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802154IGa Informal CFA.ppt

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					     September 2003                                                         doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a
  Project: IEEE P802.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs)

Submission Title: [Formal Submission of the 802.15.4IGa Informal CFA Response]
Date Submitted: [8 September, 2003]
Source: [Jason Ellis- IEEE 802.15.4IGa Vice-Chair; Larry Taylor- IEEE 802.15.4IGa Chair; Responses
contributed from 14 sources- details follow in the presentation] Company [Various]
Address [ELLIS- General Atomics- 10240 Flanders Ct., San Diego, CA 92121]
Voice:[+1 (858) 457-8749], FAX: [+1 (858) 457-8740], E-Mail:[jsnellis@ieee.org]
Address [TAYLOR- Staccato Communications-5893 Oberlin Dr. San Diego, CA 92121]
Voice:[+1 (858) 642-0111], FAX: [+1 (858_ 642-0161], E-Mail:[larry.taylor@acm.org]
Re: [This submission is in response to the committee’s request to identify applications enabled by an
alternate 802.15.4SGa PHY]
Abstract: [Having discussed new features offered by candidate technologies, this presentation compiles 14
Call for Application contributions, previously presented to the Interest Group.
Purpose: [In response to the 802.15.4SGa Call for Applications]
Notice: This document has been prepared to assist the IEEE P802.15. It is offered as a basis for
discussion and is not binding on the contributing individual(s) or organization(s). The material in this
document is subject to change in form and content after further study. The contributor(s) reserve(s) the right
to add, amend or withdraw material contained herein.
Release: The contributor acknowledges and accepts that this contribution becomes the property of IEEE
and may be made publicly available by P802.15.
     Submission                                      Slide 1     IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                            doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a




                 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’
        Formal Call For Applications Response
             14 Respondents, previously submitted to the former
                      802.15.4 Interest Group ‘a’

                   September 2003 IEEE 802.15 Meeting
                                Singapore



Submission                           Slide 2   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                   doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



                 Table of Contributors
      Source               Affiliation(s)                                        Pages
 •    Patrick Houghton     Aetherwire & Location                                  4-12
 •    Jason Ellis          General Atomics                                       13-17
 •    Lajuane Brooks       LB&A Consulting                                       18-21
 •    John Lampe           Nanotron Technologies                                 22-24
 •    Uri Kareev           Pulsicom                                              25-28
 •    In Hwan Kim          Samsung Electronics                                   29-34
 •    Ted Kwon             Samsung / CUNY                                        35-39
 •    Mark Bowles          Staccato Communications                               40-43
 •    Philippe Rouzet      ST Microelectronics                                   42-56
 •    Oren Eliezer         InfoRange                                             57-61
 •    Kai Siwiak           TimeDerivative / Q-Track                              62-65
 •    Peter Batty          Ubisense Limited                                      66-71
 •    Serdar Yurdakul      Wisair                                                72-80
 •    Richard Nowakowski   City of Chicago- OEMC R&D                             81-88

Submission                  Slide 3   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                        doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a




                 Contribution #1
                   Patrick Houghton
                          (408) 400-0785
                     patrick@aetherwire.com



                 Aetherwire & Location
                      http://www.aetherwire.com




Submission                       Slide 4   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                               doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



                              Applications
 • Finding People
       – Situational Awareness for Soldiers
       – Firefighter Rescue
 • Finding Assets
       – Autonomous Manifesting
       – ISO Container Security
 • Machine-to-Machine (M2M)
       – Wireless Sensor Networks
       – Home/Office Automation
       – Robotics



Submission       Houghton- Aetherwire   Slide 5   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                               doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



        Situational Awareness for Soldiers
                                                            •    No Effective Means of
                                                                 Indoor Location
                                                            •    Confusion and lack of
                                                                 Communication and
                                                                 Control
                                                            •    Sounds are confusing and
                                                                 difficult to localize
                                                            •    Seconds count...
                                                            •    Localizers provide ID and
                                                                 location
                                                            •    Avoid Fratricide
                                                            •    Positive IFF




Submission       Houghton- Aetherwire   Slide 6   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                               doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



    Military Operations in Urban Terrain




Submission       Houghton- Aetherwire   Slide 7   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                                   doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



                      Firefighter Rescue
                                        •   When Firefighters are trapped or lost, there is no
                                            effective way to rescue them
                                        •   Trapped or lost firefighters, if conscious, often
                                            don’t know their own location
                                        •   Unlike the Movies, structural fires are characterized
                                            by heavy smoke and darkness
                                        •   Sounds are diffused by smoke and difficult to
                                            localize
                                        •   Seconds count...
                                        •   If they are known to be on the scene (sometimes
                                            they are not), it may take a long time before a
                                            firefighter is missed
                                        •   Commanders don’t know status of their
                                            firefighters (oxygen level, health, etc.)


Submission       Houghton- Aetherwire       Slide 8   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                               doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



                 Track Firefighter Status




Submission       Houghton- Aetherwire   Slide 9   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                                doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



                 Finding Assets for DOD




Submission       Houghton- Aetherwire   Slide 10   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                                   doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



                 Machine-to-Machine (M2M)
 • Wireless Sensor Networks for Industrial Automation & Control
       – Wiring for sensors fixed to pipes can cost $10 to $25 per foot
       – Thousands of temperature monitoring points in typical installation
       – Cost of wiring exceeds cost of sensor
 • Office and Home Automation
       – HVAC Controller Wire Replacement
       – Office/Home Security Systems
 • Robots in Manufacturing
       – Mobile robot navigation & docking
       – Relieve robots from cables & avoid expensive infrastructure
 • Large Potential Market for low-power, mobile, ad-hoc networks
       – Also known as: Invisible Networks, Ad-hoc Networks, Mesh Networks
       – Most solutions don’t address LOCATION




Submission         Houghton- Aetherwire    Slide 11   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                                   doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



                     Device Requirements
 •    Market requirements for a device to provide communication and
      precise 3D position in a low-power wireless Mobile ad-hoc
      Network (peer to peer with rapid acquisition of new members)
            Data Rate:  10K bits/second
            Network Size: can scale to 1 Million nodes
            Can Operate in High Noise and High Multipath Environment
            Cost: Under $1 in quantity - single chip device
            Range: 30 meters (good penetration)
            Power Consumption: <1mW
            3D Position with  cm range accuracy
            Compatible with sensors




Submission          Houghton- Aetherwire   Slide 12   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                               doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



                 Contribution #2
                        Jason Ellis
                        +1 (858) 457-8749
                        jason.ellis@ga.com



                  General Atomics
                        Photonics Division

                        http://www.ga.com/uwb


                   A leader in sensor and wireless technology
Submission                            Slide 13    IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                                    doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



                          Inventory Control
 • Warehousing
       – Allows quick and precise pinpointing of goods
 • Retail shops
       – Supports real-time tracking of shipments /pallets
             • Can quickly locate and read items on densely loaded
               pallets
       – High valued items
             • i.e. No security wires preventing customers from
               trying on leather jackets


Submission         Ellis- General Atomics   Slide 14   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                                  doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



                     Location of Sensors
 • In a very dense environment, with lots of
   sensors, the ability to locate a particular
   sensor may be very important
       – Faulty sensor on production line




Submission       Ellis- General Atomics   Slide 15   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                                  doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



                                      Security
 • Workstation locks when user goes out of
   range
 • Automobile unlocks when driver comes
   within range- supports cars of the future
 • Authentication based on precise location
       – Point of sale
       – Wireless Ethernet users


Submission       Ellis- General Atomics   Slide 16   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                                     doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



                 Summary of Requirements
 • Addressed by present PHY
       – Low cost- throwaway
       – Low power consumption- long battery life


 • New features to be supported by Alternate PHY
       – Precision location determination capability
             • 3 inches to 3 feet accuracy
       – Support for co-location of many devices
             • Scenarios call out for high aggregate capacity



Submission          Ellis- General Atomics   Slide 17   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                               doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



                  Contribution #3
                        Lajuane Brooks
                               (301) 346-2482
                             info@kidlocate.net



                      LB&A Consulting
                  Potential 802.15.4a Application to Enhance
             Child Safety at Home, in Schools, & in Times of Crisis




Submission                             Slide 18   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
    September 2003                                                     doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a


         Background: Personal-Area-Networks (PANs)
              can provide Personal-Area-Safety
                                                Market for Wireless Safety Devices
                                                  The wireless infrastructure provides a vehicle for
                                                    a formal child safety infrastructure
                                                  • Providing private, personal-area-safety nets for

                     $                              child localization at home, in schools, etc.

                                                   The child safety infrastructure promotes faster
                                                     deployment of the wireless infrastructure
                                                   • Converting wireless niceties into essential
                                                     appliances that protect children from harm

The public has issued an overwhelming request for more proactive safeguards
•     58,000 children are reported as abducted by a non-family member every year
•     40% of children abducted by strangers are murdered (NCMEC, 2002)
•     Most children abducted by strangers are killed within 4 hours, so it is critical to
      respond quickly (Walsh 2001; DOJ)
•     We have no formal infrastructure that accounts for children during times of crisis
    Submission        Brooks- LB&A Consulting    Slide 19   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                                      doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a

   Opportunity to Establish a Technological
  Foundation for Wireless Child Localization

   Near - Term                                       Future - Term
   IEEE 802.15.4                             Other Enabling Technologies
       High
     Precision
    Localization                    IEEE 802.15.4 High Precision Localization



  Standardized Child Tracking Can Be Extended to Wider Area Coverage
            Incorporating Interoperability and Compatibility

                       • Availability of Location Data to Upper Layers
                       • Adaptable Physical Layer
                       • Extend to Business Environment

Submission         Brooks- LB&A Consulting    Slide 20   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                                           doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a


             In parallel with IEEE 802.15.4a:
     Invitation to a High-Tech Child Safety Forum
             Developing Solutions with Key Support
             Assemble the Stakeholders in Child Safety,                  Parent
                                                                        Incident
                  Crisis Response, & Wireless Communications             Privacy
                                                                          RF-ID
                                                                      Supervision
                                                                      Escalation
                                                                       Technical
                                                                  Positioning Data
                   Government Agencies (NIST, FCC, DOJ, etc.)        Protection
                                                                   “concealing rF-ID
                                                                   “a suPPlement Parent
                                                                   it more coHesive
                                                              “can“How will location
                                                                      Feasibility
                   Wireless Communications Developers
                                                                 “Provide Protection
                   Children’s Clothing & Shoe Manufacturers      tags in cHildren’s
                                                                 supervision between
                                                                relationship without
                                                                  data be accessed?”
                                                                     without done?”
                                                                    “can it begiving
                   RF Tag Manufacturers & Distributors                 clotHing?”
                                                                      substituting
                                                                      police & the
                   Children’s & Parents Advocacy Groups               uP Privacy?”
                                                                            it?”
                                                                      community?”
                     Security Monitoring Services
                     Mapping & Positioning Software & Services
             Together Examine the Feasibility of a Child Safety Infrastructure
               Is the Technology Ready?                Is Society Ready?
              Present the Technological Options        Compile Product Requirements
                                   A High-Tech Child Safety Roundtable
                              A One-Day Event on Wednesday, October 8th, 2003
                           George Washington University Grand Ballroom, Wash DC
                                              www.KidLocate.net
Submission               Brooks- LB&A Consulting   Slide 21   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                        doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a




                 Contribution #4
                      John Lampe
                         +49 30 399 954 0
                     j.lampe@nanotron.com



                 Nanotron Technologies
                       http://www.nanotron.de




Submission                      Slide 22   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                                           doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



     Benefits Which Open up Applications
 •    Simple and accurate position calculation
 •    Extended range
 •    Extremely power efficient
 •    Compatibility with DSSS
 •    Simultaneous sensing of multiple 15.4 channels
 •    HIGH
       –     Performance (high symbol rate)
       –     Reliability (predictable minimum range, network planning)
       –     Robustness against multipath fading
       –     Robustness against interference
 •    LOW
       –     Transmit power
       –     Human exposure
       –     Latency
       –     Cost




Submission             Lampe- Nanotron            Slide 23    IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                           doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



                     Some Applications
 •    Transportation
 •    Asset tracking
 •    Mission critical (e.g. industrial)
 •    Low latency tolerance applications (e.g. control, gaming,
      streaming)
 •    Device sharing/participating among multiple networks
      (multiple simultaneous channel sensing)
 •    15.4 Network extension (backward-compatibility)
 •    Cordless phones
 •    VOIP
 •    Longer battery life


Submission       Lampe- Nanotron   Slide 24   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                       doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a




                 Contribution #5
                     Uri Kareev
                    kareev@pulsicom.com



                      Pulsicom
                     http://www.pulsicom.com




Submission                     Slide 25   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
 September 2003                                                       doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



                  Location Aware Application

Application                   Loc.        Few bits comm.     True comm.                Comments
                              finding     importance         importance
                              importa
                              nce


Healthcare inventory          Critical    Important          Nice to have
tracking

Healthcare – people           Critical    Important          Nice to have
tracking

Workforce - people            Critical    Important          Not important
tracking




 Submission            Kareev- Pulsicom         Slide 26   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                                     doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



        Location Aware Application continued
Application               Loc.           Few bits            True comm.               Comments
                          finding        comm.               importance
                          importance     importance


Warehouse                 Critical       Nice to have        Irrelevant
management

Supply chain              Critical       Nice to have        Nice to have
management

Building                  Nice to have   Critical            Critical
                          / Important
automation
Retail store              Critical       Not                 Not
customer tracking                        important           important

Submission          Kareev- Pulsicom         Slide 27   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                                doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



        Location Aware Application continued
Application            Loc.         Few bits           True comm.               Comments
                       finding      comm.              importance
                       importance   importance
Theme park             Critical     Irrelevant         Irrelevant               Note, this is one
                                                                                of the few places
tracking                                                                        that can get
                                                                                along with bad
                                                                                location accuracy


Document tracking      Critical     Irrelevant         Irrelevant               This
                                                                                application, for
                                                                                full potential
                                                                                needs UWB
Inventory              Critical     Not                Irrelevant
management                          important


Submission       Kareev- Pulsicom       Slide 28   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                             doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a




                 Contribution #6
                    In Hwan Kim
                      inhwan@samsung.com



                 Samsung Electronics
                         http://www.samsung.com

                    Use of Location Awareness and Sensing
                   Capabilities for 802.15.IG4a Applications


Submission                           Slide 29   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                                      doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



             Envisioning Applications
 •    Home Usage:
       – Sensing/Tracking of babies/children/pets
       – Tracking of missing items (e.g., keys)
       – Personal tags for activating services (e.g., open door, personalized services)

 •    Home Network should track (recognize) smartly
       – Who is who? (e.g. kid, mom, dad, grandma….)
       – Where is he/she?
       – What kind of services he/she want?

 •    Requirements
       –     Sensing
       –     Tracking
       –     Location awareness
       –     Low power
       –     Low cost
       –     Security


Submission            Kim- Samsung            Slide 30   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                                     doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



                 Application Scenario (1 of 3)
 • Dad enters home
 • The human device (Dad’s watch) broadcasts Dad’s ID.
 • After ID authorized, Dad’s preferred devices (such as PC,
   Fax, Mailbox, Phone, TV, Homecare, Hot water supply
   system) get ready for operation
 • Dad is moving toward one of the rooms
 • With location awareness, devices near Dad are operating
       – For example: when Dad is entering the living room
             • Received mails are notified
             • Answering machine notifies received calls
             • Stock channel is turned ON




Submission           Kim- Samsung            Slide 31   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                                                 doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



       Application Scenario (2 of 3) - ID Awareness
                                            Dad enters home…


                                                          Dining Room
         Study Room




                                                                                 Bath Room
                           Dad preferred devices are ready…(ID Awareness)


             Living Room

                                                                    Bed Room




Submission                 Kim- Samsung                Slide 32     IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                                                      doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



  Application Scenario (3 of 3) - Location Awareness
                                        Devices near Dad are operating…(Location Awareness)

               Dad is moving to Study Room…                    Dining Room
         Study Room
              Notify receiving e-mail


                                                               Dad is moving to Bath Room…
                                                                         Hot water ON
                                                                                      Bath Room
         Notify receiving faxes

             Living Room                    Stock channel ON
             Notify receiving mail
                                                                         Bed Room




                           Dad is moving to Living Room…
                                                                                          Dad is moving to Bed Room..

             Notifies received calls                                    Notify health information


Submission                  Kim- Samsung                   Slide 33      IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                           doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



                 Conclusion and Issues
 • Sensing & tracking can be used for activating
   personalized services in home network
       – Sensing is important for identification
       – Tracking is important for location awareness.

 • Issues:
       – Need to design efficient PHY & MAC algorithms for
             sensing & tracking
       – Need to consider whether the usage of location
         awareness capability falls into the scope of the FCC
         regulation



Submission         Kim- Samsung    Slide 34   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                            doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a




                   Contribution #7
                 Ted Kwon / Myung Lee
             tedkwon@ee.ccny.cuny.edu / mjlee@ee.ccny.cuny.edu



                     Samsung / CUNY



Submission                          Slide 35   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                                   doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



        Communications and Networking
 • Routing
       – Replacing GPS-assisted routing
             • Low cost, low power
             • At the cost of processing
             • Indoor as well as outdoor
       – Center-location
             • Minimum link cost of a group (e.g. multicast, cluster)
       – Optimal tree or mesh network formation
       – Smart flooding (avoid redundant flooding)
 • MAC
       – Exposed terminal problem is solved


Submission          Kwon- Samsung/CUNY     Slide 36   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                              doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



    Communications and Networking (cont.)
 • Directional Antenna
       – Using topology information
 • Accurate Handoff
       – Less sensitive to hysteresis of RSSI
 • Topology Management
       – Topology-aware sensing
       – Smart sensor deployment
       – Power control


Submission       Kwon- Samsung/CUNY   Slide 37   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                                doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



                 High Precision Positioning
 • UWB nodes can measure distance between
   themselves
       – Time of flight (btw. pulse time and arrival time)
       – Theoretically, sub-centimeter order
 • Extension of GPS indoors
       – GPS signal is useless indoors (non-LOS)




Submission         Kwon- Samsung/CUNY   Slide 38   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                                 doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



                 Distance-aware Application
 • The feature that low-cost UWB devices can precisely
   measure the distance between the two communication
   parties can promote the following example applications:
       – To prevent children from walking away from parents;
       – Shutdown TVs when kids move too close to the them;
       – To prevent the lost of key chains, wallets or other luxury accessories;
       – Automatically turn on/off the light or other devices when people
         enter/leave the room, garage and etc.
       – Wireless Tape Measure: measuring distance using UWB devices
         (convenient and saves man power)!




Submission         Kwon- Samsung/CUNY    Slide 39   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                              doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a




                  Contribution #8
                         Mark Bowles
                            (858) 642-0111
                   mark@staccatocommunications.com



                 Staccato Communications
                     http://www.staccatocommunications.com




Submission                            Slide 40   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                              doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



  Shrink-wrapped Smart Home Systems
 • High density wireless network of controllers,
   sensors, and actuator nodes for:
       – Environment control
       – Energy management (metering and smart
         appliances)
       – Security and identification
       – Emergency monitoring and safety (earthquakes,
         fire)
 • Smart Home solutions need to be
   inexpensive, easy to install, and not limited to
   new homes

Submission       Bowles- Staccato     Slide 41   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                                      doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



                                Requirements
 • Must address existing home market (not just new homes)
 • Automated address/control system provisioning and networked to PC
   control system SW
       – Address assignments and control provisioning done automatically/wirelessly
         by the network through location-awareness and smart algorithms, not by an
         electrician or technician or consumer
       – Ad-hoc sensor/control network then automatically communicates with PC
         or other platform over wireless interfaces and network control SW runs on
         host system and is auto-configured
 • No battery
       – battery lifetime must be longer than device’s lifetime so that installation is
         simplified and inexpensive
       – Energy scavenging from vibration, light, etc.
 • Multipath robust
       – reliable communication in harsh multi-path environment (e.g. foil-backed
         insulation in the walls)
 • Low cost
       – <$2 per node
Submission          Bowles- Staccato          Slide 42   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                            doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



                     Radios Everywhere
• Very low cost and very long battery lifetime has made
  microcontrollers an integral part of almost every
  electrical and electronic product made, and now they
  permeate even the smallest capillaries of our everyday
  lives with more than 15 billion units on the planet.


• Radios will follow microcontrollers’ evolution and
  integration in everyday appliances once they will
  become location-aware, and will reach similar price,
  form factor, and power consumption levels.


Submission       Bowles- Staccato   Slide 43   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                                    doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



                    Contribution #9
    Philippe Rouzet / Vanni Saviotti
                                +41 22 929 58 66
                 philippe rouzet@st.com , vanni.saviotti@st.com



                      ST Microelectronics
                                   http://www.st.com


                        This contribution reflects STM’s view about
                         potential usage of Low Data Rate WPAN

Submission                                  Slide 44   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                                      doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a


       Rationales for UWB as candidate for LDR
      WLANS/WPANs for sensor-like applications
 • Several LDR standards/solutions already
   exist or are close to exist, amongst which:
       – Bluetooth
       – Zigbee
 • A new standard is necessary if and only if the
   required features are very different from the
   ones that will be provided by current
   standards/solutions


Submission       Rouzet- STMicroelectronics   Slide 45   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                                        doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a

                 Why STM identified new needs
                     Typical application 1




Submission         Rouzet- STMicroelectronics   Slide 46   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                                      doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



                      Main Requirement
 • Locate and identify devices
       – within an area,
       – moving to another authorized area,
       – or “lost”
 • Over time (autonomy must last for months
   or years, no maintenance)
 • A device (com. +loc.+energy) is a small
   fraction of a $


Submission       Rouzet- STMicroelectronics   Slide 47   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                                      doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a


                   Typical Application 2
      Networks with distributed devices for large structures monitoring




Submission       Rouzet- STMicroelectronics   Slide 48   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                                        doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



                 Application 2 Requirement
 • Self aware location devices within an area
   with self configuration, self maintenance and
   expandability capabilities.
 • Over time (autonomy must last for years,
   how to re-energize the battery?)
 • A device (com. +loc.+energy) is a small
   fraction of a $


Submission         Rouzet- STMicroelectronics   Slide 49   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                                         doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a


                     Typical Application 3
                 Networks of wearable mobile devices




Submission          Rouzet- STMicroelectronics   Slide 50   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                                        doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



                 Application 3 Requirement
 • Locate and identify devices/people within an area
 • Communicate sensor information
 • Over time (autonomy must last for months, devices can be
    re-energized)
 • A device (com. +loc.+energy) is some $, can be much more
    with certain kinds of sensors
 Example:
 1. For tracking and safety purposes in large communities
    environments such as schools and hospitals (large range,
    medium or large population)
 2. For preventive medicine , health monitoring and health
    therapy purposes. Typically Body Area Networks


Submission         Rouzet- STMicroelectronics   Slide 51   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
   September 2003                                                         doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a


                          Properties                           (1 of 2)
(for next slides, features are mainly extracted from application 1 which is the highest demanding )


    • Thousands of active devices may exist in one area
    • Devices are as simple as possible (no processor inside, could
      even be deaf?…)
    • Communication is at very low data rate (Kbps?)
    • Communication is uncoordinated (sporadic or with low
      periodicity)
    • Network is ad’hoc. A controller node exists and concentrates
      the intelligence
    • Devices are mainly sleeping (powerful power save
      mechanisms)
    • Devices can be located easily (see next slide)
    • Reliability of transmission is essential

   Submission          Rouzet- STMicroelectronics   Slide 52   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                                       doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



                   Properties                            (2 of 2)
 • Localization
       – Must be offered at very low cost (no specific
         sensor  UWB is a very good candidate
       – Must be done thanks to a simple exchange
         protocol using only local time of devices and
         “normal” precision clocks
       – Required precision is some 10s of cm or 1 m:
       Good time resolution in the system  UWB
       – Devices can move (10-20 mph)


Submission       Rouzet- STMicroelectronics   Slide 53    IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                                      doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



                                 Regulation
 • The system can be operated in open environments
   (~outdoor)
 • A frequency band must exist  UWB, possibly
   with restrictions
 • The population density can be huge  very low TX
   level, very low duty cycle factor, possibly
   mechanisms to spread the emission over the full
   band for a given population in one large area
 • using and overcrowding the ISM bands does not
   appear as a good choice


Submission       Rouzet- STMicroelectronics   Slide 54   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                                         doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



                                  Technology
 • Fraction of a $, autonomous (battery powered) for
   months 
       –     CMOS !
       –     No processing needs
       –     No initial set up
       –     No big precision oscillator
       –     Good realistic examples are chips for smart cards 
             same objectives (Quantity, cost, manufacturability, …)
             but with antenna and battery included



Submission          Rouzet- STMicroelectronics   Slide 55   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                                           doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



                 Some Initiatives in Europe
 • European Large R&D: Programs: PULSERS (IST), WITNESS
   (MEDEA+) – planned start date end 2003 (TBC)

 • Known advanced activities in Europe:
       –     Technology (battery, full CMOS high frequency transceivers, …)
       –     Protocols (processor-less H/W MAC)
       –     Algorithms: localization (tracking, range estimation, …) and routing
       –     Communication: pulse based modulation for extremely simple transceivers

 • Possible cooperation between European Programs and IEEE 15.4.Ig4a
   supporters: user requirements, technology (e.g. antenna, integrated
   batteries),…


 • STM is strongly supporting an alternate PHY study for 15.4


Submission            Rouzet- STMicroelectronics   Slide 56   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                   doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a




                 Contribution #10
                    Oren Eliezer
                      orene@ti.com



                     InfoRange


Submission                 Slide 57   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                               doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



                     Package Tracking
 • Currently, mostly bar-codes are used, requiring visual contact with
   the tracked item, creating not only an accessibility issue but also
   consumes time.

 • Solving these issues is worth the added cost of a wireless-label
   (assuming a very low cost solution, e.g. sub $2).

 • UWB based identification could offer the advantages of:
       – Shorter reading time (a whole truck could be read in seconds)
       – No need for line of sight within a reasonable range
       – Automatic warning provided by the tracking system whenever a
         package is being loaded on a truck/container heading towards the
         wrong destination, or when a package is mistakenly offloaded
       – Locating a package within the truck/container/warehouse




Submission        Eliezer- InfoRange   Slide 58   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                                  doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a

         Shipment and Delivery Applications -
         Comparison with Asset Management
 • Similar to the asset management applications in some
   requirements

 • More sensitive to cost of wireless label to be attached to each
   packet/item to be tracked

 • Higher volumes (the labels are a lot more temporary compared to
   those of asset management, and are attached to many more items)

 • Higher aggregate bit-rates needed (e.g. full truckload of packages
   to be scanned/read within seconds)




         multiple packages/items (e.g. 1000)                     reader (fixed or portable)
Submission         Eliezer- InfoRange     Slide 59   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                                  doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



     Discussion of Transmission only Devices

 •    With a low level of transmission assumed (e.g. below 1mW), the receiver may
      consume more than the transmitter.

 •    If a wireless label is to be implemented as a transponder that would transmit its
      message only in response to being polled, then it might have to waste more
      energy in reception than in getting its message through (receiver not only
      consumes more but is powered on for longer intervals).

 •    Since power consumption should be minimized, and periodically powering a
      receiver could be wasteful, transmission only devices should be considered.

 •    If a device’s message comprises very little data, and the air-occupancy and
      spectrum of the transmission allow for coexistence with many other devices,
      then asynchronous (device initiated transmissions) should be allowed.

 •    A message may incorporate an indication whether it is a response to some
      inquiry/polling or not, but the central reader should also be able to accept
      those ‘unexpected’ periodic transmissions.

Submission         Eliezer- InfoRange     Slide 60   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                              doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



                      Market Potential
 • Currently, security/access control and transportation
   are the most widely adopted applications in the RFID
   industry, but by 2006, supply chain management
   applications could hold the lion’s share of RFID market
   revenues.

 • The market for transponders in 2000 was about $500M

 • The market for readers in 2000 was about $200M

 • With the availability of a global standard also having a
   location capability, the market potential for such
   applications is extremely high !


Submission       Eliezer- InfoRange   Slide 61   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
                   Contribution #11
September 2003                                                       doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a




                 Kai Siwiak / Jerry Gabig
                       (954) 937-3288 / (256) 512-0020
                 kai@timederivative.com / j.gabig@q-track.com



                 TimeDerivative / Q-Track
                                   www.timederivative.com
                                     www.q-track.com

                    Real Time Location Service (RTLS) Applications, Range and
                              Accuracy Requirements in P802.15.4


Submission                                     Slide 62   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                                     doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



    Real Time Location Systems (RTLS)
                 CORE RTLS Applications                            Range            Accuracy
 High value inventory items (warehouses, ports, motor           100-300 m           30-300 cm
 pools, manufacturing plants)
 Sports tracking (NASCAR, horse races, soccer)                  100-300 m            10-30 cm

 Cargo tracking at large depots to including port facilities       300 m              300 cm

 Vehicles for large automobile dealerships and heavy            100-300 m             300 cm
 equipment rental establishments
 Key personnel in office / plant facility                       100-300 m              15 cm

 Children in large amusement parks                                 300 m              300 cm

 Pet/cattle/wild life tracking                                     300 m            15-150 cm



Submission          Siwiak- TimeDerivative   Slide 63   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                                       doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



    Real Time Location Systems (RTLS)
                 Niche Commercial Markets                            Range            Accuracy
 Robotic mowing & farming                                            300 m               30 cm
 Supermarket carts (matching customers with advertised            100-300 m              30 cm
 products)
 Vehicle caravan / personal radios / family radio service            300 m              300 cm


                   Military Applications                             Range            Accuracy
 Military training facilities                                        300 m               30 cm
 Military search & rescue: lost pilot, man-over-board,               300 m              300 cm
 Coast Guard rescue operations
 Army small tactical unit “friendly forces” situational              300 m               30 cm
 awareness - rural and urban

Submission           Siwiak- TimeDerivative   Slide 64    IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                                    doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



    Real Time Location Systems (RTLS)
         Civil Government / Safety Applications                   Range            Accuracy
 Tracking guards & prisoners                                      300 m               30 cm

 Tracking firefighters and emergency responders                   300 m               30 cm
 Anti-collision system: aircraft / ground vehicles                300 m               30 cm

 Tracking miners                                                  300 m               30 cm
 Aircraft landing systems                                         300 m               30 cm
 Detecting avalanche victims                                      300 m               30 cm
 Locating RF noise and interference sources                       300 m               30 cm
 extension to LoJack® vehicle theft recovery system               300 m              300 cm




Submission         Siwiak- TimeDerivative   Slide 65   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                         doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a




                 Contribution #12
                      Peter Batty
                    peter.batty@ubisense.net



                  Ubisense Limited
                       http://www.ubisense.net




Submission                       Slide 66   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                                       doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



                    Healthcare Applications
 • Streamlining hospital processes
       –     Locating staff
       –     Finding wandering patients
       –     Ensuring records remain with the patient
       –     Updating electronic records with current care status

 • Asset tracking and management
       – Finding equipment
       – Evaluating equipment usage to improve purchasing

 • Workplace safety
       – Panic alarms with position-finding capability

 • Demand now: Large US & UK ambulatory care
   hospitals

Submission            Batty- Ubisense          Slide 67   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
   September 2003                                                 doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



       Workplace Productivity Applications
• Better communications between distributed sites
    – Moving maps
    – Phone call forwarding
    – Asynchronous messaging

• Sharing space more effectively
    – Low-overhead personalisation
    – Measurement of space utilisation
    – “Pay-as-you-go” billing for space

• Recording activity in a corporate memory
    – “Who was at the meeting last week?”

• Demand now: Multinationals implementing distributed workplace strategies



   Submission        Batty- Ubisense        Slide 68   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
    September 2003                                                        doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



                          Security Applications
•    Enhancing CCTV coverage
      – Activity-based video stream selection

•    Daytime intruder detection
      – Correlate data from active tracking and passive (IR,
        weight, radar) sensors

•    Visitor management
      – Enforcing restricted zones and escort policies

•    Asset tracking

•    Automatic ‘man-down’ detection



Demand now: Defense contractors, gemstone processing facilities


    Submission          Batty- Ubisense            Slide 69    IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
 September 2003                                              doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



                  Other Application Areas
• Retail environments
   – Personalised retail experience
   – Footfall analysis
   – Locating friends and family in malls




• Hazardous training
   – After-action review for urban combat
     training
   – Man-down detection in firefighter
     training simulators



 Submission       Batty- Ubisense      Slide 70   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
  September 2003                                           doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



                               Requirements
• Technology requirements are:

   – High position accuracy (~15cm, 3D, 95% confidence level)
   – High update rate for real-time-response

   –   Moderate range
   –   Low power
   –   Simultaneous low bitrate telemetry
   –   Low cost implementation

• Future 802.15.4 solutions enhanced with high-
  accuracy location capability seem well-suited

  Submission       Batty- Ubisense   Slide 71   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                       doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a




                 Contribution #13
                   Serdar Yurdakul
                       (408) 399-7747
                     serdar@wisair.com



                         Wisair
                      http://www.wisair.com




Submission                     Slide 72   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                            doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



   802.15.4a and Synergistic Applications
 • 802.15.4a applications focus on
       – Multiple sensors environment, localization and ranging,
         Smart ID’s
 • Synergy with High Bit-Rate applications
       – Multiple video streaming and Fast data transfer
 • Combination of these applications and 802.15.4a
   will together provide enhanced capabilities and high
   value-add to such applications



Submission       Yurdakul- Wisair   Slide 73   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                                       doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



                      Smart Remote Control
 • Remote control with 802.15.4a
   capabilities
 • Home theater systems supporting
   wireless streaming of Audio & Video
 • Full-duplex communication between the
   remote controller and the home theater
   equipment
       –     Display system status on the remote control
       –     Display cover art of played media
       –     Display media directory
       –     Provide the user with the location of the remote
             control


Submission            Yurdakul- Wisair         Slide 74   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                            doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



                    Audio “Sweet Spot”
 Prime listening position for an
   audio system; the “best seat in
   the house.” The sweet spot is
   the listening position for which
   an audio system is optimized.
   Normally located halfway
   between the speakers and back
   6 to 8 feet for a stereo audio
   system, the sweet spot is
   where optimal sound quality is
   encountered

Submission       Yurdakul- Wisair   Slide 75   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                              doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



     Automatic “Sweet Spot” Calibration
 • Automatically adjust speakers audio
   “sweet spot”
 • The user carries an 802.15.4a Tag
 • Both speakers and A/V Receiver
   have 802.15.4a and wireless
   streaming capabilities
       – Supports wireless audio and speaker
         localization
 • A/V Receiver measures the location
   of the user and of the speakers
 • A/V Receiver dynamically adjust the
   audio sweet spot to be centered at
   the user location


Submission       Yurdakul- Wisair     Slide 76   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                                   doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



                        Media Redirection
 • User carries a Smart Tag
 • Receiver identifies user location
 • Based on user location (room) media (Video and
   Audio) is dynamically redirected to nearby display
 • An example:
       – Mr. & Mrs. Smith are watching a TV program in the
         living room
       – Video is being transmitted wirelessly from their STB
       – The couple goes out of the living room
       – Living room TV turns off automatically
       – The couple enters their bedroom
       – Bedroom TV turns on automatically and the right
         video stream is broadcasted to it



Submission         Yurdakul- Wisair        Slide 77   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                            doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



             Personalized / Secured Content
 • Data Hotspot is located at public locations like subway
   stations
 • User carrying an 802.15.4a TAG and a Notebook/PDA is
   identified by the hot spot
 • The TAG contains user content preferences and
   subscription information
 • Based on the TAG information data is being fast
   downloaded to the user’s Notebook / PDA




Submission       Yurdakul- Wisair   Slide 78   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                            doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



                       Gaming - 3D view
 • User is using wireless video glasses to
   view the game display
 • Glasses include a combination
   802.15.4a & wireless video capabilities
 • Video is transferred wirelessly to
   enable free user movement
 • Game computer / box measures the
   headset location and direction
 • Based on localization, the graphics
   display changes dynamically
 • Similar concept is used for Head-Up
   Display (HUD) in combat aircrafts

Submission       Yurdakul- Wisair   Slide 79   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                            doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a



                               Conclusions
 • Interoperability between high bit-rate wireless
   technologies and 802.15.4a technology will enable
   more applications and increase the market size of
   both technologies
 • 802.15.4a can be built into various high bandwidth
   wireless products where interoperability can be
   developed and included in the end products
 • Many other future markets and products segments
   will want to see such combination of technologies

Submission       Yurdakul- Wisair   Slide 80   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                                       doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a




                 Contribution #14
                 Richard Nowakowski
                         (312) 746-9257
                  rnowakowski@cityofchicago.org



                   City of Chicago
     Office of Emergency Management & Communications R&D


Submission                     Slide 81   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                  Location Technology                           doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a
             Fire Fighter Mask
             acquires location using
             UWB Technology
                                                                     Image received on mask
                                                                     display and location is
                                                                     identified on map overlay
                        UWB transmits X-Y-Z
  UWB Technology        coordinates via Motorola
                        XTS 5000 to MW 520




                                 MW 520 send info via                             Motorola XTS 5000 receives image
                                 Radio Data Network                               and sends it to Mask Display




       OEMC receives signal, queries Building                              OEMC transmits digital floor plan back
       database files and gets floor plan                                  to MW 520 via Data Radio Network




Submission             Nowakowski- Chicago              Slide 82   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                  SCBA Bottle Volume                  doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a

                                   Requirement




                                                                         SCBA Bottle Display on Mask

   SCBA sends signal to
  Mask Display indicating
  current bottle volume.




Submission              Nowakowski- Chicago   Slide 83   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
  September 2003                             Digital Routing              doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a




As the Fire Fighter traverses the floor plan his
Motorola XTS 5000 Digital radio transmits a
digital pulse signal displaying digital bread
crumbs on the display map.

  Submission                Nowakowski- Chicago     Slide 84   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
      September 2003               Acoustic Sensor Array doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a
                                  Body Telemetry Monitors




                                                                               OEMC responds,
                                                                               sending results to
                                                                               command van and
                                                                               Fire Fighters HUD




     Acoustic Sensors capture Pulse,
                                                    MW 520 sends query to OEMC database
  Respirations, and Heart Rate and then
transmits through the Motorola XTS 5000


      Submission              Nowakowski- Chicago    Slide 85    IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003              Video Image Display                 doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a




                                                     Routing




                                                                                 SCBA Bottle Volume




   Body Telemetry




                                                      Floor Plans
Submission          Nowakowski- Chicago   Slide 86   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
September 2003                  Location Technology                        doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a




                                 Police Officers UWB
                                 Enabled Portable/Hand
                                 Held Device




       OEMC receives signal, queries Building                     OEMC transmits digital floor plan back to
       database and retrieves floor plan                          Motorola XTS 5000 and/or Hand Held Device




Submission             Nowakowski- Chicago           Slide 87   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership
  September 2003                             Digital Routing              doc.: IEEE 15-03-0537-00-004a




As the Police Officer traverses the floor plan
his Motorola XTS 5000 Digital radio transmits
a digital pulse signal displaying digital bread
crumbs on the display map.


  Submission                Nowakowski- Chicago     Slide 88   IEEE 802.15.4 Study Group ‘a’ Leadership

				
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