t   y
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,
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n
d   t
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a   t
v
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t   .

a   A
l   f
r   t
        110
e
r   s
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i   i
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    ,
d
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t   u
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r   s
    h
s   o
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s   d

t   n
h   o
a   t
t
    h
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h   a
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v   y
e
    p
a   r
        111
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l
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I
f   i
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C   e
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b   n
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l   t
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a   a
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o
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r   r

d   t
o   h
c   a
t   t
o
r   y
        112
o   u
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    o
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    o
C   n
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        113
v   d
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    a
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O   o
U   u
R   t

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t   i
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    ,
C
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T   h
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        127
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        132
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        140
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        141
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        142
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        143
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        144
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        145
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        146
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        147
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        148
n
.




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