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Management Information Systems Management

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Management Information Systems Management Powered By Docstoc
					Management Information
      Systems
 Dr. Cihan Cobanoglu, CHTP
    University of Delaware
                 Outline
• MIS
• Strategic Alignment
• General Technology
  – Terminology
  – Networks
  – LAN, WAN, MAN
  – Wireless Networks
  – Network Security
               Outline (cont.)
•   Hotel Technology
•   PMS
•   PMS Interfaces
•   E-Procurement
•   OTA & HTNG
•   System Design
    – System Selection
    – System Conversion
• FUTURE!!!
                  Survey
• Let’s take the survey!
               MIS Map
• Draw a technology map of your hotel.




                   PMS
                 (Fidelio)
Introduction to Systems
      Management
“I think there is a world of market for
maybe five computers”
                 Thomas J. Watson
                 Chairman IBM, 1943
     Evolution of Technology
• 1844- Telegraph
• 1876- Telephone
• 1902-Electric typewriter
• 1910- Radio
• 1915- Coast to coast telephone
  conversation
• 1946- First electronic computer
• 1970- Floppy disks
• 1990’s - Internet
A moment to think!!!

      Future???
           Advantages of IT
•   Labor productivity
•   Organizational efficiency
•   Enhanced decision making
•   Reduced operating costs
•   Increased Information Accuracy
•   Increased revenues
•   Greater guest satisfaction
•   Improved controls
        IT Advantages (cont.)
• Communication
  –   Faster
  –   24/7/365
  –   Easier
  –   Anywhere
  –   E-commerce/Internet
             Disadvantages
•   Security Issues
•   Privacy
•   Ergonomics
•   Maintenance
•   Cost
•   Availability
•   Updates
  How to get the advantages?
• Strategic Alignment
 – Business strategy and business infrastructure
   are aligned


 – What does this mean?
     – Mission Statement
     – Technology Mission
           Some Examples
• McDonald’s
  – Wifi
  – Credit Card in Drive Through
          Some Examples
• The Monster Thickburger consists of:
  – Two charbroiled 100 percent Angus
    beef patties, each weighing in at a third
    of a pound
  – Three slices of American cheese
  – Four crispy strips of bacon
Airline Phones
                Your Hotel
• Think about your last 3 IT investments
  – Were they all strategically aligned?
      Question to think about
• Computer technology is changing
  everyday. So, is it wise to invest a fortune
  on a certain computer system?
                   MIS
• Enable managers to better monitor and
  administer business transactions and
  activities
• provide high level of operational and
  internal control over business resources
• produce timely and comprehensive
  reports formatted to the specific needs of
  managers
               Information Processing


         RAW DATA                            Decision    Shaped
                                             Making      Data
                                             Rules



Reservations/Front Office/Sales/POS/Accounting, etc.


                                                        INFORMATION


                                      SIMULATION
           System Manager
• Small properties vs. large properties
• Responsibilities:
  –   Hardware & Software
  –   Optimal Performance
  –   Evaluating system performance
  –   Training system users
  –   Guarding & Preserving
  –   System library
  –   Information plan
 Information & Communication
• Generation and transfer of information is
  critical to today’s businesses
• Flow of information both mirror and shape
  organizational structures
• Networks are the enabling technology for
  this process
    The “Manager’s Dilemma”
• Technology is necessary for
  competitiveness
• Cost of technology has decreased
• Reliance on technology has increased
• Number of choices have increased
• Choices are both more difficult and more
  important
General Technology
       Section One
Introduction to Computers

   Four basic components:
     input device
     central processing unit (CPU)

     output device

     storage device            System Unit   Monitor




                        Printer

                                                Keyboard
Computer system unit internal view
            I/O in Hospitality
• LCD (liquid crystal
  display (touchscreen)
• Cathoderaytubes
• Hand Held Terminals
• Cash Register
• Point of Sales (POS)
• Bar Code Reader
• Scanner
 Central Processing Unit (CPU)
• Brain
• Operations System (OS)--DOS, Windows,
  Unix, Linux, etc.
• Read Only Memory (ROM)
• Random Access Memory (RAM)
        Read Only Memory
• Holds the operating system & BIOS
• Can not be written
• Read only
    Read Access Memory (RAM)
•   Internal Memory
•   Read & Write
•   16 Megabyte (MB)-32, 64, 128, 256MB…
•   A single page 4K (4000 characters)
•   Very important in performance
•   Temporary---not permanent
              Floppy Disks
•   Diskette
•   1.4 MB --3.5 inch
•   100 MB Zip Drives
•   Jazz Drives 1GB
•   Super Disk--3.5 inch--120 MB
•   Formatting
                Hard Disks
•   Fixed Disk
•   External storage device-GB’s
•   Two Heads
•   Read & Write
•   Permanent
•   Potential Problems with hard-disk
•   Virus
Hard disk
            Magnetic Tapes
•   Like Video Tape
•   Magnetic
•   Backup purposes
•   Slow
•   Permanent
            Compact Disk
•   CD-ROM --Read Only Memory-650 MB
•   CD-Writeable
•   CD-Rewritable
•   Digital Video Disk (DVD)

• 4X-8X-20X…..
Local Area Networks
               Why LAN?
• Increased processing and transfer
  requirements in many graphics-intensive
  applications now require significantly
  higher transfer rates (data, audio, image,
  video)
• Decreased cost of storage space leads to
  program and file bloat, increased need for
  transfer capacity
                LANs share
• Files (databases)
• Resources (Printers,
  fax)
• Programs (SAS, MS
  Office)
  – Working together
  – Communication
          LAN-MAN-WAN
• LAN=ArabellaSheraton Grand Hotel
• MAN=ArabellaSheraton Frankfurt Hotels
• WAN=All ArabellaSheratons
       Basic LAN Hardware
• Computers/Server(s)
• Resources
• Cables
• Connectors (Hubs)
• Network Interface Cards (Ethernet)
     ADVANCED
• Bridges
• Routers
        Basic LAN Software
• Network Operating System
  – Windows NT/2000
  – Novell
• Network Drivers
• Applications
Open Systems Interconnection


         7. Application Layer

        6. Presentation Layer

          5. Session Layer

         4. Transport Layer

          3. Network Layer

         2. Data Link Layer

          1. Physical Layer
                Pre-Networking
•   Planning
•   Suitability to task
•   Ease of use
•   Administration
•   Security
•   Cost
•   Installation
•   Service
                Pre-Networking
• Flexibility
  – Add-on features
• Compatibility
               Topology
• Arrangement of workstations in a shared
  medium environment
• Logical arrangement (data flow)
• Physical arrangement (cabling scheme)
                BUS Topology
• Continuous length of cable that connects two
  or more devices together
                BUS Topology
•   Information transfer
•   Terminators
•   Setup is simple
•   Expansion
•   Repair
•   Cost
STAR Topology
       • Central network
         connector (hub)
       • Less than 100m.
       • Expansion--hub
       • Troubleshooting
       • Cost—cable
             Ring Topology
• Information flows one
  way
• Close together
• Expansion
• Troubleshooting
• Cost
                 Hybrid Topology




•   WAN
•   Cost
•   Management
         Why Hybrid (Tiered)?
•   Reliability—less service interruption
•   Capacity- not easily saturated
•   Cost – low cost networks can build up
•   Needs- not every department need the
    same equipment (accounting vs. graphics)
           Network Layouts
• Centralized
• Distributed
      Network Hardware:Servers
•   File Server
•   Fax Server
•   Application Server
•   Print Server
•   CD Server
•   Etc.
   Network Hardware:Stations
• Regular computers
   Network Hardware:Storage

• File Server
• Hard Disks (Fixed/External)
• Compact Disk(CD-R/CD-
  RW/DVD/WORM)
• Magnetic Tapes
  (slow/permanent)
• Zip/Super Disk
      Network Hardware:Printer
• Sharing
• Print Servers
• Installation (network
  adapter)
• Cost
• Capacity
• Print Speed
• Features (i.e sort, cover
  page)
• Memory
       Network Hardware:NIC
• Network Interface
  Cards
• Controls the flow of
  information
• Controlling
  – MAC Address
Network Hardware: Hubs
           Hub vs. Switch
• Hub—sends signals to all computers
  connected

• Switch– sends signals to intended
  computer(s)
 Network Hardware: Repeaters
• Extend the length of transmission media
   Network Hardware: Bridges
• Allows computers on individual networks
  or separate parts of a network to
  exchange information
    Network Hardware:Routers
• Connectors that are used to link
  different networks together
           Internet Protocols &
             Communications
• TCP/IP                   • ASP
    – IP Address Classes   • ISP
•   HTML                   • Caching
•   HTTP
•   IP Addresses
•   FTP
                Modems
• Allow computers to communicate over
  distances
• E-mail, internet, bulletin boards
• Polling, file transfer, system support
                     TCP/IP

• Transmission Control Protocol Packets:
  – Are numbered so they can be reassembled in the
    correct sequence at the destination.
  – Are transmitted over the network as capacity
    becomes available.
  – Forwarded across the network separately and do
    not necessarily follow the same route.
              Emerging Technologies
Smart Cards
                       VoIP
XML
                       ASP
Bluetooth             HSIA
VPN                    High Speed Internet
                        Access




XML Example
Wide Area Networks
                  WAN
• A computer network that spans a relatively
  large geographical area
• Typically, a WAN consists of two or more
  local-area networks (LANs)
• The biggest WAN is…..
         Transmission Media
• Physical pathways
  that connect
  computer, devices or
  networks
• Compatibility with NIC
• Types:
  – Cable
  – Light
  – Wireless
                           Cables
• Oldest
• Most commonly used
• Types:
    – Coaxial
    – Unshielded twisted pair
    – Shielded twisted pair
•   Terminator
•   T Connector
•   4/10/16/20Mbps
•   100m
Fiber Optic
      • Transmits light
        signals
      • Cost
      • 100 Mbps >
      • Interference
      • T-1 (1.5Mbps)
      • T-3 (43 Mbps)
• a connection running at 155 megabits per
  second from Los Angeles to New York
  cost about $45,000 a month last October.
  That price fell to $35,000 in March and is
  expected to slip to $2,450 in January
  2002.

• Source: Cnet.com
           WAN Protocols
• Telephone lines
• Leased lines
              Frame Relay
• The rapid increase in use of LANs&WANs
• The use of fiber optic links 

• Frame Relays: an intermediate solution for
  the demand for high bandwidth networking
• It is a packet switching technology which
  relies on low error rate digital transmission
  links and high performance processors
• Multiplexing
        WAN in Hospitality
• Global Reservation System
• Central Reservation System
• Property Management System
Wireless Networks
                 When?
• Mobile communication is needed.
• Wired communication difficult or
  impossible.
• A communication system must be
  deployed quickly.
• Communication facilities must be installed
  at low initial cost.
• The same information must be broadcast
  to many locations
                   
• Less controlled environment
• Interference– 3 channels in 802.11b/g
• Lower data rates
                  History
• Mobile telephones in 1947
• Analog
• Digital
                 AMPS
• Advanced Mobil Phone System by AT&T
                      AMPS
• Signals not being
  constrained
• Interference
• Not encrypted
• Easily monitored


                         Advanced Mobile Phone System
                 GSM
• Global System for Mobile Communications
• First developed in Europe
• Subscriber Identity Module
     SIM CARD
• GSM is encrypted
            3rd Generation
+ data, image, video= multimedia
• Voice quality 
• 144 kbps while moving fast
• 384 kbps while moving slowly
• 2 Mbps while in office (AT&T 3G)
                     WAP
• Wireless Application
  Protocol
• Works with all mobile
  technology
• Wireless Markup
  Language                http://www.ananova.com

• XHTML
  WAP




 Public Switched
Telephone Network
                           Satellite




Low-earth orbit satellites
Medium-earth-orbiting satellites
Geo-stationary satellites
       Satellite
1200




         35,000km
         0.24sec
         2-10Mbps
       Satellite Applications
• Communication
• Video-conferencing
• Global Positioning
   System
                802.11x
• 802.11b
  – 11Mbps in the 2.4GHz band
  – 3 channels (1,6,11)
  – 11mbps
• 802.11g
  – 11Mbps in the 2.4GHz band
  – 3 channels (1,6,11)
  – 54Mbps
                 802.11x
• 802.11a
  – 5Ghz
  – 12 channels (no overlapping)
  – 6,12,24 mandatory
  – 9,18,36,54 (optional)
                802.11x
• b and g are compatible
                   WEP
• Wired Equivalent Privacy

• WEP aims to provide security by
  encrypting data over radio waves so that it
  is protected as it is transmitted from one
  end point to another.

• the data link and physical layers of OSI
  (Open System Interconnection)
                     WPA
• Wi-Fi Protected Access

• Improved data encryption through the temporal
  key integrity protocol (TKIP). TKIP scrambles the
  keys using a hashing algorithm and, by adding
  an integrity-checking feature, ensures that the
  keys haven’t been tampered with.

• User authentication, which is generally missing
  in WEP, through the extensible authentication
  protocol (EAP). WEP regulates access to a
  wireless network based on a computer’s
  hardware-specific MAC address
                Bluetooth
• Up to 2Mbps in the 2.45GHz band
• No native support for IP, so it does not
  support TCP/IP and wireless LAN
  applications well. Not originally created to
  support wireless LANs. Best suited for
  connecting PDAs, cell phones and PCs in
  short intervals.
          Radio Frequency
• Up to 10Mbps in the 2.4GHZ band

• Intended for use in homes, not
  enterprises. Range is only 150 feet from
  base station. Relatively inexpensive to set
  up and maintain

				
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