Canada - The 20s_ 30s and WWII.ppt

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					Canada - The 20’s, 30’s and
The 1920’s
We had commenced our great adventure. We lived in a continuous
blaze of enthusiasm. We were at times very serious and concerned,
   at other times hilarious and carefree. Above all, we loved this
   country and loved exploring and painting it. Lawren S. Harris
La Cloche #2   Franklin Carmichael
Last Gleam, North Shore Lawren Stewart Harris
Sitka by Emily Carr
     A. Social Changes after WWI

     Beaver Swamp
     by Lawren Harris

1.    Art - Canadian themes are to be valued
         >Group of Seven (Canadian Landscapes)
      >Emily Carr (B.C. Landscapes & Aboriginals
2.    Inventions
         >Radio, Airplane & Car HE SHOOTS, HE SCORES!
3.    Immigration
         >Between 1915 to 1925 perhaps 400 000 people leave
      Canada; barriers to European immigration lowered
       B. Growth of Canadian
• 1919 The Paris Peace Conferences and the Treaty
  of Versailles
      -Canada is an independent signatory with its
  own seat in the League of Nations
• 1922 The Chanak Crisis
      -CDN parliament will decide whether or not to
  participate; 1st time Canada refuses unconditional
  support for imperial war policies
       B. Growth of Canadian
       Independence (Cont’d)
• 1926 The Imperial Conference
      -Balfour Report acknowledges dominions are
  autonomous; ‘a colony had become a nation’
• 1931 The Statute of Westminster
      -recognizes in law the Imperial Conference;
  Canada a sovereign state in the British
  Commonwealth of nations
Can you say, ‘shut down, denied, rejected.’
 1926 King-Byng Crisis

    -Governor General Byng refuses to dissolve Parliament at King’s
                         "Wine is a mocker,
                        Strong drink is raging:
                  And whosoever is deceived thereby
                                           Is not
wise."                                           --PROVERBS XX, 1

get a wiggle on: get a move on, get going.

teenager: not a common term until 1930; before then, the term was "young adults."

Get Hot! Get Hot!: encouragement for a hot dancer doing her thing.

choice bit of calico: attractive female, student.

daddy: a young woman's boyfriend or lover, especially if he's rich.

drugstore cowboy: A well-dressed man who loiters in public areas
trying to pick up women.

hair of the dog (1925): a shot of alcohol.

speakeasy: a bar selling illeagal liquor.

Coffin varnish: bootleg liquor, often poisonous..                                   Al Capone
 We want women leaders today as never before. Leaders
 who are not afraid to be called names and who are willing
 to go out and fight. I think women can save civilization.
 Women are persons.” - Emily Murphy - 1931

The "Famous Five": Emily Murphy, Louise McKinney,
Irene Parlby, Nellie McClung, Henrietta Muir Edwards
           C. Role of Women
• Role of Women had changed drastically
      -increasingly controlled own lives
      -held ‘men’s’ jobs, shorter skirts, shocking
  bathing suits, scandalous dance
• Prohibition (ban on all production, sale and
      consumption of alcohol; March ‘18 to Dec.
  ‘19)       -pushed by women’s groups
      -decrease in social woes, increase in organized
  crime; many loopholes
    C. Role of Women (Cont’d)
• 1921 Agnes Macphail first female MP
• 1929 The Famous Five and the Persons Case
  (Remember: Right to Vote in Federal Election in 1918, but not all provinces until 1940)

   – The Issue: Does the word ‘person’ of the BNA Act
     include females?
        • 1927 Supreme Court of Canada says ‘No’
        • 1928 Appeal (with help of PM King) to British Privy Council
        • 1229 Privy Council responds, “to those who would ask why
          the word ‘person’ should include females, the obvious answer
          is, why should it not?”
D. Unions …The folks that brought you the weekend.

   -1919 no unemployment insurance, workers’ compensation, or

   -1919 despite the RED SCARE (don’t forget the Bolsheviks and
   1917) Winnipeg General Strike 30, 000 workers walk off the job
   followed by sympathy strikes across the country (demands
   included: eight-hour work day, higher pay, right to collective
   bargaining )
       -->June 21st 1919 Bloody Saturday -RCMP charges strikers
The 1930’s
          A. Causes of the Great
1. Overproduction
            -stockpiled goods go unsold

                    -factory owners lay off workers

                             -less money to spend on goods, so
                             sales slow down even more…
    The Business Cycle (Economic Cycle)
    -is a normal part of the economy

                                   1. Prosperity -high
                                      employment, inflation
3. Recovery -production increases due
to consumer demand, new jobs

                                           2. Recession
                                              drops, production

Depression: prolonged and severe recession; Deflation may
occur, wages drop faster than prices
        A. Causes of the Great
         Depression (Cont’d)
2. Canada’s Reliance on Exporting Staple Products
     (crops, timber, minerals)
     -1925 - 1929 record crops and prices, but in
   1929 U.S.A., Argentina and Australia have
   record crops = competition
3. Canada’s Dependence on the U.S.A.
     -40% of all exports
4. Economic Protectionism and Tariffs
5. International Debt after WWI
     -countries indebted to U.S.A. unable to pay
   due to reduced trade
      A. Causes of the Great
       Depression (Cont’d)
6. The Stock Market Crash
   -Black Tuesday, October 29th 1929
   -People buying on margin, speculation
   -Value of several key stocks on TSE
   dropped by $1 000 000/minute
 B. Responses to the Depression
       •   The U.S.A.
           -Franklin Delano Roosevelt (my favourite president)
           implements The New Deal

Goodbye laissez faire, hello Mr.
John Maynard Keynes!

Keynes called for deficit financing. This is where government
expenditures can exceed its revenue. The result is not a Balanced
Budget, but a deficit. What would your banker say?
Keynes called for projects of value, not just make-work schemes
eg//roads, hydroelectric dams.
Most countries ignored his ideas, but not U.S.A., Germany, Japan
   B. Responses to the Depression
-P.M. King •       Canada
wouldn’t 1.       Riding the Rails
give a       2.   Pogey - deliberately kept lower than the lowest paying
provincial        jobs
government              Note: Prairies hit particularly hard; Dust Bowl
a ‘five cent
piece’       1. Unemployment Relief Camps - room, board & $0.20/day
             2. Bennett’s New Deal
-Bennett        -progressive taxation, max. hours in a work week,
elected in      minimum wage, stronger regulation of working
1930            conditions, unemployment insurance, revised old age
                pension plan, marketing board to regulate wheat prices
-King re-    5. On-to-Ottawa Trek and the Regina Riot
Rioters atop railroad cars, others
climbing, police and others below.

                                        King sitting in his study, 1932.

                                        King sitting in a Bennett Buggy: the
  My government: Prime Minister
                                        body of an automobile hitched to a
  Bennett presiding over his cabinet,
  every face his .
     C. Collapse and Consequences
        of the Great Depression
1.    Unemployment - 25% in most industrialized
      countries;remember no safety net & think about the
      business cycle
2.    Banking Failures - businesses and farms go bankrupt,
      then banks (6000 in U.S.A.)
3.    Political Consequences - “People who are hungry and
      are out a job are the stuff of which dictatorships are
      made.” FDR
          -in Canada Canadian Co-operative Federation (later
      to be NDP) and Social Credit Party
4.    Changing Role of Government -Laissez Faire is dead,
      hello government control of economy (tax, monetary
      ie/interest rates, and fiscal ie/gov’t expenditures policies
 Note: The Prairies were hit
particularly hard. Dust storms,
locusts, wheat rust, low wheat
               World War Two 1939 - 1945

Treaty of Versailles, Treaty of Versailles, Treaty of Versailles, Treaty of Versailles, Treaty of Versailles, Treaty of Versailles, Treaty of Versailles, Treaty of Versailles, Treaty of Versailles,
Treaty of Versailles, Treaty of Versailles, Treaty of Versailles, Treaty of Versailles, Treaty of Versailles, Treaty of Versailles, Treaty of Versailles, Treaty of Versailles, Treaty of Versailles

                                                 • Benito Mussolini forms a
                                                   political party called
                                                 • 1922 Musolini’s March
                                                   on Rome, King Emanual
                                                   surrenders government
                                                   w/o a single shot
                                                 Goodbye democracy, Hello
                                                   dictatorship. And the
Fascist dictator of Italy from 1922 to 1943.
                                                   people wanted it!
                                                 • 1935 Ethiopia invaded
Can you say totalitarianism?
                          1.   1923-24 inflation now
                               hyper-inflation (12
                               billion mark = $CDN 1
                          2.   1923 Hitler’s beerhall
                               putsch in Munich
                          3.   1919 - 1933 Germany a
                               democracy; Weimar
                               Republic, Disliked by
                               most Germans &blamed
                               for Treaty of Versailles

Rules Germany 1933 - 45
            Hitler and the Nazi Party
    The bleachers of the Berlin stadium to spell out ‘We belong to you’ May 1, 1939

 • Extreme Nationalism, Anti-Democratic, Anti-Semitism
   (Jews = scapegoat), Restore Germany’s Military Might
 • 1932 Hitler appointed Chancellor
 • Feb. 1933 just short of a majority, NAZI party bans
   communists from Reichstag, coerces Reichstag to pass
   Enabling Act
Goodbye democracy, Hello dictatorship. And the people wanted it!
      Nazi Germany Under Hitler
 • Germany totalitarian state
 • June 1934 Night of the Long Knives, 1000 ‘enemies of
   the state’ murdered
 • 1933 - 39 Nuremburg Law
        Jews: Star of David, Lost Citizenship and Property,
   not allowed to mingle with ‘German’ population
 • Nov. 9, 1939 Kristallnacht, (night of broken glass)
 • Re-militarization
 • Gestapo and Heil Hitler (Fuhrer)

Can you say totalitarianism?
Hitler (January 30th, 1939):
''In the course of my life I have very often been a prophet, and
have usually been ridiculed for it. During the time of my struggle
for power, it was in the first instance the Jewish race that
received my prophecies with laughter - when I said that I would
one day take over the leadership of the State, and with it that of
the whole nation, and that I would then, among many other
things, settle the Jewish problem. I think that for some time now
they have been laughing on the other side of their face
(laughter). Today I will once more be a prophet. If the
international Jewish financiers, inside and outside Europe,
succeed in plunging the nations once more into a world war,
then the result will not be the Bolshevisation of the earth, and
thus the victory of Jewry, but the annihilation of the Jewish race
in Europe!'
                 Soviet Union

                           • 1928 Stalin consolidates
                             control of communist
                           • Five year Plans
                             -collectivize farms, invest
                             in heavy industry, Great
                             Terror (millions killed
                             during 1930’s)

Can you say totalitarianism?
  A. Causes of WWII in Europe
Fundamental Causes
• Treaty of Versailles
• The Great Depression
• Rise of Adolf Hitler and Nazi Party
• Failure of League of Nations
• Ultranationalism
• Unwillingness of democratic governments to
        B. Pre-WWII TIMELINE

-1936 - 39 Appeasement Policy

       -March ‘36 Hitler occupies Rhineland

              -’36-’39 Spanish Civil War (Test run of Blitzkreig)

                      -March’38 Annexation of Austria

                             -October ‘38 Sudetenland exchanged for

                                    -March ‘39 Invasion of
August 23rd, 1939 Germany and Soviet Union sign Non-Aggression Pact
                             (Ribbentrop Pact)
  C. Timeline of WWII

Events of 1939

1 September         Hitler invades Poland

3 September          France and Britain Declare War

10 September        Canada Declares War
                    -P.M. King promises no conscription

October 1939 - April 1940 Phony war (despite Poland &Czechoslovakia)
Events of 1940
May     -German 'Blitzkrieg'
       -Churchill becomes Prime Minister of Britain
       - British Expeditionary Force evacuated from Dunkirk (MAP)
       -France falls

       Canada now Britain’s greatest Ally, can you tell me why?

       -The Blitz British victory in Battle of Britain

Events of 1941

June   -Operation Barbarossa lebensraum, destroy communism

              So much for the Non-Aggression Pact…
          Battle of the Atlantic
• Longest campaign of WWII; control of shipping
  lanes between North America & Britain
• By 1941 U-boat wolfpacks sinking Allied ships
  faster than they could be built (21 ships sunk in St.
  Lawrence river)
• By 1943 Allies winning battle
• Arguably Canada’s most decisive contribution to
   – Convoys guarded by RCAF & Royal Canadian Navy
     (Corvettes, Sonar)
   – Navy 13 ships & 3 000 soldiers to 270 & 100 000),
     Merchant Marines
Dec. -Japan attacks Pearl Harbor, US enters the war          -
Canada defeated at Hong Kong

Events of 1942

      -Germany suffers setbacks at Stalingrad and El Alamein
     - genocide begins at Auschwitz x2 (Final Solution Timeline)
June - Battle of Midway, turning point in Pacific War
             -900 dead, 1000 wounded, 1900 POW’s
             -greatest single day loss for Canada of WWII

Events of 1943

      -Stalingrad, decisive turning point of Eastern Front
       -Allied victory in North Africa
       -Italy invaded (Canada very involved), ‘44 Northern Italy
Events of 1944

      -Soviet offensive gathers pace in Eastern Europe
       -D Day, Operation Overlord, Juno Beach
Spring -U.S.A. island hopping to Okinawa
Aug. -Paris liberated

Events of 1945

May 5 -Canadians liberate Holland
      -Auschwitz liberated by Soviets
      -Soviets 1st tp Berlin, Hitler commits suicide
May 7 -Germany surrenders, V-E Day
Aug. 14 -Japan surrenders V-J Day after atomic bombs are
      dropped on Hiroshima (78 000 dead) and Nagasaki
      (35 000 dead)

Events of 1945 Wartime Conferences, 1946 Nuremburg Trials

"Here in the galleys life was joyous, with the girls singing,
amazingly agreeable under their hanging pots and sieves.
                       "— Pegi Nicol MacLeod, 1944
A. The Role of Women
   1. Overseas
• 1941 1st time in history official women’s
  branches of the CDN army
   -by war’s end 46 000 CDN women served
     overseas: cooks, mechanics, welders,
     radar operators, pilots (Ferry Command),
     coastal defences
  -SOE (Special Operations Executive); secret
    agents in France
 A. The Role of Women (cont’d)
  2. Women on the Homefront
• 1944 Factories operate 12 hours/7 days &
  1 000 000 women in workforce
• Hold same jobs as men, but paid less; after
  war expected to go back into the home
B.   Production
     -total war effort paid for by war bonds, taxes & gold
     payments from England

C.   Propaganda

D.   Canadian Training Facilities
     -British Commonwealth Air Training Plan; by end of war
     130 000 air personnel trained
     -Camp X (sorry top secret, if I told you I’d have to kill you)

E.   Conscription
     ‘39 PM King promises, ‘no conscription,’ but by ‘42
     plebiscite; Can you guess the result? I’ll take mine strained,
     not broken.
            F. Enemy Aliens
• 100 000 CDNS forced
  to register
• Anti-Semitism in
  -‘38 St. Louis went
  -907 Jews turned away
  ‘None is too many’
      F. Enemy Aliens (cont’d)
• Japanese Internment
• ‘42 after Pearl Harbour
• Japanese Canadians must
  decide: deportation or
  internment camps
• 22 000 chose internment
  (14 000 born in Canada)
• ‘43 Custodian of Aliens
• ‘44 leave B.C. or be
• ‘88 Compensation; CDN
  gov’t pays 21 000/
                   G. Technology
•   Planes & Tanks
•   Rockets & Jet Engines (developed by Germany)
•   Atomic Bomb (Manhatten Project)
         "The release of atom power has changed everything
    except our way of thinking...the solution to this problem lies in
    the heart of mankind. If only I had known, I should have become
    a watchmaker.”
      H. Canada After WWII
1. Economic Effects
  – By ‘45 CDN economy booming, despite war
    debt of $10 billion
  – Manufacturing and industry overtakes
H. Canada after WWII (Cont’d)
2. Political Effects
   -Canada established as Middle Power
   -CDN Troops recognized for contributions
   (Dieppe, Hong Kong, Normandy and Liberation
   of Holland)
   -social safety net strengthened
   -minorities’ contributions advance civil rights
   movement in Canada
H. Canada after WWII (Cont’d)
3. Social Effects
   -women achieve greater recognition
   -Canada becomes a more tolerant nation as over
   500 000 newcomers (many of them refugees)
   come through Pier 21 in Halifax (including 48
   000 War Brides,
   22 000 children)
   -‘Baby Boom’
   -42 000 dead
"He who joyfully marches to
music rank and file, has already
earned my contempt. He has
been given a large brain by
mistake, since for him the spinal
cord would surely suffice. This
disgrace to civilization should be
done away with at once. Heroism
at command, how violently I hate
all this, how despicable and
ignoble war is; I would rather be
torn to shreds than be a part of
so base an action. It is my
conviction that killing under the
cloak of war is nothing but an act
of murder.” -Einstein
                  Can you say Cold War? I knew you could.
 Blitzkrieg - Lightning War
1. Airforce attacks enemy front-line and rear positions, main roads, airfields
   and communication centers.

2. Concentrated tank units breakthrough main lines of defense and
   advance deeper into enemy territory, while infantry engages enemy to

3. Mechanized groups spearhead deeper into the enemy territory
   outflanking the enemy positions and paralyzing the rear preventing
   withdrawing troops and defenders from establishing effective defensive

4. Main force links up with other units encircling and cutting off the enemy.

       To understand how effective it really is, one must realize
    that the Blitzkrieg is still used by nearly every army in the
    world today.

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