4. Classical civilizations

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4. Classical civilizations Powered By Docstoc
					Classical civilizations - China, India, and the
Mediterranean
                                       Foundations: c. 8000 B.C.E.–600 C.E.

Major Developments

Classical Civilizations – those with lasting influence over vast numbers

1. Political Developments
      1. Major themes
              1. Recurrent invasions from people from North
              2. Flooding a problem – how to control rivers
      2. China
              1. Zhou – 1027-771 BCE replaced Shang – mandate of heaven – rationalization
                    1. Expanded territory – added southern rice valley
                    2. further centralized gov’t
                    3. Feudal system
                             1. Too large to control
                                     1. Developed bureaucracies – bureaus - departments
                             2. Worked for couple centuries
                                     1. But nobles build up wealth/power
                                     2. Split off into individual kingdoms
                             3. Nobles given power over small regions
                                     1. King gave noble protection for loyalty
                    4. Emperors lived lives of luxury
                    5. Standardized language
                    6. Classical age
                             1. Hundreds Schools of Thought
                                     1. Philosophers – practical and metaphysical
                                     2. Wanted to see political reform
                    7. Longest lasting dynasty
                    8. Mandate of Heaven
                             1. Power as long as gods allowed
                             2. Corruption/military defeat weakened a ruler > gods no longer in favor
                    9. Lasted until 500 BCE when internal conflict – Era of Warring States
              2. Qin – after Era of the Warring States – 221-202 BCE
                    1. Shi Huangdi – “First Emperor” > dictatorial
                    2. name applied to country
                             1. Unified country by conquering warring feudal states
                                     1. Abolished feudalism
                                     2. Instituted centralized gov’t that would be model
                             2. one of briefest dynasties
                             3. Major precedents
                                     1. Strong emperor
                                     2. Large Bureaucracy
                                     3. Expanded territory to Vietnam
                             4. Defensive wall – Great Wall
                                     1. Shows empire well organized, centralized, brutal
                             5. Weights, measures, coinage standardized
                             6. Silk cloth encouraged
                             7. Established uniform laws
                     8. Legalism – state sponsored alternative to Confucianism/Taoism
                             1. People are basically evil – must be kept in line w/ strict laws
                     9. Rule cruel/autocratic
                             1. Refused to tolerate any dissent
                                     1. Dissent in book > burned
                                     2. Dissent in scholar > killed
                     10. Heavy taxes for peasants
                             1. Overburdened peasants revolted and overthrew in 207 BCE
       3. Han – 200 BCE – 220 CE
             1. Governmental bureaucracy grew stronger
                     1. Effective administration, postal service, tax-collecting
             2. Territory expanded to Central Asia, Korea, Indochina
                     1. Under Emperor Wu (140-87 BCE) expanded furthest
                             1. Wu Ti = Warrior Emperor
             3. Chinese civil service exam
                     1. Excellent communicators/highly educated
                     2. Test lasted for days
                     3. Open to everyone, but only wealthy could afford to prepare
                     4. Bureaucracy highly skilled
             4. Time of peace settled across China
                     1. Threat of Huns not as significant as in Europe
             5. Government oversaw iron production
             6. Government sponsored and maintained canals, irrigation
             7. Name “Han” still used to refer to people
             8. Main goal – unification of China
             9. Reestablished Confucian philosophy
             10. Two million ethnic Chinese moved to northwestern region to colonize imperial frontier
             11. Expanded territory west to Turkistan
             12. Internal struggles for power destabilized
             13. Taxes grew to high
                     1. Peasant uprising 184 BCE
                     2. Yellow Turbans – secret society – anti-Han support
                     3. Ended dynasty – led to Three Kingdoms
             14. Outside invaders made it tough to protect borders
             15. Similarities to Han and Roman empires
                     1. Large and powerful
                     2. Conquests plus effective administration
             16. Next 350 years state of chaos
       4. Three Kingdoms (220-265 CE) – three domains
             1. Wei – northeast
             2. Shu – west
             3. Wu – south and east
             4. Balance – two kingdoms balance out third
                     1. Wei grew more powerful – reunited in 265
3. India
       1. Aryans (1500 BCE)
             1. Lighter skinned Aryans + Darker skinned Dravidians
             2. About 600 BCE – divided into 16 states
             3. At first establish warrior aristocracy/enslaved Dravidians
       2. Maurya Empire (321-185 BCE)
             1. strong centralized
             2. Promoted trade and communication
             3. After brief period of rule Alexander the Great
                     1. 330-321 BCE
             4. Regional lord – Chandragupta Maurya
             5. Powerful military
             6. Greatest ruler – Ashoka
                     1. Successful warrior – converted to Buddhism
                     2. Turned away from military conquest
                            1. Disgusted by bloody victory over Kalinga
                                     1. Preached nonviolence/moderation
                     3. Building projects undertaken
                     4. Admired for justice and attempts to create harmony between religions
                     5. Rock and Pillar Edicts – billboards
                            1. Live generous and righteous lives
                     6. Missionaries sent out to spread Buddhism
                            1. Brahmins lost power – angered
                     7. w/ death Brahmins undermined
                            1. Buddhism pushed to fringe of empire
     3. collapsed due to attacks from outsiders
     4. large, efficient bureaucracy
             1. maintain order, collect taxes, build infrastructure
     5. Gupta Empire (320 to 550 CE)
             1. ruled through central gov’t allowed village gov’ts power
             2. Advantageous alliances and military conquests
             3. More decentralized/smaller – “golden age”
             4. Firm supporters of Hinduism
                     1. Brahmins restored to traditional role – advisors/gurus
             5. Control based on local lords
                     1. Paid tribute for local autonomy
             6. One of the more peaceful/prosperous eras
             7. Around 450 CE Northern invaders brought Gupta empire to slow end
     6. much order from caste system/Hinduism
4. Mediterranean
     1. Persian Empire – Cyrus the Great – system of provinces w/ governors
             1. Single code of laws
     2. Greece – not single political system/city-states
             1. Prevented from being united – terrain/islands
             2. Independent and competing
                     1. Needed to be militarily powerful
                     2. Civil wars plus expansion to new colonies
                     3. Constant conflict between self and outsiders
             3. polis – city-state – politics
             4. Most oligarchies – narrow, elite families
                     1. Transition to democracy gradual
                            1. Monarchy > aristocracy > democracy
                            2. Draco and Solon – fair, equal, firm laws
             5. Key city-states
                     1. Athens – democracy – others dictatorship, oligarchy
                            1. Direct democracy – male citizens – lot – general assembly
                                     1. Height under Pericles – 462-429
                            2. even with restrictions, most representative government in ancient world
                     2. Sparta – rigid, slave-holding dictatorship
                            1. most effective/feared army
             6. Persian Wars (492-479) led to Athenian dominance
                     1. Golden Age of Pericles – Delian League
             7. Followed by Peloponnesian War
                     1. Led to Greek weakening
                                    1. Open to Persian influence
                                    2. Invasion from North – Macedon – Philip II
                     8. Philip II son – Alexander the Great
                            1. 33 – exhaustion, alcoholism, fever
                            2. campaign – 40,000 troops, 20,000 miles, 3600 days
              3. Roman Republic –
                     1. Senate from patrician class, two consuls, tribunes protect interests
                     2. Most positions by aristocrats
              4. Roman Empire
                     1. Bureaucrats – civil servants
                            1. Captured areas – provinces, but a bit of self-government
                            2. Single Roman Law Code throughout
2. Major trading patterns within and among Classical civilizations; contacts with adjacent regions
      1. China
              1. Zhou
              2. Qin
                     1. silk cloth encouraged
                     2. Roads constructed
                            1. Forced labor to build thousands of miles
              3. Han
                     1. Trade along Silk Roads increased
                            1. Economy strong – monopoly of silk production
                            2. Downturn in agricultural production hurt
                            3. Trade thrived
                            4. Helped spread Buddhism
                            5. Carried far more luxury items than culture
                     2. Government sponsored and maintained canals, irrigation
      2. India
              1. Aryans
              2. Mauryans
                     1. Promoted trade and communication
                     2. Ashoka creates roads with rest areas for travelers
                     3. Roads connected with the Silk Roads
                     4. Wealthy through trade
                            1. Silk, cotton, elephants to Mesopotamia/Rome
                     5. Buddhist missionaries sent out
                            1. Angered Brahmins
              3. Guptas
                     1. Traded ideas – “Arabic” number system
      3. Mediterranean
              1. Greece
                     1. Gained wealth and power through trade/strong navy
                            1. Trade necessary because agriculture on large scale impossible
                            2. Natural harbors, mild weather
                            3. Trade and cultural diffusion by boat
                            4. Had to develop sophisticated methods of communication, transportation,
                                governance to regulate trade
                            5. Wine and olive products for grain
                            6. Replaced barter system with money system
                                    1. Money invented by Lydians
                     2. Alexander the Great
                            1. 20,000 miles – conquered Persian Empire
                                    1. Opened traded to Hellenistic world
3. Arts, sciences, and technology
1. China
       1. Zhou
              1. Iron Age
       2. Xin
              1. Modernized army
                      1. Iron weapons, crossbows, cavalry warfare
       3. Han
              1. Paper
              2. Accurate sundials/calendars
              3. Broaden use of metals
              4. Agriculture improves
                      1. ox-drawn plow
                      2. collar to prevent choking
2. India
       1. Aryans
              1. Vedas – part of Hindu scripture
              2. First transmitted orally – later recorded in Sanskrit
                      1. Sanskrit – elite language
              3. Epic Age (1000-600 BCE)
                      1. Ramayana
                      2. Mahabharata – greatest epic poem of India
                      3. Upanishads – collection of religious epic poems
       2. Mauryans
       3. Guptas
              1. Classical Age of India
              2. Supported Hinduism led to revival in Hindu art, literature, music
              3. Great temples built
              4. Fashioning iron for many uses/weapons
              5. Guptas – enthusiastic patrons of Hindu culture
              6. High towered temples
              7. Lavish wall paintings – Caves of Ajanta
              8. Growth of Sanskrit as language of educated
              9. Inoculation of smallpox
              10. Sterilization during surgery/cleaning wounds
              11. Plastic surgery/setting of bones
              12. Astronomy – eclipses – identification of planets
              13. Classic Hindu temple – courtyards, paintings, sculptures
              14. Scientific/mathematic breakthroughs
                      1. Pi, zero, decimal system
                      2. numerical system – called “Arabic” due to traders
3. Mediterranean
       1. Overview – celebration of life, human experience
       2. Served as inspiration for Renaissance and Enlightenment
       3. Greek – Golden Age – 500-350 BCE – “Periclean Age”
       4. Philosophy
              1. Truth through rational thought and deliberate observation
                      1. Many findings proved erroneous
                      2. Process, not findings that are key
              2. Precedent – seeking knowledge for its own sake – pure science
              3. Nature became focus – more orderly than gods
                      1. Truth through human examination not religious ritual
              4. Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
                      1. Rational inquiry
                      2. Socrates – seek answers by asking questions
                                    1. Be rational with moral issues
                                    2. Skeptical about conventional methods of thinking
                                    3. Tried and convicted for corrupting the youth
                                           1. Committed forced suicide
                           3. Plato – student of Socrates – wrote down his teachings
                                    1. Perfect “forms” were basis of nature
                                    2. Wrote of perfect government – philosopher kings
                                    3. Academy – 387 BCE – first higher learning institution
                           4. Aristotle – logic, observation, experimentation led to scientific method
                                    1. Need for moderation and self-knowledge
                                    2. Knowledge of physical world through observing phenomenon and drawing
                                       conclusions
             5. Sculpture/Architecture among ancient world’s finest
                    1. “Classical” architecture
                           1. Pillars and cupolas copied around the world
                           2. Geometric shapes – triangles and cylinders
                           3. US impact seen from Capitol buildings
                    2. Realistic human statues
                           1. Students of human body
                           2. Statuary survived to this day
             6. Math and science – Pythagoras
                    1. Built on knowledge of Babylonians/Egyptians
                    2. Hippocrates – diseases have only natural causes
                           1. “Father of Medicine”
                           2. First to say medicine different science than religion
                           3. Created field of medicine
                           4. Hippocratic Oath – Greek idealism
                           5. Body has four “humors” – yellow bile, black bile, phlegm and blood
             7. Literature
                    1. Homer – West’s first literary masterpieces
                           1. Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripedes
                    2. Vernacular
                           1. Herculean, read horoscopes
                    3. Comedies and tragedies
                    4. First practitioners of theater
4. Social and Gender Relations
      1. China
             1. Zhou
             2. Xin
             3. Han
                    1. Traditions reinforced through strengthened patriarchal system
                    2. Society further stratified
                           1. Elite class – educated governmental bureaucracy
                           2. Peasants
                           3. Artisans
                           4. Unskilled laborers, small number of slaves – mean people
             4. Themes
                    1. Few live in cities – less than 10%
                    2. Social hierarchy
                    3. Confucius – five basic levels of relationships
                           1. ruler/subject
                           2. father/son
                           3. elder brother/younger brother
                           4. husband/wife
                      5. friend/friend
                      6. each relationship has set of duties/responsibilities between superior/subordinate
              4. harmony the result of right conduct
              5. North – wheat, south – rice
              6. Fishing, hunting, forestry, tea growing main industries in mountain
              7. Tenant farmers – bulk of rural population – for landlords
              8. Power from court of emperor – implemented by scholar-gentry
              9. Hierarchy in Provinces
                      1. Scholar-gentry landlords
                      2. Military
                      3. Artisans
                      4. Landed peasants
                      5. Landless tenant peasants
              10. Hierarchy in Capital
                      1. Emperor, Officials, Eunuchs, Military, Artisans
              11. . When crops failed
                      1. Higher starvation, infanticide, lawlessness, peasant revolts
              12. Extended family
                      1. Call on spirits of dead ancestors – advocates with gods
              13. Extended family most influential feature
                      1. Multi-generational homes – respect to elders
                      2. Patrilineal wealth – passed down to son
                      3. Female identity extension of father/husband
                      4. Family to family network of connections
                              1. Business, social life, marriage
              14. Patriarchal – voice of authority for family – to government
                      1. Taoist – yin/yang
                              1. Assertive masculinity vs. gentle/submissive female
                      2. Women could get power in court
                              1. Favored concubine/wife
                      3. Daughters not valued as much – female infanticide
                              1. Sold as servants/slaves for debts
2. India
       1. Caste system – introduced by Aryans – migrated 1500 BCE
             1. 3000 BCE – Varna – four classes – where is soul
                     1. Brahma – priests
                     2. Warrior class
                     3. Farmer/merchant class
                     4. Laborers
                     5. Scheduled class/untouchables – outside class structure
                             1. Assigned menial jobs
             2. Birth determines occupation, traditions, social strata for spouse
       2. Tenets of Hinduism/caste maintained order
       3. Aryans
             1. Village organization – patriarchal control
             2. Customs devalued role of women
                     1. Not allowed to own property
                             1. Bound them to fathers and husbands
                                   1. Sati – women killed selves on husband’s funeral pyres
                                           1. Honor and purity to wife
                     2. More isolated/segregated – purdah
                             1. Contact w/ family members only, no public
             3. Used skin color to separate classes
                     1. New elites had darker skin than conquered people
      2. First three classes Aryans – final dark-skinned
      3. During Epic Age – warriors and priests reversed authority
4. Mauryans
5. Guptas
      1. Women saw rights diminished
             1. Declared minors in need of supervision by male
             2. Daughters neglected, infanticide
             3. Couldn’t participate in sacred rituals/study religion
             4. Couldn’t own property
             5. Child marriage became norm – girls six/seven
                     1. Due to property issues in urban area
      2. Because of strict caste division, slavery not widespread
      3. Return of Guptas solidified caste system
             1. Proliferated and evolved
                     1. Brahmin – priestly class
                     2. Kshatriya – warrior
                     3. Vaishya – producing caste
                     4. Shudra – servant caste
                     5. Harijans – untouchables
                             1. Not even a caste
                             2. Do tasks that might “pollute” Hindu culture
                             3. Waste products, butchering, carrying dead
             2. Further castes – jatil – subcastes
6. Mediterranean
      1. Slavery – Sumerians – survivors of opponents into labor
             1. Egypt – Hebrews, Sumerians, Romans – Nubia
             2. 1000 CE Islamic East Coast – trans-Saharan slave trade
                     1. children of slave could convert and be freed
                     2. female slave marries owner, freed
                     3. Muslims took slaves from conquered territory
      2. Serfdom – Middle Ages – Western/eastern Europe
             1. peasant can use plot of land in exchange for protection
                     1. worked lord’s land
      3. Greece
             1. Overall – three groups
                     1. citizens – adult males engaged in commerce
                     2. free people with no political rights
                     3. non-citizens/slaves – had no rights 33%
             2. Slavery common - excluded from political life
                     1. enabled democracy
                             1. Greek citizens time to meet, vote, create works of art and
                                philosophy
                     2. potential to move up
                             1. skilled jobs, partially owned businesses, maybe buy freedom
             3. women treated as inferior – excluded from political life
                     1. In Sparta, some girls received military training
                             1. Greatest female equality of all city-states, maybe nations
                     2. Married to men in their teens
                             1. Father choose husband, power switched to new hus
                             2. Virginity prized until marriage
                             3. Childbirth expected after wedding
                             4. Could not own property, participate in political life
                     3. Divorce only initiated by man
                     4. but…did have significant roles in religious festivals and rituals

				
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