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					                JAPANESE 490R Section 001 study Japanese calligraphy
                         FALL 2010 (30 Aug 10 - 17 Dec 10)
                              COURSE OUTLINE
“...study and learn, and become acquainted with all good books, and with
languages, tongues, and people.” Doctrine and Covenants 90:15
Instructor: Michio Zushi 801-830-5275, E-mail: michio.zushi@byu.edu
JAPANESE 490R Section 001 meet 4:00-5:30 pm Wednesday 245 SWKT
Materials: calligraphy ink, calligraphy paper, calligraphy brush.
Supplementary materials provided in class.
The long-term objective in Japanese calligraphy study is for you to become someone who operates easily
and effectively - in Japanese culture and society. This involves communicating in a culturally coherent
manner that helps Japanese feel comfortable with you. The purpose of this course is to build on basic skills
in brush writing and understanding Japanese calligraphy in a variety of functions and situations.
The course focus will include the following:
- Writing and reading of Japanese calligraphy accurately;
- Incorporating cultural factors reflected in calligraphy use, such as Hiragana, Katakana, and kanji
    character, and the concept of group;
      - Making introductions;
      - Using the brush;
      - Learning to read and write kanji and associated vocabulary;
      - Learning how hiragana, katakana and kanji are used together in Japanese
      - Learning some of the exhibition of Japanese calligraphy and differences
         between the calligraphy and language.
Success in achieving these objectives requires significant interaction with the calligraphy materials in
preparing for class.
Kobo fude wo erabazu. Japanese proverb (A poor workman blames his tools.)
Class Structure:
On Wednesdays of each week we will submit homework, as well as writing concerns. Learners are
expected to come to class prepared and to participate every day. Consistent, daily practice is essential for
success in calligraphy learning.
Is it not a pleasure, having learned something, to try it out at due intervals?            Confucius
People who aim to master an art seem to say to themselves, “While I’m still not too good at this, I’ll keep
it to myself and not let anyone know what I’m doing. People will be more impressed if I practice in private
and show myself only after I’ve developed true skill.” But anyone who says such things will never learn a
single art well. For it is the man who mingles with the masters even as a beginner, uninhibited by ridicule
or laughter, always pushing ahead coolly -- it is that man, even if he has no special gift from birth, who
will not stumble along the way or become too casual in his attitude. As the years pass, such a man will
surpass one with natural gifts but no dedication, in the end arriving at a higher level of performance,
expanding his talent constantly, and gaining the high opinion of the public as an artist of matchless
reputation.         Yoshida Kenkoo (ca. 1330)
Policies and Expectations:
You will be accountable for the information in this outline. It is expected that you will copy the example
carefully and ask questions regarding anything that may not be clear to you.
* We strongly endorse the principles embodied in the BYU Honor Code, to which we have all subscribed.
We invite, and expect, your adherence to those principles. Failure to do so may affect one’s grade, status
in the course, or status at the university.
* You are expected to come to calligraphy class having learned the Kanji for the assigned section, having
copied the material in the calligraphy, and having studied the assigned section.
* You are expected to come to class prepared with assigned calligraphy for that day.
Hence, given the right nourishment there is nothing that will not grow, and deprived of it, there is nothing
that will not wither away. Mencius
* Homework is due at the beginning of class. Late work is subject to a 10% penalty and will be accepted
for one week past the due date, except during the last week of class. It is to your advantage to keep current
in order to maximize your progress.
* Tests must be taken at the scheduled time to avoid a penalty. They must be scheduled by the following
weekday at the latest. Late tests will be subject to a 10% penalty. In accordance with university policy, the
final exam will not be given early. Make your plans accordingly. The midterm and final exams will
consist of a written portion, each contributing half of the total score.
* Inasmuch as you will be called on frequently to perform, no food, drink or gum is allowed in class. This
is also in keeping with expectations of classroom behavior in Japanese society.
* You are expected to make use of the visual materials as the primary means to prepare for calligraphy
class. This will help you to develop more native-like Japanese calligraphy. You will benefit much more
from the activities in class and progress much faster if you make disciplined use of these resources.
* Consistent attendance, preparation, and participation are crucial if you hope to learn Japanese calligraphy
well. Last-minute cramming will not serve you well in this course. Learning calligraphy is learning a skill,
not just a matter of acquiring facts. Extensive practice is required to develop calligraphy skills.
* Note that the university suggests that you plan on three hours of study, on average, for each hour spent in
class. For this course, this means that your progress will be maximized if you plan to study an average of
half hour every day outside of class.
* The calligraphy assignments deal with kanji and kana. We suggest that you write the questions on a
separate piece of paper, and ask the instructor when you submit five calligraphy pieces of your daily
practice. We strongly recommend that you check your daily practice and chose one of best practice next
day, and submit five of each day practice next class. If you practice without checking, such a practice
actually impedes your ability to recognize good calligraphy and your development of calligraphy skills.
Performance will be evaluated in each of the following areas, weighted as shown:
       Calligraphy assignments Daily preparation and participation 70%
       Special assignments 10%
       Midterm exam 10%
       Final exam 10%
The preparation/participation score is based on performance in the class. Evaluation will begin Wednesday,
Sep 8th and will be based on the following criteria:
     4.0 Solid preparation is evident and performance is fully culturally coherent; that is, students write
     calligraphy in ways in which natives of Japanese culture expect people to write calligraphy. The
     performance presents no difficulty, discomfort, or misunderstanding for a native. Repair (restating, or
     correcting oneself) is self-managed. The performance reflects a sense of calligraphy as communication
     – an interpersonal exchange (not just copying example material).
     3.5 Good preparation with superior performance, such that there would be little to create difficulties,
     discomfort, or misunderstanding in interaction with a native. However, some noticeable errors could
     hinder smooth interaction. Most repairs are self-managed.
     3.0 Good preparation with good performance. A few aspects of the performance would create
     difficulties, discomfort, or misunderstanding in communication with a native. Evident weakness or
     patterned errors that would require occasional correction from another (instructor, classmate).
     2.5 Some preparation is evident and performance enables communication, but there are also several
     clear sources of difficulty, discomfort, or misunderstanding in communicating with a native. Repair is
     largely a matter of correcting problems, and comes mostly from others.
     2.0 Minimum preparation. The performance presents definite obstacles to communication and would
     cause more than simple discomfort. Repair requires multiple, often repeated, corrections and guidance
     from another (mostly the teacher).
     1.5 Barely any preparation. The performance would create considerable difficulties, discomfort, or
     misunderstanding in communicating with a native. Communication is achieved only with repeated
     correction and guidance from the teacher. Clearly not in control of the assigned material.
     1.0 Attended class, but did not participate or failed to perform with any viable degree of competence.
     0 Absent
The daily grades are to let you know how your preparation and performance compare with what is
expected for comfortable interaction with native Japanese at this level of study. The feedback is designed
to help you know how you can improve and use Japanese calligraphy more naturally. It will also help
serve as a motivator for you to prepare well for class. For the daily grade to be most helpful to you, we
strongly encourage you to visit with the instructors regularly to review your scores and discuss what you
can do to improve.
Note that perfection is not the standard for a score of 4.0. Everyone makes mistakes. It is an expected part
of calligraphy learning and calligraphy use. Consistent, thorough preparation will give you confidence.
The goal is to develop the ability to self-correct.
The daily grade covers all aspects of calligraphy use: brush usage, ink usage, paper usage, expression,
fineness, and concentration.
Suki koso mono no zyoozu nare. Japanese proverb
(To the extent one enjoys something, one becomes skilled at it.)
Final examinations:
"Final examinations will be given at the times shown in the schedule. Examinations are not given early.
The examination period is preceded by reading days, which give time for conscientious review, study, and
synthesis of the semester's work. The reading and the examination periods are firmly scheduled parts of
the semester; you must not make plans that interfere with these important academic activities. If illness or
other uncontrollable circumstances prevent you from taking an examination at the scheduled time, you
are responsible to inform the class instructor as soon as possible. Your instructor may give the grade
Incomplete, depending on the circumstances. The incomplete cannot be given unless you and
your instructor together prepare a contractual agreement."
Final Grading Scale:
        100-93 A,           92-90 A-,
          89-87 B+,         86-83 B,          82-80 B-,
          79-77 C+,         76-73 C,          72-70 C-,
          69-67 D+,         66-63 D,          62-60 D-,
          Below 60 E
In keeping with the principles of the BYU Honor Code, students are expected to be honest in all of their
academic work. Academic honesty means, most fundamentally, that any work you present as your own
must in fact be your own work and not that of another. Violations of this principle may result in a failing
grade in the course and additional disciplinary action by the university. Students are also expected to
adhere to the Dress and Grooming Standards. Adherence demonstrates respect for yourself and others and
ensures an effective learning and working environment. It is the university’s expectation, and my own
expectation in class, that each student will abide by all Honor Code standards. Please call the Honor Code
Office at 422-2847 if you have questions about those standards. If you have a disability that may affect
your performance in this course, you should get in touch with the University Accessibility Center (2170
WSC, 422-2767). This office can evaluate your disability and assist me in arranging for reasonable
accommodations. Sexual discrimination or harassment (including student-to-student harassment) is
prohibited both by the law and by Brigham Young University policy. If you feel you are being subjected to
sexual discrimination or harassment, please bring your concerns to the professor or lodge a complaint with
the Equal Employment Office (D-240C ASB, 422-5895) or with the Honor Code Office (4440 WSC,
Usually people think of “culture” as something that a particular group of people have. …[I]t’s more than
that. It’s also something that happens to you when you encounter them. Culture is an awareness, a
consciousness, one that reveals the hidden self and opens paths to others ways of being. …Culture has to
do with who you are. …You can’t use a new language unless you change the consciousness that is tied to
the old one. …[Culture] changes the way you look at things.
                                                                                                 Michael Agar
[Culture] shapes the minds of individuals…. Its individual expression inheres in meaning making,
assigning meanings to things in different settings on particular occasions. Meaning making involves
situating encounters with the world in their appropriate cultural contexts…. Although meanings are “in the
mind,” they have their origins and their significance in the culture in which they are created.
…Nothing is “culture free”….
If pedagogy is to empower human beings to go beyond their “native” predispositions, it must transmit the
“toolkit” the culture has developed for doing so.                        Jerome Bruner
Culture is man’s medium; there is not one aspect of human life that is not touched and altered by culture.
This means personality, how people express themselves (including shows of emotion), the way they think,
how they move, how problems are solved…. However, …it is frequently the most obvious and
taken-for-granted and therefore the least studied aspects of culture that influence behavior in the deepest
and most subtle ways.
Culture is more than mere custom that can be shed or changed like a suit of clothes.
…Culture controls behavior in deep and persisting ways, many of which are outside of awareness….
                                                                                               Edward T. Hall
For most people, including Americans, the distinguishing mark of cross-cultural interaction is the
disappearance of the familiar guideposts that allow them to act without thinking in their own culture.
Routine matters become problems that require planning or conscious decisions. They may not know when
to shake hands, nod their heads, ask a question, express an opinion, or maintain silence. …Faced with
these cross-cultural uncertainties, people tend to impose their own perspectives in an effort to dispel the
ambiguity created by the unusual behavior of host country nationals. They are unlikely to suspend
judgment about differences in behavior because they assume unconsciously that their own ways are
normal, natural, and right.
                                                                    Edward C. Stewart and Milton J. Bennett
Furthermore, the genres are instruments whose full reality is in their “playing,” in their performance, in
their use in social settings — they should not be seen merely as scripts, scenarios, scores, stage directions,
or other modes of blueprinting, diagramming, or guiding. Their full meaning emerges from the union of
script with actors and audience at a given moment in a group’s ongoing social process.
                                         Victor Turner

   ******                           Special Assignment                             *****
Choose one group of below three greatest calligraphers in Japan who were
called Sanpitsu or Sanseki (choose one group below 1 to 5), and write 3-page
report about “How they were so great”. (Please write in Japanese, if you can)

Due: Wed. Sep 29 by midnight via e-mail (NO print out copy report)
E-mail to: michio.zushi@byu.edu , CC to ZUSHIF@GMAIL.COM
E-mail Subject:   ***   BYU 490R-001 SPA *** Your name ***

Choice 1. Heian no Sanpitsu 平安の三筆
       Saga Tennou, Kukai, Tachibana no Hayanari
       嵯峨天皇、 空海、 橘逸勢

Choice 2. Heian no Sanseki 平安の三蹟
       Onono Toufuu, Fujiwara no Sukemasa, Fujiwara no Yukinari
       小野道風、          藤原佐理、                藤原行成

Choice 3. Kanei no Sanpitu 寛永の三筆
       Honnami Kouetsu, Konoe Nobutada, Shoukado Shojo
       本阿弥光悦、            近衛信尹、          松花堂昭乗

Choice 4. Oubaku no Sanpitsu 黄檗の三筆
       Ingen, Mokuann, Sokuhi
       隠元、 木庵、         即非

Choice 5. Bakumatsu no Sanpitu 幕末の三筆
       Ichikawa Beian, Nukina Suuou, Maki Ryoko
       市川米庵、           貫名海屋、         巻菱湖

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