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					Life Cycle Assessment of Existing and
   Emerging Distributed Generation
      Technologies for California

     - First California Electricity
     & Air Quality Conference –

             October 3-4, 2006


   Margaret Mann, Todd Ramsden, Todd Driver,
         Michael Whitaker, Lynnae Boyd
                                               1
Outline – Condensed Results Only


•   Purpose of study
•   LCA 101
•   Prime mover efficiency
•   Natural gas production & distribution
•   Local vs global emissions
•   Greenhouse gases
•   CHP
•   Future work
                                            2
        Purpose of Study


Provide information to policy makers on
the overall environmental impacts and
economic costs of using DG
technologies compared to conventional
power plants in California to produce
electricity
         Better decision-making
                                      3
           Phase I Technologies


•   Natural gas-fired microturbines
•   Natural gas-fired reciprocating engines
•   Natural gas-fired gas turbines
•   PV
•   WWTP anaerobic digestion
•   Natural gas combined cycle
•   Peaking units (natural gas simple cycle)
•   New coal IGCC out-of-State

                                               4
           Phase II Technologies

•   Advanced diesel ICEs
•   Dairy anaerobic digestion
•   Solid oxide fuel cells
•   Phosphoric acid fuel cells
•   Molten carbonate fuel cells
•   Biomass (small-scale gasification, spark ignition ICE)

Important: Each technology was studied independently;
  like-operations between technologies were not
  excluded

Transmission & distribution included
                                                         5
 System Concept in Life Cycle Assessment

                                     waste materials       Waste
                                                                         emissions
                          emissions                        disposal
             Extraction
             process        energy                                                     net emissions
                                                                      energy
     non-
renewable                            energy
                   raw materials                emissions       energy
   energy                                                                      emissions

                          Intermediate                 Intermediate     Process
             Process      feedstock        Process     feedstock            of
                                                                                     final product
                                                                        Interest


                                              Intermediate
                     energy                   feedstock           energy
     non-                                                                          emissions
renewable
 materials     emissions       energy                                     Extraction
                                                        raw materials
                                           Process                        process
                            emissions
                                                                                                 6
                                                              Life cycle system boundary
7
                   Major Assumptions
• Emissions from generators (AKA prime movers)
   – Average of values from literature, discarding values outside two standard
     deviations; primary reports only
   – Exception: those allowed by CARB, for 2007 (NOx, VOC, CO)
• Materials of construction
   – Central plants: LCA database, previous NREL studies
   – DG combustion units: manufacturer specs and shipping data
   – PV: literature, LCA database
• Transportation
   – Equipment: general, based on manufacturer specs and locations; average
     distance to Bakersfield
   – Natural gas: by pipeline, fraction of construction emissions based on
     amount of capacity used
   – Coal: by rail
• Fuel Acquisition
   – Natural gas: pipeline transport 4,000 km
       • Loss of 1.3% of gross amount extracted
   – Coal: Wyoming PRB                                                      8
   – Diesel: California refinery supply
                                                              Ad
                                                                va
                                                                     nc
                                                                        e    d




Coal
                                                                                 D




                                                                                                       0%
                                                                                                            10%
                                                                                                                  20%
                                                                                                                        30%
                                                                                                                              40%
                                                                                                                                    50%
                                                                                                                                          60%
                                                                                                                                                70%
                                                                                                                                                      80%
                                                                                                                                                            90%
                                                                                  ie                                                                              100%
                                                                                     s   el
                                                                                            I    C
                                                                                                  E

                                                                                     Bi
                                                                                       om




Natural Gas
                                                                                               as
                                                                                                  s




Oil
                                                                                     D
                                                                                      ai
                                                                                        ry
                                                                                                 AD




Water
                                                                                        M
                                                                                            C
                                                                                             FC


                                                                                         PA
                                          C                                                      FC
                           C               al
                                             ifo
                            om                  rn
                               bi                        ia




Carbon Monoxide
                                 ne                           Pe
                                   d                                                     SO
                       In
                         te                C                       ak
                                                                      in                         FC
                                               yc
                           gr                      le                    g
                                                        N




NOx
                             at                                              Po
                                ed                       at                    w
                                     G                     ur
                                                               al
                                                                                er
                                         as                                                 Pl
                                            ifi                   G                              an
                                               c   at                  as                          t
                                                     io                      Po
                                                       n                       w
                                                           C                    er
                                                               om




Total GHG
                                                                    bi                      Pl
                                                                       ne                     an
                                                                         d                       t
                                                                                 C
                                                                                     yc
                                                                                       le
                                          N                                                 C
                                           at                                                oa
                            N                ur                          G                     l
                             at                     al                       as
                               ur                      G                             Tu
                                     al                    as
                                        G                     - fir                     r   bi
                                            as                                                ne

Total Particulates
                                                                   ed
                                                                                                                                                                         Data Overload




                                               -fir                      M                      s
                                                    ed                       ic
                                                           R                    r    ot
                                                            ec                          ur
                                                                                           b
SOx
                                                               i   pr                          in
                                                                      oc                         es
                                                                         a   tin
                                                                                g
                                                                                      En
                                                                                            gi
NMOCs




                                                                                              ne
                                                W                                               s
                                                    W                Ph
                                                     TP                  ot
                                                                           ov
                                                              An              ol
                                                                ae               ta
                                                                                    ic
                                                                   ro                  s
                                                                     bi
                                                                        c
                                                                          D
                                                                            ig
                                                                              es
                                                                                  tio
                                                                                      n
                       9
Total Primary Energy
 Results: Prime Mover Efficiency


• When the fuel is the same, the
  efficiency of the prime mover can have
  a significant impact on emissions
  – Generator emissions
  – Life-cycle emissions, too




                                           10
         Results: Prime Mover Efficiency
Phase I - No CHP
                                                      Life-Cycle NOx Emissions (g/kWh)

 1.20



 1.00



 0.80



 0.60



 0.40



 0.20



 0.00


                                                                           38%            26%          33%
 -0.20



 -0.40
         Total System    California    Combined          Integrated    Gas Turbines   Natural Gas- Natural Gas- Photovoltaics    WWTP
                         Peaking      Cycle Natural     Gasification                      fired         fired                   Anaerobic
                        Power Plant    Gas Power        Combined                      Microturbines Reciprocating                       11
                                                                                                                                Digestion
                                          Plant         Cycle Coal                                    Engines
         Results: Prime Mover Efficiency
Phase II - No CHP
                                   Life-Cycle Carbon Monoxide Emissions (g/kWh)

 0.40



 0.30



 0.20



 0.10



 0.00


                                                                 47%              40%    48%
 -0.10



 -0.20



 -0.30



 -0.40



 -0.50
                                                                                                12
         Advanced Diesel ICE   Biomass         Dairy AD          MCFC             PAFC   SOFC
Results: Prime Mover Efficiency
                       Impact on Life-Cycle Emissions
Phase II - No CHP
                                      GHG Emissions by Life-Cycle Stage

   2000


   1500


   1000


        500


          0
g/kWh




                                                             47%             40%                  48%
    -500                                                            Generator Operations
                                                                    Equipment Manufacture
                                                                    NG Fugitive Emissions
 -1000
                                                                    Fuel Acquisition & Delivery

 -1500


 -2000


 -2500
              Advanced Diesel   Biomass       Dairy AD       MCFC             PAFC                SOFC   13
                   ICE
Results: Natural Gas Production & Delivery


  • Natural gas leaks from production and
    pipeline delivery system
  • Assumed natural gas leak rate of 1.3% of
    gross amount extracted
  • Natural gas primarily methane
  • GWP of methane = 21*CO2
  • Any technologies that use natural gas suffer
    from higher greenhouse gas emissions due to
    these leaks
  • CO emissions affected because of pipeline 14
    compression
  Results: Natural Gas Production & Delivery
Phase I - CHP
                                            GHG Emissions by Life-Cycle Stage

 1200
                                 Generator Operations
                                 Equipment Manufacture
 1000                            NG Fugitive Emissions
                                 Fuel Acquisition & Delivery


    800
g/kWh




    600



    400



    200



        0
             California    Combined       Integrated     Gas Turbines Natural Gas- Natural Gas- Photovoltaics    WWTP
             Peaking      Cycle Natural   Gasification                    fired         fired                   Anaerobic
            Power Plant    Gas Power      Combined                    Microturbines Reciprocating                      15
                                                                                                                Digestion
                              Plant       Cycle Coal                                  Engines
Results: Natural Gas Production & Delivery
 Phase I - No CHP
                                           Total Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions


  1,200


  1,000


    800
                                                                                                         CH4, g CO2-equiv/kWh
                                                                                                         N2O, g CO2-equiv/kWh
    600                                                                                                  CO2, g CO2-equiv/kWh


    400


    200


    -


   (200)


   (400)
             California     Combined        Integrated    Gas Turbines   Natural Gas-    Natural Gas-    Photovoltaics    WWTP
           Peaking Power   Cycle Natural   Gasification                      fired           fired                       Anaerobic
               Plant        Gas Power      Combined                      Microturbines   Reciprocating                   Digestion
                                                                                                                                16
                               Plant       Cycle Coal                                      Engines
Results: Natural Gas Production & Delivery
 Phase II - No CHP
                                            CO Emissions by Life-Cycle Stage

          0.4

         0.35


          0.3

         0.25

          0.2
 g/kWh




         0.15

          0.1

         0.05                                                             Generator Operations
                                                                          Equipment Manufacture
           0                                                              NG Fugitive Emissions
                                                                          Fuel Acquisition & Delivery
     -0.05

         -0.1
                Advanced Diesel   Biomass          Dairy AD        MCFC             PAFC                SOFC   17
                     ICE
Results – Local vs Global Emissions


• Some emissions have local impacts
  (e.g., CO, VOCs)
• Some emissions have global impacts
  (greenhouse gases)
• It’s important to remember that a higher
  rate of life-cycle emissions does not
  necessarily mean higher impact

                                         18
Results – Local vs Global Emissions
Phase I - No CHP
                                              CO Emissions by Life-Cycle Stage

    0.6



    0.5
                                                                                                 Generator Operations
                                                                                                 Equipment Manufacture
                                                                                                 NG Fugitive Emissions
    0.4                                                                                          Fuel Acquisition & Delivery
g/kWh




    0.3



    0.2



    0.1



        0
             California    Combined       Integrated     Gas Turbines   Natural Gas- Natural Gas- Photovoltaics    WWTP
             Peaking      Cycle Natural   Gasification                      fired         fired                   Anaerobic
                                                                                                                     19
            Power Plant    Gas Power      Combined                      Microturbines Reciprocating               Digestion
                              Plant       Cycle Coal                                    Engines
Results – Local vs Global Emissions
Phase II - No CHP
                                       CO Emissions by Life-Cycle Stage

           0.6



           0.5


                            Generator Operations
           0.4              Equipment Manufacture
                            NG Fugitive Emissions
                            Fuel Acquisition & Delivery
           0.3
g/kWh




           0.2



           0.1



            0



          -0.1
                 Advanced Diesel     Biomass              Dairy AD   MCFC   PAFC   SOFC   20
                      ICE
  Results – Local vs Global Emissions
Phase II - No CHP
                                   Total Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions


 2000


 1000


    0


-1000


-2000
                                                                                 Total GHG

-3000


-4000


-5000


-6000


-7000
                                                                                                    21
        Advanced Diesel ICE   Biomass         Dairy AD          MCFC           PAFC          SOFC
 Results – Local vs Global Emissions
Phase I - No CHP
                                          Total Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions


 1,200


 1,000


   800
                                                                                                        CH4, g CO2-equiv/kWh
                                                                                                        N2O, g CO2-equiv/kWh
   600                                                                                                  CO2, g CO2-equiv/kWh


   400


   200


   -


  (200)


  (400)
            California     Combined        Integrated    Gas Turbines   Natural Gas-    Natural Gas-    Photovoltaics    WWTP
          Peaking Power   Cycle Natural   Gasification                      fired           fired                       Anaerobic
              Plant        Gas Power      Combined                      Microturbines   Reciprocating                   Digestion
                                                                                                                                22
                              Plant       Cycle Coal                                      Engines
    Results – Greenhouse Gases

•   Global emissions – total is what matters
•   Significantly influenced by methane
•   Influenced by efficiency of prime mover
•   Influenced by natural gas losses




                                          23
              Results – Greenhouse Gases
Phase II - No CHP
                                      GHG Emissions by Life-Cycle Stage

   2000


   1500


   1000


        500


          0
g/kWh




    -500                                                            Generator Operations
                                                                    Equipment Manufacture
                                                                    NG Fugitive Emissions
 -1000
                                                                    Fuel Acquisition & Delivery

 -1500


 -2000


 -2500
              Advanced Diesel   Biomass       Dairy AD       MCFC             PAFC                SOFC   24
                   ICE
            Results – Greenhouse Gases
Phase I - No CHP
                                            GHG Emissions by Life-Cycle Stage

 1200
                                 Generator Operations
                                 Equipment Manufacture
 1000                            NG Fugitive Emissions
                                 Fuel Acquisition & Delivery


    800
g/kWh




    600



    400



    200



        0
             California    Combined       Integrated     Gas Turbines Natural Gas- Natural Gas- Photovoltaics    WWTP
             Peaking      Cycle Natural   Gasification                    fired         fired                   Anaerobic
            Power Plant    Gas Power      Combined                    Microturbines Reciprocating               Digestion25
                              Plant       Cycle Coal                                  Engines
              Results - CHP


• CHP results in avoided emissions
  – Emissions that would have occurred are
    subtracted from system emissions
• Presented: avoided natural gas combustion
  for steam generation
  – Emissions from EPA
• Prime movers with higher efficiency have
  lower potential for CHP (and lower avoided
  emissions)
                                               26
                                             Results - CHP
                                       Life-Cycle Carbon Monoxide Emissions (g/kWh)

  0.40
0.40



  0.30
0.30
                                        Without CHP
  0.20
0.20



  0.10
0.10



  0.00
0.00



  -0.10
-0.10



  -0.20
-0.20

                                                                      With CHP
  -0.30
-0.30



  -0.40
-0.40



  -0.50
-0.50
                                                                                                 27
           Advanced Diesel ICE
          Advanced Diesel ICE      Biomass
                                 Biomass           Dairy AD
                                                  Dairy AD          MCFC
                                                                   MCFC                PAFC
                                                                                      PAFC     SOFC
                                                                                              SOFC
                                      Results - CHP
Phase II - No CHP
                                     Total Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions


  2,000


  1,000


    -


 (1,000)


 (2,000)                                                                         CH4, g CO2-equiv/kWh
                                                                                 N2O, g CO2-equiv/kWh
                                                                                 CO2, g CO2-equiv/kWh
 (3,000)


 (4,000)


 (5,000)


 (6,000)


 (7,000)
                                                                                                           28
           Advanced Diesel ICE   Biomass         Dairy AD          MCFC            PAFC             SOFC
                                      Results - CHP
Phase II - CHP
                                     Total Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions


  2,000


  1,000


    -


 (1,000)


 (2,000)                                                                         CH4, g CO2-equiv/kWh
                                                                                 N2O, g CO2-equiv/kWh
                                                                                 CO2, g CO2-equiv/kWh
 (3,000)


 (4,000)


 (5,000)


 (6,000)


 (7,000)
                                                                                                               29
           Advanced Diesel ICE   Biomass         Dairy AD          MCFC            PAFC                 SOFC
                                      Results - CHP
                                     Total Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions


   2000
2000


   1000
1000


   0 0


   -1000
-1000


   -2000
-2000
                                                                       Without CHP
   -3000
-3000

                       With CHP
   -4000
-4000


   -5000
-5000


   -6000
-6000


   -7000
-7000
       Advanced Diesel ICEICE
          Advanced Diesel          Biomass
                                Biomass         Dairy AD AD
                                                    Dairy           MCFC
                                                                  MCFC              PAFC
                                                                                 PAFC
                                                                                             30
                                                                                             SOFC
                                                                                           SOFC
                     To-Do List

• Cost & cost/environmental benefit analysis
• Hybrid system
   – PV with natural gas-fired prime mover
• Energy storage
• Report(s)
   – Phase I report available shortly on PIER website
   – Phase II report due next spring

• Contact: margaret_mann@nrel.gov; 303-275-2921




                                                        31

				
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