British_Telecom_Cross_Cultural by bharathicps

VIEWS: 19 PAGES: 75

									                                                          1/9/2010




              Managerial Performance In Cross
BRITISH
TELECOM
              Cultural Environment         Case
              of BT in UK




      Submitted by | Mr ______________ Student ID ______________
                                                              Table of Contents
Abstract ......................................................................................................................................................... 5
Acknowledgement ........................................................................................................................................ 6
Chapter 1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 7
Chapter 2 Literature Review ....................................................................................................................... 12
2.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 12
2.2 Evolution of Cross cultural management .............................................................................................. 12
2.3 Culture................................................................................................................................................... 13
2.4 Managerial Performance ...................................................................................................................... 13
2.5 Cross cultural Management ................................................................................................................. 14
2.6 Dimensions of International Culture..................................................................................................... 14
   2.6.1 The Five dimensions of Hofstede in relation with UK .................................................................... 14
   2.6.2 Trompenaars Dimensions of British Culture & Other key concepts .............................................. 18
2.7 Leadership ............................................................................................................................................. 18
2.8 Organization Theory.............................................................................................................................. 20
       2.8.1 Culture and Work motivation .................................................................................................... 21
       2.8.2 Culture and Organizational commitment .................................................................................. 21
       2.8.3 Culture and psychological contracts .......................................................................................... 22
       2.8.4 Culture and Organizational Justice ............................................................................................ 22
       2.8.5 Culture and Organizational citizenship behavior ....................................................................... 22
       2.8.6 Culture and person environment fit .......................................................................................... 22
       2.8.7 Culture and Negotiation............................................................................................................. 22
       2.8.8 Culture and disputing ................................................................................................................. 23
       2.8.9 Culture and teams processes and attitudes .............................................................................. 23
2.9 Motivation............................................................................................................................................. 23
2.10 Conceptual Framework of Cultural Behaviour.................................................................................... 24
2.10 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................................... 26
Chapter 3 BT Case Study to manage Cross Cultural Challenge ................................................................. 27
3.1 British Telecom at a Glance .................................................................................................................. 27
   3.1.1 Products of BT ................................................................................................................................ 28
   3.1.2 Operations of BT ............................................................................................................................ 28
3.2 Cross Culture of British Telecom ........................................................................................................... 28

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3.3 The Challenge for British Telecom ........................................................................................................ 30
   3.3.1 Recruitment Strategy of British Telecom ....................................................................................... 30
   3.3.1.1 Equal Opportunity ....................................................................................................................... 31
   3.3.1.2 Gender ........................................................................................................................................ 32
   3.3.1.3 Supporting families ..................................................................................................................... 33
   3.3.1.4Transgender Employees............................................................................................................... 33
   3.3.1.5 Flexible Working ......................................................................................................................... 34
3.3.2 Training & Development of British Telecom ...................................................................................... 34
   3.3.2.1 Training & Development ............................................................................................................. 35
3.3.3 Business Culture at BT........................................................................................................................ 37
   3.3.3.1 Monitoring the Progress of Ethical Performance ....................................................................... 37
   3.3.3.2 Ethics Steering Committee.......................................................................................................... 37
   3.3.3.3 Policies against Harassment........................................................................................................ 38
   3.3.3.4 Respect for the Society ............................................................................................................... 39
   3.3.3.5Religion and Belief ....................................................................................................................... 39
   3.3.3.6 Cultural Understanding of Ethnic Minorities .............................................................................. 39
   3.3.6.7 Sexual Orientation ...................................................................................................................... 40
Chapter 4 Research Methodology .............................................................................................................. 41
   4.1 Introduction: ..................................................................................................................................... 41
   4.2Research Context ............................................................................................................................... 41
   4.3 Research Approach ........................................................................................................................... 42
   4.4 The Research Design ......................................................................................................................... 42
   4.4.1 Data Collection ............................................................................................................................... 43
   4.4.2 Secondary data .............................................................................................................................. 48
   4.5 Data Processing and Analysis ............................................................................................................ 48
   4.6 The validity and the reliability of the study ...................................................................................... 48
   4.7 Ethics ................................................................................................................................................. 49
Chapter 5 Data Analysis and Findings ........................................................................................................ 50
5.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 50
5.2 Summary of the Findings ...................................................................................................................... 56
5.3 Interview with Managers of British Telecom ........................................................................................ 56
Chapter 6 Conclusions and Recommendations .......................................................................................... 60

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6.1Conclusion .............................................................................................................................................. 60
6.2 Recommendation.................................................................................................................................. 63
6.3 Recommendation for Future Research ................................................................................................. 69
7.     References .......................................................................................................................................... 70
List of Figures

Figure 1 Dimension of United Kingdom                                                                                                                      14

Figure 2. Conceptual Model                                                                                                                                22

Figure 3 Age variation                                                                                                                                    30

Figure 4 diversity - Women                                                                                                                                31

Figure 5: Change Management in BT                                                                                                                        34

Figure 6: C.A.R.E.                                                                                                                                        35

Figure 7. Dismissals due to unethical practice                                                                                                            38




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                                             Abstract
The world is getting smaller with the evolution of globalization of markets. With the increasing
competition there is increasing complexity to manage the organisation. (Schneider & Barsoux,
2003) This thesis will focus :

        To provide a detailed theory about culture, its environment and the importance of cross
         culture environment and to evaluate the different dimensions of culture especially in
         United Kingdom.


The research has been based on cultural models of Hofstede (1998, 1983), Trompenaars &
Hampden-Turner (2002) and other related theories to develop the conceptual model. The study is
focusing on British Telecom Company of United Kingdom. Case study on British Telecom is
also done as part of the research process.

Findings of the employees survey are:

1.       Majority of them haven’t been pushed to accept the decisions from their managers, while
87% employees were encouraged to take risks, however 74% of the employees don’t find their
managers inspirational. Only 15% of the employees agree that their managers are innovative.

3.       More than 50% of the employees have faced gender discrimination in their workplace,

4.       Around 84% of the managers are goal oriented and give less importance to the rules and
regulations.

Interview has also been conducted with the manager to understand the company’s approach
towards cultural diversity. Recommendation have been presented for the managers to manage
cross cultural problems like Social Learning Theory, Compunction Theory or Contact Theory
models.




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                                    Acknowledgement

It was a good learning experience and I have gained a lot during this engagement. I would like to
sincerely thank all who have supported me in my endeavor during the entire research process.

First of all I would like to express my wishes for my supervisor Mr
_________________________ for helpful guidance, support and time and unforgettable
opportunity to work with him.

I would like thank all the employees who have contributed towards the research process, along
with the three Managers of British telecom who has given ample support to finish this research
on time.

I appreciate the kind support of my family and friends.



Mr    _________________________

Student ID: ________________________




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Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 Introduction
   This chapter mainly concentrates on providing a clear overview of the topic of research in
   brief. The main reasons and the background of the research and the main rationale to study
   the topic are actually being discussed under this topic in the first half. Later in this chapter
   the various objectives of the research and the various questions of the research are actually
   explained and discussed. The limitations of the study and the structure of the study are also
   actually being discussed under this chapter which together with the other chapters provides
   a clear summary of the study that is going to be adopted.


1.2 Research Context
   The managerial practices have been specific to specific regions in the past. But with the
   evolution of globalization the markets have been expanding across markets without any
   border and the world as a whole is becoming as one single market. With the markets are
   expanding the businesses and hence the competition. Though the businesses are diversified
   the businesses remain unique in their nature. But it is not the case with the managerial
   practices of the businesses as they practice diversified managerial practices across various
   countries. The universality of the management practices has been very less among the
   expanding businesses which lead to the change in the local practices to adopt the national
   practices. There are still organizations which are expanding into new markets and are facing
   problems with adopting the new cultural practices of the country into which they have
   expanded. The managerial performances across these countries have been much localized
   and adopting these has become a big issue for the multinational organizations. Because of the
   localized and country specific nature of the managerial practices that are being adopted in the
   markets it has become difficult for the mangers or the leadership team to adopt the local
   nature of the businesses and the local nature of management practices in various countries.
   Strong relationships are though present between the leadership practices and the performance
   of the businesses in various countries. (Trompeaars & Turner, 2000) With the diversification
   of the businesses and the difference in the cultures it has become essential for the businesses
   to understand the nature of the cultures which could directly or indirectly affect or impact the


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   businesses over the years. Business organizations necessarily have to put some money in
   their research on the issue of the cross cultural differences across countries which could help
   the organizations in performing better management and leadership practices across the new
   countries and regions to which they move into. (Tayeb, 2003)
1.3 Rationale of the study
   This topic on managerial performance of the businesses across the countries and cross
   cultural parameters is mainly to watch, observe, study and understand the various issues that
   are faced by the multinational organizations. (Hofstede, 1998) This study conducted mainly
   to understand the various problems and issues that are being faced by the major organizations
   during their venture into the new country and how this affects the actual businesses. The
   employees are tougher to deal with and when it comes to a management organization and
   hence proper practices have to be established for the same. For the purpose of this project a
   multinational organization or a company would be considered in this case it is actually
   British Telecom (www.bt.com). This company is being considered for the study because it is
   one such company which has established a relation between the management practices and
   the cross cultural differences that are being faced by various organizations. The employees in
   any given organization are actually being treated fairly and are more prone to have originated
   with their own cultures and not with the culture of the home country. A proper study on the
   various perspectives of the business and the various issues and problems faced by the
   organizations would help us in understand the managerial performance in a better way and
   hence would help the organization in understanding the same when they cross the borders.


1.4 Research objectives
      To provide a detailed theory about culture and the importance of cross culture

       environment

      To evaluate the different dimensions of culture and its affect on the managerial

       performance.

      To examine the interrelationship of any organization and its cultural environment using

       different available theories.


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      To evaluate the cultural strategy used by the British managers under cross cultural

       environment.



1.5 Research Questions
   There are various research questions based on which the research objectives were derived
   upon and these research questions could be found below. This research paper is being
   derived mainly based on the various research questions that are being used in this study. The
   four research objectives which are in the previous section actually evolve from one specific
   research question. Hence there are about four research questions to which four research
   objectives have been formed.
          What is culture and cross culture environment?
          What are the different dimensions of culture and how it is related to the performance
           of the managers?
          How any organization is affected by the culture ?
          What are the important qualities that make up a good manager and how it is managed
           by the firm British telecom?


1.6 Limitations
   -   The most important limitation and which should be considered as a priority is the effect
       of the cultural factors on the various countries and their difference from one to the other
       which is a majority.
   -   The second main limitation is that a very less number of individuals are actually being
       chosen to whom the questionnaires would be given from the chosen organization. This
       will not be applicable to other organizations as these studies the cross cultural differences
       between the organizations from one country to the other.
   -   This study also does not concentrate on the various differences between the attitudes of
       the people which are not culturally affected but individually.
   -   There could a country specific data which is got by the research in that particular country
       which cannot be applied in any other country as the research is done in specific countries.
       (Kelvin, 1992; Rajgopalan., Sattanathan, 2009)

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1.7 Structure
    The study is being classified under five different chapters for the ease of understanding of the
    project. Each chapter in this study would actually concentrate on a particular segment of
    study which would be described.
1. The first chapter is the introduction which mainly concentrates on providing a brief summary
    of the topic of research and how the research topic would be handled in the paper. The
    various reasons for conducting this research and the rationale for the study of the topic are
    also being provided under this topic of study. This is actually being followed with the
    research objectives and research questions which drives the whole thesis. Following these are
    present the various limitations of the business which provides us an understanding of where
    the research is applicable and where the research is actually not applicable. This is then
    followed by structure which actually provides us an understanding of how this research paper
    would be designed and structured and which chapters would be classified under which topic
    of study.
2. This is the followed by the literature review with an introduction to cross cultural differences.
    Then the cross cultural differences and the management practices in the cross cultural
    environment would be discussed. The evolution of the cross cultural management practices
    and the various characteristics of the cross cultural issues would be discussed. The various
    factors which influence the management like leadership, motivation, different dimensions of
    cultural study will be discussed with relation to other researchers. This chapter aims to
    present a conceptual framework which will help in the collection of primary data for the
    thesis.
3. The third chapter focuses on the company British Telecom and will evaluate the company, as
    to how the managers working inside the company are handling the cross cultural challenges.
4. The fourth chapter would mainly describe the research methodology that is actually being
    adopted for the study. The research strategy and the method of data collection and data
    analysis would also be discussed under this chapter. The validity of the research and the
    reliability of the research would also be provided along with the questionnaire which will be
    used for this thesis.
5. The fifth chapter present the data analysis of the primary data



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6. This chapter presents the conclusion and recommendations on the basis of the findings of the
    research.




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Chapter 2 Literature Review


2.1 Introduction
    This chapter would mainly concentrate on providing a brief literature review of the cross
    cultural management and managerial performance. The first part would discuss the
    evolution of cross cultural management in the world which is followed by various thoughts
    on culture from the authors and research specialists. Then the managerial performance in
    the organizations would be discussed followed by a discussion on cross cultural
    management. The key value concepts in United Kingdom will be discussed followed by the
    four dimensions of cross cultural management. Then the relationship of an organization to
    cross cultural management would be discussed followed by the relationship of motivation to
    cross cultural management which would later end up with a conclusion which would have a
    summary of all that has been discussed in the topic.




2.2 Evolution of Cross cultural management
        The management has been in existence since a long time and it was not aware of any
    cultural differences and continued to be the same over a long period. But later came, the
    differences in the implementations of the decisions that were practiced by the managers,
    which actually led to the diversity in the managerial functions according to Jackson &
    Schhuler (2003). During the mid 1960s there was an economic breakthrough in the Asian
    countries which has been the starting point for cross cultural management studies. The Asian
    countries were considered to be under developed and over populated. But of late Asian
    business organizations emerged as leading business units which lead to the studies in cross
    cultural management (Usunier, 1998). According to Barrett and Bass (1976), the culture was
    largely ignored by the organizational behavior and organizational management people.
    Hence the culture research studies which already exist are mostly not clear, atheoritical, very
    descriptive and are actually plagued by many methodological problems. Hofstede (1983)
    states that only in the 1980s that the culture has gained significant importance in the
    organizational behavior management with the introduction of cultural typologies.



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2.3 Culture
    Hofstede (1998) considers the culture as a source of conflict and not as a source of synergy
    and according to him the cultural differences are usually nuisances and disasters. He also
    states that culture is actually a collective programming of the minds which makes a
    distinction between the members of one group to the other. It is also the interactive aggregate
    of various characters that are common to one particular human group and its members and
    how they react to the environment which is present around them. It is actually software
    which is present in the human minds (Hofstede, 2001,1998). Schein a management scholar
    defines culture as a “set or a group of basic assumptions which provides shared solutions to
    various universal issues and problems of how to survive and how to stay together during
    difficult times.” This has actually evolved over time and the culture is actually being
    provided from one generation to the other generation. (Schneider & Barsoux, 2003)


2.4 Managerial Performance
        The businesses are growing across borders globally as the world is getting smaller and
    one individual common market. This is resulting in the development of various businesses
    across borders and hence in the globalization of the businesses and business strategies. There
    are big challenges and bigger responsibilities that have to be handled by the organizations
    over the years by the businesses which are actually expanding in nature. (Koster, 2009) This
    requires the managers to understand the business by proper research and management
    techniques about the cross cultural nature of the business and the management. The
    performance of individuals and individual managers is actually counted, evaluated and
    supported by the higher management authorities in the organization and the managers are
    actually evaluated on the basis of various disciplines, likes, beliefs and attitudes apart from
    sociology and psychology according to Tayeb (2003).
    The international businesses are growing, expanding and developing very rapidly. (Hofstede,
    1998, 1983; Sloma, 2002; Tung 2000) But it is still bad to see that many organizations are
    not actually handling management responsibilities by adopting the cross cultural theories.
    There are many immediate requirements for the firms to handle diverse activities across
    borders. The success of a business depends on the understanding of cultures of the new
    countries across borders and across continents. The performance management is one such


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    factor which actually concentrates on the improvement of organizational performance and
    individual employees’ performance which is actually taken care of by the managers. There is
    a necessity for the organizations to maintain proper cross cultural management techniques
    and values which could result the success of the business according to Sloma (2002).


2.5 Cross cultural Management
    According to Neelankavil et.al (2000) for a successful implementation of cross cultural
    management it requires the businesses to “knowing thyself”. According to him there are three
    self motives based on which the cross cultural management is designed upon. The first is the
    self enhancement which helps a manager to create positive self image and remove the
    inferiority complex of the organizations. The second relative motive is the self growth which
    actually provides the confidence to face challenges and troubles which actually happens
    during the businesses. The third one is the self consistency which is actually the desire which
    is being created to balance all the aspects of the businesses.
    Taveb (2003) describes that cross cultural management has evolved and emerged simply
    from focusing on the cultural adaptation to the already existing management skills and
    practices by understanding the skills, goals and adaptation of various processes. The cross
    cultural management is one of the skills which actually should be valued and utilized by the
    cultural differences to be successful and this is actually considered to be closely related to
    international human resource management according to Tung (2000).


2.6 Dimensions of International Culture
        This section will study the cultural dimensions suggested by Hofstede (1998,1983) and

        Trompenaars, Hampden-Turner (2000).

2.6.1 The Five dimensions of Hofstede in relation with UK
    Hofstede (1983,1998) classifies the cross cultural segments and the factors affecting them on
    the basis of five dimensions as they appear to be actually occur in very close combinations
    but all these dimensions are actually independent of each other. He classifies the five
    dimensions as follows.
               a. Individualism vs Collectivism


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               b. Strong or weak uncertainty avoidance
               c. Large or small power distance and
               d. Masculinity vs femininity
               e. Long Term Orientation vs Short Term Orientation

        a. Individualism vs Collectivism

        Individualism and collectivism both depends on the ties between the relationships that is
        actually either strong or loose. The stronger the ties between the relationships and
        collectivism the more is the collectivism. On the other hand if the ties between the
        relationships and the societies are very loose it incubates individualism which makes the
        individuals to take more risks as compared to the collectivist groups. This is measured by
        Individualism index (IDV) (Hofstede, 1983)

        Britain is more individualistic country with score of 89, where nuclear family is more
        predominant. It states the dimension where the individuals focus on personal time,
        freedom or challenge. This correlates with the power distance as well, people from low
        power distance are less dependent on their superiors and others. (Hofstede, 1991)

        b. Strong or weak uncertainty avoidance

        The ability of the society or the people of the society towards taking risks and handling
        times of contingencies are called as the uncertainty avoidance behavior. The higher the
        ability of the people in a society to take risks, the higher would be the uncertainty
        avoidance of that particular system. Similarly if the risk taming ability of the people or
        the individuals in the society is very less, then the ability to avoid times of contingencies
        and uncertainties is very less or weak. This is measured by Uncertainty Avoidance Index
        (UAI) (Hofstede, 1983)

        Most of the managers in Britain are at ease when it comes to risk and uncertain
        situations as the score is 35 which is quite low, so they open for change and dealing with
        risks. Like implementation of CRM in a country like Britain will be more easy to get
        results than Italy which scores 75 and people find it hard to change or take risk.(Tixier,
        1994; Suutari & Brewster, 2001) Therefore authoritative decision making and leadership


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        style is successful as uncertainty is reduced when someone else takes the decision
        making. (Rodrigues, 1997)

        c. Large or small power distance

        The power distance is mainly based upon the inequalities in power and wealth and
        physical and intellectual capacities in a given nation. The more the inequality between the
        individuals for power, the more is the power distance. Similarly if there is a more
        equality among the people for power the lesser is the power distance. This is measured by
        Power Distance Index (PDI) (Hofstede, 1983) Low Power distance country is Australia
        and Britain. High Power Distance is India, Mexico or Korea (Salmon, 2010)

        Britain is a low power distance country (scores 35) and people are less dependent, and
        relationships between the superiors and subordinates is relatively casual and establishes
        little ceremony. However Hofstede (1991) did find that even in low power distance
        countries, that for manual or unskilled jobs did require more authority from their
        supervisors, and only when you move up the scale the power distance was more
        applicable.




        Figure 1. Dimension of United Kingdom (www.geert-hofstede.com, 2010)

        d. Masculinity vs femininity

        This is the fourth dimension of the Hofstede classification of the dimensions. This is
        actually based on the division of the roles for the genders in the society. The dominant
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        gender in a society which is more assertive as well can be called as a masculine society
        while those countries which has a relatively small division for the social sex role is
        classified as a feminine society. The values such as just showing off, achieving
        something, performing, making money etc. are the main characteristics for the evaluation
        of this dimension based on which the societies are classified into masculine and feminine
        genders. This is measured by Masculinity score (MAS) (Hofstede, 1983)

        Great Britain is considered as a masculine society (score of 66, somewhere in middle)
        where recognition, promotion, challenge have great importance, where as countries like
        Finland is more nurturing feminine country where employment society, co-operation are
        more desirable. So in workplace the compromise and negotiation is done with a high
        level of unionization in countries like Finland, however countries like Britain don’t rely
        on unions and feel that it is interference, however stronger union influence has been
        experienced from workers (expatriates from other countries). (Hofstede, 1998). The
        feminine culture excels at service industries due to the nurturing nature needed for the clients to
        feel wanted, welcomed and comfortable. India ranks 61 when the world average is 48, so they
        are parsimonious and perseverant ;       the customer care division of Barclays and other big
        organizations due to feminine culture approach of the country.   (Salmon, 2010)

        e.     Long term Orientation vs Short Term Orientation

        This fifth dimension was added later after conducting an additional international survey
        from the questionnaire developed by Chinese scholar done on 23 countries. The values
        attached to the long term are thrift and perseverance, which deals with the virtue
        regardless of the truth. The values of short term orientation are respect for tradition,
        fulfilling social obligation and protecting once’s face. (Hofstede, 1998)

        Britain has short term orientation (scores 20) and people look for quick results. They do
        the assignments at the last minute and live for the present. (Sloma, 2002)The people spend
        much money during the weekends like in bars or socializing and work for another week
        for more money, as experienced by the researcher. The rent is also paid per week and in
        countries like India rent and salary is paid per month and no concept of per week exists.
        China has the highest ranking and it describes the time perspective and that is
        overcoming obstacles with time , if not by will or strength. (Salmon, 2010)

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2.6.2 Trompenaars Dimensions of British Culture & Other key concepts


    i)         Indirectness: As English are famous for their politeness and courtesy, the direct
               questions does receive evasive responses and more attention should be paid to tone of
               voice & facial expressions, to get the true meaning of the conversation.
               (www.communicaid.com, 2010)
    ii)        Stiff upper lip: In British culture open displays of emotion either +ve or –ve should
               be avoided. So the businessmen in UK will approach with formality and detachment.
               (www.communicaid.com, 2010)
    iii)       Humour: A vital element of British life & culture is British sense of humour. It is
               used as a defense mechanism or irony. (www.communicaid.com, 2010)
    iv)        Neutral Dimension: According to this neutral dimension, the British suppress the
               direct display of feelings and tend to be polite and reserved when doing business.
               (Trompenaars, Hampden-Turner, 2000)
    v)         Universalism: Equal opportunity exists for individuals and its termed illegal to select
               candidates belonging to family or friends category as UK is a universalist nation.
               (Trompenaars, Hampden-Turner, 2000)
    vi)        Specific oriented: The managers keep the business and personal agendas separate
               and don’t mix the two. Even if they meet outside of the office but this doesn’t affect
               the business relations. (Koster, 2009)
    vii)       Achievement related society: In this country the person having knowledge is
               respected & rewarded and it doesn’t matter where or whom he is connected which is
               common in countries like Nepal. (Koster, 2009)
    viii)      Individualistic society: This is similar to the dimension described by Hofstede
               (1998) and Britain has individualistic patterns however with the immigration of lot of
               foreign students and employees, the work culture in any workplace is mixed rather
               than perfectly individualistic or collective in approach. (Koster, 2009)


2.7 Leadership
The organizational excellence of a business unit or a company purely depends on the leadership
natures of the managers and the leadership management team. (Hofstede, 1998) It is also

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essential to understand that not every individual is capable of performing well in a cross cultural
environment and hence it is essential for the individuals to adapt to the new leadership styles that
are actually being practiced in the new environment either the organization or a society.
Leadership is one of the essential factors and ingredient that contributes to the success or the
failure of the business in a new culture or a new environment or a new society. (Kotler, 2001)

The leadership in major cultures is more dependent on various factors such as styles, norms, the
expectation of roles and tradition which govern the relationships among various individuals and
members of the society according to Gelfand (2000). Also he believes that these are some of the
very few factors which on the other hand are also strong determinants of effective leadership in a
country or a new environment. Further he states that something which makes and constitutes a
good leader in one country and one environment does not make a good leader or constitute a
good leader in a different country and a different environment. Some cultures prefer a leader who
takes in of the situations while some other cultures prefer a leader to provide the role of handling
the situation to the subordinates. It actually varies with the culture and the community. For
different people and for different communities, for different cultures and for different societies
leadership varies according to their perception. In some countries it just might mean that a person
who leads is the leader while in some other countries a person who guides the subordinates is a
leader and hence a manager going to that particular country should take care of such
environments and such situations. (Sloma, 2002)

According to Koster (2009), leadership is one which actually exists in all the societies and this
leadership helps various organizations within these societies to function successfully. But
however the attributes which are the most characteristic of the leaders could actually change
from one society to the other and from one culture to the other.

Other important quality suggested by Schwalbe (2009) are a skills to handle people, long term
and short term goals and inspire others to work.

In essence the effective international leader must be multidimensional, he must possess the
ability to be innovator, implementer or pacifier as it requires different leadership skills to handle
different situation. For example, like a CEO has to apply pacifier leadership behavior when
dealing with marketing manager and implementer leadership behavior when dealing with


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financial manager and innovative behavior when dealing with production managers. So the
leaders must possess the ability to conceive new ideas and implement them like Alfred Sloan Jr.
was able to implement the new organizational structure at General Motors (Ali and Ali, 1992)


2.8 Organization Theory
Culture is one of the most common words that is being used by the organizations and companies.
Culture in an organization can be classified into two kinds namely the internal culture and the
external culture. Both the internal culture of an organization and the external culture of the given
organization vary from one country to the other and from one society to the other where different
practices are being practiced for different needs (Avruch, 1996). According to Tayeb (2003) the
organizational behavior of an organization hugely depends on the cross cultural nature of the
country and the organization, where they operate. The culture is closely related to many of the
organizational behavior phenomena such as micro phenomena, meso phenomena and macro
phenomena which are wound up closely and are interrelated.

    i.         Micro organizational phenomenon encompasses factors such as motives, cognitions
               and emotions.
    ii.        Meso organizational phenomena encompass of various factors such as the teams,
               leadership practices and the negotiation skills.
    iii.       Macro organizational phenomena which consists of various behavioral and
               performance factors such as organizational culture, structure of the organization etc.
               Also apart from working alone these phenomena work together and are closely
               interrelated with each other.

(Tung, 2000; Sloma, 2002)

Culture in any given organization and in any given country and in any given society is closely
related to various organization phenomena. The various factors in the culture could be classified
into the following types.

                  a. Culture and Work Motivation
                  b. Culture and Organizational commitments
                  c. Culture and psychological contracts

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               d. Culture and Organizational Justice
               e. Culture and Organizational citizenship behavior
               f. Culture and person environment fit
               g. Culture and Negotiation
               h. Culture and disputing
               i. Culture and teams processes and attitudes

(Gelfand & Brett, 2004)

2.8.1 Culture and Work motivation
The work motivation in a culture largely depends on the various personal and situational factors
across various cultures. Personal motives such as need for achievement, self efficacy, intrinsic
needs etc. though are considered as universal motives the factors that drive these universal
motives vary from one culture to the other. Control could be personal or collective and it
depends on the nature of the culture which might be either individualist or collective in nature
(Yamaguchi et. al 2005). The motivation of achievement varies from one culture to the other
though it is considered to be stronger in individualist cultures as compared to the collectivist
cultures according to Sagie et. al (1996). It is also necessary to mention that if positive results are
obtained from work it is actually the result of a collective effect and not an individual effort.

There are also intrinsic motives to the organizational behavior which varies from one culture to
the other namely autonomy, competence, relatedness etc. Promotion motives and prevention
motives also change with the culture and the society according to Gelfand & Brett (2004). The
goals, feedback, reward, job satisfaction, job characteristics are also other factors which are
hugely affected by the cultural differences from one country to the other.

2.8.2 Culture and Organizational commitment
The organizational commitment is a key factor for the behavior of the individuals in an
organization and the level of commitment varies from one culture to the other. According to
Meyer et. al. (2002) a normative commitment is very strongly associated with the perception of
the organizational support that is being provided and a loosely related to the perceived support in
the organization which is actually being provided by the leadership team or the higher
management authorities.



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2.8.3 Culture and psychological contracts
In all the cultures there are psychological contracts which are mutually designed by the
employers and the employees according to Rousseau (1989). Though the psychological contracts
exist in various cultures these contracts usually differ from one culture to the other (Rousseau &
Schalk, 2000).

2.8.4 Culture and Organizational Justice
According to Schneider and Barsoux (2003) the individualistic cultures preferred equity the
most while the collectivist cultures and countries preferred equality to equity. Also according to
them the equality is very much important when they are in situations also with the in- group
members. The power distance varies hugely from one culture to the other according to Fisher and
Smith (2003) and this contributes to the individualist and collective nature of the cultures which
in turn leads to organizational justice in a given organization.

2.8.5 Culture and Organizational citizenship behavior
The additional role of an employee working with an organization is called the citizenship
behavior and this behavior varies across various cultures. According to Meyer et. al. Normative
commitments to an organization is closely related to organizational citizenship behavior of that
particular culture. According to Van Dyne et. al. (2000) the organizational self- esteems is one
other factor which leads to improve the citizenship behavior of the employees from one country
to the other.

2.8.6 Culture and person environment fit
According to Tung (2000) there is a close relationship between various organizational
characteristics to personal characteristics of individuals. Individuals are more prone to be
attracted to an organization which fits them the most and hence the commitment levels might
also vary from one organization to the other for an individual.

2.8.7 Culture and Negotiation
Negotiation according to Gelfand & Dyer (2000) is actually the cognitive responses of the
people and the representation of the conflicts. Different strategies are actually used at different
stages of negotiation in different cultures according to Fisher and Smith (2006). Even the
bargaining tactic vary from one culture to the other and from one country to the other according
to Gelfand and Barrett (2004). Like Hofstede (1998) managers in feministic society prefer
negotiations rather than arguments.

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2.8.8 Culture and disputing
The processes of resolving conflicts might vary from one country to the other hugely. Oon
(1998) has classified the resolution that is used in different countries into three major type’s
namely direct confrontational model, regulative model and a harmony model. Those countries
which use the direct confrontational model are individualistic in nature and hence in these
cultures the conflicts are solved using the expertise and the training that one person has with the
other (Smith et. al. 1998). Avoidance and withdrawal and non confrontational strategies are
characteristics of collectivist countries when a dispute arises according to Salama (2003).
However avoidance could also vary from one country to the other and from one culture to the
other. The avoidance could mean a lack of concern for others or concern for others within the
work environment.

2.8.9 Culture and teams processes and attitudes
The employee values are a huge contributor to the performance of the teams and resistance to the
teams. Self management in teams is related to the power distance in a team, the being-
orientation and attitude of the employee and the determination of the employee in the team.
Collectivism and doing orientation are closely related to the doing attitude of the team while
individualism leads to a higher resistance in the teams and this also varies from one culture to the
other. (Gelfand & Brett, 2004)


2.9 Motivation
Motivation is one important factor which could keep intact the employees of an organization and
their attachment or resistance to the teams. (Hofstede, 1998; Henin et.al,2001; Brett, 2001) The
individualist countries vary from the collectivist countries as the motives behind the work nature
of the employees varies from one organization to the other. In individualist countries the
employees work for personal needs while in the collectivist countries the employees work to
attain satisfaction by achieving targets in turn to get recognition to the work what they have
done. Personal feedback is affected by self efficacy in the individualist countries while group
feedback is actually affected by self efficacy in collective countries according to Early et. al
(1999). Collective cultures are more interdependent amongst the work groups and work teams
while individualist cultures are more independent from one country to the other according to
Henin et. al (2001).


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2.10 Conceptual Framework of Cultural Behaviour
On the basis of the above theories and models presented by the previous researchers, a
conceptual model has been developed in the next This will help to analyse the BT firm and how
the managers are adapting to the cross culture challenges which is affecting major decision areas
and important to understand the customer behavior during launch of any product, to take
informed        decision        while        working         in       international       teams.




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               Figure 2. Proposed Conceptual Model




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2.10 Conclusion
     After the detailed studies by Hofstede (1998, 1983), Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner
     (2002) and other related theories the conceptual model has been developed which compiles
     the 5 dimesions from Hofstede and Trompenaars dimensions which affect the decision
     making process and thus managerial performance of the managers. Other factors which
     affects the performance are the attitudes, likes, beliefs, disciplines etc given by Tayeb
     (2003) which are focused at the individual level rather than at a cultural level as presented
     by Hofstede or Trompenaars (2000). The role of skills and inspiration to achieve the targets
     of the company has been suggested by Schwalbe (2009) which also focuses on the personal
     qualities of the managers. Leadership skills of an individual has been well acknowledged by
     Hosftede (1998), Kotler (2001), Ali and Ali (2002) which contributes to make a better
     manager. Motivation to succeed and making an individual to perform at his best in a
     collective or individualistic society can’t be ignored as been pointed by Brett (2001), Henin
     et al (2001)
     These variable will help to design the questionnaire and interview , to generate the primary
     data for the thesis.




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Chapter 3 BT Case Study to manage Cross Cultural Challenge

This chapter has mainly been added into this dissertation to actually bring about a clear

understanding of the cross cultural context of British Telecom and various ways the company is

implementing to manage the cultural challenge. The employees of the organization were also

identified and interviewed to understand the requirements of the business and hence to arrive the

conclusion at the end of this chapter.




                     3.1 British Telecom at a Glance

British Telecom is a United Kingdom based company which mainly deals with the

telecommunication services. This company is amongst the largest organizations in the world in

terms of fixed telephony providing and as a communication companies. British telecom is

considered to be one of the global companies as it operates in over 170 countries across the

world. British Telecom operates with employee strength of over 78,000 people in United

Kingdom alone apart from employing about 18000 people abroad. With a long history of over

150 years the company has the reputation of one of the leading companies which provides

quality services to the customers. With an annual turnover of about 21.39 Billion pounds the

company is a very huge company in the world. British telecom is one company which mainly

depends upon the basic management principles such as the governance, ethics and values. The

BT is actually considered to be the oldest telecommunications company of the world. The first

telegraph service in the world commercially was actually developed be British telecom. The

company is present throughout the world. The company has a logo which actually reflects the

various aspirations about the technologically innovative future. (www.bt.com, 2010)

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British Telecom plc is one company which is actually a completely owned subsidiary of the BT

group which apart from the telecommunication business is present in all other businesses. The

company is also listed in the London Stock Exchange apart from the New York Stock Exchange.

(www.bt.com, 2010)


3.1.1 Products of BT

The BT is primarily into the business of fixed line phones and internet service providing which

makes it as one of the largest communication companies in the world. This company mainly runs

many telephone exchanges, various trunk networks and many local loop related connections to a

majority of the fixed line telephones that are present in the United Kingdom. About 28 million

telephone lines are provided by BT in the United Kingdom which includes the maintenance

services as well. (www.bt.com, 2010)


3.1.2 Operations of BT

The British Telecom is a company which is into various businesses under one group namely the

BT Group Plc. Currently BT runs many telephone exchanges and various other fixed line

telephone based services in United Kingdom. The company is providing services to over 28

million telephone services in UK. It is also required to provide services to all the addresses in

United Kingdom which comes under the Universal Service Obligation apart from providing

public call box services.



3.2 Cross Culture of British Telecom

BT is considered to the most famous and important companies which, with its wide presence in

the United Kingdom and over 170 countries in the world has set up its benchmark for dealing



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with the cross cultural differences in the country and among its employees. The company

operates mainly on the basis of the various managerial factors such as the discipline of the

employees of the company, the beliefs of the employees of the organization, their attitudes and

various likes and dislikes, and the sociology and psychology in the organization. And all these

factors are mainly involved in the implementation of management and the evaluation of the

managerial performance in the organizations. (www.bt.com, 2010)


Hofstede’s contribution to the cross cultural studies acts as one of the important and major

factors in understanding the cultural requirements of the business. (Sloma, 2002) The culture of

the business varies from one country to the other and from one society to the other. (Brett, 2001)

Each employee of the organization from the same country from different countries practices

various values and has different beliefs which bring about a cultural difference amongst them.

(Ali and Ali, 2002) As an organization it is essential for the British Telecom to understand the

various differences amongst the individuals in terms of their behaviour and belief and value

those differences.


The managerial performance is not only understood by the knowledge of disciplines and beliefs.

But on the other hand it is also essential to understand that the various requirements of the

businesses are also satisfied by understanding the psychology and sociology of the people or the

colleagues with whom the others are working. (Koster, 2009)The management of BT has taken

drastic steps to handle the cross cultural challenges, ranging from Equal opportunity, Gender

indiscrimination, transgender support, support for ethnic community, respect for religion, non-

biased recruitment regardless of age, gender, belief or orientation, training & development of

the employees.



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3.3 The Challenge for British Telecom

With the privatization of the company it became essential for the company to actually expand

into various markets to be more profitable and to grow as a leader of the telecommunication

services which helps the organization in growing from one step to the other. There were various

challenges that have been put forth to the organization while moving into new markets that made

it essential for the organization to improve the performance of the managers and the employees.


3.3.1 Recruitment Strategy of British Telecom

The biggest challenge for any company is to find the right candidate to work for them with right

skills and education. The employers can expect the following changes:


    a) Because of overall shortage of labor, employers can no longer be as selective as in years

        past, when they could find the right candidate.

    b) Employers can no longer rely on traditional forms of recruitment such as word by mouth

        to find an ideal candidate.

    c) As the % of women, minorities, immigrants, senior citizens or disabled are increasing the

        employers must extend the fair thinking for recruitment beyond the current minimal

        standards.

    d) Since the growing technology and economy requires higher level of skills, so greater

        emphasis must be placed on training and development.

        (Hogan & Say, 1994; Koster, 2009)




Now this section will analyze the British Telecom recruitment strategy which caters the cultural

dimensions of the recruitment and well suited for in the multi-cultural environment


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3.3.1.1 Equal Opportunity



a. The company is an equal opportunity employer and the company made is very clear that

everyone has the same opportunity for employment and promotion based on their qualification,

talent and skills.

b. The company makes sure that every job applicant or worker will receive fair treatment

regardless of gender, age, race, religious belief, disability or civil partnership, gender expression,

or sexual orientation or caring habits.

c. BT encourages the recruitment, development and retention of the disabled employees. The

firm guarantees to conduct the interview of even the disabled applicants who passes the

minimum criteria to fill any vacancy.

d) The company work against age stereotypes, where Young are immature and aged people lack

ideas or motivation, which can lead to wrong appointments or promotions. The company has

30% of workforce above 50yrs and no fixed retirement age.

e) The company conducts programs like Wealth at Work to prepare people for retirement by

educating them on pension related issues like state benefits, pension entitlements, taxation or

investments.

f) For younger workers programs like Graduate Alumni and Apprentice programs are available.

(BTPLC, 2010a)




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Figure 3. Age Variation in Recruitment of BT (British Telecom, 2010a)



g) BT is a member of Employers Forum of Disability (EFD) and ranked first in 2009 by scoring

97% against sector average of 57%. The company has helped 500 BT employee by making

reasonable adjustments in their job. The company works with Remploy to help people with

disabilities to overcome illness or injury. Similarly the company caters   the customers by

introducing easy to use products an services.(British telecom, 2010a)


3.3.1.2 Gender

The company makes sure that both genders they have equal opportunity at work place. The

company has 21.8% as women , 20.18% as team members whil24.45% as managers. The BT

Women's Network supports women to gain the best potential by providing coaching, mentoring

to the women.

The company got Premier Employers Award in 2009 by Opportunity Now and was among

premier top 50 company where the ladies want to work. (British Telecom, 2010)




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                              Figure 4. Diversity -Women Employees (BTPLC, 2010b)




3.3.1.3 Supporting families

The company supports team building by introducing guidance for employees going through IVF

treatment and how they can help their colleagues. Also saving on the cost of childcare by £1000

along with the flexible working options has been started by BT to inculcate family culture.

(BTPLC, 2010a)


3.3.1.4Transgender Employees

To maintain the culture of equality, the company provides paid sick leave for transsexual people

who are undergoing surgery or a period of non-customer facing time. The company is also a

member of Gender Trust, to give updated information to its employees how to handle business

deal with transgender issues. (BTPLC, 2010a)



This confirms the universalism dimension as described by Trompeaars & Turner (2000)

which reflects equal opportunity for everyone.


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3.3.1.5 Flexible Working

Many employees working for BT are also working with other firms to make them enjoy physical

and mental benefits and promote healthy work culture. So the company understands the meaning

of reward and it supports the employees desired work-life balance relationship. (BTPLC, 2010a)



3.3.2 Training & Development of British Telecom



The company conducts regular self development sessions for the employees. The company is

committed to organizational learning and action plan. The company has earned "Investor in

People Company". The firm recommends the 4 step learning process



1. Aim: This starts with looking at the problems and creating the desire to change, with

brainstorm ideas and evaluation of the ideas to make it happen in a meaningful manner; to gain

committed results

2. Plan: Involve the team and discuss the ways and evaluate if the people are willing to accept

those changes.



3. Do: You have to take action with proper communication. Few co-workers might resist the

change if they are losing something important to them like Freedom, Comfort, Control or

Predictability.

(BTPLC, 2010a)




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Figure 5: Change Management in BT (British Telecom, 2009)




4. Review: It is important to review the change, and the team members should quantify the gains

of the change and it should be beneficial to all those involved. Everyone should help each other

as a team and guide/support if they loose track of the change required. (British Telecom, 2009)


3.3.2.1 Training & Development

The company has taken the following steps to train the staff to make them work more
cohesively.

i) The company conducts Coaching, Mentoring, Knowledge sharing programs, friendship /

buddy programs to help and guide everyone.

ii) Every employee is given their development action plan, specially tailored according to him

situation by the HR managers.

iii) Every employee is given extra time to review the progress by their manager.


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iv) The company has even developed an e-learning portal to avail the unique opportunity of

personal, professional and technical enhancement.

v) The company encourages the employees to become part of professional bodies like Institute of

Electrical Engineers, British Computer Society, Chartered Institute of Management Accountants.

(BTPLC, 2010a)

The company is focused on developing teams even they reward individuals on the basis of their

ability but not on the basis of their performance. Teamwork, within BT's organization is referred




                                                                                            To as




C.A.R.E. which covers the following topics as in the figure 6.




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The company arrange team meetings at least once a month

- This helps to cooperate more effectively as a team.

- The attitude to help each other, even if it means doing something outside of the regular job

activities.

- Good communication and cooperation is must within and between teams.



3.3.3 Business Culture at BT


BT maintains the simple but effective values given below and believe in progress, growth and

possibility. The code of Ethics reflect the honesty, integrity, under lawful means with disclosure

of BT files to US Security and Exchange Commission to foster a culture where BT operates.

(British Telecom, 2010b)


3.3.3.1 Monitoring the Progress of Ethical Performance
The company has introduced 2 key questions to check the ethical performance measure of a

company.

a) To access how the Statement of Business Practice is understood.

b) The company ask the employees about the integrity of the managers.

c) To measure the effectiveness of the successful training courses with the ethical dimension.

(British telecom Sustainability Report , 2010)


3.3.3.2 Ethics Steering Committee


a) The deployment of anti-bribery and anti-corruption policies.

b) Enforcement of gift and hospitality policy(by not accepting from customers.)

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c) Development of Ethics training and ethical performance measure.




Figure 7. Dismissals due to unethical practice (British Telecom Sustainability Report, 2010)

The company dismissed 154 employees due to unethical behavior, which reflects the action from

the management and not just speeches. (British telecom Sustainability Report , 2010)




3.3.3.3 Policies against Harassment
- The company has a zero tolerance approach for bullying and harassment and being the member

of Dignity at Work Partnership , lead by UK Department of Business, Enterprise and regulatory

Uniform & Trade Unions, Amicus.

- The company conducts Quarterly employee survey called CARE to check the perception of

harassment, as this will help the line managers and HR managers take appropriate action where

required.

- The company has developed an intranet site to address the personal and business impacts of this

disrespectful behaviour at work.

- The company run regular workshops for managers to reflect the importance and appropriate

standards of behaviour at workplace.



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- It is also assured and addressed to the managers to behave appropriately with their staff.

(British telecom Sustainability Report , 2010)


3.3.3.4 Respect for the Society
- The company pledged in 2006, to reach a target of 20% of the work force will be involved in

carbon reduction. Around 7000 BT's employee are now avidly working towards carbon

reduction. (British telecom Sustainability Report , 2010)


3.3.3.5Religion and Belief
The company believes that personal belief is a part of the personality and it is very important for

the company to respect the belief of each employee.

- The company provides multi-faith rooms in many buildings.

- The company insist the managers to maintain the balance between the needs of the employee &

needs of the company.

- The company is a member of Employers' Forum of Belief (EFB), to promote the respect of

belief and religion at workplace. (British telecom Sustainability Report , 2010)

The company insist on the respect of belief as suggested by Tayeb (2003) which affects the

managerial performance. The employee can perform better if the beliefs are given respect and

support. (Koster, 2009)


3.3.3.6 Cultural Understanding of Ethnic Minorities
The company is very cautious about the various cultural and needs of the customers and has

decided to reflect the ethnicity in the workforce to understand the consumer needs. In 2010

around 10% of the BT workforce was from ethnic minority group.

a) BT was names as the most race friendly organization according to the Race for Opportunity

campaign run by Business in the Community group.



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b) The company started the Black History month campaign to reflect the racially diverse

company.

c) The two network groups BT Ethnic Minority and Asian Network combined together to

promote understanding of different cultures


3.3.6.7 Sexual Orientation

The company aims to ensure that all employees of every sexual orientation are given support ,

unbiased treatment and voice. The support system is provided by BT Kaleidoscope, our lesbian,

gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people network, even same sex couples are given

healthcare and survivor pensions. In March 2010, 23% of the employees disclosed their sexual

orientation and BT has been ranked first in the Business Equality Index. (British Telecom

Sustainability Report , 2010)


Conclusion:


It can be deduced from the above research that the company has made lot of efforts to create a

multi-cultural organization than cross-culture organization. The policies are implemented as 154

employees have been dismissed between 2009 to 2010. All the cultures have been given equal

respect have recognized as the most race friendly organization, while being socially responsible

using donations and active member of carbon reduction program. The managers who were

interviews have professed team building efforts with respect for all employees while teaching

them to be better leaders to lead their team. The next section will present the research

methodology used for this thesis followed by data analysis of the questionnaire designed for the

employees.




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Chapter 4 Research Methodology


4.1 Introduction:
    Research methodology is simply a collection of methods used for data collection and

    analysis. However, what every research has in common is that it involves a sequence of

    activities that are highly interrelated and which constitute together to form the research

    process. It is not always possible to follow a straight order, but its however possible to find a

    common pattern which his cyclic in nature, since from the conclusions from the study

    generates new problems and ideas which give birth to new research areas. (Kervin, 1992) It

    is a fact finding activity in a systematic & controlled manner. This critical investigation of

    hypothetical propositions is done to understand the relationship between natural phenomena

    or the answer to a question or solution of a problem (Walliman, 2005) It involves interviews

    (structured or unstructured interviews, questionnaire, company financial reports, books or by

    observation where the researcher listens or watches to collect primary or secondary data.

    (Bryman and Bell, 2003) This chapter is mainly designed to provide the research

    methodology that has been adopted by the researcher. This chapter studies, briefs and

    summarizes the various research philosophies that are possible to conduct and the research

    method that is adopted for the study. The various data collection methods that are used, the

    approaches that are handled, and the ethics and validity of data for the dissertation.


4.2Research Context


    In our research the results are unknown and the researchers wants to establish the relationship

    between variables, so the research is an descriptive research as well as explanatory. The

    thesis is focused on only one company to understand the work culture and how the company

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    is handling the cross culture challenge. The research aims to understand the ground realities

    about the firm and how the managers are handling their international teams, which hasn’t

    been found in literatures.


4.3 Research Approach
    Quantitative survey based research was used to conduct the study because it would produce

    useful and more reliable data. Qualitative research also would help us form “numeric

    description of trends, attitudes, or opinions of a population by studying a sample of that

    population” (Kervin, 1992). Malhotra (2006) also said that quantitative study helps us to

    make generalized claims which can be applied to the entire target population. According to

    Bryman and Bell (2003), focusing on the quantitative data collections method preserves and

    save us time. However it is also true that qualitative information such as experiences and

    feelings cannot be obtained only through quantitative technique. In this thesis qualitative

    method will be used with a deductive approach, as quantitative approach would not give the

    same detailed information. Due to lack of proper research on the company, it is difficult to

    get the secondary data on the company.

    A structured questionnaire would be used to conduct interview with the managers and

    survey will be used for the employees working for BT to support the answers.


    4.4 The Research Design


    The research design is considered to be a framework for conducting the marketing research

    according to Malhotra (1996). Though there are about eight kinds of research strategies

    namely experiment, case study, survey, grounded theory, interview, ethnography, cross-

    sectional studies and longitudinal studies, and exploratory studies, descriptive studies,



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    explanatory studies, according to Saunders et, al. (2003), the approach that would be used for

    the purpose of the study would be a survey and interview. Our research aims to identify and

    analyze the cross cultural strategy of BT with the help of primary and secondary information

    available, on the basis of literature review. Primary research is the collection of fresh data to

    create information after data analysis using survey or interviews while secondary research is

    the collection of existing data to support the research. (Bryman and Bell, 2003)


4.4.1 Data Collection
The collection of data is the basis for any research and it is very important for the data to be
accurate else the research has no empirical basis. (Rajgopalan and Sattanathan, 2009) There are
two types of data:

    i)         Primary Data: The data collected by the researcher himself for the research is
               called Primary data., although the data collection is difficult but is latest. (Kervin,
               1992)
    ii)        Secondary Data: The data obtained from past researches, published or unpublished
               sources are known as secondary data. (Kervin, 1992)

4.4.1. 1 Methods of collecting Primary Data

The various methods for collecting primary data are as follows:

    a) Personal Interviews: This data is collected directly by the investigator and with personal
          involvement from the source of information. As this is obtained original in character, so
          this is more time consuming and money consuming. This method is preferred when
          there is limited research available and the investigations of the research are to be kept
          confidential. (Rajgopalan and Sattanathan, 2009) The manages of BT were selected in
          this research as they are responsible for handling the cross culture training.


    b) Indirect Oral or Telephonic interviews: This method is applied when direct
          information can’t be obtained from the informants. If the informants don’t have exact


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        information then sufficient number of people needs to be interviewed. (Rajgopalan and
        Sattanathan, 2009)


    c) Information received from the correspondents: The investigator appoints local agents
        or correspondents to collect the information and then the data is transmitted to the data
        analysis centre for further processing. This is common among news agencies where
        various correspondents all around the world report about international, national, local or
        domestic accidents, meetings, riots etc. (Rajgopalan and Sattanathan, 2009)


    d) Mailed Questionnaire method: In this method, the information is received from the
        respondents or informants by posting or emailing the questionnaire to them. A covering
        letter is sometimes sent which explains the aims and objectives of the survey, with
        request to fill the questionnaire and sent back on time. Self addressed and stamped
        envelopes are also sent for quick response. This method is usually applied when there is
        limited time and resources and the information needs to be collected from distant
        locations. This method is economical but there is no guarantee that the researcher will get
        back the replies or is futile when the respondents are illiterate. (Rajgopalan and
        Sattanathan, 2009, kervin, 1992)


    e) Schedules sent through enumerators: This method is used when the schedules are sent
        through the interviewers to collect information. They contact the respondents and reply to
        the questions contained in a schedule and fill them in their own handwriting in the
        questionnaire form. This method is mostly used when the respondents are illiterate. This
        method is better than the mailed questionnaire method but it is expensive as the
        researcher has to pay the enumerators. (Rajgopalan and Sattanathan, 2009)




    4.4.1.2 Sources of collecting Secondary Data

    The different sources of secondary data can be divided into two categories.




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    i)         Published Sources: This includes official publications like U.N.O. reports,
               Government or State reports. Semi official publication like City Cooperation or
               Institutions report or Bank reports. Private publications like report of Joint Stock
               companies, or corporations. Journals , Newspapers or other published literatures or
               websites or any other printed reports.
    ii)        Unpublished Sources: This includes the records maintained by government or
               private officers, scholars or registers of companies etc.

    4.4.1.3 Difference Between Primary and Secondary Data

    S.No             Primary Data                    Secondary Data
          1.         Primary data is original as     This data is not original because it is collected
                     collected by the investigator   by the agency and used by another source.
                     himself.
          2.         This required lot of money,     No spend to spend much time , energy or
                     time, planning and labour       resources.
          3.         It is suitable according to     The main objective with which the data was
                     the aim and objectives of       collected varies and it might not cover the whole
                     the collection.                 research.
          4.         No special care needs to be     Careful observation is required before the
                     taken to use this data          investigator uses the secondary data and
                                                     reliability , suitability needs to be checked
                                                     before using any secondary data.
    Table 1. Primary and Secondary Data (Rajgopalan and Sattanathan, 2009, kervin, 1992)

    4.4.1. 4 Precautions in the Use of Secondary Data

    The researcher should consider the following points before using secondary data:

    -     Suitability of Data: The suitability of data can be checked by the nature and scope of the
          investigation. To investigate the wages earned by a group, then the data with only basis
    -     wages earned by the group without allowances is not useful.




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    -   Adequate :The data collected should be adequate for the research. If the wages of
        factory workers in a particular region needs to be collected, the investigator can’t leave
        few factories and take data from other factories.
    -   Reliability of data: The reliability of data needs to be tested by finding the agency that
        had done the research. The researcher should understand the limitation of data, collection
        method and context of the data investigated before using that data for the research.
        (Rajgopalan and Sattanathan, 2009, kervin, 1992)




To collect the primary data, both quantitative and qualitative methods are used.

4.4.1.1 Quantitative & Qualitative Research

When doing the research either Quantitative data or Qualitative data is collected. Qualitative data
implies the “soft data” is presented in words like the interviews or case study. Quantitative data
is the hard data like questionnaire which is presented in numbers which helps to determine the
quality and scope of research. When making an exploratory research, mostly the qualitative data
is collected. (Malhotra, 1996; Saunders et al, 2000)

Case study is the technique has been used here to support the research, which basically
investigates the situation according to the research problem. The main benefit of using this
technique is than an entire firm cab be investigated in depth which helps to understand the
challenges or strategies used by the firm since its existence, which can be used to address the
research problem or fulfil the research objectives of the research. (Malhotra, 1996) BT firm have
been studied in depth and all the policies which has been used by the firm have helped us to
understand the HR strategies which have been put into place by the firm to manage the
workforce of 78,000 employees.        The data for the research was collected in the form of
questionnaire surveys given to the employees working for BT for quantitative research and
Interview was conducted to do the qualitative research. So the primary research will help to
analyse the data at a later stage by defining the relationship between different variables of the
research area. (Kervin, 1992)




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    I.         Questionnaire design: The background information about this questionnaire have
               been developed from the cultural theories by Hofstede and others different authors
               discussed in the literature reviews.


    II.        Questionnaire for the research: An easy self-completion questionnaire was made,
               to be completed by the respondents. The questions were closed ended while open
               ended questions were asked from the managers, the summary of it would be presented
               in the next chapter.


    III.       Questionnaire Distribution: The questionnaires were given to the employees
               working for BT, through a recruitment agency based in London. The name of which
               has been withheld for privacy reasons.


    IV.        Sample Design: The sample was selected using the convenience sampling method.


    V.         Sample Size: It is difficult to calculate the right sample size for any research as the
               research is based on many variables or factors. For exploratory research the sample
               size is usually small. (Zikmund, 2000) To judge the inside picture of the company,
               total 70 employees were given the form with different ethnic backgrounds with
               different age groups.


    VI.        Interview Preparation: Most of the appointments were made using the influence of
               the recruitment agency which recruit part time employees for the company. Leads
               were also generated from employees who were working for BT. Telephonic interview
               was conducted due to limitation of resources. 4 Interviews were conducted and will
               be presented in the next chapter.


    VII.       Interview Process: Managers from different ethnic origin were selected to avoid the
               risk of gathering like-minded answers as the survey is about cross culture influence
               on the answers. Other precautions were:



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               a. The questions were made very simple to avoid the loss of time and interest.
               b. The questions were emailed to the managers in advance to save time.



    4.4.2 Secondary data
    Secondary data has been collected from the online annual sustainability reports given from
    the company website and other available journals online.

    4.5 Data Processing and Analysis
    The primary data has been presented using pie charts to easier understanding. This
    information will be analysed to reach a firm conclusion. Microsoft Excel 2007 and Q1
    Macros 2010 analysis tool will be used to arrange the data in the meaningful format.

    4.6 The validity and the reliability of the study


        Reliability defines the degree to which the research process is free from errors which
        helps to fulfill the whole research. It can be achieved by presenting similar results over a
        period of time and circumstances. (Zikmund, 2000) The reliability of the data that has
        been collected is concerned to be one of the major issues in the current industry. The
        reliability of the data that is being collected actually refers to the measures or the results
        that have been arrived upon and whether they would provide the same when collected in
        other situations or occasions. The similar observations if could be collected by the other
        observers. The reliability also refers to the transparency of the data when it is raw and
        how the data actually makes sense of. ( Saunders et al, 2003). The researcher has
        obtained informal approval for the research and the questionnaire was approved before
        giving permission. However, the upper management don’t allow their employees to
        discuss their strategies in handling the employees due to strict company policy and it was
        promised not to submit any critical data in the research. Also the managers were too busy
        to find time for interview. This proves the credibility of the data collected. As the data is
        not collected from one branch and is collected from various branches across London the
        participant error and participant bias could be hugely reduced which would help in



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        providing us a valid data. The observer error and the observer bias also could be hugely
        reduced as the data is being collected from authentic sources.

    4.7 Ethics
    The research not only captures the secondary data as it consists of both the forms of data
    namely the primary data and the secondary data. It is also necessary to mention that the
    image of the organization would not be affected by the research that is being conducted in the
    first place. (Zikmund, 2000) Also no employee was forced to fill out the questionnaire which
    could lead to erroneous and biased data. Hence all the results that are obtained through the
    study would be ethical and hence from a healthy environment of study.




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Chapter 5 Data Analysis and Findings


5.1 Introduction
This chapter is designed to analyze the data from the questionnaire designed for the employees
working for the British telecom. The first section of the chapter starts with the questionnaire
analysis of the employees. The objective of the questionnaire is to understand the perception of
the corporate culture among employees and how they felt treated inside the organization. The
second section presents the interview conducted with the managers to understand the real time
solutions used by the managers and how they implement the strategies.

Q1. What is your age?

                               Table 1.

                                Age       Frequency       Percentage
                                20-30               16          22.9
                                31-40               20          28.6
                                41-50               18          25.7
                                51-60               14          20.0
                                >60                   2          2.9
                                 Total              70         100.0



Analysis: According to table 1, It has been noticed that the more than 77% of the employees are
above 30yrs.This shows that the respondents are mature enough to understand the questions.




Q2. What is your gender?

In the table 2,total males are 40 and there are 30 females have taken the part in the research, this
shows a good distribution of gender.


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                            Table 2.

                             Gender     Frequency     Percentage
                             Male               40           57.1
                             Female             30           42.9
                              Total             70           100




Q3. How many years with the organization?

                            Table 3.

                          Years           Frequency       Percentage
                          Less than 1
                          year                       22         31.4
                          2-3 years                  10         14.3
                          4-5 years                  12         17.1
                          6-10 years                 12         17.1
                          > 10years                  14             20
                          Total                      70          100



Analysis:

According to table 3. more than 70% of the respondents have spent more than 1year with the
company and so must be quite aware about the corporate culture and validity of data can be
accessed. More than 50% of the respondents have spends more than 5 years with the company,
which shows the loyalty of the respondents with the company.

Q4. Does your manager push his/her decisions to the employees?




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                              Table 4

                                              Frequency       Percentage
                           Strongly Agree                 1          1.4
                           Agree                          5          7.1
                           Neural                         2          2.9
                           Disagree                    20           28.6
                           Strongly
                           Disagree                    42            60
                           Total                       70           100
Analysis:It is observed that around 88% of the respondents don’t agree that the decisions are
pushed on them. This reflects that the manager listen to the employees. According to Hofstede’s
model United Kingdom is a low power distance country, so the sub-ordinate – manager relation
is based more on negotiating than on commanding the employees.

Q5. Is your manager afraid to take risks?

                      Table 5.

                                    Risks     Frequency       Percentage
                           Strongly Agree                 2          2.9
                           Agree                          3          4.3
                           Neural                         4          5.7
                           Disagree                    23           32.9
                           Strongly
                           Disagree                    38           54.3
                           Total                       70           100



Analysis: According to the table 5 , around 87% of the respondents disagree that their managers
are afraid of taking risks. According to Hofstede’s (1983) model United Kingdom has low
uncertainty score of 35, so the people are risk takers. There average British managers are creative

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in finding solutions. This has been supported by the interview in the previous chapter. The
respondents insisted on becoming risk takers.




Q6. Does your manager control the employees by monitoring operations and performance on a
regular basis?

                      Table 6.

                           Monitoring           Frequency       Percentage
                           Strongly Agree                   5          7.1
                           Agree                        10            14.3
                           Neural                           3          4.3
                           Disagree                     10            14.3
                           Strongly
                           Disagree                     42            60.0
                           Total                        70            100



Analysis: According to the above table 6, around 36% of respondents agree that the managers
monitor their performance and while 60% strongly disagree. This shows there is not much
emphasis on rules and regulations. It might be due to low power distance index where the
managers have open door policy and they listen to the subordinates. It must be possible in
countries like France where there is high power distance and the employees are supervised by
their managers.




Q7. Are the decisions always goal oriented?

Analysis: According to table 7.around 84% of the respondents agree that the managers decision
are always goal oriented. Countries with high masculine index like United Kingdom, always give
focus on the task and its achievement rather than the values. Also risk taking capability



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                      Table 7

                          Goal Oriented      Frequency        Percentage
                          Strongly Agree              31            44.3
                          Agree                       28            40.0
                          Neural                          3          4.3
                          Disagree                        7         10.0
                          Strongly
                          Disagree                        1          1.4
                          Total                       70            100



according to question 5 is high, so the people are not afraid of leaving their jobs and look for
another jobs. This is in accordance with the interview where the respondents focus on goals of
the organization and not much on the rules and regulations.

Q8. Have you faced gender discrimination in your company?

                          Discrimination     Frequency        Percentage
                          Strongly Agree              18            25.7
                          Agree                       20            28.6
                          Neural                      10            14.3
                          Disagree                    10            14.3
                          Strongly
                          Disagree                    12            17.1
                          Total                       70          100.0
Table 8

Analysis: According to the table 8, more than 50% of the employees have faced gender
discrimination, and this is a cause of concern for the company, even though the company has
made strict laws but this can discourage the employees.




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Q9. Does your manager identifies new opportunities and acts upon them?




                      Table 9

                          Innovation         Frequency           Percentage
                          Strongly Agree                 5              7.1
                          Agree                          6              8.6
                          Neural                         5              7.1
                          Disagree                    24               34.3
                          Strongly
                          Disagree                    30               42.9
                          Total                       70             100.0



Analysis: According to table 9. It has been noticed that only 15% of the employees agree that the
managers think out of the box or look for new ideas. Although the country rates high in
individualism but that doesn’t not always mean innovation, though the managers are ready to
take risks.

Q10. Is your manager inspirational and energetic?

                             Table 10



                                  Inspirational Frequency         Percentage
                        Strongly Agree                       9          12.9
                        Agree                            10             14.3
                        Neural                           10             14.3
                        Disagree                         16             22.9
                        Strongly Disagree                25             35.7
                        Total                            70            100.0




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Analysis: According to the table 10, it has been noticed that 74% of employees don’t find their
managers inspirational or energetic, which is one of the major qualities of any leader. The people
are individualistic in United Kingdom, so they don’t want to follow others unless they are
convinced by them. So according to Hofstede , having high individualistic index doesn’t mean
inspirational. They have their own goals are more thrilled by their personal achievement.


5.2 Summary of the Findings
According to the above survey it have been found that even though 77% of the employees have
been over 30yrs, where 42% of them are females, with at least 4-5yrs of experience:

    1. Majority of them haven’t been pushed to accept the decisions from their managers.
    2. Around 87% of them have been encouraged to take risks, however 74% of the employees
        don’t find their managers inspirational.
    3. Also only 15% of the employees agree that their managers are innovative.
    4. More than 50% of the employees have faced gender discrimination in their workplace,
        which is really surprising, even with the existence of so many policies in place.
    5. Around 84% of the managers are goal oriented and give less importance to the rules and
        regulations.




5.3 Interview with Managers of British Telecom

Q1. What Qualities are you looking for during recruitment?

According to the respondents:

Respondent1: " We are looking for people with talent and zeal to grow. They have to be honest

with themselves and with the company. The company is growing rapidly and so we need flexible

people to work with us, they are also allowed to work with other company as well, but the time

they stay with us they should be with us"



Respondent 2: "Every role in the company is important and we respect everyone regardless of

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gender, ethnics, religion or sexual orientation in the company. We encourage respect between the

workers and inspire them to show the best they have inside them".



Respondent 3: " We respect values and we look for values, if the person has a good attitude ,

then he is able to understand our view point as this has been taught to us inside the company. We

expect people to be in discipline inside the company as it means a lot in their personal and

professional life.



According to the conceptual framework, the managers have pointed on discipline, values in life,

honesty and other attributes of people according to Hofstede (1998; kotler,2001,Fatehi, 1996)

to develop leaders and so the leaders can create leaders.



Q2. How do you train people of different ethnic background to work as a team?



R1. " We talk about the values and our way of working and they personally enjoy working with

BT, rather than the job in particular. Right from the selection process till they are with us, we

help them develop personally and professionally"



R2: " Every manager is responsible to manage their teams grow well and we are proud in doing

that, we create leaders and want them to carry the message to their teams. We work on

development meetings and that helps us to gauge the progress of each individual.We help them

to make long term and short tem goals"



R3:"We give a good introduction when they first join us and we don’t ask them to go by the

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book but we want them to be proactive. We make sure that the upper management is also being

followed up regularly. We have regular formal and informal sessions to give insight into

leadership and team building , as that is important for any international team to work together.

We don't push culture we want them to gladly accept it as a way of life and become more

responsible employee and human."

According to above discussion, the managers and the company has been focusing on team

building, attitudes, disciplines (Tayeb, 2003), long term goals, inspiration to succeed (Schwalbe,

2009) by focusing on values (Sloma, 2002) which is important for the managerial performance.



Q3: How do you manage equality among diversity?


Respondent 1. “It’s very simple at the same time it is very complex. We are working a to

establish comfort zone between our team members using our leader ship skills. There has been

bad examples and the company is very strict and the candidate are dismissed. Full support has

been given for people of all backgrounds, regardless of gender, religion, ethnicity. Attending

social gathering during office time, is not permitted in the company policy but we arrange some

cultural events to permeate culture among employees. We don’t call Asian, or African or any

community name among employees or create subgroups, we always call with their first name

and give respect to every employee. We never humiliate anyone in public but we do positive

criticism within doors.


Respondent 2: “We create leaders and we give them chance to express themselves, we respect

good work and we encourage them to take risks, teach them to delegate responsibility to any one

regardless of age, gender, religion etc. We are a team with one religion called BT religion. We

give group targets so all of the employees work as a team however individual awards are given

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on solo performance. We do small team building activities so they get work on it as a team and

get used to each other. We started with small quizzes among teams to understand each other, like

we ask, what is the favorite color of employee X from employee Y. As they can work with each,

other when they know each other. ”


Respondent 3: “We don’t teach culture, we create culture of love and respect for each other. We

want them to be fearless and proactive with good communication skills. We arrange mock

sessions, so they are not afraid while talking to customers or among each other. We respect

privacy and don’t share their critical information like sexual orientation. We support new ideas

like any innovator leader. We are at a higher position, so we need to set example for others. We

don’t discriminate and against company policy to do so.”


Due to limitation of resources and scarcity of time, it would have been more beneficial to

conduct the interviews of few employees to understand the personal views of the employees.




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Chapter 6 Conclusions and Recommendations

6.1Conclusion
The economic breakdown in 1960’s has been considered to be the starting period for cross
culture management studies. Although organizational management and organizational behaviour
had been ignored since long time but have gained significant advantage in 1980’s (Hofstede,
1983) It has always been considered nuisances rather than source of energy. This thesis has
utilized the framework developed by Hofstede (1998) and Trompenaars and Turner (2000) which
is the backbone of the whole research. Models suggested by Tayeb (2003) and Koster(2009) on
managerial performance have been referenced by the managers during the interview. The
international business is growing rapidly and so is the complexity of business and the
organizational structure. So it is becoming important for managers to understand the important of
culture and techniques to handle cultural diversity among the workforce. Important research
done by Hofstede (1998,1983) have revealed 5 major dimensions, like




a.      Individualism vs Collectivism

b.      Strong or weak uncertainty avoidance

c.      Large or small power distance and

d.      Masculinity vs femininity

e.      Long Term Orientation vs Short Term Orientation




These five dimensions help to understand how citizen from different country act and gives a firm
basis to develop the cultural strategy. This thesis is focused on British Telecom company based
in United Kingdom. This company is having 78000 employees in UK and other 18000 are
working abroad. (BT.com, 2010) The workforce is mix of all ethnic, country and background.
Most of the students who are in the country for studying are working as part time jobs. The
managers are also from diverse ethnic origin. United Kingdom is considered to be

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individualistic,, low power indexed, high uncertainty avoidance risk takers, Masculine country.
Where the individual promotion, achievement challenges are given importance. Although people
have short term approach and looking for quicker results. Other dimensions suggested by
Trompenaars, Hampden-Turner(2000) like universalism, business oriented etc along with other
dimensions attitudes, likes, beliefs, disciplines, skills , visions motivation, team building affects
the managerial performance in cross cultural environment. This research helps to present the
various dimensions of cross culture management and provide the remedies to solve the cross
cultural managerial problems. The managers don’t mix personal and business talks, while jobs
are given to unknown rather friends or family members, which shown the dimension suggested
by Trompenaars, Hampden-Turner(2000).

Both secondary and primary data collection methods have been used to present a robust research.
Case study technique has been used by the researcher to understand the internal policy and
cultural strategy of the company, along with the various company reports to validate the research
has been presented. Interview sessions have been conducted with the managers of the company
to understand their view of organisational management and what techniques they are using to
combat the cultural challenge.

The company in context, British Telecom has made very wide policies in most of the cultural
areas like gender, race, religion equality, disabled recruitment policies and confirms the
universalism dimension of Trompeaars & Turner (2000). During recruitment the managers are
looking for values and attitude rather than the skill for the job, which have also been confirmed
by the conceptual model presented in the thesis.

The company has developed lot of coaching programs for mentoring the employees, and
teamwork is referred to as CARE which is incorporated as the corporate vision of the company.
Team building as an effective to cross cultural challenge has been iterated by the managers and
also confirmed by Tayeb (2003).

The survey consisted of 70 employees (40 males, 30 Females) with 77% of the employees more
than 30yrs of age and with 4-5 yrs of experience. The models suggested by Hofstede (1998) have
been found true on the basis of the survey, it was also revealed that managers who are



61 | P a g e
individualistic doesn’t always be inspiring. The survey shows the patterns are expected
according to the Hofstede dimensions.

As Britain has low power index so majority of the employees didn’t find their managers pushy.

Most of the managers are risk takers and encourage their employees to do mistakes to learn
more. This is due to high uncertainty avoidance score of the country.

As Britain is a masculine and individualistic country, so 84% of the managers were found to be
goal oriented and give less importance to rules and regulations.

The two surprising facts were also found. More than 50% of the employees face gender
discrimination and only 15% of the employees founds their managers to be innovative. It has
been found that inspiration to succeed is an important quality for managers but the survey have
proved that the managers are not inspiring enough




It was also revealed during the research that the managers are very enthusiastic speakers and
want to create leaders. They arrange quiz and other interactive activities among the employees to
know each other and develop good relationship to manage the group targets. Although the
company has sacked lot of employees who couldn’t cope up with the company policies but there
seems to be lot of gap in implementing the policies, as according to the survey 50% of the
employees face gender discrimination. The zero tolerance has been spoken in the company
policy but improper communication between the managers and the sub-ordinates seems to be
another area to be looked after to manage the cross cultural challenge.

Due to limitation of resources, only a limited number of sample data was collected , more over
interviews with three managers, helped to understand the organisation well. Interviews with
employees would have helped to understand the real impression, body language while discussing
and learning their way to handle cross cultural problem. Recommendations will be presented in
the next section to help the managers or readers to conduct good training and development
programs. The main reason is our attitude and belief against other cultural that is stopping us to
mix with others. The next section covers the suggestions given by the Lee and Roberts (2009)



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given in the next section which will help to make the best out of international teams. (Tayeb,
2003)




6.2 Recommendation


Cross cultural relations have been characterized by misunderstandings, miscommunication,
misperception & misinterpretation. Employees mostly misconceive the behaviours of their
fellow employees because they view their behaviour under influence of their own beliefs, norms
and customs. The behaviour and responses of any individual is depended on the background.
Even if they have are British by nationality but that doesn't mean they are British by culture or
origin, as there are people from all around the world who have immigrated to Britain.(Gudykunst
& Mody , 2002) Human Resources Management (HRM) covers all the dedicated activities that
any organisation takes to affect the behaviour of all the employees working for it. (Jackson &
Schuler, 2003) As the behaviour and responses of the employees affect the sales performance &
consumer satisfaction, so managing the HRM activities is considered to be a key strategic
challenge for any company. This includes formal policies, which are made by the companies, as
it can be seen from the case study analysis of British Telecom, although they have been very
serious in implementing the policies but procedures need to me implemented more wisely.
(Monteith, 1993)


6.1 Lee and Roberts (2009) have recommended six basic six basic steps to manage cross cultural
challenges. They suggest never stereotype any employee and treat them as an individual. The six
steps written by them are follows, which can be used by the managers :
    1. Recognize lack of awareness: It is important for the employees to understand that there
        exist lot of difference between races , ethnic backgrounds and culture. To develop cultural
        competency, it is important to recognize those differences and increasing the exposure to
        different cultures is the process of transformation from being ethnocentric to
        cosmopolitan. (Lee and Roberts, 2009)
    2. Acknowledging the differences between cultures: Even after becoming aware of

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        existence of different cultures, many employees choose to deal the situation by “treating
        everyone the same”. The more the awareness its better for them to handle. Although
        investing time and efforts to adapt the differences seems cumbersome but it helps to build
        a better workplace and effective way to work as teams. (Lee and Roberts, 2009)
    3. Acknowledge a need for Knowledge: The authors suggests to become like a child and
        accept that you don’t know about other cultures, but are ready , eager and willing to
        discover different cultures outside the mini world. This involves to put the ego aside and
        be eager and seeker for assistance while becoming sensitive to cultural nuances. (Lee and
        Roberts, 2009)
    4. Actively Seek Knowledge: Everyone has cultural blind spots and we fail to comprehend
        or understand others culture , so we judge them to be right or wrong instead of
        understanding them. The author supports to challenge our own beliefs and extensively
        ask people about their culture, food , language and beliefs without making fun of them. It
        has been found that people are happy to educate about their culture, and there are better
        chances that the employees will spend more time with each other sharing the insights and
        discuss the differences than becoming victims of false assumptions. ( Jackson, Schuler,
        2003; Lee and Roberts, 2009)
        Some practical suggestions given by the Lee and Roberts (2009) to maintain employee
        relationship at the workplace can be implemented by the managers. The suggestions are
        as follows:
        i)     Meet and greet employee members without offending them and be calm when
               they are speaking.
        ii)    Show your interest by talking to them instead of them to approach you.
        iii)   Help them at workplace and be pro active while meeting the new employees, and
               make them feel comfortable at work place or outside.
        iv)    Don’t judge them from their clothes or behaviour or car they drive; he might be
               the only person who can tolerate you. (Koster, 2009)
        v)      Understanding your colleagues will help you to understand the customers better
               and thereby will help you to be more understandable of their needs and
               requirements to cater them better. (Niles, 1998)
        vi)    Nobody wants to be judged so don’t judge the colleagues as you might be the

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                victim yourself. (Lee and Roberts, 2009, Koster, 2009)
        vii)    Don’t judge the colleagues by the position in the company, they might be more
                intelligent can’t get the same job as this is a different country. (Lee and Roberts,
                2009)
        viii)   Don’t make fun of colleagues if they are not so good in speaking English as most
                of the people from Asia have good written communication skills than verbal
                communication. (Lee and Roberts, 2009, Koster, 2009)
        ix)     Don’t feel offensive when the colleagues talk about their beliefs like feng-shui or
                Astrology, as this is a deep rooted science and still a mystery for western culture.
                (Lee and Roberts, 2009)
        x)      Many Asian employees are frugal and think twice even if they are earning more,
                this is integral part of Confucian culture. (Lee and Roberts, 2009, Niles, 1998)
        xi)     African American employees are more religious, so watch the language in their
                presence. (Lee and Roberts, 2009)
        xii)    RESPECT is treated as a higher value in all cultures and the colleagues will walk
                away if they are not given respect in the workplace. So even though there is less
                power distance score in UK but respect for seniors is considered important. (Lee
                and Roberts, 2009) European call it honour and African call it respect, while in
                Asia honour is face and they would rather die than loose face, like samurai
                warriors would rather kill themselves if they bring disrespect for their emperor. In
                Latin culture, honour is known as respect, which means respect for yourself and
                your family. Making fun of senior colleagues like “old timer’s disease” or “senior
                moments” should be avoided. The golden rule suggested by most authors is, treat
                people like the way you want to be treated. (Niles, 1998; Koster, 2009)
        xiii)   Dining out at Ethnic restaurants: Ever since the beginning of time, food has
                always bridged the gap between different cultures and helped them to convince
                people of the value of different cultures when they sit on the sample table. So
                managers can organise parties in different ethnic restaurants like Chinese, Korean,
                Mexican, Indian or Pakistani. (Lee and Roberts, 2009)


    5. Adapt to other people: After understanding to the norms of the other colleagues, the

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        person should implement it and put into action by practicing what has been discovered,
        without forsaking own beliefs but helping other colleagues to become comfortable. Like
        not smoking in front of others face , which is offending in other cultures and shows
        disrespect for them . (Lee and Roberts, 2009; Monteith, 1993)
    6. Continue your education: Cultural knowledge is quite complex and same notions have
        different meanings with different cultures. The process of learning, lies in making
        mistakes, the key to develop cultural competency is being open minded, forgiving your
        own mistakes and dedicated to try harder while being smarter. (Lee and Roberts, 2009;
        Koster, 2009; Niles, 1998)




6.2 The next section will discuss ways of reducing the impacts of social identity concerns,
cultural differences, stereotypes, ethnocentrism & cognitive biases.


6.2.1 Ethnocentrism: This creates cross-cultural relations problem in part because employees
expect others to think and behave as they do in their own culture. So ignoring the other culture is
the main problem. (Monteith, 1993)This can be solved by conducting didactic programs by
presenting information in a non-evaluative manner by the managers among the employees. The
managers should show respect for other culture, as that will bring respect among all employees,
presenting the practical reasons for the values will minimize the negative reactions among
colleagues. (Gudykunst & Mody, 2002)
The manager can implement experimental techniques, which can help the employees to face the
world which is different from their own. The employees should be asked to act appropriately
during unfair cultural context and finish the assigned task as this will facilitate the acquisition of
new norms, values and cultural adoption (Koster, 2009)


6.2.2 Stereotypes: Colleagues can prevent self fulfilling prophecies by counteracting them if
they are aware of negative expectations of other colleagues and are trained to do so. They can
counteract if they believe they don’t possess stereotyped traits (Niles, 1998)


6.2.3 Cognitive Biases: Expectancy based cognitive biases can be weakened if people engage in

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systematic processing of expectancy –disconfirming attributed to internal factors. In addition,
training people in the logic of making statistically valid inferences reduces the tendency of the
colleagues to make stereotype groups. (Gudykunst & Mody, 2002)


6.2.3 Social Identity: The managers can reduce the problems of ingroup bias by creating
identifying with subordinate groups like regional alliances, or humankind to make the employees
feel a part of a single shared identity group. (Gudykunst & Mody, 2002) Another technique is to
reminding employees of the multiple social categories to which we all belong. The social
categories can be numerous like gender, age or nationality or ethnic groups which overlap with
each other in criss-cross pattern. (Koster, 2009; Monteith, 1993)


6.2.4 Dimensions of Cultural Dimensions: Managers can arrange some quizzes or interactive
sessions to understand the awareness of Hofstede’s model of cultural diversity will help the
employees to develop intelligent insight about each other and will help them to accept
individuals as the way they are. (Niles, 1998; Koster, 2009)


6.2.5 Theory of Reasoned Action: According to this theory it is possible to develop cross
cultural behaviours among the employees, by modifying employee’s attitudes about the
outcomes which their action will bring and by altering their perceptions of relevant subjective
norms. Arranging a positive workplace environment with interaction of different cultures to work
as teams towards a shared goal will help to resolve attitude problems among employees.
(Gudykunst & Mody, 2002)


6.2.6 Perceived Threats: Symbolic threats develop among the employees due to dissimilar
values and beliefs. So the information about overriding human values will decrease prejudice
based symbolic threats (Monteith, 1993) as realistic threats arise as other culture feel that they
are fighting for scarce resources like promotion, salary, recognition due to high masculinity
index score of United Kingdom. (Gudykunst & Mody , 2002)


6.2.7 Anxiety and Uncertainty: Training programs emphasising on meditation can help to
reduce anxiety and uncertainty among cross culture interaction, while making them more

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confident to face unexpected situations and uncertainty. (Koster, 2009)


6.2.8 Dissonance Theory: This theory is based on the idea that colleagues behave in ways which
contradict their customary views of themselves, they achieve a negative affective state which
they try to reduce. However if other prejudiced employees behave in a positive manner, then they
are motivated to change their previously prejudicial attitudes to be consistent with the current
behaviour of their colleague. (Niles, 1998) This is effective in individualistic society like Britain.
(Gudykunst & Mody, 2002)


6.2.9 Social Learning Theory : This theory is related with the learned associations between
objects and affect, which also includes the associations between cultural groups and affective
responses to them. Training programs can be helpful to develop positive relationship between
outgrips by presenting direct positive experiences with outgroup members. (Monteith, 1993)
Arranging training leaders from different nationality or social groups can be helpful to create
cross cultural training so the employees see their ethnic leaders to train other ethnic groups and
follow the leaders or managers. (Gudykunst & Mody , 2002, 127Pg)




6.2.10 Empathy: Empathy can be an effective tool to fight the cross culture relationship war.
Learning about other people helps to develop emotional as well as cognitive empathy. Emotional
empathy consists of compassion related emotions that arise from a feeling of concern for the
suffering of other employees, during work place or at home. Cognitive empathy involves the
learning the perspective of other group created by presenting knowledge using a didactic
approach. (Gudykunst & Mody , 2002)


6.2.11 Compunction Theory: Employees should be taught to regulate the use of their
stereotypes. It is argued in this theory that everyone is exposed to prevailing religious, racial,
ethnic or cultural stereotypes during socializing. Although they are activated in cross culture
interaction, their influence among the employees can be consciously overcome, when the
employees are motivated by their managers or leaders to overcome their tendency of
stereotyping others. The employees can learn to use the guilt feeling which they experience

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during the activation process to suppress the negative effects of stereotyping. (Monteith, 1993)


6.2.12: Contact Theory: This theory concerns the conditions under which the training programs
or interactions are arranged by the managers. The training programs will be more effective if the
interactions are cooperative in nature, nonsuperficial and voluntary so friendships can be made.
(Gudykunst & Mody, 2002)


6.2.13 Japanese Philosophy: The managers and workers in Japan invest lot of time, usually a
lifetime to mutual relationships, which helps to rule out the possibility of insubordination. So if
workers are resisting the manager’s decision or may be the manager has committed a mistake, its
better to talk and discuss the problem with the employees /workers than imposing orders or
sanctions. (Graen and Wakabayashi, 1994)


6.3 Recommendation for Future Research
The suggestions for the future research are endless, the model presented in the literature review
can be more elaborated, like Six Global leadership dimensions by Grove,C.N. (2005) can be
implemented to have a more analytical discussion, also conceptual model of Globe project,
developed by House,R.J. (2001) can be used.           The discussion on classroom lectures for
intercultural training or the use of experimental training method or the training should be cultural
specific or general cultural approach should be followed for conducting training programs.
Research on different training models can be a good topic for future research to minimize
cultural barriers. Limited sampling have been used here for this research more sample data will
help to get more accurate results.




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