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					I.   Barriers
     A. Parental/Family
         1. Family members lack knowledge base in math and science; provide little help
              a. Explanation
                 1) General: Figure This! Family Corner: http://www.figurethis.org/fc/family_corner.htm
                      This site encourages parents to help their children by providing information about how they
                      can help t their child obtain the most they can from a math education. The site includes
                      information about how to help with math homework even if it is not familiar and how to
                      work with the school. The site includes an option to translate information into Spanish.
                 2) Middle School:
                 3) High School
                 4) Undergraduate
              b. Illustration
                 1) General
                 2) Middle School: "They don't understand what I'm doing. They couldn't really help me. Neither
                      went to college and they don't get what I'm doing now. They just basically encouraged me
                      and told me I could do it, and I could do whatever".

                      "My mom (helps). My dad always works. I don't think he understands anything and my mom
                      does some of it and says wow. I can't believe you're doing this. He's kind of afraid of math
                      and steps away from it."

                      "But like my mom or my dad, they got a divorce. So my dad lives in California, so I don't really
                      keep in touch with him, cuz he hasn't called for a while. So I live with my mom, so like
                      whenever I have questions I just go to my teachers because my mom, she's working a lot."

                      "My mom doesn't know it; she wasn't taught well enough. My dad knows a lot; my mom can
                      only do my brother's 3rd grade math."

                    "I also get a lot of encouragement from my mom. It's just that she's not good in math. So I
                    don't really ask her for help. And she's not home a lot; she's at work."
                 3) High School: "My mom put me through a lot of summer school. Because she doesn't
                    understand math very well, but the fact that she was trying to get me to understand it helped
                    me."

                      "My mom. She's more involved because she works at home and dad comes home and is with
                      the boys and their sports."

                      "My mom, because I live with her."

                      "My mom practiced the flash cards every night. I had to take the bus so couldn't get help
                      early in the mornings, but she would cut off my contact to the outside world so I could study. I
                      live with my mom and my youngest sister".

                      "I'll get in trouble if I don't do good. I'll be grounded."

                      "My mom was not helpful for my math and science homework during high school and
                      claimed that she did not remember the course material. She always told me to wait
                      until my dad got home."

                 4)   Undergraduate: "My parents encouraged me but it had been so long since either one had
                      taken school courses that they weren't much help."

                      "Parents didn't help as they don't know how to do the level of math I was doing; I know my
                      mom was good at math in high school. She and Dad went to college but neither one
                      finished."

                                                                                                                     1
       "My parents tried to help me review in Junior and senior high but they didn't have the same
       level we were learning. I think it was hard for them to help me because they didn't learn it."

       "My mom's not a math person. She couldn't explain calculus if her life depended on it. But my
       dad's just not very encouraging. Oh, I guess neither one is helpful."

       "They never really helped me as neither of my parents is all that good at math."

       "They didn't help. They kind of let me learn on my own; when I went to them they had
       forgotten what they learned in school."

       "They didn't really help me out that much and I pretty much did it on my own."

       "The higher level of math courses that I take, fewer of my family members have the ability to
       understand the material and be helpful to me with my homework."

c. Intervention
   1) General: Figure This! Family Corner: http://www.figurethis.org/fc/family_corner.htm
       This site encourages parents to help their children by providing information about
       how they can help t their child obtain the most they can from a math education. The
       site includes information about how to help with math homework even if it is not
       familiar and how to work with the school. The site includes an option to translate
       information into Spanish.

       Figure This! Parent/Guardian Letter: http://www.figurethis.org/pdf/tc/i-
       parent_letter.pdf
       The letter informs parents that, “Studies show that when there is a high level of
       parent involvement in education, children are more successful in school—and in
       everyday life.” The letter encourages parents to become involved and help their
       children pursue math.

       National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering:
       http://www.nacmebacksme.org/nacmebacksme/parents.html
       This website recommends that parents encourage their children to study math and
       science in order to pursue a career in engineering. It reminds parents that they are
       the most important influence in their child’s life and provides information about
       engineering careers.

       Brain Cake: Parent Teacher: http://www.braincake.org/parentteacher.aspx
       Brain cake reminds parents that they have an ability to influence their children as a
       role model. The site refers to research that shows that mothers have a particular
       influence on their daughters. They ask mothers to encourage their daughters into the
       sciences and provides resources that parents can use to help their children.

      National Science Foundation: http://www.nsf.gov/news/classroom/
      The NSF website is designed for teachers, parents and students. The site includes
      various lessons and internet resources in STEM related areas that can be used at
      home or in school. The site can be used to not only increase student knowledge, but
      family knowledge about STEM areas.
   2) Middle School: Figure This! Family Corner:
      http://www.figurethis.org/fc/family_corner.htm
      This site encourages parents to help their children by providing information about
      how they can help t their child obtain the most they can from a math education. The
      site includes information about how to help with math homework even if it is not

                                                                                                        2
   familiar and how to work with the school. The site includes an option to translate
   information into Spanish.

   Figure This! Parent/Guardian Letter: http://www.figurethis.org/pdf/tc/i-
   parent_letter.pdf
   The letter informs parents that, “Studies show that when there is a high level of
   parent involvement in education, children are more successful in school—and in
   everyday life.” The letter encourages parents to become involved and help their
   children pursue math.
   National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering:
   http://www.nacmebacksme.org/nacmebacksme/parents.html
   This website recommends that parents encourage their children to study math and
   science in order to pursue a career in engineering. It reminds parents that they are
   the most important influence in their child’s life and provides information about
   engineering careers.

   Brain Cake: Parent Teacher: http://www.braincake.org/parentteacher.aspx
   Brain cake reminds parents that they have an ability to influence their children as a
   role model. The site refers to research that shows that mothers have a particular
   influence on their daughters. They ask mothers to encourage their daughters into the
   sciences and provides resources that parents can use to help their children.

   National Science Foundation: http://www.nsf.gov/news/classroom/
   The NSF website is designed for teachers, parents and students. The site includes
   various lessons and internet resources in STEM related areas that can be used at
   home or in school. The site can be used to not only increase student knowledge, but
   also family knowledge about STEM areas.

   Parental support: it is better to guide students in their discovery and to learn along
   with them
   (6th Grade Girls, Family Tools and Technology)

   http://www.campbell-kibler.com

   LISTING OF ARTICLE CITATIONS ON WEBSITE

3) High School: Figure This! Family Corner:
   http://www.figurethis.org/fc/family_corner.htm
   This site encourages parents to help their children by providing information about
   how they can help t their child obtain the most they can from a math education. The
   site includes information about how to help with math homework even if it is not
   familiar and how to work with the school. The site includes an option to translate
   information into Spanish.

   Figure This! Parent/Guardian Letter: http://www.figurethis.org/pdf/tc/i-
   parent_letter.pdf
   The letter informs parents that, “Studies show that when there is a high level of
   parent involvement in education, children are more successful in school—and in
   everyday life.” The letter encourages parents to become involved and help their
   children pursue math.

   National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering:
   http://www.nacmebacksme.org/nacmebacksme/parents.html

                                                                                            3
             This website recommends that parents encourage their children to study math and
             science in order to pursue a career in engineering. It reminds parents that they are
             the most important influence in their child’s life and provides information about
             engineering careers.

             Brain Cake: Parent Teacher: http://www.braincake.org/parentteacher.aspx
             Brain cake reminds parents that they have an ability to influence their children as a
             role model. The site refers to research that shows that mothers have a particular
             influence on their daughters. They ask mothers to encourage their daughters into the
             sciences and provides resources that parents can use to help their children.

            National Science Foundation: http://www.nsf.gov/news/classroom/
            The NSF website is designed for teachers, parents and students. The site includes
            various lessons and internet resources in STEM related areas that can be used at
            home or in school. The site can be used to not only increase student knowledge, but
            also family knowledge about STEM areas.
        4) Undergraduate: National Science Foundation: http://www.nsf.gov/news/classroom/
            The NSF website is designed for teachers, parents and students. The site includes
            various lessons and internet resources in STEM related areas that can be used at
            home or in school. The site can be used to not only increase student knowledge, but
            also family knowledge about STEM areas.
2. Little encouragement in math and science
   a. Explanation
        1) General: Myth: When girls just aren't interested in science, parents can't do much to motivate them.

             Reality: Parents' support (as well as that of teachers) has been shown to be crucial to a girl's interest in
             science, technology, engineering and math. Making girls aware of the range of science and engineering
             careers available and their relevance to society works to attract more women (as well as men) to STEM
             careers. Parents and teachers are also in a position to tell young people what they need to do (in terms
             of coursework and grades) to put themselves on a path to a STEM career.

             Best known as the first American woman to travel in space, Sally Ride is also a physicist, educator,
             and author. She is the founder of Sally Ride Science, a science content company dedicated to
             supporting girls' and boys' interests in science, math and technology. She offers a guide for parents,
             "Science Can Take Her Places" at http://www.sallyridescience.com/.

             http://www.nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=109939

             “It also found that parents tend to do more to encourage their sons than their daughters to
             develop that interest, through such actions as buying them math- and science-related toys
             and voicing stereotypes about girls’ supposed shortcomings in those subjects.”
             Cavanagh, S. (2007) When It comes to math and science, mom and dad count: Parent
             attitudes influence how their offspring take to those subjects. Education Week. Vol. 27, Issue
             09, Page 8.


        2)   Middle School: Research shows that engaging girls in informal science education- museum
             visits, for example- increases their interest in STEM. Research shows that families who visit
             museums are more likely to bring their sons than their daughters.
             Explanatoids and Click! The Urban Adventure
             GRADE LEVEL: ELEMENTARY SCHOOL, MIDDLE SCHOOL
             JANET STOCKS
             HTTP://WWW.EXPLANATOIDS.COM
        3) High School
        4) Undergraduate: Under conservative attitudes prevalent in rural areas, girls are rarely
             encouraged to study math and science or to preserve careers in STEM.
                                                                                                                       4
          Mentoring through cross research terms, Middle and high school girls, Undergraduate and
          graduate girls
          The enthusiasm that girls develop through short-term enrichment programs is rarely
          sustained in their home and school environments. This is especially true in rural communities
          where girls are unlikely to receive strong parental support for scientific pursuits.
          Science connections, undergraduate
b. Illustration
   1) General
   2) Middle School: "It's based on how well my brother did and my grades. That's sort of how
          they…I think that's their standard".
     3) High School: “We had repercussions if you didn’t get it (a good grade). You didn’t want to be
          grounded and you want a car.”

          "I'm a self-encouraging person." (Parents don’t encourage her.)

     4)   Undergraduate: "I did not really get encouraged. I can't really think they would have helped in
          sophomore or junior year. My dad is not a math person and would say, go ask your mother."
          "Not really, most of the time they didn't help in math."

c.   Intervention
     1) General: Brain Cake: Parent Teacher: http://www.braincake.org/parentteacher.aspx
          Brain cake reminds parents that they have an ability to influence their children as a role model. The site refers to research that shows
          that mothers have a particular influence on their daughters. They ask mothers to encourage their daughters into the sciences and
          provides resource information parents can use to help their children.

          National Science Foundation: http://www.nsf.gov/news/classroom/
          The NSF website is designed for teachers, parents and students. The site includes various lessons and internet resources in STEM
          related areas that can be used at home or in school. The site can be used to not only increase student knowledge, but also family
          knowledge about STEM areas.

          Figure This! Family Corner: http://www.figurethis.org/fc/family_corner.htm
          This site encourages parents to help their children by providing information about how they can help t their child obtain the most they
          can from a math education. The site includes information about how to help with math homework even if it is not familiar and how to
          work with the school. The site includes an option to translate information into Spanish.

          Figure This! Parent/Guardian Letter: http://www.figurethis.org/pdf/tc/i-parent_letter.pdf
          The letter informs parents that, “Studies show that when there is a high level of parent involvement in education, children are more
          successful in school—and in everyday life.” The letter encourages parents to become involved and help their children pursue math.
     2)   Middle School: National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering: http://www.nacmebacksme.org/nacmebacksme/parents.html
          This website recommends that parents encourage their children to study math and science in order to pursue a career in engineering.
          It reminds parents that they are the most important influence in their child’s life and provides information about engineering careers.

          Brain Cake: Parent Teacher: http://www.braincake.org/parentteacher.aspx
          Brain cake reminds parents that they have an ability to influence their children as a role model. The site refers to research that shows
          that mothers have a particular influence on their daughters. They ask mothers to encourage their daughters into the sciences and
          provides resource information parents can use to help their children.

          Girls Go Tech: It’s Her Future: Encourage a Girl in Math, Science and Technology: http://www.girlsgotech.org/girlsgotech_booklet.pdf
          This booklet reminds parents that saying things like “I was never good at math or science” around their daughters sends a message
          to the child. This site provides tools to help parents encourage their daughters about math and science and to help them find answers
          about math even if these subjects were not easy for the parent.

          Figure This! Family Corner: http://www.figurethis.org/fc/family_corner.htm
          This site encourages parents to help their children by providing information about how they can help t their child obtain the most they
          can from a math education. The site includes information about how to help with math homework even if it is not familiar and how to
          work with the school. The site includes an option to translate information into Spanish.

          Figure This! Parent/Guardian Letter: http://www.figurethis.org/pdf/tc/i-parent_letter.pdf
          The letter informs parents that, “Studies show that when there is a high level of parent involvement in education, children are more
          successful in school—and in everyday life.” The letter encourages parents to become involved and help their children pursue math.
     3)   High School: National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering: http://www.nacmebacksme.org/nacmebacksme/parents.html
          This website recommends that parents encourage their children to study math and science in order to pursue a career in engineering.
          It reminds parents that they are the most important influence in their child’s life and provides information about engineering careers.

          Brain Cake: Parent Teacher: http://www.braincake.org/parentteacher.aspx
          Brain cake reminds parents that they have an ability to influence their children as a role model. The site refers to research that shows
          that mothers have a particular influence on their daughters. They ask mothers to encourage their daughters into the sciences and
          provides resource information parents can use to help their children.

          Girls Go Tech: It’s Her Future: Encourage a Girl in Math, Science and Technology: http://www.girlsgotech.org/girlsgotech_booklet.pdf
          This booklet reminds parents that saying things like “I was never good at math or science” around their daughters sends a message
          to the child. This site provides tools to help parents encourage their daughters about math and science and to help them find answers
          about math even if these subjects were not easy for the parent.


                                                                                                                                                 5
            Figure This! Family Corner: http://www.figurethis.org/fc/family_corner.htm
            This site encourages parents to help their children by providing information about how they can help t their child obtain the most they
            can from a math education. The site includes information about how to help with math homework even if it is not familiar and how to
            work with the school. The site includes an option to translate information into Spanish.

            Figure This! Parent/Guardian Letter: http://www.figurethis.org/pdf/tc/i-parent_letter.pdf
            The letter informs parents that, “Studies show that when there is a high level of parent involvement in education, children are more
            successful in school—and in everyday life.” The letter encourages parents to become involved and help their children pursue math.
       4)   Undergraduate:


3. Low aspirations or expectations for success in math and science
   a. Explanation
      1) General:
      2) Middle School: Research shows that engaging girls in informal science education- museum
          visits, for example- increases their interest in STEM. Research shows that families who visit
          museums are more likely to bring their sons than their daughters.
          Explanatoids and Click! The Urban Adventure
          GRADE LEVEL: ELEMENTARY SCHOOL, MIDDLE SCHOOL
          JANET STOCKS
          HTTP://WWW.EXPLANATOIDS.COM
       3) High School: Women of color are much more likely than their male counterparts to have been
          victims of the “tyranny of low expectations.”
          Bring Minority High School Girls into Science
      4) Undergraduate:
   b. Illustration
      1) General: "My dad says if you don't make an A, you're in trouble…It makes me feel like I'm not
            good enough if I get a B."
      2) Middle School:
      3) High School
      4) Undergraduate
   c. Intervention
      1) General: Figure This! Family Support Brochure:
            http://www.figurethis.org/pdf/tc/l-family_support.pdf
            The brochure encourages parents to support their children in math. The brochure includes a section that recommends that parents be
            positive about math and encourages parents to have high expectations for their children.
       2)   Middle School: Figure This! Family Support Brochure:
            http://www.figurethis.org/pdf/tc/l-family_support.pdf
            The brochure encourages parents to support their children in math. The brochure includes a section that recommends that parents be
            positive about math and encourages parents to have high expectations for their children.
       3)   High School: Figure This! Family Support Brochure:
            http://www.figurethis.org/pdf/tc/l-family_support.pdf
            The brochure encourages parents to support their children in math. The brochure includes a section that recommends that parents be
            positive about math and encourages parents to have high expectations for their children.
      4) Undergraduate:
4. Maternal math anxiety transmitted to daughter
   a. Explanation
      1) General:
      2) Middle School: “Parents, according to the study, tend to provide more “math supportive”
            environments for their sons than for their daughters by buying them more math- and science-
            related toys, books, and games and spending more time around the home on those subjects
            with boys than with girls.”
            Cavanagh, S. (2007) When It comes to math and science, mom and dad count: Parent
            attitudes influence how their offspring take to those subjects. Education Week. Vol. 27, Issue
            09, Page 8.
            “Parents buy more math and science items for their sons than for their daughters.”
            SOURCE: Gender Differences in Mathematics: An Integrative Psychological Approach
            Cavanagh, S. (2007) When It comes to math and science, mom and dad count: Parent
            attitudes influence how their offspring take to those subjects. Education Week. Vol. 27, Issue
            09, Page 8.

            “Parents also hold gender stereotypes and convey them to their children, such as that boys
            are more talented than girls in math and more suited to careers in that field, the study found.”
                                                                                                                                                   6
          Cavanagh, S. (2007) When It comes to math and science, mom and dad count: Parent
          attitudes influence how their offspring take to those subjects. Education Week. Vol. 27, Issue
          09, Page 8.
          “The researchers found that fathers’ gender stereotypes are especially strong predictors of
          children’s interest in math. The more entrenched the father’s gender stereotype, the less
          likely his daughter is to take an interest in the subject. Boys’ interest in math, perhaps not
          surprisingly, tends to be stronger, the researchers found, if the father’s traditional gender
          biases are stronger.”
          Cavanagh, S. (2007) When It comes to math and science, mom and dad count: Parent
          attitudes influence how their offspring take to those subjects. Education Week. Vol. 27, Issue
          09, Page 8.

          “Mothers’ gender stereotypes about boys’ having more math talent, by contrast, tend to affect
          sons and daughters almost equally, Ms. Bleeker said. The stronger the mother’s stereotype,
          the study found, the less enthusiasm both sons and daughters had for math.”
          Cavanagh, S. (2007) When It comes to math and science, mom and dad count: Parent
          attitudes influence how their offspring take to those subjects. Education Week. Vol. 27, Issue
          09, Page 8.

          “One explanation for that finding is that mothers with stereotypical views about math have
          less personal interest in that subject overall, and as a result, neither their sons nor daughters
          develop a fondness for it, suggested Ms. Bleeker, formerly a graduate student at Penn State,
          and now a survey researcher at Mathematica Policy Research Inc., in Princeton, N.J.”
          Cavanagh, S. (2007) When It comes to math and science, mom and dad count: Parent
          attitudes influence how their offspring take to those subjects. Education Week. Vol. 27, Issue
          09, Page 8.
          “Authors Harriet Tenenbaum and Campbell Leaper also found that fathers, when teaching
          their children about science-related subjects, used more probing, sophisticated scientific
          language and questions with their sons than they did with their daughters. Those fathers
          could be “encouraging intellectual engagement” in science among their sons more than with
          their daughters, the authors concluded.”
          Cavanagh, S. (2007) When It comes to math and science, mom and dad count: Parent
          attitudes influence how their offspring take to those subjects. Education Week. Vol. 27, Issue
          09, Page 8.

          “Research has shown that fathers are more likely than mothers to encourage gender
          stereotypes among children, and their tendency to use more demanding scientific anguage
          with boys, assuming they can handle it, may reflect that habit, Mr. Leaper said.”
          Cavanagh, S. (2007) When It comes to math and science, mom and dad count: Parent
          attitudes influence how their offspring take to those subjects. Education Week. Vol. 27, Issue
          09, Page 8.

          “Teachers and school peers also convey gender stereotypes about math and science ability,
          often unintentionally, Mr. Leaper said. On the other hand, many stereotypes about males’ and
          females’ strengths have lessened, as professional opportunities for women have increased,
          he said.”
          Cavanagh, S. (2007) When It comes to math and science, mom and dad count: Parent
          attitudes influence how their offspring take to those subjects. Education Week. Vol. 27, Issue
          09, Page 8.
   3) High School
   4) Undergraduate
b. Intervention
   1) General: Girls Go Tech: It’s Her Future: Encourage a Girl in Math, Science and Technology:
          http://www.girlsgotech.org/girlsgotech_booklet.pdf
          This booklet reminds parents that saying things like “I was never good at math or science” around their daughters sends a message
          to the child. This site provides tools to help parents encourage their daughters about math and science and to help them find answers
          about math even if these subjects were not easy for the parent.
     2) Middle School: Girls Go Tech: It’s Her Future: Encourage a Girl in Math, Science and Technology:
          http://www.girlsgotech.org/girlsgotech_booklet.pdf
          This booklet reminds parents that saying things like “I was never good at math or science” around their daughters sends a message


                                                                                                                                              7
                  to the child. This site provides tools to help parents encourage their daughters about math and science and to help them find answers
                  about math even if these subjects were not easy for the parent.
             3)   High School: Girls Go Tech: It’s Her Future: Encourage a Girl in Math, Science and Technology:
                  http://www.girlsgotech.org/girlsgotech_booklet.pdf
                  This booklet reminds parents that saying things like “I was never good at math or science” around their daughters sends a message
                  to the child. This site provides tools to help parents encourage their daughters about math and science and to help them find answers
                  about math even if these subjects were not easy for the parent.
          4) Undergraduate:
B. School
   1. Ineffective teaching methods in math and science
      a. Explanation
          1) General: Traditional instruction in the sciences relies heavily on textbook learning. More
                recent standards based instruction emphasizes firsthand investigation of scientific
                phenomena. Educators say that students should learn about science through their own
                actions, not from a text. The potential conflict: girls tend to be strong readers, and an
                overemphasis on investigation may hurt their chances of excelling.
                BRINGING YOUNG GIRLS INTO SCIENCE WITH BOOKS AND INQUIRY
                GRADE LEVEL: ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
                DANIELLE FORD
                Traditional math instruction in the classroom often assumes that learners will work alone and
                are best motivated by competition.
                COLLABORATION, REFLECTION, AND ROLE MODELS
                Carole Beale
                http://www.wayangoutpost.net
             2) Middle School: Teachers tend to teach the way they were taught, and teacher education
                programs have little or no impact on student teachers’ personal philosophies of teaching or
                learning. Some student teachers resist or struggle with learning to teach for understanding or
                for diversity, and if student teachers feel they lack the support required to take risks during
                student teaching, they will fall back on the safe, traditional teacher-centered norm to which
                they have become accustomed after 15 or so years of teaching.
                Maxima: Changing the way children learn science: middle school
             3)   High School: Molecular Workbench: http://workbench.concord.org/database/
                  This interactive site provides visual activities that provide students with a greater understanding of science. After selecting a topic
                  students learn about the activity objectives, the central concepts, benchmarks and standards. It is an alternative to focusing on text-
                  book activities.


                  Traditional teaching methods of lecturing and note taking may leave some students feeling
                  bored and uninterested in math and science

             4)   Undergraduate: The way science is usually taught especially leads many women to leave
                  science for more congenial academic fields.
                  WISE Beginnings, first year undergraduate females

                  The enthusiasm that girls develop through short-term enrichment programs is rarely
                  sustained in their home and school environments. This is especially true in rural communities
                  where teachers are rarely familiar with cooperative activity-based learning and lack even
                  rudimentary supplies and equipment needed for hands-on activities.
                  Science connections, undergraduate
        b.   Illustration
             1) General: Council of Chief State School Officers: http://www.ccsso.org/projects/surveys_of_Enacted_Curriculum/
                  The CCSSO website contains information about instructor surveys. After answering survey questions, teachers are given an easy to
                  read analysis of how well their instruction aligns with state requirements. The data provides an opportunity for instructors to
                  objectively evaluate whether their course will help students achieve the necessary goals established by the state in light of No Child
                  Left Behind.
             2)                  doesn't quite help you and she's more tired of the field of math and she gets
                  Middle School: "She
                  the same questions and she's frustrated and not as helpful anymore."

                  "She doesn't really explain things, she just kinda does examples and she's just like, 'Go off
                  and do your own work now.'”

                   "She'll say things that I won't understand. She'll say it in her way and sometimes she puts it
                  in my way."
                                                                                                                                                            8
       "My math teachers didn't spend a lot of time on the subjects we were learning and they'd go
       over it too fast."

       "He really doesn't do anything in science. If he would do something, he would help us read
       the book, he would help us real out loud."

       "Because sometimes they explain it but they wouldn't do it in a way so that someone could
       understand it. They wouldn't give the best examples."

       "I think we do too many notes. Yeah, she makes us copy things out of the book and so we
       hardly discuss them."

      "If they (teachers) would have warm-ups and instead of people raising their hands she would
      call on them and embarrass yourself going to the board. It didn't help if you liked math
      because you're so afraid of getting it wrong."
   3) High School: "I remember in my 6th grade, one teacher, she yelled a lot at us if we didn't
      understand it. She'd yell a lot…If you got something wrong and you like couldn't understand,
      she'd basically…yell, like, " Oh my god, how could you not understand it?"

       “On our new stuff, like math it's really hard. And I don't like doing things by myself. I'd rather
       have kind of a partner involved and helping me out.”

       "We have a really big class and not a lot of one-on-one time. It's not her fault but the
       circumstances."

       "Tell her to stop talking so much. It's so monotonous and blah."

       "She's like a small teacher, so she just goes fast and tries to get her lesson in. And then, if we
       understand it, then that's good, and if we don't she'll do it again."

       "Show less videos. I know people love videos, but I don't, watching the same videos over and
       over again with the same information."

       "They don't always answer what you asked. It's circular reasoning. They are pompous and
       think they know everything."

       "My advanced placement calculus teacher taught straight from the book and would often skip
       steps during his explantions."

   4) Undergraduate: “They just used board work. I remember some word problems but the
       connection wasn't made between the real world problems and textbook problems. That's
       probably why I didn't like math or science.”

       “She gives us examples to do, but if you don't know how to do them, it doesn't really help.”

       "Would just stand in front of the class and write notes on the board and then give you
       problems."

       Most of them had no idea what they were teaching or talking about and mostly they would
       just read out of the book"

       "Didn't engage the class with enough examples"

       "It was kind of more of the standing up, giving you notes, and expecting you to learn it rather
       than teaching you and helping you with examples"

c. Intervention

                                                                                                            9
1) General: Shodor: http://www.shodor.org/educators/
     Shodor provides resources for elementary thru college educators in the computational sciences. Educators are given free access to
     online tools to increase the educator’s effectiveness in the classroom. The site also provides information about workshops in various
     scientific areas.

     Council of Chief State School Officers: http://www.ccsso.org/projects/surveys_of_Enacted_Curriculum/
     The CCSSO website contains information about instructor surveys. After answering survey questions, teachers are given an easy to
     read analysis of how well their instruction aligns with state requirements. The data provides an opportunity for instructors to
     objectively evaluate whether their course will help students achieve the necessary goals established by the state in light of No Child
     Left Behind.

     Engineering Pathway: http://www.engineeringpathway.com/ep/index.jhtml
     This site connects K-12 and university educators with "high-quality" science, technology, engineering, and math resources to
     supplement their curriculum. Resources include papers regarding topics relevant to STEM, information about STEM programs, etc.

     Try Engineering: Lesson Plans: http://www.tryengineering.org/lesson.php
     Try Engineering includes a list of lessons plans for teachers to incorporate engineering principals into course work. The plans are
     relevant for youth between the ages of 8-18 and are divided by age appropriateness.

     The Center for Innovation in Engineering and Science Education (CIESE): http://www.ciese.org/currichome.html
     CISE provides information regarding math, science and technology programs that can be used to enhance any K-12 curriculum in
     these areas. Each project includes information about the National Science Standards and/or the NCTM math standards it supports.

     Technology Enhanced Elementary and Middle School Science (TEEMSS2): http://teemss2.concord.org/
     This site provides “inquiry-based activities” teachers can utilize in the class room to effectively teach students about science. The site
     allows students to answer everyday scientific questions like how a light bulb works. The activities are based on National Science
     Education Standards and are designed for use in a school environment. Teachers must register for students to use the program

     Learning Science: http://www.learningscience.org/
     This site is specifically designed for educators and provides access to tools for use when teaching science. The site includes a
     multitude of information that is divided by topic and grade.

     GeoGebra: http://www.geogebra.org/cms/index.php?option=com_frontpage&Itemid=1 GeoGebra provides schools with free access
     to software that combines algebra, geometry and calculus. Instructors can use the site to create worksheets to challenge students
     and their math skills.

     Does it Compute?: The Relationship Between Educational Technology and Student Achievement in Mathematics:
     ftp://ftp.ets.org/pub/res/technolog.pdf
     This information report includes information about the relationship between technology and mathematics. Teachers can review this
     report to increase their knowledge about how to effectively use technology to teach mathematics.

     National Science Foundation: http://www.nsf.gov/news/classroom/
     The NSF website is designed for teachers, parents and students. The site includes various lessons and internet resources in STEM
     related areas that can be used at home or in school.
2)   Middle School: Shodor: http://www.shodor.org/educators/
     Shodor provides resources for elementary thru college educators in the computational sciences. Educators are given free access to
     online tools to increase the educator’s effectiveness in the classroom. The site also provides information about workshops in various
     scientific areas.

     Engineering Pathway: http://www.engineeringpathway.com/ep/index.jhtml
     This site connects K-12 and university educators with "high-quality" science, technology, engineering, and math resources to
     supplement their curriculum. Resources include papers regarding topics relevant to STEM, information about STEM programs, etc.

     Try Engineering: Lesson Plans: http://www.tryengineering.org/lesson.php
     Try Engineering includes a list of lessons plans for teachers to incorporate engineering principals into course work. The plans are
     relevant for youth between the ages of 8-18 and are divided by age appropriateness.

     National Action Council for Minorities in Engineer: http://www.nacmebacksme.org/nacmebacksme/teachers.html
     This site provides information and resources that teachers can use to help middle school and high school students prepare for a
     career as an engineer.

     The Center for Innovation in Engineering and Science Education (CIESE): http://www.ciese.org/currichome.html
     CISE provides information regarding math, science and technology programs that can be used to enhance any K-12 curriculum in
     these areas. Each project includes information about the National Science Standards and/or the NCTM math standards it supports.

     Technology Enhanced Elementary and Middle School Science (TEEMSS2): http://teemss2.concord.org/
     This site provides “inquiry-based activities” teachers can utilize in the class room to effectively teach students about science. The site
     allows students to answer everyday scientific questions like how a light bulb works. The activities are based on National Science
     Education Standards and are designed for use in a school environment. Teachers must register for students to use the program

     Learning Science: http://www.learningscience.org/
     This site is specifically designed for educators and provides access to tools for use when teaching science. The site includes a
     multitude of information that is divided by topic and grade.

     GeoGebra: http://www.geogebra.org/cms/index.php?option=com_frontpage&Itemid=1 GeoGebra provides schools with free access
     to software that combines algebra, geometry and calculus. Instructors can use the site to create worksheets to challenge students
     and their math skills.

     Does it Compute?: The Relationship Between Educational Technology and Student Achievement in Mathematics:
     ftp://ftp.ets.org/pub/res/technolog.pdf
     This information report includes information about the relationship between technology and mathematics. Teachers can review this
     report to increase their knowledge about how to effectively use technology to teach mathematics.

     National Science Foundation: http://www.nsf.gov/news/classroom/


                                                                                                                                            10
    The NSF website is designed for teachers, parents and students. The site includes various lessons and internet resources in STEM
    related areas that can be used at home or in school.


Hands-on small group work makes it possible to experience more activities
4th and 5th Grade Girls, Smart: Learning by Doing
School-Based SMART: Opportunities for Girls and Girls Incorporated Affiliates (A Working Guide)

Stages of learning: questioning, investigation, evaluating, implementing, revising and re-
evaluating: steps that require prediction, experimentation and revision
6th Grade Girls, Family Tools and Technology
http://www.campbell-kibler.com

LISTING OF ARTICLE CITATIONS ON WEBSITE
Making a Splash: A Guide to Getting your Programs, Products and Ideas Out

Arlene Chasek
http://www.edc.org/CCT/pwg/FILES/proj_dir/projects/9553482.htm
www.nsf.gov/pubs/2000/nsf99150/nsf99150_sessions.pdfThe most effective tools in motivating
girls 10 to 12 were hands-on instructional techniques, a thematic approach to teaching and
learning, and exposure to women who were practicing scientists
Femme Continuum, post ninth grade girls

Howard Kimmel
http://chemicaleng.njit.edu/people/profiles/kimmel.php
http://fie.engrng.pitt.edu/fie2003/authors/K.htm
http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/548081.html

LISTING OF ARTICLE CITATIONS ON WEBSITE

Learning things in a fun way increases ability to remember the related concepts
Girls First, elementary and middle school girls
http://www.chabotspace.org/visit/programs/first.asp
Girls FIRST: A Guide to Starting Science Clubs for Girls
Linda Kekelis & Etta Heber

Intelligent tutoring systems, unlike common drill and practice systems, modify themselves to
conform to students’ learning styles
AnimalWatch: Computer-based Math Tutor, middle school girls

Carole Beal, Beverly Woolf, Klaus Schultz, David Hart, Paul Cohen

Cohen, P. R., Oates, T., Adams, N. M., and Beal, C. R. 2001. Robot Baby 2001. In Proceedings
of the 12th international Conference on Algorithmic Learning theory (November 25 - 28, 2001). N.
Abe, R. Khardon, and T. Zeugmann, Eds. Lecture Notes In Computer Science, vol. 2225.
Springer-Verlag, London, 32-56.
http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=647719.735938&coll=&dl=acm&CFID=15151515&CFTOKE
N=6184618

Everyone learned that there is more to technical subject than textbooks- the real fun starts with
projects
Hands-on engineering projects for middle school girlsThe holistic, project- and problem based
approach to learning was a female friendly vehicle for teaching STEM concepts and improving
critical thinking and problem-solving skills
Partners in Engineering, 8th grade girls and college undergraduates

         Susan Powers, Amy Zander, Jan DeWaters, H. James Baxter



                                                                                                                                  11
       Teachers need concrete opportunities to improve their skills and knowledge of content.
They need to explore how issues of power and privilege, ethnicity, gender, and voice, influence
the how, when and why of what is to be learned. They need concrete examples of how to be
more gender sensitive and meet the needs of an increasingly diverse student population.
Maxima: Changing the way children learn science: middle school

          Susan Brown, Alberto Rodriguez, Lisa Snow, Patrick Scott, Cathy Zozakeiwiz

      Using a variety of student centered teaching and learning activities
Maxima: Changing the way children learn science: middle school

Monitoring groups for equity (who is doing the talking and who is using the equipment)
Maxima: Changing the way children learn science: middle school

Assigning tasks equally
Maxima: Changing the way children learn science: middle school

Monitoring praise and acknowledging accomplishments
Maxima: Changing the way children learn science: middle school

Accepting more than one right answer
Maxima: Changing the way children learn science: middle school

Implementing wait-time and equitable turn-taking
Maxima: Changing the way children learn science: middle school

Encouraging peer tutoring
Maxima: Changing the way children learn science: middle school

Displaying images of men and women from varying ethnic backgrounds and career roles
Maxima: Changing the way children learn science: middle school

Praising and encouraging collaborative learning and avoiding a competitive environment
Maxima: Changing the way children learn science: middle school

Cooperative hands-on projects made the girls see that although not all ideas work, everyone
should have a chance to express their ideas
Role models in changing Hispanic girls’ job aspirations, middle school

Through an equitable framework for science teaching, the project set these goals for teachers: to
learn to encourage all student voices, to maintain high expectations, to delegate responsibility,
and to be explicit about equity.
Triad alliance science clubs, middle school

Elizabeth Chatman, Margaret Clark, Maria Santos
biochemistry.ucsf.edu/~sep/Library/news24.pdfNew Strategies: such as grouping students by
gender, allowing waiting time with a slow responder before asking someone else to answer a
question, alternating calling on girls and boys, and asking girls more open-ended, higher-order
questions.
Triad alliance science clubs, middle school
Elizabeth Chatman, Margaret Clark, Maria Santos
biochemistry.ucsf.edu/~sep/Library/news24.pdf

3)   High School: Shodor: http://www.shodor.org/educators/
     Shodor provides resources for elementary thru college educators in the computational sciences. Educators are given free access to
     online tools to increase the educator’s effectiveness in the classroom. The site also provides information about workshops in various
     scientific areas.

     Engineering Pathway: http://www.engineeringpathway.com/ep/index.jhtml
     This site connects K-12 and university educators with "high-quality" science, technology, engineering, and math resources to
     supplement their curriculum. Resources include papers regarding topics relevant to STEM, information about STEM programs, etc.

                                                                                                                                        12
Try Engineering: Lesson Plans: http://www.tryengineering.org/lesson.php
Try Engineering includes a list of lessons plans for teachers to incorporate engineering principals into course work. The plans are
relevant for youth between the ages of 8-18 and are divided by age appropriateness.

National Action Council for Minorities in Engineer: http://www.nacmebacksme.org/nacmebacksme/teachers.html
This site provides information and resources that teachers can use to help middle school and high school students prepare for a
career as an engineer.

The Center for Innovation in Engineering and Science Education (CIESE): http://www.ciese.org/currichome.html
CISE provides information regarding math, science and technology programs that can be used to enhance any K-12 curriculum in
these areas. Each project includes information about the National Science Standards and/or the NCTM math standards it supports.

Molecular Workbench: http://workbench.concord.org/database/
This interactive site provides visual activities that provide students with a greater understanding of science. After selecting a topic
students learn about the activity objectives, the central concepts, benchmarks and standards. It is an alternative to focusing on text-
book activities.

Learning Science: http://www.learningscience.org/
This site is specifically designed for educators and provides access to tools for use when teaching science. The site includes a
multitude of information that is divided by topic and grade.

GeoGebra: http://www.geogebra.org/cms/index.php?option=com_frontpage&Itemid=1 GeoGebra provides schools with free access
to software that combines algebra, geometry and calculus. Instructors can use the site to create worksheets to challenge students
and their math skills.

Does it Compute?: The Relationship Between Educational Technology and Student Achievement in Mathematics:
ftp://ftp.ets.org/pub/res/technolog.pdf
This information report includes information about the relationship between technology and mathematics. Teachers can review this
report to increase their knowledge about how to effectively use technology to teach mathematics.

National Science Foundation: http://www.nsf.gov/news/classroom/
The NSF website is designed for teachers, parents and students. The site includes various lessons and internet resources in STEM
related areas that can be used at home or in school.




     Experiment with alternatives to note taking
     Tips for Teachers

     Interactivity and Social relevance
     Girls and Technology, Teachers
     http://www.wcs.org/

     Activities that demystify technology
     Techbridge, Jr. and Sr. High School girls

     Linda Kekelis & Etta Heber

     Kekelis, L. & Heber, E. Girls FIRST: A Guide to Starting Science Clubs for Girls
     http://www.chabotspace.org/visit/programs/first.asp

     Activities that build both skills and confidence in handling technology
     Techbridge, Jr. and Sr. High School girls

     Linda Kekelis & Etta Heber

     Kekelis, L. & Heber, E. Girls FIRST: A Guide to Starting Science Clubs for Girls
     http://www.chabotspace.org/visit/programs/first.asp

     Learning is project-based
     Techbridge, Jr. and Sr. High School girls

     Projects that address girls’ real interests and needs
     ***Techbridge, Jr. and Sr. High School girls

     Linda Kekelis & Etta Heber



                                                                                                                                      13
                        Kekelis, L. & Heber, E. Girls FIRST: A Guide to Starting Science Clubs for Girls
                        http://www.chabotspace.org/visit/programs/first.asp

                        Including a project with tangible results that the girls can take away with them (physical or virtual,
                        so that the students can share their accomplishments)
                        What Works in Programs for Girls, high school
                        http://www.scu.edu/SCU/Projects/NSFWorkshop99/

                        Teachers provide feedback about the training as “a plus and a wish,” balancing praise with
                        criticism.
                        Get Set, Go!, Teachers

                        4)   Undergraduate: Shodor: http://www.shodor.org/educators/
                             Shodor provides resources for elementary thru college educators in the computational sciences. Educators are given free access to
                             online tools to increase the educator’s effectiveness in the classroom. The site also provides information about workshops in various
                             scientific areas.

                             National Science Foundation: http://www.nsf.gov/news/classroom/
                             The NSF website is designed for teachers, parents and students. The site includes various lessons and internet resources in STEM
                             related areas that can be used at home or in school.



Students use a techniques called transactional writing- a kind of public writing that students use to develop and construct
a clear expression of their mathematical understanding; writing becomes a tool to learn.Womenwin: Learning math
through transactional writing, females in community collegeSuzanne Austin, Adelaida Ballester, Susan Buckley-
Hollandhttp://www.edc.org/CCT/pwg/FILES/across/trans/people/staff.htmhttp://www.edc.org/CCT/pwg/FILES/proj_dir/proj
ects/9554188.htmTransactional writing changes the emphasis from “calculating” to “understanding.”Womenwin: Learning
math through transactional writing, females in community collegeSuzanne Austin, Adelaida Ballester, Susan Buckley-
Hollandhttp://www.edc.org/CCT/pwg/FILES/across/trans/people/staff.htmhttp://www.edc.org/CCT/pwg/FILES/proj_dir/proj
ects/9554188.htm



Through the writing assignments and the ensuing discussions, the instructor was better able to diagnose and remedy the
most obscure of missing pieces.Womenwin: Learning math through transactional writing, females in community
collegeWriting assignments revealed misconceptions that would not be picked up in more traditional assessment
measures.Womenwin: Learning math through transactional writing, females in community college

Assuming that girls don’t experience enough hands-on activities to develop visualization skills, this project offers a
workshop that helps them do better in engineering graphics.Developing Visualization Skills: Undergraduate
femalesAudeen
Fentimanhttps://engineering.purdue.edu/Engr/People/ptProfile?resource_id=13061https://engineering.purdue.edu/ENE/P
eople/profile?resource_id=13061

LISTING OF ARTICLE CITATIONS ON WEBSITEThe feminist model for assessment focuses on improving learning and
teaching by being student-centered, using multiple quantitative and qualitative methods of assessment, and viewing
achievement from many perspectives.Women’s Studies in Science: Can we talk? Undergraduate

Caryn McTighe Musil, Debra Humphreys

www.aacu.org/press_room/press_releases/2005/musil_award.cfmhttp://www.diversityweb.org/diversity_innovations/curric
ulum_change/principles_and_practices/curriculum_briefing.cfmwww.diversityweb.org/Digest/vol10no2/vol10no2.pdfwww.
ncrw.org/research/98conf.htmwww.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/recordDetail?accno=ED493635http://www.cic.uiuc.edu/gr
oups/WISEPanel/archive/BestPractice/Best1Guidebook/professing_science.htmaacu-
secure.nisgroup.com/publications/pdfs/DramaofDiversity.pdf

LISTING OF ARTICLE CITATIONS ON WEBSITE

A meta-analysis by Springer, Stanne, and Donovan indicated that students who learn in small groups demonstrate greater
academic performance, express more positive attitudes toward learning, and persist in science and math courses and

                                                                                                                                                                14
programs more than their more traditionally taught counterparts. They suggested that the provision of small group
alternatives to lecture-based instruction may have large effects on the academic achievement of members of
underrepresented groups and the learning-related attitudes of women.

  Springer, L., M.E. Stanne, and S.S. Donovan, Effects of small-group learning on undergraduates in STEM: A met-analysis.   Review of Educational
Research, 1999. 69(1), p. 21-51.




                    2. Little/no encouragement from teachers in math and science
                       a. Explanation
                            1 ) General
                            2) Middle School
                            3) High School
                            4) Undergraduate: It is a common belief among first-year undergraduate students that
                               introductory math and engineering classes are “weedouts.” The perception of a “weeding
                               out” atmosphere discourages many interested students from pursuing science, math, and
                               engineering degrees. Some faculty members ;rovide little encouragement and perceive
                               that deficits in ability distinguish those who leave from those who remain. Widespread
                               acceptance of this theory allows schools and departments to regard student attrition as a
                               kind of “natural selection” process. In contrast, many studies have shown repeatedly that
                               students who leave are intelligent and strongly motivated, but are discouraged by lack of
                               teacher encouragement and by the competitive atmosphere [22]-[23]-[24]. One research
                               study found that 33 percent of the students switching out of a science, math, or
                               engineering field perceived that morale was undermined by a competitive culture [9].
                               Astin, A.W. Competition or cooperation? Teaching teamwork as a basic skill. Change, 1987, 19,
                               16-19.
                               Astin, A.W. The implicit curriculum: What are we really teaching our undergraduates? Liberal
                               Education, 1988, 74(1), 6-10.
                                Astin, A.W. Student involvement: A developmental theory for higher education. Journal of
                               College Student Development. 1999, 40, 518-529.
                               Seymour, E., Undergraduate problems with teaching and advising in SME majors: explaining
                               gender differences in attrition rates. Journal of College Science Teaching, 1992. p. 284-292.
                         b. Illustration
                            1) General:
                            2) Middle School: "Sometimes our math teacher gets upset with us and says go to work and
                                    doesn't explain things fully… Sometimes she tells us she wishes she had never become a
                                    teacher because she was an engineer and worked on missiles."

                                    "When they put you down if you did bad on one math test and say you should have done
                                    better. If the whole class had good grades and one person did bad or there were 3 C's, it was
                                    pointed out."

                                    "In the classroom the teacher doesn't explain things too well and she kind of makes you feel,
                                    not stupid, but like you're about this big when you ask a question and you're kind of afraid to
                                    talk to her."

                                    "You ask them a question and they don't let you continue. They tell you to look in the book.
                                    They don't care and say, "You should know this by now."

                                    "They are not willing to help you."
                               3) High School: "She would ignore me. She didn't like me. Well cuz I got in trouble at the
                                    beginning of the year and she decided I was a bad kid from then on even though I was a
                                    good kid."
                                                                                                                                                    15
       "She talks a lot…but she's not a warm teacher. With other teachers we talk about all kinds of
       things. She's not very open."

       "I felt discouraged because I was asking questions, on questions, on questions and no one
       would answer me. But I understand why a little bit. I was annoying, maybe just a little,
       because I just never really understood."

        "Sometimes they don't understand why you don't understand. They'd get frustrated easily
       sometimes."

       "It was more the teacher. She was never there to help like before school or after school. And
       she was one of those teachers that talked to the chalkboard, not to the class."

       "It was a huge chemistry class and my teacher didn't really have time to answer questions.
       She was always buzzing about trying to talk to everyone at the same time. I don't know, I
       didn't want to make her day any more stressful...It's not that the teacher wouldn't have
       answered my questions."

       "She was mean. I never say that about other teachers. She would constantly call on me and I
       would tell her I didn't know how to do it and she wouldn't explain it and just hand me the
       formula. One problem right after the other…it was embarrassing and I started ditching and
       had to take it over freshman year."

       "She told me I was an idiot once...She told us a lot of stuff I think was wrong, like if a woman
       got pregnant it would be a girl if the man wore tight pants and the semen got squished...She
       was so bad."

      "I'd always have to ask more questions, on top of questions, on top of questions and they
      always got frustrated with me because I'd have a question about that answer and a question
      about that answer and I'd just keep going. They weren't real happy with me. It got to the
      point they wouldn't answer my questions anymore.”
   4) Undergraduate: “Not as approachable; I didn't feel I could go ask them questions."

       "He just told us that people ten years ago were more intelligent than today."

       “I don't feel that either of my teachers was that encouraging. In my freshman year when I
       wasn't doing well in algebra, my teacher would suggest, 'you should be understanding this
       but you're not--without explaining."
c. Intervention
   1) General: “Avoid using general praise, such as “good job,” when providing feedback to
      individual students or the entire class.” “Encouraging Girls in Math and Science” Institute of
      Educational Sciences Practice Guide. U.S. Department of Education, p. 9.
   2) ***Middle School: Oceanography is inherently interdisciplinary, requiring a foundation in
      math, a familiarity with biology, chemistry, geology and physics, four areas of science in
      which women are often underrepresented. The oceanography camp for girls encouraged girls
      poised to enter high school to take more math and science courses and to consider the
      sciences as a career option.
      Oceanography camp for girls, middle school

       Teresa Greely, Paula Coble, Peter Betzer, Pamela Hallock-Muller, Carmen Kelly, Joan
       Rose, Sara Tebbens, Hepsi Zsoldos

       http://www.marine.usf.edu/girlscamp/

   3) High School
   4) Undergraduate: ***The use of peer educators can improve the learning atmosphere. A
       review of US colleges found that approximately 80 percent of all higher education institutions
                                                                                                      16
            utilize peer educators. Small-group learning is effective in a variety of contexts. At
            Northwestern, implementing a peer-facilitated science workshop resulted in higher retention.
            Evidence suggested particular benefits for minority students in the program. Most Women in
            Science and Engineering (WISE) programs include formal mentoring in which upperclassmen
            serve as role models for freshmen women. The mentors help with homework, give advice,
            and serve as role models during the freshman year, which can be the most taxing

            A meta-analysis by Springer, Stanne, and Donovan indicated that students who learn in small
            groups demonstrate greater academic performance, express more positive attitudes toward
            learning, and persist in science and math courses and programs more than their more
            traditionally taught counterparts. They suggested that the provision of small group
            alternatives to lecture-based instruction may have large effects on the academic achievement
            of members of underrepresented groups and the learning-related attitudes of women

3. Teachers unwilling to provide extra help in math and science
   a. Explanation
      1) General
      2) Middle School: This may be the result of the teacher's lack of understanding or inability to
            teach the subject matter in alternative ways.
            Middle school is a transitional time for all students, but girls in particular have difficulty
            adjusting to the loss of personal teacher relationships common in elementary school
            Eyes to the Future: Telementoring, Middle School Girls

            Eyes to the Future: Guide for High School Mentors
            Eyes to the Future: Guide for Middle School Students

            Changing Teaching norms: One reason for poor academic attitudes and performance in math
            and science is that elementary teachers are poorly prepared for teaching science, with too
            little knowledge of both science content and effective strategies for teaching girls. There is
            agreement about the need to reform but little guidance about how the average teachers can
            implement substantive changes in the classroom.
            Maxima: Changing the way children learn science: middle school

        3) High School
        4) Undergraduate: Both male and female students said they didn’t get enough feedback on
            exams
            Women’s Studies in Science: Can we talk? Undergraduate
    b. Illustration
       1) General
       2) Middle School: "This one math teacher I had, he was like never there basically. And we'd
            have substitutes and when he came back he'd say it was my fault that I didn't know it, that I
            didn't pay attention."

            "The class wasn't that large, it was his first year and some of the kids were just trying to get
            through high school and weren't as willing to work and he just gave up too easily and that hurt
            my grades because when I needed help…he wasn't able or willing to do that and it made it a
            lot harder."

            "If we didn't finish our homework and you needed help she'd send you to study hall."
        3) High School: "It was more the teacher. She was never there to help like before school or after
            school. And she was one of those teachers that talked to the chalkboard, not to the class."


            "It was a huge chemistry class and my teacher didn't really have time to answer questions.
            She was always buzzing about trying to talk to everyone at the same time. I don't know, I
            didn't want to make her day any more stressful...It's not that the teacher wouldn't have
            answered my questions."

                                                                                                             17
             "My advanced placement calculus teacher always made me feel stupid when I didn't
             understand something and asked him questions in class."

        4)   Undergraduate: “I'd go up and ask her questions and she would tell me to ask my partner,
             because we sat with two desks sitting next to each other. I didn't really feel that was
             appropriate because what happens if the person next to me didn't know. That was pretty
             discouraging.”

    c. Intervention
       1) General
       2) Middle School
       3) High School
       4) Undergraduate: The use of peer educators can improve the learning atmosphere. A review
             of US colleges found that approximately 80 percent of all higher education institutions utilize
             peer educators. Small-group learning is effective in a variety of contexts. At Northwestern,
             implementing a peer-facilitated science workshop resulted in higher retention. Evidence
             suggested particular benefits for minority students in the program. Most Women in Science
             and Engineering (WISE) programs include formal mentoring in which upperclassmen serve
             as role models for freshmen women. The mentors help with homework, give advice, and
             serve as role models during the freshman year, which can be the most taxing

4. Not challenged in math and science classes
   a. Explanation
       1) General
       2) Middle School
       3) High School
       4) Undergraduate: Myth: At the college level, changing the STEM curriculum runs the risk of watering
             down important "sink or swim" coursework.

             Reality: The mentality of needing to "weed out" weaker students in college majors--especially in the
             more quantitative disciplines--disproportionately weeds out women. This is not necessarily because
             women are failing. Rather, women often perceive "Bs" as inadequate grades and drop out, while men
             with "Cs" will persist with the class. Effective mentoring and "bridge programs" that prepare students
             for challenging coursework can counteract this. Changing the curriculum often leads to better
             recruitment and retention of both women and men in STEM classrooms and majors. For example,
             having students work in pairs on programming in entry-level computer science and engineering (CSE)
             courses leads to greater retention of both men and women in CSE majors. In addition, given that many
             students (including men) have difficulty with spatial visualization and learning, coursework in this area
             has helped retain both women and men in engineering schools.

             http://www.nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=109939

    b. Illustration
       1) General
       2) Middle School: "Sometimes it's kind of boring."

             "It's sort of boring because she just sits there and talks and the subject is boring. She tries
             her best, I guess."

             "The first horrible teacher (turning point). I got a good grade but we did nothing. He made it
             go downhill. And it was downhill from there. I hate math now."

             "He read straight from the book and it's confusing. There's a downhill effect."


                                                                                                                   18
        3) High School: "And I thought that it was ridiculous that they made us do it over and over and
             over and they gave us sheets with like 100 questions. It's like I know how to do it, why do I
             have to do it."

             "Teachers who assign too much busy work. They don't and care give you a worksheet and
             you do nothing the rest of the hour."

             "He never explained stuff and we just had worksheets and that was it."

           "We open up the book and read and then we get a worksheet and a lecture on what we just
           read. Two seconds after the test, you forget it."
        4) Undergraduate: “Any math class gets boring after a while, so I don't know if there's anything
           he can really do to jazz it up any more, cuz he's just there to give information. And I think that
           definitely helps when you have the teacher who's motivating you rather than just kind of
           standing up and lecturing in front of you. So she was really involved in the learning process
           with the curriculum. And I can't say the same about my math teacher. It was kind of more of
           the standing up, giving you notes, and expecting you to learn it rather than teaching you and
           helping you with examples. So I think I liked science better.”
        5) They just used board work. I remember some word problems but the connection wasn't made
           between the real world problems and textbook problems. That's probably why I didn't like
           math or science.”
   c. Intervention
      1) General: Web-based Inquiry Science Environment: http://wise.berkeley.edu/
             WISE creates an interactive learning environment that provides free science activities for students to complete individually or as a
             group in the classroom. Instructors in schools with access to computers and web browsers can utilize this program to challenge
             students.

             Council of Chief State School Officers: http://www.ccsso.org/projects/surveys_of_Enacted_Curriculum/
             The CCSSO website contains information about instructor surveys. After answering survey questions, teachers are given an easy to
             read analysis of how well their course/instruction aligns with state requirements. The data provides an opportunity for instructors to
             objectively evaluate whether their course is challenging students according to state standards.
        2) Middle School: Web-based Inquiry Science Environment: http://wise.berkeley.edu/
             WISE creates an interactive learning environment that provides free science activities for students to complete individually or as a
             group in the classroom. Instructors in schools with access to computers and web browsers can utilize this program to challenge
             students.

             FIRST LEGO League FIRST LEGO League (FLL) impacts middle-school students’ understanding of
             how science and technology can be used to solve real-world problems and knowledge of potential
             careers in science and technology, two key strategies to recruit and retain youth into the pipeline. Other
             key abilities utilized in the FLL are leadership and teaming skills and basic computer programming
             skills. The FLL also impacts students’ problem solving strategies that include steps in thinking
             problems through and planning skills such as developing action plans and budgeting.
        3) High School: Web-based Inquiry Science Environment: http://wise.berkeley.edu/
             WISE creates an interactive learning environment that provides free science activities for students to complete individually or as a
             group in the classroom. Instructors in schools with access to computers and web browsers can utilize this program to challenge
             students.


             FIRST Tech Challenge
             FIRST Tech Challenge (FTC) motivates high school students and impacts learners’
             skills associated with science, technology, and engineering such as problem-solving
             & critical thinking, applying basic science principles (force, momentum), applying
             science and technology in real-world contexts, understanding the engineering design
             process, and collaboration & teaming skills (negotiating roles, use of compromise,
             and providing feedback). These skills and abilities are fundamental building blocks,
             which provide the framework for future science courses, and programs.
       4) Undergraduate:
5. Inadequate academic preparation in math and science
   a. Explanation
       1) General
       2) Middle School: Girls begin to avoid courses in computer technology during middle school
             Mountaineering After-School and Summer Camps, middle school girls
                                                                                                                                                    19
       3) High School: The high school years are important because by the end of that time more your
            women than men have opted out of math and science studies
            The critical high school years
      4) Undergraduate:
   b. Illustration
      1) General
      2) Middle School: "Solving problems can be confusing sometimes."

            "I'm wasn't good at it, but I had some good things and some hard things, but didn't do too
            well."

             "I really didn't like it at all because I struggled in it."

            "It was kinda hard."

            "At first I thought it was really, really hard and after that it got a little bit better. As I'm moving
            up and up it's getting harder and harder."

            "But a lot of it was long and big words. And I don't really like big words and big vocabulary
            and they use that a lot in science…cuz it is hard."

          "If we'd ask a question she would use words that we didn't understand and give us examples
          and she would choose the hardest one. It would make bad sense and you never to
          understand."
       3) High School: "I have to be taught and I give up easily on math problems."

            "Yeah, like when I went from elementary school and I'd had pre-algebra and stuff, and I felt
            so confident, with my old teacher. And then I moved up to middle school and I had
            algebra…and it was honors, so like it was really hard for me. And then yeah, I felt I just wasn't
            good in math anymore. It was just harder."

            "Yeah, it happens every year up to this year. It's always something different. If it's something
            that I'm learning and it's a big jump from what I just learned, it always seems to be a barrier."

          "I never got the difference between different theories, so I always got them confused…I think
          it was the way she taught it too. It was always so compact, so much information put in front of
          you that it was a lot for me."
       4) Undergraduate: “I had a lot of trouble grasping concepts because of the way my teachers
          taught them to me. Like they would do example after example on the overhead.”

            “They would just tell us how they got the answer, not really explain the reasoning behind it.
            So I never really knew why I was doing anything. When I would work with a tutor, I almost
            felt like they were giving me answers to my homework assignments, not helping me with it.”

            “Going to her really helped because it kind was like I had that second teacher on the side.
            You know, I'd show her the notes and she'd point out things to me. She cleaned up the
            "mess" from my first teacher.”
   c. Intervention
      1) General: Try Engineering: http://www.tryengineering.org/become.php
            This site includes information about how to become an engineer including a list of suggested courses that students should take to
            prepare to pursue a college degree in a STEM career.
       2) Middle School: Try Engineering: http://www.tryengineering.org/become.php
            This site includes information about how to become an engineer including a list of suggested courses that students should take to
            prepare to pursue a college degree in a STEM career.
       3) High School: Try Engineering: http://www.tryengineering.org/become.php
            This site includes information about how to become an engineer including a list of suggested courses that students should take to
            prepare to pursue a college degree in a STEM career.
      4) Undergraduate
6. Poor learning environment (disruptive) in math and science courses

                                                                                                                                                20
    a. Explanation
       1) General
       2) Middle School
       3) High School: Studies show that students are more likely to pursue science if they learn in a
            supportive environment
            Una mano al futuro: Making science accessible to Latinos, high school
            http://www.awis.org/
         4) Undergraduate: Research indicates that the learning environment is especially important for
            women, who come into the university system not understanding how important math is to
            their careers.
            E-Woms: Women’s ways of learning math, undergraduate females
    b. Illustration
       1) General
       2) Middle School:
       3) High School: "Better classroom management. There needs to be stricter consequences for
              getting out of line."

              "And it's sort of a big class, like it's almost full. And people just talk so much, like they'll talk
              during the notes and I get distracted. And I'm like, "Ahhhh!" cuz it's how I get through the
              class is just by taking notes, you know. And so it gets confusing with all the people talking to
              each other like behind me, right behind me I'm like, "Shut up!" The teacher has to stop, like
              every day, she stops her notes to tell them to be quiet."

              "The class is really, really loud and she can't control them very well."

             "They (teachers who discouraged them in math or science) don't know how to control the
             class."
         4) Undergraduate: “He wasn’t very organized and he would have to repeat the math concepts
             over and over because he didn’t have control over the class. He also didn’t read the progress
             of the class in general.”
    c.   Intervention
         1) General
         2) Middle School: A safe place to learn and work with computers
             Techbridge, Jr. and Sr. High School girls

              Linda Kekelis & Etta Heber

              Kekelis, L. & Heber, E. Girls FIRST: A Guide to Starting Science Clubs for Girls
              http://www.chabotspace.org/visit/programs/first.asp

         3)   High School: Setting up a safe, comfortable yet challenging learning environment for
              problem solving
              What Works in Programs for Girls, high school
              http://www.scu.edu/SCU/Projects/NSFWorkshop99/
         4) Undergraduate:
7. Sexism
   a. Explanation
       1) General: hard to believe that in the 21st century, old habits still die hard and some teachers
              are still conditioned, on an unconscious level, to associate science with boys. Recognizing
              that parents and teachers have a special role to play in nurturing early curiosity STEM.

              BONNIE BROWNSTEIN
              “A key to building girls’ involvement in math and science is “increasing teachers’ and parents’
              awareness of what [prevalent] biases are, and their awareness that boys and girls are
              capable of doing equally well in these subjects,” Mr. Leaper said.”
              Cavanagh, S. (2007) When It comes to math and science, mom and dad count: Parent

                                                                                                                  21
    attitudes influence how their offspring take to those subjects. Education Week. Vol. 27, Issue
    09, Page 8.

    “Although there is the general perception that men do better than women in math and
    science, researchers have found that the differences between women’s and men’s math- and
    science-related abilities and choices are much more complex than a simple ‘men are better
    that women in math and science.’” (Hyde, 2005; Spelke, 2005; and Halpern, 2000) as cited in
    “Encouraging Girls in Math and Science” Institute of Educational Sciences Practice Guide.
    U.S. Department of Education, p. 3.

   “In fact, experts disagree among themselves on the degree to which women and men differ in
   their math- and science-related abilities.” (Gallagher & Kaufman, 2005) as cited in
   “Encouraging Girls in Math and Science” Institute of Educational Sciences Practice Guide.
   U.S. Department of Education, p. 3.
2) Middle School: Myth: Classroom interventions that work to increase girls' interest in STEM
   run the risk of turning off the boys.
   Reality: Actually, educators have found that interventions that work to increase girls' interest
   in STEM also increase such interest among the boys in the classroom. When girls are shown
   images of women scientists and given a greater sense of possibility about the person they
   could become, the boys get the message too--"I can do this!"
   There are more opportunities than ever for girls and boys to explore science together. One
   resource: the discoveries, games and hands-on experiments available at
   http://pbskids.org/dragonflytv/
   Myth: Science and math teachers are no longer biased toward their male students.
   Reality: In fact, biases are persistent, and teachers often interact more with boys than with
   girls in science and math. A teacher will often help a boy do an experiment by explaining how
   to do it, while when a girl asks for assistance the teacher will often simply do the experiment,
   leaving the girl to watch rather than do. Research shows that when teachers are deliberate
   about taking steps to involve the female students, everyone winds up benefiting. This may
   mean making sure everyone in the class is called on over the course of a particular lesson, or
   asking a question and waiting 10 seconds before calling on anyone. Good math and science
   teachers also recognize that when instruction is inquiry-based and hands-on, and students
   engage in problem solving as cooperative teams, both boys and girls are motivated to pursue
   STEM activities, education and careers.

    Resisting stereotypes and furthering opportunities, Girls Creating Games was created as an
    after-school and summer program designed to support the interest of middle school girls in
    computers and information technology. Its goal is to increase the number of women and girls
    in the IT workforce. A sample of the girls' creations is accessible at
    http://programservices.etr.org/gcgweb/
    http://www.nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=109939
    A principal reason is cultural stereotypes- stereotypes that are changing, but not quickly
    enough. Girls’ declining interest in STEM often results from beliefs images and practices that
    communicate stereotyped messages that these subjects are more appropriate for boys than
    girls. As a result, girls begin to conclude that STEM is not for them. These beliefs often begin
    early and influence choices they make throughout school.
    Mendoza, E. M., and K. O. Johnson. 2000. Land of Plenty: Diversity as America’s
    Competitive Edge in Science, Engineering and Technology: Congressional Commission on
    the Advancement of Women and Minorities in Science, Engineering, and Technology
    Development.
    Girls face more intense pressures not to compete with boys during middle school
    Mountaineering After-School and Summer Camps, middle school girls
    In the media, at school, and at home, girls hear messages that can discourage them, often
    subtly, from maintaining or developing an interest in STEM. Parents, teachers, and peers
    often play a role in shaping these negative perceptions, whether consciously or not.
    Research shows that from the fourth to eighth grades in particular, girls turn away from math
    and science in greater numbers than do boys
    REACHING PARENTS OF ELEMENTARY AND MIDDLE SCHOOL GIRLS
    GRADE LEVEL: ELEMENTARY, MIDDLE SCHOOL

                                                                                                  22
       IMAGINARY LINES and SALLY RIDE SCIENCE
       TAM O’SHAUGHNESSY
    3) High School: Although some gender differences are present in high school math and
       science course enrollments, similarities between the genders is also common. “Encouraging
       Girls in Math and Science” Institute of Educational Sciences Practice Guide. U.S. Department
       of Education, p. 4.
    4) Undergraduate: Reviewing the post-secondary paths pursued by women and men highlight
       areas in math and science where women are not attaining degrees at the same rate as men
       “Encouraging Girls in Math and Science” Institute of Educational Sciences Practice Guide.
       U.S. Department of Education, p. 3.

        The problem seems to be that most women have trouble visualizing a three-dimensional
        object given a two-dimensional representation such as a set of orthographic views or even an
        exploded assembly drawing.
        Developing Visualization Skills: Undergraduate females

        Women were more interested than men in having courses demonstrate practical applications
        of science in their lives
        Women’s Studies in Science: Can we talk? Undergraduate

        More women than men failed to see the connection between labs and class content
        Women’s Studies in Science: Can we talk? Undergraduate
b. Illustration
   1) General:
   2) Middle School: "Boys are always goofing off and talking about other stuff--goofing off and not
        paying attention."

        "The girls are more determined…the boys don't pay attention."

        "Girls are more focused and boys kind of have this thing with their friends, they are the class
        clowns."

        "Half the boys in our class, if they do the problems wrong on the board, they laugh and blow it
        off."

        "There are some guys who are emotional and if there was a guy here and couldn't do a
        problem, he wouldn't freak out; he wouldn't want to be shown up by a girl."

        "Most boys are dramatic and class clowns."

        “Boys are more open to doing things and taking chances and they like to ask questions and
        girls are shy and boys are open to asking things."

       "Girls are better at math because they don’t just mess around or don’t pay attention. They
       don’t throw paper and fool around (as boys do)."
    3) High School: "I was always competing for the top grades with boys."

        "The guys did better. It seemed to click in their head... like a mechanical thing. They didn't
        have to think about how to do it."

        "Just in our society it's more common for males to go into math and science. The people in
        authority assume that the boys are going to be more interested so they encourage them
        more. And maybe it's because my math teachers have only been males."

        "Guys didn't try to look smart because it wouldn't make them look cool."

        "Girls did [better]. We tried more and cared more about our grades. Boys were just…they
        were young. They didn't care."

                                                                                                         23
     "I think it was pretty even. More girls did better like on tests, but I don't think the girls
     understood it more; they just studied more I guess. But I don't think either one really
     understood anything more, it's more like who studied more."

     "At my school it was pretty much the girls. Guys didn't try to look smart because it wouldn't
     make them look cool. It was different environment. There were 3 boys in my accelerated
     math class; there were more girls."

     "Boys are just better in math. It clicks with the. Girls do better in groups."

     "The boys whip out these difficult questions and finish them. They go much faster. I need
     time to process the problem."

     "Boys do better when there's noise and they are the ones making the noise."

     "In advanced math and science courses during high school, the males really out numbered
     the females."

4)   Undergraduate: “All throughout my years in school, I have found it to be that males seem to
     do better in math. Any time that I needed help I would ask a guy because they would know
     what the teachers were talking about. Most of my math teachers were male. In science I
     don't really know. I had a 50% chance of getting either male or female for my classes. Mostly
     I didn't really care who I got as long as the class was easy; I knew going into science I would
     have a hard time. Male teachers seemed to know the content more when it came to
     science.”

     “In my high school, I think in general the males did better in math and science, but it was
     close. There were many females who were right up near the top or even equal to the males
     as far as grades go.”

     “I think, maybe in math, girls put in more effort. I know with my friends, they really work at the
     math. The males and females both talked about what we were doing, what we understood,
     and what we get on tests! It seemed like we all had similar issues and studied the same
     concepts. So I would say equal. Guys did better in science-and in physics. In biology, we
     were equal.”

     “I don't know. I know a lot of girl friends who are lot better at understanding math than me! I
     know a lot of guys say it's easy. It is easier for them to understand. Males didn't really seem
     to have a problem with girls being good in science or math; my girlfriends were equally as
     good as them. In math most males were the ones who were in the top 2 or 3. But, they were
     very vocal and always talked to their guy friends in class and would tell them their grades and
     everybody could hear the grades. The women were quiet about it and I didn't really know how
     they were doing-but I knew the males were doing well! In my science honors classes there
     were more females taking the classes. Males by far. A lot of girls will say, ‘Well, I'm not good
     at math, so that's O.K., I'm good at other things.’ Everybody seems to accept the fact that if
     you're not good at math it's O.K. cuz math is so hard. And I think also to just accept the fact
     that if you're a male, you do better. But I wish I knew why people were just so laid back about
     letting the stereotype continue. Looking back at some of my classes I think the females who
     did well in math, did well overall in their subjects. They were also doing well in English or
     history. And the guys who did well in math and science, still probably were at the top of our
     class, but you could definitely tell, you know maybe they took on one or two more math
     classes or science classes. And so it seemed like the guys who did well in math, focused on
     math. Whereas now I don't remember any of my female friends wanting to major in math or
     science. Well, I think science probably was the guys in my class. The top 10% or so in the
     class were mostly the guys. Math-I don't really remember, but I'd probably have to say the
     same, because if those same guys were in my math class, I'm sure they'd be at the top as
     well. I think girls are more interested in. Personally, I'm more interested in the creative,
     writing, English classes as opposed to the math and sciences. For example in the science
     classes, when the teacher would have examples on the board, and she'd go over things, I

                                                                                                     24
        think they were quicker to answer her questions and be able to solve the problems. Now I'm
        not sure if that was the girls being shy, but as far as I could tell, they were able to understand
        a little bit better the problems that we were given and that sort of thing. From what I saw, like
        most of my friends were guys and they always did well in science. They were always the
        ones I would go to and say, "I don't understand how I got the results of this lab, can you help
        me?" Girls would not know and guys would always have an answer. So, I think the guys
        understood the science better. In my four years of high school I had three teachers, because
        I had a repeat of two of the teachers. And so it could have just been their methods but no
        one really understood it. The class average was a D. Well they taught it, but a lot of the
        people were slackers. They didn't do their work.”

c. Intervention
   1) General: To encourage sensitivity to gender issues in science instruction, researchers are
        developing an interactive CD-ROM set for incoming and active high school teachers, teacher
        education faculty, and college faculty in STEM fields.
        The CD-ROM set includes
        • Segments on research, bias, and classroom interventions
        • Interviews with high school teachers and college faculty about how they became sensitive
        to gender issues and helped promote reform
        • Interviews with researchers familiar with studies on gender bias in the fields of psychology
        and education
        • Abstracts of relevant journal articles
        • Essays that invite further reflection
        • Interactive activities to support reflection by the users
        • Resources for teachers to use in their classrooms
        To ensure the product’s effectiveness, researchers have conducted field tests with STEM
        teachers and faculty. They have also created guidelines for introducing the CD-ROM to
        incoming teachers in classroom settings and to active teachers and college faculty in
        professional development seminars.
        GRADE LEVEL: PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
        SEEING GENDER: TOOLS FOR CHANGE
        JACQUELINE SPEARSThese findings are published in the report Under the Microscope: A
        Decade of Gender Equity Projects in the Sciences. They have Bridging the Gap: A Synthesis
        of Findings
        The research team summarized findings in the following areas:
        • Gender differences in math and science skills and performance
        • Differences among girls based on ethnicity and race
        • Approaches that successfully engage female students
        • Factors that influence girls and women to pursue study in STEM fields
        • Turning points for female STEM majors in higher education
        • Factors that determine persistence in STEM at the graduate school level
        BRIDGING THE GAP: A SYNTHESIS OF FINDINGS FROM STEM
        GRADE LEVEL: ELEMENTARY SCHOOL, MIDDLE SCHOOL, HIGH SCHOOL,
        UNDERGRADUATE, POSTGRADUATE, PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT, INFORMAL
        NANCY LARK
        HTTP://WWW.AAUW.ORG/RESEARCH/MICROSCOPE.CFMTeachers benefited as well:
        they reported heightened awareness of gender-diversity issues, especially regarding the
        different learning styles of girls and boys in-service courses.
        SISTERS IN SCIENCE DISSEMINATION AND OUTREACH PROJECT
        GRADE LEVEL: ELEMENTARY SCHOOL, MIDDLE SCHOOL, HIGH SCHOOL,
        PENNY HAMMRICH
        HTTP://WWW.SISTERSINSCIENCE.ORGThere is an effort to help researchers in gender
        and the sciences to better communicate their work to the media, policymakers, and
        advocates while helping the media better understand issues associated with STEM.
        This project is developing a variety of materials to do this, including
        • A series of research briefs on “hot topics” in gender and STEM education and careers
        • Short downloadable audio-visual messages from researchers on compelling issues related
        to gender and STEM research
        • Interactive modules on how gender ideologies influence what people do and don’t hear

                                                                                                        25
              from research and how researchers can use their knowledge of gender ideologies to better
              ensure that their results can be heard and understood
              • Tools, including PowerPoint presentations and talking points, that can help communicate
              research results in ways that are accurate and that the public can understand and use
              • Tips for finding and assessing research on gender and race/ethnicity and STEM
              The materials are being distributed through the project Web site,
              http://www.FairerScience.org. In addition, a FairerScience blog is being developed, and work
              is being done on ways to use “wikis” or wiki-like tools to expand the electronic community of
              STEM gender researchers and advocates.
              MOVING BEYOND ANECDOTE TO INFORMED DISCUSSION
              GRADE LEVEL: POSTGRADUATE
              SUSAN BAILEY
              PATRICIA CAMPBELL
              HTTP://WWW.FAIRERSCIENCE.ORG
           2) Middle School: Female-only group learning before co-ed classrooms lead to more active
              roles
              4th and 5th Grade Girls, Project Parity;Lydia Gibb, Donna Rand,
              http://www.edc.org/CCT/pwg/FILES/proj_dir/projects/9453719.htm

               4th and 5th Grade Girls, Smart: Learning by DoingBess Bendet
               http://www.edc.org/CCT/pwg/FILES/proj_dir/projects/9453748.htm
               www.nsf.gov/pubs/2000/nsf99148/pdf/nsf99148.pdfTeacher workshops to spread awareness
               of gender difference biases and promote gender-equity awareness
               4th and 5th Grade Girls, Project Parity; 6th Grade Girls, Family Tools and Technology

               Arlene Chasek
               http://www.edc.org/CCT/pwg/FILES/proj_dir/projects/9553482.htm
               www.nsf.gov/pubs/2000/nsf99150/nsf99150_sessions.pdf
               Program Inclusiveness: All female students attend
               4th and 5th Grade Girls, Smart: Learning by Doing

               Action-research projects use observation sheets to code faculty student interactions
               Summerscape, middle schoolers with an interest in STEM

               Marion Usselman, Donna Whiting, Carolyn Thorsen

               http://www.ceismc.gatech.edu/
               Choose metaphors that reflect both girls' and boys' expereinces

               Tips for Teachers



           Monitor which students are at the computer most often, have their hands on the equipment, and
           are leading the experiments
           Tips for Teachers

           3) High School:
           4) Undergraduate:

C. Guidance Counselors
   1. Disconnect between professions they considered and perceived need for math and science
      a. Explanation
          1) General
          2) Middle School
          3) High School
          4) Undergraduate
                                                                                                         26
   b. Illustration
      1) General
      2) Middle School
      3) High School: "Like I don't understand why I need physics for what I want to do. And I
          understand that I need a basic knowledge of it. But I think I would need more anatomy and
          physiology if I want to go into forensics."
       4) Undergraduate: I plan on being a psychologist for my future career so I don't really need that
          many math skills.
          I'll be involved in marketing and there will be math, but nothing compared to if I were to be
          involved in science or a math field.
          I'm going into law I think so I'll have to take some accounting classes, I'm not really sure.
          I am going into exercise wellness for my major. I will probably need some math skills in
          computing body percentages in weight, cholesterol, blood pressure, that's all.
          I have considered photography as a major and the math skills for that are pretty much
          nonexistent. Like you might have to worry about chemicals and the amount of chemicals you
          use, but that will be very basic math.
           “I talked to a school counselor but she was not too helpful.”
          “I told them [career counselors] that I like math and they never told me about science or
          engineering. I took a course in hospitality and business administration and so I got interested
          in hospitality.”
   c. Intervention
       1) General
       2) Middle School
       3) High School
       4) Undergraduate
2. Lack of understanding of preparation for various careers
   a. Explanation
       1) General
       2) Middle School
       3) High School
       4) Undergraduate
   b. Illustration
       1) General
       2) Middle School: “An astronomer. I know math is involved to know the coordinates of the
           stars.”

           “Maybe a nurse or doctor. Science--you have to know all the body parts and how to treat
           them. And math too.”

           “I want to be a doctor. I don’t know why. It’s fun or something like that. Math you have to
           know how much to give and take away. You need science to be a surgeon and if you want to
           be a kids’ doctor then you would have to know about babies and treat them differently.”

           “A pediatrician. Math will fall into measurements, adding them. And science you need to
           know the different kinds of medicines and treating them.”

           “A vet because the math you have to use for the animals, like shots and how much to fill it up
           to. I don’t know if you need science.”

          “It doesn’t all have to do with math and science. To be a doctor you have to deal with so
          much other stuff.”
       3) High School: “I’m going into elementary education. I need to add and subtract and I can do
          that.”
          “I’m going to be a massage therapist. I do not need none (math).”

           "I don’t know. Something in science. I don’t know what I need to do.”

                                                                                                       27
           “If you pick a major in college, you’ll know (if that’s your major). If that scares you, then you
           change your major.”
        4) Undergraduate: "I plan on being a psychologist for my future career so I don't really need that
           many math skills."
           "I'll be involved in marketing and there will be math, but nothing compared to if I were to be
           involved in science or a math field."
           "I'm going into law I think so I'll have to take some accounting classes, I'm not really sure."
    c. Intervention
       1) General: Try Engineering: http://www.tryengineering.org/become.php
             This site includes information about how to become an engineer including a list of suggested courses that students should take to
             prepare for a college degree in a STEM career. Counselors can use this information to help prepare students
        2) Middle School: Try Engineering: http://www.tryengineering.org/become.php
             This site includes information about how to become an engineer including a list of suggested courses that students should take to
             prepare for a college degree in a STEM career. Counselors can use this information to help prepare students

             National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering: http://www.nacmebacksme.org/nacmebacksme/becoming.html
             This site provides information that guidance counselors can use to help students prepare for a career as an engineer.
        3)   High School: Try Engineering: http://www.tryengineering.org/become.php
             This site includes information about how to become an engineer including a list of suggested courses that students should take to
             prepare for a college degree in a STEM career. Counselors can use this information to help prepare students

             National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering: http://www.nacmebacksme.org/nacmebacksme/becoming.html
             This site provides information that guidance counselors can use to help students prepare for a career as an engineer.

             Junior Engineering Technical Society (JETS): http://www.jets.org/explore/make.cfm
             JETS provides information about core classes students must take in high school in order to pursue an engineering degree/career in
             the future.
       4) Undergraduate:
3. Inadequate, incomplete, and misinformation from counselors about careers
   a. Explanation
       1) General
       2) Middle School
       3) High School
       4) Undergraduate
   b. Illustration
       1) General
       2) Middle School
       3) High School: "She puts me in classes that don't relate to my interests."

             "My freshman year I met with one and we did a four year plan."

              "I did that freshman year and I don't know why they do it then when you're only 13. We
             figured out what classes to take. It's too early and I've had nothing since then."

             "I tried to talk to my counselor once and she just kind of threw a lot of pamphlets at me…I
             don't know I just don't feel like I can get a lot of information out of her. And if I could it's not
             the one I'm looking for. She kind of steers me towards other things than what I'm there for. It's
             a little discouraging."

           “I’ve known forever (what’s required) but a lot of people don’t know. That knowledge should
           be given to you in high school. We did a career pathways in freshman year. You should take
           it every year and learn about 3 areas, then have a reality check about what you need to take.”
        4) Undergraduate: I told the counselors I like math and science and they NEVER told me about
           engineering. I was never directed there. I took a class in hospitality and business
           administration and I took a front desk position. Then I talked to another counselor and they
           told me about a business fair and i got steered in that direction.
           "I've gone to my counselor and no she was not very helpful. Anyway, it is more of a personal
           goal or decision about what you want to do and your counselor can help you decide what
           classes to take. If you don't know that, there is not much room for them to help you."



                                                                                                                                                 28
               "When I went (to a counselor), they said, this is what you need to take. "Here you go. Bye." It
               would be good to actually have someone, if there was someone here I could talk to about
               careers, that would be awesome."
      c. Intervention
          1) General
          2) Middle School
          3) High School
          4) Undergraduate
   4. Active discouragement at all educational levels
      a. Explanation
          1) General: The benefits of diversity are not being realized in STEM fields, because women and
               racial or ethnic minorities are not present in many of those college majors in representative
               numbers- they fail to enter, and those who do tend to drop out of STEM majors than do their
               white male counterparts. It is also known that they face a number of barriers to academic
               inclusion and success and STEM majors, including inadequate faculty support and
               mentoring, stereotyping, absence of role models, peer pressure and harassment, lack of co-
               curricular opportunities, poor self-efficacy, low performance expectations, and negative
               attribution patterns.
               RUTH E. FASSINGER
          2) Middle School:
          3) High School
          4) Undergraduate
       b. Illustration
          1) General:
          2) Middle School
          3) High School
          4) Undergraduate
       c. Intervention
          1) General
          2) Middle School
          3) High School
          4) Undergraduate: At present, women earn only 20.1 percent of the engineering Bachelor’s
               degrees in the United States. Yet some engineering programs do better than others at
               attracting and retaining female students. Researchers are conducting a study of accredited
               programs across the country to find out why some institutions do better than others at
               attracting and retaining female students and to determine what makes these programs more
               successful.

               PRODUCING WOMEN ENGINEERS: A STUDY OF UNDERGRADUATE ENGINEERING
               PROGRAMS FOR WOMEN
               GRADE LEVEL: UNDERGRADUATE
               Lisa Tsui

          5)
D. Social
   1. Social comparisons; judge science/math ability in relation to other students
       a. Explanation
          1) General
          2) Middle School: Girls want more of a sense of progress as they worked, and do not respond
               well to the notion of competitive scoring
               AnimalWatch: Computer-based Math Tutor, middle school girls
               Male and female students ended up with similar levels of mastery but took different
               pathways- and the computer is able to adapt its instruction accordingly
               AnimalWatch: Computer-based Math Tutor, middle school girls
           3) High School:
                                                                                                            29
     4) Undergraduate: Studies repeatedly show that many students who leave the sciences are
          intelligent and strongly motivated but discouraged by the competitive culture and the belief
          that a department is making early negative judgments about their abilities.
          WISE Beginnings, first year undergraduate females
          A chilly climate in most science classrooms especially leads many women to leave science
          for more congenial academic fields.
          WISE Beginnings, first year undergraduate females

b. Illustration
   1) General
   2) Middle School: "Because they are smarter than me. I have to ask questions and it would give
          them the impression. Because sometimes they may think it was a dumb question or that the
          teacher just answered it."

          "They (peers) know I don't like it."

        “I'm not the best out of my class, because sometimes people get the highest math score and
        I'm like the third highest or the second highest. So I'm like, 'darn it.'”
     3) High School: "One day my friend said in front of the class, R---- doesn't understand this so
        don't ask her how to do it."

          "They (peers) know I'm not really good at it. I didn't get bad grades but I don't really like it."

           "Probably a 3 (self-ranking) as well because they don't think I'm a genius at it, but I'm not
          failing or anything like that. It's just like I don't think I could explain it to somebody else, like I
          understand it, but I couldn't pass on the information."

          “They know I am hard on myself but they know that I will do what it takes.”

          "I felt like I had to work a lot harder in my advanced and honors level math and science
          courses. Other friends of mine didn't have homework or need to study nearly as much.

     4)   Undergraduate: “I compare myself with test scores and percents. You make friends in the
          class and you know how you are doing in comparison. You know how they are doing. I do
          this a lot actually! I use grades to rate myself.”

          “I do compare myself and right now I think I have the highest grade in my class. There are 3
          A’s. My friends know I am doing well.”

          “I would rank myself high because I know that I am getting good grades by comparison. I use
          my grades and comments from my teacher to tell myself that I am doing well or not doing
          well.”

          “I judge myself with grades; out of 24 classmates I have the second highest grade in math.
          Peers would rank me high because of my grades; you know I do tell them about my tests.”
c. Intervention
   1) General: Caret: Student Learning: http://caret.iste.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=evidence&answerID=11
          This site uses empirically validated studies to explain how technology can be used to facilitate cooperative learning. The site indicates
          that the idea is based on, “the concept of interdependence—students’ learning from and depending on one another in a positive way.”
          The site includes a reference list.
     2) Middle School: Caret: Student Learning: http://caret.iste.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=evidence&answerID=11
          This site uses empirically validated studies to explain how technology can be used to facilitate cooperative learning. The site indicates
          that the idea is based on, “the concept of interdependence—students’ learning from and depending on one another in a positive way.”
          The site includes a reference list.
     3) High School: Caret: Student Learning: http://caret.iste.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=evidence&answerID=11
          This site uses empirically validated studies to explain how technology can be used to facilitate cooperative learning. The site indicates
          that the idea is based on, “the concept of interdependence—students’ learning from and depending on one another in a positive way.”
          The site includes a reference list.
     4) Undergraduate:

                                                                                                                                               30
2. Peer group not involved in math/science
   a. Explanation
      1) General
      2) Middle School
      3) High School: Researchers are examining how social context influences male and female
          students’ choices about high school math and science courses and college majors. They are
          looking at various types of context: the school itself (e.g., friends, academic peers, and
          rigorous academic curricula); the schools’ broader and social academic environment; and the
          specific math and science courses offered. They are also considering socioeconomic factors,
          including race and ethnicity, social class, and immigrant generational status. SOCIAL
          CONTEXT AND GENDER DIFFERENCES IN STEM
          GRADE LEVEL: HIGH SCHOOL
          CHANDRA MULLER
       4) Undergraduate: Women felt more intimidated than men did in large classes
          Women’s Studies in Science: Can we talk? Undergraduate
          Difficulties women face in pursuing a graduate degree or tenure include being accepted and
          mentored by senior male colleagues and balancing work and family.
          Achieving Success in Academia, undergraduate
   b. Illustration
      1) General
      2) Middle School
      3) High School: "They'd probably rank me between a 3 or a 4 (self-ranking) because I don't tell
          people that I'm struggling if I am. Like I'll tell the teacher, but I won't tell my friends. Like I'm
          not, 'Oh I got a D on that test! I totally bombed it! Gosh dang it!' I'll be like, 'Yeah, yeah, it
          was OK.' You know."
          "In advanced math and science courses during high school the males really out numbered
          the females."
       4) Undergraduate: “There were 3 guys who were always at the top of the class and you would
          hear it.”

           “In science there were more guys in my class. The top 10% or so in the class were mostly
           the guys. Math-I don't really remember, but I'd probably have to say the same, because if
           those same guys were in my math class.”
            "Most of my math teachers have been male."
   c. Intervention
      1) General
      2) Middle School
      3) High School
      4) Undergraduate: In order to succeed, it is imperative to develop relationships with effective
           mentors, advisors, and colleagues, to become knowledgeable about the politics of your
           institution, to have a support system, and to work hard.
           Achieving Success in Academia, undergraduate
           Susan Staffin Metz, Suzanne Gage Brainard
           www.bestworkforce.org/PDFdocs/BEST_BridgeforAll_HighEdDesignPrincipals.pdf

           Do all that you can to overcome the challenges of being a woman in a traditionally male field
           and have a rewarding and diverse career.
           Achieving Success in Academia, undergraduate
           A meta-analysis by Springer, Stanne, and Donovan [28] indicated that students who learn in small
           groups demonstrate greater academic performance, express more positive attitudes toward learning,
           and persist in science and math courses and programs more than their more traditionally taught
           counterparts. They suggested that the provision of small group alternatives to lecture-based instruction
           may have large effects on the academic achievement of members of underrepresented groups and the
           learning-related attitudes of women.
3. Lack of success in math/science to avoid peer rejection, tokenism, and stereotype threat
   a. Explanation
       1) General
                                                                                                                 31
       2) Middle School
       3) High School
       4) Undergraduate: Research shows that many women in college will change their majors to
           avoid taking traditional math classes, if they don’t find peer support for taking additional math
           classes.
           E-Woms: Women’s ways of learning math, undergraduate females
           The student most at risk for failure at the university, and most in need of social and academic
           scaffolding, are the students who arrive at the university with the least cultural capital; those
           from poor or working-class families, those who are first-generation college students, those
           who are academically unprepared or have yet to establish firm career goals.
           Learning communities, undergraduate
   b. Illustration
      1) General
      2) Middle School
      3) High School: "They'd probably rank me between a 3 or a 4 (self-ranking) because I don't tell
          people that I'm struggling if I am. Like I'll tell the teacher, but I won't tell my friends. Like I'm
          not, 'Oh I got a D on that test! I totally bombed it! Gosh dang it!' I'll be like, 'Yeah, yeah, it
          was OK.' You know."
          "In high school, it seemed cool to not study so much and in return, get worse grades. I fell
          into that during on semester when I got 2 C's.”
       4) Undergraduate: "My friends were females. When we talk, the girls wouldn't be as straight
          forward like, 'I got an A' They were quiet about it."
   c. Intervention
       1) General
       2) Middle School
       3) High School
       4) Undergraduate
4. Lack of and/or negative exposure to math/science role models of same gender and/or ethnicity
   (family, peers, school, society, media)
   a. Explanation
       1) General: The benefits of diversity are not being realized in STEM fields, because women and
          racial or ethnic minorities are not present in many of those college majors in representative
          numbers- they fail to enter, and those who do tend to drop out of STEM majors than do their
          white male counterparts. It is also known that they face a number of barriers to academic
          inclusion and success and STEM majors, including inadequate faculty support and
          mentoring, stereotyping, absence of role models, peer pressure and harassment, lack of co-
          curricular opportunities, poor self-efficacy, low performance expectations, and negative
          attribution patterns.
          RUTH E. FASSINGER
       2) Middle School: Girls in rural areas are at a disadvantage in acquiring scientific literacy and
          positive attitudes toward math and science; their geographic isolation and harsh economic
          realities limit their exposure to female role models and in STEM fields and to the kinds of
          hands-on extracurricular activities that help youths to become more comfortable with math
          and science.
          Training Trainers in Rural Youth Groups, rural youth ages 9 to 19
       3) High School:
       4) Undergraduate: The enthusiasm that girls develop through short-term enrichment programs
           is rarely sustained in their home and school environments. This is especially true in rural
           communities where girls have little exposure to female role models.
           Science connections, undergraduate
   b. Illustration
      1) General
      2) Middle School
      3) High School: “Just in our society it's more common for males to go into math and science.
           The people in authority assume that the boys are going to be more interested so they
           encourage them more. And maybe it's because my math teachers have only been males."
                                                                                                                  32
       4) Undergraduate: “I've had one female math teacher. I mean she did a great job. She was
            from a different country. And I think the discipline from another country kind of helped when it
            comes to math skills.”

            “You see pressure a little bit. Particularly in physics when you're working with big concepts,
            like when you are talking about people known for the foundation of physics, we only see
            males as the founding fathers. It's kind of hard for a girl to see herself in there. It just seems
            like the girls wouldn't care much, because we didn't see ourselves in the books or in those
            fields. You don't see as many girls in engineering.”

   c. Intervention
      1) General: Women Tech World: http://www.womentechworld.org/
            The National Institute for Women in Trades, Technology & Science state that “nothing motivates women toward seeking a career in
            technology more than seeing other women in roles most often filled by men.” As a result, they created this website to provide
            information about successful women in technology. The biographies provide information about strong female role models.

            E-Mentoring: http://www.womentechworld.org/ementoring.htm
            This Women Tech World site provides an opportunity for girls/women interested in STEM careers to connect with a female mentor in
            the field.
       2) Middle School: E-Mentoring: http://www.womentechworld.org/ementoring.htm
            This Women Tech World site provides an opportunity for girls/women interested in STEM careers to connect with a female mentor in
            the field.

            Try Engineering: http://www.tryengineering.org/ask.php
            This colorful site provides a questionnaire to help match women to mentors in the field of math and science. Girls are encouraged to
            contact their mentors for support and guidance and to ask any questions they may have.

            Women in Science: http://www.sdsc.edu/ScienceWomen/
            This San Diego Super Computer site includes information about 16 women who were important to the expansion of knowledge
            regarding science. These women are examples of great role models for women.

            Women Tech World: http://www.womentechworld.org/
            The National Institute for Women in Trades, Technology & Science state that “nothing motivates women toward seeking a career in
            technology more than seeing other women in roles most often filled by men.” As a result, they created this website to provide
            information about successful women in technology. The biographies provide information about strong female role models.
       3) High School: E-Mentoring: http://www.womentechworld.org/ementoring.htm
            This Women Tech World site provides an opportunity for girls/women interested in STEM careers to connect with a female mentor in
            the field.

            Try Engineering: http://www.tryengineering.org/ask.php
            This colorful site provides a questionnaire to help match women to mentors in the field of math and science. Girls are encouraged to
            contact their mentors for support and guidance and to ask any questions they may have.

            Women in Science: http://www.sdsc.edu/ScienceWomen/
            This San Diego Super Computer site includes information about 16 women who were important to the expansion of knowledge
            regarding science. These women are examples of great role models for women.

            Women Tech World: http://www.womentechworld.org/
            The National Institute for Women in Trades, Technology & Science state that “nothing motivates women toward seeking a career in
            technology more than seeing other women in roles most often filled by men.” As a result, they created this website to provide
            information about successful women in technology. The biographies provide information about strong female role models.
       4) Undergraduate: Women in Science: http://www.sdsc.edu/ScienceWomen/
            This San Diego Super Computer site includes information about 16 women who were important to the expansion of knowledge
            regarding science. These women are examples of great role models for women.

            Women Tech World: http://www.womentechworld.org/
            The National Institute for Women in Trades, Technology & Science state that “nothing motivates women toward seeking a career in
            technology more than seeing other women in roles most often filled by men.” As a result, they created this website to provide
            information about successful women in technology. The biographies provide information about strong female role models.

            E-Mentoring: http://www.womentechworld.org/ementoring.htm
            This Women Tech World site provides an opportunity for girls/women interested in STEM careers to connect with a female mentor in
            the field.
5. Gender stereotyping (Males viewed as superior in math/science)
   a. Explanation
      1) General: At the doctoral level, gender imbalances become more prevalent, including in math
            and chemistry “Encouraging Girls in Math and Science” Institute of Educational Sciences
            Practice Guide. U.S. Department of Education, p. 3.
            While women make up nearly half of the U.S. workforce, they make up only 26 percent of the
            science and engineering workforce. “Encouraging Girls in Math and Science” Institute of
            Educational Sciences Practice Guide. U.S. Department of Education, p. 3.
            “In general, researchers have found that females have less confidence in their math abilities
            than males do,” (Andre, Whigham, Hendrickson, et al., 1999; Herbert and Stipek, 2005;
                                                                                                                                              33
      Jacobs, Lanza, Osgood, et al., 2002; Simpkins and Davis-Kean, 2005; and Wigfield, Eccles
      Mac Iver, et al, 1991) as cited in “Encouraging Girls in Math and Science” Institute of
      Educational Sciences Practice Guide. U.S. Department of Education, p. 6.
   2) Middle School: Girls face more intense pressures not to compete with boys during middle
      school
      Mountaineering After-School and Summer Camps, middle school girls
   3) High School: “Boys tend to outscore girls when tested over the same content in high-pressure
      situations, such as standardized tests with time limits. These tests are typically not linked to
      instructed curriculum, and are measures of more general abilities in math and science,”
      (Halpern, Benbow, & Geary, 2007 as cited in “Encouraging Girls in Math and Science”
      Institute of Educational Sciences Practice Guide. U.S. Department of Education, p. 6.
   4) Undergraduate: In general, women earn substantial proportions of the bachelor’s degrees in
      math and sciences, except in computer sciences, physics and engineering. (2004)
      “Encouraging Girls in Math and Science” Institute of Educational Sciences Practice Guide.
      U.S. Department of Education, p. 3.
      One purpose of this program is to overcome two stereotypes: that women can’t do science,
      or if they do, they must be nerds.
      Science connections, undergraduateCulturally based values and understandings that affect
      men and women from infancy on perpetuate certain beliefs; that men are smarter, more
      committed and harder workers, and “belong” more in the workplace, and that mathematical
      talent – the basis for all science and technical fields – is more innate than learned and is
      gendered (a belief common in the United States, but not everywhere). Cultural values shape
      and can inhibit girls and women’s beliefs in their own ability and their behaviors when
      confronted with discriminatory practices and with sexual harassment. Even when women
      themselves do not recognize discrimination’s presence, it marginalizes and demoralizes
      them.
      Making Engineering More Attractive as a Career, undergraduate
      Proceedings: Tackling the Engineering Resources Shortage: Creating New Paradigms for
      Developing ans Retaining Women Engineers
b. Illustration
   1) General
   2) Middle School: "The girls are more determined…the boys don't pay attention."

       "Girls are more focused and boys kind of have this thing with their friends, they are the class
       clowns."

      "Boys are always goofing off and talking about other stuff--goofing off and not paying
      attention.”
      “Half the boys in our class, if they do problems wrong on the board, they laugh and blow it
      off.”
   3) High School: "The guys did better. It seemed to click in their head... like a mechanical thing.
      They didn't have to think about how to do it."

       "Just in our society it's more common for males to go into math and science. The people in
       authority assume that the boys are going to be more interested so they encourage them
       more. And maybe it's because my math teachers have only been males."

        "Guys didn't try to look smart because it wouldn't make them look cool."

      "I was always competing for the top grades with boys."
      "Since females were outnumbered, males seemed to get more individualized attention from
      teachers in high school."
   4) Undergraduate: “So I think females did better in science; you could tell just by the sheer
      numbers.”

       “I don't know why the males did better. Maybe it is because society places an emphasis on
       males having the 'smart' jobs like engineers, doctors, lawyers, computer programmers and
       emphasizes women being in the home or doing the secretary and waitress-type jobs. Maybe

                                                                                                     34
               they felt the need to be on top or at least keep up with some of the women who were smarter
               or just as smart so they studied harder.”
       c. Intervention
          1) General: “Encourage middle school and high school students to examine their beliefs about
               which careers are typically female-oriented and which are typically male-oriented. Encourage
               these students to learn more about which careers are typically that are interesting to them but
               that they believe employ more members of the opposite gender.” “Encouraging Girls in Math
               and Science” Institute of Educational Sciences Practice Guide. U.S. Department of
               Education, p. 9.

               “Connect mathematics and science activities to careers in way that do not reinforce existing
               gender stereotypes of these careers.” “Encouraging Girls in Math and Science” Institute of
               Educational Sciences Practice Guide. U.S. Department of Education, p. 9.
               Women Tech World: http://www.womentechworld.org/
               The National Institute for Women in Trades, Technology & Science state that “nothing motivates women toward seeking a career in
               technology more than seeing other women in roles most often filled by men.” As a result, they created this website to provide
               information about successful women in technology. The biographies provide information about strong female role models and show
               that women also do well in the STEM careers.

               Women in Science: http://www.sdsc.edu/ScienceWomen/
               This San Diego Super Computer site includes information about 16 women who were important to the expansion of knowledge
               regarding science. These women are examples of great role models for women.
           2) Middle School: Women Tech World: http://www.womentechworld.org/
               The National Institute for Women in Trades, Technology & Science state that “nothing motivates women toward seeking a career in
               technology more than seeing other women in roles most often filled by men.” As a result, they created this website to provide
               information about successful women in technology. The biographies provide information about strong female role models and show
               that women also do well in the STEM careers.

               Women in Science: http://www.sdsc.edu/ScienceWomen/
               This San Diego Super Computer site includes information about 16 women who were important to the expansion of knowledge
               regarding science. These women are examples of great role models for women.
           3) High School: Women Tech World: http://www.womentechworld.org/
               The National Institute for Women in Trades, Technology & Science state that “nothing motivates women toward seeking a career in
               technology more than seeing other women in roles most often filled by men.” As a result, they created this website to provide
               information about successful women in technology. The biographies provide information about strong female role models and show
               that women also do well in the STEM careers.

               Women in Science: http://www.sdsc.edu/ScienceWomen/
               This San Diego Super Computer site includes information about 16 women who were important to the expansion of knowledge
               regarding science. These women are examples of great role models for women.
           4) Undergraduate: Women Tech World: http://www.womentechworld.org/
               The National Institute for Women in Trades, Technology & Science state that “nothing motivates women toward seeking a career in
               technology more than seeing other women in roles most often filled by men.” As a result, they created this website to provide
               information about successful women in technology. The biographies provide information about strong female role models and show
               that women also do well in the STEM careers.

               Women in Science: http://www.sdsc.edu/ScienceWomen/
               This San Diego Super Computer site includes information about 16 women who were important to the expansion of knowledge
               regarding science. These women are examples of great role models for women.


E. Internal/Individual
   1. Low math/science self-efficacy
       a. Explanation
           1) General: “In general, researchers have found that females have less confidence in their math
              abilities than males do,” (Andre, Whigham, Hendrickson, et al., 1999; Herbert and Stipek,
              2005; Jacobs, Lanza, Osgood, et al., 2002; Simpkins and Davis-Kean, 2005; and Wigfield,
              Eccles Mac Iver, et al, 1991) as cited in “Encouraging Girls in Math and Science” Institute of
              Educational Sciences Practice Guide. U.S. Department of Education, p. 6.
              Girls often underestimate their ability in math and science.
              “Encouraging Girls in Math and Science” Institute of Educational Sciences Practice Guide.
              U.S. Department of Education, p. 6.
           2) Middle School: Girls are most vulnerable to large drops in self-esteem during middle school
              Girls feel less confident about their ability to do science in and technology during middle
              school
              Mountaineering After-School and Summer Camps, middle school girls
              Girls are more likely than boys to believe that success with math comes from innate ability
              rather than effort.
                                                                                                                                             35
        AnimalWatch: Computer-based Math Tutor, middle school girls

        In the traditional classroom, teachers tend to “push” girls if a problem challenges them, which
        may imply that they are not smart enough to learn.
        AnimalWatch: Computer-based Math Tutor, middle school girls

        Moving too slowly through the classroom may be as risky to girls’ confidence as moving too
        quickly.
        AnimalWatch: Computer-based Math Tutor, middle school girls

        For girls in American society, early adolescence can present an ill-timed convergence of
        events: girls begin to make plans for the future- including career plans- at a time marked by
        waning self-confidence and a greater awareness of the cultural norms of feminity. During this
        time, media portrayals of women may reinforce gender stereotypes for girls and boys, which
        in turn may contribute to the gender gap in STEM.
        MEDIA LITERACY TRAINING FOR MIDDLE SCHOOL STUDENTS
        GRADE LEVEL: MIDDLE SCHOOL
        JOCELYN STEINKE
   3) High School: “While both boys and girls tend to lose interest in math and science as they
        move from elementary to high school, females’ interest and confidence falls off more sharply,
        according to data from the National Center for Education Statistics, an arm of the U.S.
        Department of Education.”
        Cavanagh, S. (2007) When It comes to math and science, mom and dad count: Parent
        attitudes influence how their offspring take to those subjects. Education Week. Vol. 27, Issue
        09, Page 8.
   4) Undergraduate: The chief internal barrier to success and persistence in STEM is students;
        underestimation of their own abilities (self efficacy). Mentors can help by affecting young
        women’s sense that they can “do science.”
        RISE: Research Internship in Science and Engineering, Undergraduate females
        The assertive behavior needed to successfully negotiate a research placement at a
        competitive institution is considered rude and even foreign to rural values, especially for
        women
        Wiser Lab Research for First Year Undergraduate Students
        First-year college students often believe that introductory science classes are designed to
        eliminate students not good enough to do science
        WISE Beginnings, first year undergraduate females
        Some Faculty also believes that students leave science early because they lack certain
        attributes of ability or character, and that their leaving is a part of the natural weeding-out
        process.
        WISE Beginnings, first year undergraduate females
        A young woman talented in STEM typically enters college with higher grades that a similarly
        gifted young man but may be less well prepared, her course work having been less rigorous.
        She has high aspirations but her self-esteem has been declining since early adolescence and
        it is at its lowest point ever. Having lost confidence in her own opinions, she tend to agree
        with others so she will be accepted and is unlikely to assert herself in class, and does not
        stand up well to criticism. A C on her first math or science test may lead her to change majors
        because she thinks she is not good enough. On vocational personality tests, she tends to
        score higher than average on scales for both investigative and conforming.
        GEOS: Encouraging Talented at-risk youth women, undergraduate
        Girls routinely underestimate their ability in such subjects as math and physics, subjects
        traditionally viewed as men’s turf.
        WISE women at Stony Brook, undergraduate
        http://www.wise.sunysb.edu
b. Illustration
   1) General
   2) Middle School: "Sometimes I'll be like not very open-minded as much, so I won't really tell the
        teacher in front of the whole class like I don't get it sometimes. Because I'd rather do it like
        person-to-person instead of like everyone. Cuz I don't want to slow them down. So I'll just do
        it after she explains everything and I'll ask her questions so I don't have to slow them down.

                                                                                                     36
          Cuz sometimes I'll be like I'm really stupid."

          "And then like when it comes to tests, I'm not good on tests…when it comes down to taking
          the quiz, my mind goes blank sort of."

        "I wasn't good at it, but I had some good things and some hard things, but didn't do too well."
     3) High School: "I have to be taught and I give up easily on math problems."

          "They're just hard and you have to think a lot for them. I can do them, but it's just I don't like
          them."

          "I was too lazy…it's a lack of motivation."

          "I have to put in the effort and I was kind of lazy."

          "I got lazy and didn't do my homework."

          "I just make silly mistakes on the assignments. I still do that."

          "A 4. Cuz I wasn't the best, but I did like it and I did get good grades in it."

          “We go in at lunch every day. [I’m] open to questions then. But in class it’s harder and I get
          embarrassed to ask in class. I want to keep it between me and the teacher. I don’t want
          anyone to think I’m an idiot.”

          “Probably a 3 as well because they don't think I'm a genius at it, but I'm not failing or anything
          like that. It's just like I don't think I could explain it to somebody else, like I understand it, but I
          couldn't pass on the information.”

          "The last test I was like, 'OK, I got this, I can do this.' Like I was doing the review over and
        over and I got everything right a couple times. I took the test and I bombed it. I got like 55%.
        And I was like, 'Oh my God. Now I can't do this.' So basically, I've given up on that class. So
        I'm like, 'Fine. I'll bring it up next semester.'"
     4) Undergraduate: “Because of lack of paying attention on my part, I didn't get good grades. I
        feel that if you don't put effort into it you won't get anything out of it no matter how good the
        teacher is.”

          “It was this past summer when I decided that I couldn't be lazy anymore. I had just coasted
          through the class.”

          “I would give myself a 3 (average) although the lowest grade I ever received was a C in pre-
          calculus, but to me that was pretty bad. I expected a lot more out of myself.”

         “If something is challenging and I spend the time getting the help and I still don't feel like I
         mastered it, I'm not confident at all that I'll do well.”
c.   Intervention
     1) General: Caret: Student Learning: http://caret.iste.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=evidence&answerID=10#references
          Caret cites research that indicates that the use of technology based learning increases student self-esteem by allowing students to
          work at their own pace (Underwood & Brown, 1997). The website also cites a literature review conducted by Cotton (1992), which
          found that instruction that is based on computers leads to improvements in various areas like the student’s attitude to themselves as
          a learner.
     2)                   increase girls’ self-confidence, assertiveness and commitment to science, the
          Middle School: To
          project aimed to strengthen girls skills in specific areas: persistence through frustration,
          resilience in the face of failure, familiarity with tools, the confidence to explore, and the ability
          to defend their position with evidence.
          Triad alliance science clubs, middle school

          Textbook for a Methods Course on Equitable Science Teaching
          Elizabeth Chatman, Margaret Clark, Maria Santos
          biochemistry.ucsf.edu/~sep/Library/news24.pdf

                                                                                                                                             37
          3)   High School: Finding ways to bolster girls’ self-efficacy, a key to persistence in STEM
               What Works in Programs for Girls, high school

               http://www.scu.edu/SCU/Projects/NSFWorkshop99/
               Ruth Davis
               http://www.cse.scu.edu/~rdavis/html/homepage.html
               LISTING OF ARTICLE CITATIONS ON WEBSITE

          4) Undergraduate
2. Lack of interest in math/science
   a. Explanation
       1) General: Caret: Student Learning: http://caret.iste.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=evidence&answerID=12#references
               Caret specifically states that, “Technology improves motivation, attitude, and interest when students use challenging, game-like
               programs and technology applications designed to develop basic skills and knowledge.” This webpage sites empirically validated
               studies to support their claims.

             Myth: From the time they start school, most girls are less interested in science than boys are.
             Reality: In elementary school about as many girls as boys have positive attitudes toward science. A
             recent study of fourth graders showed that 66 percent of girls and 68 percent of boys reported liking
             science. But something else starts happening in elementary school. By second grade, when students
             (both boys and girls) are asked to draw a scientist, most portray a white male in a lab coat. The
             drawings generally show an isolated person with a beaker or test tube. Any woman scientist they draw
             looks severe and not very happy. The persistence of the stereotypes start to turn girls off, and by eighth
             grade, boys are twice as interested in STEM careers as girls are. The female attrition continues
             throughout high school, college, and even the work force. Women with STEM higher education
             degrees are twice as likely to leave a scientific or engineering job as men with comparable STEM
             degrees.
             http://www.nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=109939
             More than any other generation before them, today’s teenagers are comfortable with rapid
             technological change. There is no longer a gender gap in who uses technology, thanks
             especially to the Internet. However, girls and women are still less likely to participate in the
             creation of technology. To keep pace with the rapid changes in information technology, it is
             no longer sufficient for a person to be computer literate; people must become fluent with
             information technology (per the National Research Council). Fluency includes literacy skills,
             but it also includes a conceptual knowledge about when and how to use information
             technology, and the capacity to apply that knowledge to the new situations and to manage
             the inevitable problems that occur when new approaches are introduced.
             JILL DENNER
             “Research on gender differences in students’ math and science achievement and motivation
             received considerable attention in the 1980s, and recent years have seen a resurgence in
             interest, possibly because of increasing concerns about the shortage of students, especially
             women, entering technical, engineering, and other such fields.”
             Cavanagh, S. (2007) When It comes to math and science, mom and dad count: Parent
             attitudes influence how their offspring take to those subjects. Education Week. Vol. 27, Issue
             09, Page 8.
             “While both boys and girls tend to lose interest in math and science as they move from
             elementary to high school, females’ interest and confidence falls off more sharply, according
             to data from the National Center for Education Statistics, an arm of the U.S. Department of
             Education.”
             Cavanagh, S. (2007) When It comes to math and science, mom and dad count: Parent
             attitudes influence how their offspring take to those subjects. Education Week. Vol. 27, Issue
             09, Page 8.
          2) Middle School: Girls begin to avoid courses in computer technology during middle school
             Mountaineering After-School and Summer Camps, middle school girls
             Girls are socialized away from science in middle school, don’t get the exploratory
             experiences they need to develop an interest in science, instead view science as dull or
             difficult, and may lose whatever interest they did have when they study irrelevant science
             topics under uninspiring or poorly educated teachers.
             Marine and Aquatic Mini Camp, middle school

                                                                                                                                                  38
       In elementary school, about as many girls as boys have a positive attitude toward science. In
       a recent survey, a full 66 percent of forth-grade girls (and 68 percent of forth-grade boys)
       reported that they “like” science. But shortly thereafter, more girls than boys begin to turn
       away from science, technology, engineering and math (STEM).
       Tam O’Shaughnessy & Mary Thom
       O’Shaughnessy, Tam. 2000. Women, Minorities, and Persons With Disabilities. National
       Science Foundation. Arlington, VA.
       Thom, Mary. 2001. Balancing the Equation: Where Are Women and Girls in Science,
       Engineering and Technology? The National Council for Research on Women. New York.
    3) High School: The high school years are important because by the end of that time more your
       women than men have opted out of math and science studies
       The critical high school years
       ***Event though women are making strides in some areas of science, their participation in
       computer science is declining. For example, girls tend to opt out of advanced high school
       computing courses. COMPUTER SCIENCE COMPUTING AND MENTORING
       PARTNERSHIP
       GRADE LEVEL: HIGH SCHOOL
       RICHARD TAPIA
       HTTP://CEEE.RICE.EDU/CS-CAMP/STUDENTS/INDEX.HTML
       “From early adolescence, girls show less interest in math or science careers,” (Andre,
       Whigham, Hendrickson, et al., 1999; Herbert and Stipek, 2005; Jacobs, Lanza, Osgood, et
       al., 2002; Simpkins and Davis-Kean, 2005; and Wigfield, Eccles Mac Iver, et al, 1991) as
       cited in “Encouraging Girls in Math and Science” Institute of Educational Sciences Practice
       Guide. U.S. Department of Education, p. 6.
    4) Undergraduate: High drop out and switch rates among undergraduate women intending to
       major in the sciences and engineering depletes the poll of interested qualified and prepared
       students- further exacerbating the problem of women’s under representation in these fields.
       Wiser Lab Research for First Year Undergraduate Students
       Women tend to come late to their undergraduate majors, often changing majors several times
       after arriving at college. This tendency to decide late on a major is one reason many women
       drop out of math and science, but it could also be one way they are drawn into STEM.
       Women who leave science explain that they see most math and science courses, (except for
       pre-med) as not being people oriented.
       Apprenticeships in Science policy, undergraduate

         “Boys outperform girls in math and science across grades on the National Assessment of
         Educational Progress and on several of the math- and science-related Advanced Placement
         exams. And relatively few women pursue postsecondary studies in fields such as engineering
         and computer science. That overall trend robs the United States of skilled workers and
         entrepreneurs, business leaders and others say.”
         Cavanagh, S. (2007) When It comes to math and science, mom and dad count: Parent
         attitudes influence how their offspring take to those subjects. Education Week. Vol. 27, Issue
         09, Page 8.
b. Illustration
   1) General
   2) Middle School: "I really didn't like it at all because I struggled in it."

    3)   High School: "They know I'm not really good at it. I didn't get bad grades but I don't really like
         it."

         "I dread going to that class. There's just formulas and more formulas, regression graphs and
         all that stuff I don't like. That stuff we've been doing all year, so there's nothing that I actually
         like."
    4)   Undergraduate: "I really have not had a lot of exposure to science classes as they were not
         offered in my school as much. So, how could I be interested in it or be interested in a science
         career?"
         "I think physics stands out as we engaged in learning to assess why things are the way they
         are. I guess it's more related to the way things are rather than math, where we just get a
         formula.”
                                                                                                            39
             "I can use more common sense for physics than math."
    c.   Intervention
         1) General: Caret: Student Learning: http://caret.iste.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=evidence&answerID=12#references
              Caret specifically states that, “Technology improves motivation, attitude, and interest when students use challenging, game-like
              programs and technology applications designed to develop basic skills and knowledge.” This webpage sites empirically validated
              studies to support their claims, which imply that technology can be used as an intervention.
         2) Middle School: Caret: Student Learning: http://caret.iste.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=evidence&answerID=12#references
              Caret specifically states that, “Technology improves motivation, attitude, and interest when students use challenging, game-like
              programs and technology applications designed to develop basic skills and knowledge.” This webpage sites empirically validated
              studies to support their claims, which imply that technology can be used as an intervention.
         3) High School: Junior Engineering Technical Society: http://www.jets.org/programs/assess/index.cfm
              This site promotes interest in STEM careers by opening the lines of communication between students and actual engineers. The site
              allows students to assess whether engineering might be a good fit by providing a tool that assess their interests and skills.

              Caret: Student Learning: http://caret.iste.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=evidence&answerID=12#references
              Caret specifically states that, “Technology improves motivation, attitude, and interest when students use challenging, game-like
              programs and technology applications designed to develop basic skills and knowledge.” This webpage sites empirically validated
              studies to support their claims, which imply that technology can be used as an intervention.
         4) Undergraduate: The curriculum humanized math by presenting math concepts and
            problems in contexts that connected with the students’ interests.
            E-Woms: Women’s ways of learning math, undergraduate females
            Amy Levin, Diane Steele
            www.math.niu.edu/~dsteele/popc.pdf
            LISTING OF ARTICLE CITATIONS ON WEBSITE
            http://www.math.niu.edu/programs/ugrad/steele.html
            http://www.niu.edu/northerntoday/2002/feb11/math.shtml

3. Misconceptions about workload/level of difficulty of math/scienced courses
   a. Explanation
      1) General
      2) Middle School
      3) High School: Most gifted girls are too well adjusted for their own good. Many gifted girls do
            not achieve their own goals because their resourcefulness and eagerness to please causes
            them to compromise their own goals many times in the course of their development. They
            sabotage themselves by taking less challenging coursework than they need, by stopping out
            of education or career plans, or by losing sight of their goals entirely- and often never aspire
            to goals commensurate with their abilities. Their strong priorities for maintaining relationships
            rather than achieving their own goals makes it inevitable that gifted women achieve less than
            gifted men.
            TARGETS: Counseling talented at-risk girls, teens
         4) Undergraduate: Only 20 to 25 percent of high school students take physics before they
            graduate, with percentages slightly higher for boys than for girls. Many students take two or
            three science courses-enough to meet their requirements- but not physics, which they don’t
            think they will need, and view it as a course only for top students, and they are simply afraid
            to take it. When they go to college, where physics is required for many fields (including
            engineering and health related professions) they get clobbered.
            Selling Girls on Physical Sciences: Girls Grades 5 to 12 with Undergraduates)
            Given the right climate, women are as capable in math as men, but as few as five percent of
            the women who take calculus go on to take more college math.
            E-Woms: Women’s ways of learning math, undergraduate females
            Women are less likely than men to pursue coursework in advanced math.
            E-Woms: Women’s ways of learning math, undergraduate females
    b. Illustration
       1) General
       2) Middle School: "I'd guess in math last year I was struggling and didn't get good test scores. I
              would ask the teacher for help and she'd explain it individually without others around you.
              Like we were learning fractions or equations and stuff and starting--that was confusing".

              "Solving problems can be confusing sometimes."

              "It was kinda hard" (TK--H).

                                                                                                                                                 40
             "At first I thought it was really, really hard and after that it got a little bit better. As I'm moving
             up and up it's getting harder and harder" (HA--L).

           "But a lot of it was long and big words. And I don't really like big words and big vocabulary
           and they use that a lot in science…cuz it is hard." (BD--M)
        3) High School: "Yeah, like when I went from elementary school and I'd had pre-algebra and
           stuff, and I felt so confident, with my old teacher. And then I moved up to middle school and I
           had algebra…and it was honors so like it was really hard for me. And then yeah, I felt I just
           wasn't good in math anymore. It was just harder."

             "Basically, I'm just waiting for it. I mean I don't know how to handle that class exactly.
             Basically, I mean like I think I understand it, but like I know I'm not going to understand it
             when the test comes. Like I'll do fine at home and then I'll bomb every test in math, all the
             time. So basically the solution is holding out through the semester and then dropping out."

             "You feel like you know it and you do well on the homework, and then you get to the test, and
             you just go blank."

             "Yeah, it happens every year up to this year. It's always something different. If it's something
             that I'm learning and it's a big jump from what I just learned, it always seems to be a barrier."

           "I never got the difference between different theories, so I always got them confused…I think
           it was the way she taught it too. It was always so compact, so much information put in front of
           you that it was a lot for me."
        4) Undergraduate: "Our school did not have a strong math program and i am not a good math
           person so i would have to practice problems over and over again."
           "I already know that geometry is hard and I get frustrated too quickly when I can't get the
           solutions right the first time."
           "Once I came to college, there was more work than ever before involved for math and
           science courses."
   c. Intervention
      1) General: Try Engineering: http://www.tryengineering.org/ask.php
             Students ages 8 and above can contact an engineer or an undergraduate engineering student to ask questions and learn about the
             work load and difficulty of engineering courses.
        2) Middle School: Try Engineering: http://www.tryengineering.org/ask.php
             Students ages 8 and above can contact an engineer or an undergraduate engineering student to ask questions and learn about the
             work load and difficulty of engineering courses.
        3) High School: Try Engineering: http://www.tryengineering.org/ask.php
             Students ages 8 and above can contact an engineer or an undergraduate engineering student to ask questions and learn about the
             work load and difficulty of engineering courses.
        4) Undergraduate:
4. Lack of initiative to seek out resources/help in math/science
   a. Explanation
       1) General
       2) Middle School
       3) High School
       4) Undergraduate: Women accustomed to academic success tend to leave engineering if they
             perform poorly in early engineering courses.
             Developing Visualization Skills: Undergraduate females
   b. Illustration
      1) General
      2) Middle School: "I'm trying really hard, but I struggle a lot. I ask for help, but you have to do it
             yourself sometimes" (AS--M).
        3) High School: "I'm really quiet so I never raise my hand if they call on me even if I have the
             right answer. I'm afraid of being wrong I guess."
      4) Undergraduate
   c. Intervention
      1) General

                                                                                                                                          41
       2) Middle School:
       3) High School
       4) Undergraduate
5. Lack of understanding of real-world applications of math/science
   a. Explanation
       1) General
       2) Middle School: “An astronomer. I know math is involved to know the coordinates of the
            stars.”

            “Maybe a nurse or doctor. Science--you have to know all the body parts and how to treat
            them. And math too.”

            “I want to be a doctor. I don’t know why. It’s fun or something like that. Math you have to
            know how much to give and take away. You need science to be a surgeon and if you want to
            be a kids’ doctor then you would have to know about babies and treat them differently.”

            “A pediatrician. Math will fall into measurements, adding them. And science you need to
            know the different kinds of medicines and treating them.”

            “A vet because the math you have to use for the animals, like shots and how much to fill it up
            to. I don’t know if you need science.”

          “It doesn’t all have to do with math and science. To be a doctor you have to deal with so
          much other stuff.”
       3) High School: “I’m going into elementary education. I need to add and subtract and I can do
          that.”

            I’m going to be a massage therapist. I do not need none (math).”

            I don’t know. Something in science. I don’t know what I need to do.”

          “If you pick a major in college, you’ll know (if that’s your major). If that scares you, then you
          change your major.”
       4) Undergraduate: "I like real life examples. I like to know (for example) what perfume is made
          of. It would connect with the lab so you understand it better.
          "Math is not something I can see myself in a job in the future and using everyday. At least the
          higher concepts---I would say, Well what's the point of this unless I am an engineer or
          something like that? It's something I'm never going to learn (because I won't need it later).
          "When are we ever going to use imaginary numbers again?" Math concepts like probability I'll
          use, but the higher ones like imaginary numbers and things like that no, because they aren't
          important--you'll never see them again."
   b. Intervention
      1) General: Technology Enhanced Elementary and Middle School Science (TEEMSS2): http://teemss2.concord.org/
            This site provides “inquiry-based activities” that allow students to answer everyday scientific questions like how a light bulb works.
            The activities are based on National Science Education Standards and are designed for use in a school environment.

            Does it Compute?: The Relationship Between Educational Technology and Student Achievement in Mathematics:
            ftp://ftp.ets.org/pub/res/technolog.pdf
            This information report includes information about the relationship between technology and mathematics. Specifically, the site
            includes information about the effectiveness of technology and cites studies like Wenglinsky’s (1998), which found that students (8th
            grade) performed better on NAEP math tests when real-world simulations were created with the use of technology.
       2) Middle School: National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering:
            http://www.nacmebacksme.org/nacmebacksme/students.html
            The NACME reminds students that an engineer has designed everything they see that is not part of nature. This site provides
            information about the different fields within engineering and explains what they each contribute to the world.

            Technology Enhanced Elementary and Middle School Science (TEEMSS2): http://teemss2.concord.org/
            This site provides “inquiry-based activities” that allow students to answer everyday scientific questions like how a light bulb works.
            The activities are based on National Science Education Standards and are designed for use in a school environment.

            Does it Compute?: The Relationship Between Educational Technology and Student Achievement in Mathematics:
            ftp://ftp.ets.org/pub/res/technolog.pdf
            This information report includes information about the relationship between technology and mathematics. Specifically, the site


                                                                                                                                                     42
     includes information about the effectiveness of technology and cites studies like Wenglinsky’s (1998), which found that students (8th
     grade) performed better on NAEP math tests when real-world simulations were created with the use of technology.
   With service learning, students contribute positively to the community while learning
   Science-based service learning, mentoring: elementary and undergraduate students
   Deborah Wiegand, Nan Little
   http://www.edc.org/CCT/pwg/FILES/proj_dir/projects/9553448.htm
3) High School: National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering: http://www.nacmebacksme.org/nacmebacksme/students.html
     The NACME reminds students that an engineer has designed everything they see that is not part of nature. This site provides
     information about the different fields within engineering and explains what they each contribute to the world.

     Does it Compute?: The Relationship Between Educational Technology and Student Achievement in Mathematics:
     ftp://ftp.ets.org/pub/res/technolog.pdf
     This information report includes information about the relationship between technology and mathematics. Specifically, the site
     includes information about the effectiveness of technology and cites studies like Wenglinsky’s (1998), which found that students (8th
     grade) performed better on NAEP math tests when real-world simulations were created with the use of technology.

4)   Undergraduate: Community service allows students to apply principles and methods learned
     in the classroom in order to better understand and apply the material
     Science-based service learning, mentoring: elementary and undergraduate students

     Deborah Wiegand, Nan Little
     http://www.edc.org/CCT/pwg/FILES/proj_dir/projects/9553448.htm




                                                                                                                                        43

				
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