Case Studies - Convention on Biological Diversity

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					                               report to come

           Elephant pepper - Chili as a Tool for Conservation and



Keywords                         food crop

                           human-wildlife conflict
                            Only 20% of elephant range is formally protected in Africa and
                            increasingly, rural farmers and elephants share the same landscape
                            as agriculture expands and growing elephant populations are
                            In this situation elephants can cause widespread damage to food
              Background/   crops and compete with communities for land and resources. In
                Problem     some situations elephants are part of the causes of malnutrition in
                            communities where elephants raid night after night. Conversely, the
                            conversion of woodland to farmland threatens the elephant's survival
                            thus managing agriculture and elephants within the same area
                            presents a complex problem.

                                  EPDT resolves human-wildlife conflict through research, education,
                                  and dissemination of community-based problem animal control
                                  methods and agricultural techniques that are safe, low-cost, effective
                                  and promote elephant conservation and the livelihood of farmers:
                                  1) Developing strategies with farmers to deter elephants at night
                                  2) Creating buffer zones between agriculture and elephant habitat
                                  3) Erecting simple barriers (string fences) that farmers could hang
              Outline Methodology
Description                       cow bells on to act as alarms and coat with a chilli infused grease
                                  4) Burn chilli briquettes around the fields
                                  These methods were further refined and then taught to farmers in
                                  other areas. By growing chillies and using them as a deterrent,
                                  farmers were able to defend themselves. The Trust was set up to
                                  train farmers in these methods and to identify markets for the excess
                                  chilli grown by farmers living in elephant range.
                   In the trials chilli was less vulnerable to large mammalian predation
                   than either cotton or maize. Ten farmers chose to grow chilli and it
                   generated the greatest income per ha of all the crops because of its
                   high yield and high market value. The mean income was limited only
                   by the small area currently under cultivation. These results indicate
                   the potential of chilli as a wildlife resistant cash crop for farmers living
         Results   in high conflict areas. The crop-raiding animals identified in this study
                   are all notorious crop pests, including livestock, whose impact can be
                   considerable (Bell, 1984; Naughton-Treves,1997). Elephants did not
                   visit the trial site despite being a significant crop predator in the area,
                   but their crop-raiding patterns are notoriously unpredictable
                   (Naughton-Treves, 1998) and so little can be inferred from this result.
                   (Parker and Osborn, 2006)
                   Elephant Pepper Development Trust (EPDT) selected African Spices
                   Ltd. to act as a for-profit facilitator between a collection of communal
                   farmers who normally harvest small amounts of cash and food crops.

                         Area of forest, agricultural aquaculture ecosystems under
                                          sustainable management

                    Health and well being of communities who directly depend on local
                                     ecosystem goods and services


Lead Organization    Elephant Pepper Development Trust (EPDT)

Project Start Date

Project End Date                                  ongoing

   Countries                                  Zm Bw Zw Ke Na

                           several research papers related to the project available

                                               Scientific paper


                            Project summary report

Related projects/articles
Related projects/articles

       Contacts             Ferrel Osborn []
Comments                (Future
    Developments; Awards)
                              complete                                       no response

Habitats and Handbags - “Sustainable conservation and community
                                                                  Tawaya - Murmuru butter and soaps
           development of Phu My Lepironia grassland”

                          Capacity building                             Sustainable production

                      sustainable development                           Rain Forest preservation

           biodiversity conservation and poverty alleviation                   Business

                       community engagement                                    Amazon

                           small business                                   natural product
                                                                                 Tawaya is located in Cruzeiro do Sul, in the State of Acre, Brazil, on
                                                                                 the Juruá river, which is one of the major tributaries of the river
The perceived conflict between development and conservation is a key issue
                                                                                 Amazon. The major part of Acre is covered by native rain forest of
in the Ha Tien Plain, which is the last of its kind remaining in the Mekong
                                                                                 which 47.8% are conservation areas of some kind, such as Indian
Delta. The 2,000-hectare seasonally inundated grassland, dominated by the
                                                                                 reserves, extractive reserves, national forests and national parks. In
sedge Lepironia articulata (Cyperaceae), supports a mosaic of grassland,
                                                                                 1999 deforestation in the state was around 11%. Natural rubber
wetland and limestone ecosystems with a rich biodiversity including a
                                                                                 production was the most important activity until 1995. When rubber
population of the tallest flying bird, the Eastern Sarus crane, listed as
                                                                                 prices dropped, its production came to an end and the major part of
‘vulnerable’ by IUCN due to wetland loss. Over the last 20 years, economic
                                                                                 the land was practically abandoned by its owners. Only part of the
development such as agro-forestry (22,000 hectares of abandoned
                                                                                 traditional population remained, turned to agriculture or fishing.
Eucalyptus plantation), rice (extremely low yield) and ongoing shrimp
                                                                                 While Amazonian rubber tree plantations were widely recognized to
aquaculture (highly acidic water requiring constant neutralization) in the area,
                                                                                 be a sustainable system (environmentally correct though socially
classified by the government as ‘unproductive’ in its natural state, has mainly
                                                                                 unfair), unsustainable practices were carried out after the
failed. The resulting monocultures have destroyed 98% of the Plain’s natural
                                                                                 breakdown of the rubber industry such as deforestation and slash-
habitat. Apart from that, the area provides an economic base to the Khmer
                                                                                 and-burn in order to open pastures and agricultural land. The
ethnic minority, who harvest Lepironia for production of woven goods, which
                                                                                 absence of economic activities based on the sustainable use of the
currently have a low profit margin. This leads to an unsustainable harvest.
                                                                                 forest caused many locals to migrate to towns, starting a process of
                                                                                 family disintegration.
                                                                                    The company specializes in the production of no preservative soap,
The project’s goal is to implement an innovative multi-use conservation-
                                                                                    handmade from fat extracted from the nuts of murmuru harvested in
business model based on sustainable management principles. The
                                                                                    the rainforest where it naturally grows. Tawaya does not buy raw
conservation priority of the project is to preserve the unique, biodiversity-rich
                                                                                    material from middlemen and keeps a direct relationship with fruit
wetland remaining in Phu My Village, thereby saving the endangered sarus
                                                                                    suppliers, assuring that a significant part of the income generated by
crane from extinction. The main social priority is to ensure that the use of
                                                                                    the sale of products really goes back into their hands. Tawaya
natural capital benefits local people by maximizing their income through
                                                                                    manufactures all products in the state of Acre, from fruit native to
improved harvesting techniques, skills and training which will allow the Khmer
                                                                                    the area, generating jobs both in town and in the forest. Furthermore
to craft higher value woven goods, such as handbags that will make a better
                                                                                    they produce wooden boxes from fallen wood and essential oils.
price on the tourist markets in Ho Chi Minh City. The goal for the project is to
                                                                                    Tawaya has a register of the geographical coordinates and quantity
be self sustained financially since the production of handicrafts can bring a
                                                                                    bought in each purchase operation. Thereby they identify the main
certain amount of income for project management. The project began by first
                                                                                    productive areas and plan their management, thus avoiding
collaborating with Kien Giang provincial authority to create protection status
                                                                                    excessive exploitation of the environmentThe permanence of Juruá
for the Phu My wetland. Unlike other "traditional" protected areas the access
                                                                                    river people in the area are extremely important for environmental
of local people to natural resources continued but was re-organized in a more
                                                                                    conservation, since it prevents the expansion of activities that
sustainable way.
                                                                                    destroy the forest such as logging and cattle grazing.
The Kien Giang authority formally recognized Phu My wetland as a protected
area which was also included in the Kien Giang Biosphere Reserve being
nominated to UNESCO by the Government of Vietnam. The exploitation of
                                                                                  Murmuru exploitation appears now as a new source of income and
natural is organized in a more sustainable way: in-discriminate harvest
                                                                                  the government of the State of Acre and of the State of Amazonas
techniques were banned; the volume of harvested raw material was reduced
                                                                                  have been working together with Tawaya to create legal areas for
and major disturbances prevented to some extent by cooperating closely with
the local community and authorities which now actively participate in
                                                                                  400 families, that is 2000 people in total, benefit from collecting
protecting wetland boundaries and in making management decisions.
                                                                                  murmuru nuts. Tawaya's business activities contribute to
Monitoring and eradication of invasive alien are carried out regularly. The
                                                                                  sustainable management of approximately 50.000 hectares of
average daily income project participants doubled and the project employed
                                                                                  rainforest.' (source: Amazon Your Business)
57% of local families (as at 2006). Thus, the economic value of the area has
been demonstrated and the incentive to conserve it has been established.
The annual crane count (ICF) counted 5 cranes in 2004 while the number
increased to 200 (1/5 of the world population) in 2008 according to the project
manager. A biodiversity survey was completed (Summary in English).

                                                                                   Health and well being of communities who directly depend on local
          Proportion of products derived from sustainable sources
                                                                                                    ecosystem goods and services

                                                                                       Area of forest, agricultural aquaculture ecosystems under
                         Access and Benefit Sharing
                                                                                                        sustainable management

    Area of forest, agricultural aquaculture ecosystems under sustainable
                                                                                        Proportion of products derived from sustainable sources

     Health and well being of communities who directly depend on local
                      ecosystem goods and services

          Trends in abundance and distribution of selected species
       Trends in extent of selected biomes, ecosystems, and habitats

                         Coverage of protected areas

International Crane Foundation; funded by International Finance Corporation,
World Bank

                                     2004                                                                 1996

                                  still running                                                          ongoing

                                      Vn                                                                  Brazil
                    Phu My Village, Kien Giang Province                                             Western Amazon

                                                                                    Business Website: Information available in English:
                        DM Project Completion Report

Tran Triet & Richard Caines. 2007. Towards sustainable rural development:
combining biodiversity conservation with poverty alleviation – a case study in
                                                                                      Amazon Your Business', Meindert Brouwer, 2007,
 Phu My Village, Kien Giang Province, Vietnam. In: Morioka, T., K. Hakuri &
H. Yabar (editors). Transition to a resource-circulating society: strategies and
           initiatives in Asia. Osaka University Press, pp: 181-190.
                         Short Project Description:

                  Summary of Biodiversity Survey
                                               Fabio F. Dias, Director, Tawaya Sabonetes
                                                    Rua do Madeira, 1.001 - COHAB
                                                69980-000 - Cruzeiro do Sul - AC - Brazil
Project manager Tran Triet:
                                                         Tel. +55(68)3322.52.21
Future Developments:‘The project completed a market analysis upon which a
business plan is going to be developed. The goal is for the project to be self-
sustained financially. It becomes obvious that to balance business and
                                                                                 mention that this project is focusing on empowering Swazi
conservation, it is critical to provide raw materials for Lepironia handicraft
                                                                                 women that harvest marula nuts. Here is the link to their
production from outside of the project area. The project will work with local
people to increase Lepironia plantations in the surrounding areas. Those
plantings will be on rice fields that are not suitable for rice (because of high
soil acidity). Those rice fields were developed from lands which were once
Lepironia marshes.’ (Tran Triet, project manager, personal communication)

Won Dubai Best Practice Award 2006
                      complete                                         complete

Artminers - Cutting Release of Mercury by applying new
                                                         The Duck Ranger - Rice- Duck Systems
               technology CLEANGOLD

                        Mining                                        Agriculture

                Technology Innovation                              Soil Degradation

                 Developing countries                                 Pesticides

                    Deforestation                                  Biological control

                  Poverty Alleviation                             Small scale farmers
95% of all gold mined today is not nuggets, it is dust. 25% of gold
produced today comes from artisanal and small scale miners in
developing nations. Instead of cyanide, most of these miners are
                                                                         Rice farming and raising mallard ducks are important livelihoods in
using mercury, which acts like a magnet while binding with the gold
                                                                         the Philippines, and both are seriously affected by the presence of
forming an amalgam. Finally, before the gold goes to market, the
                                                                         the golden snail. In lake areas, where mallard ducks are farmed,
amalgam is heated to burn off the mercury concentrating the gold.
                                                                         the disappearance of this indigenous snail due to pollution and
When heated mercury volatilizes, it forms a toxic gas. Mercury's
                                                                         dredging is a problem as the snails are an important food source for
toxicity has been shown to cause both neurological and
                                                                         the ducks. Where snail populations have been depleted, farmers
developmental problems and it bioaccumulates in the ecosystem.
                                                                         must rely on expensive commercial feed. On the other hand, where
Thus, the vaporized mercury initially affects the miners and their
                                                                         rice cultivation is the main livelihood, golden snail infestations can
families, and then continues to build up along the food chain
                                                                         destroy of up to 60 percent of a crop. Rice farmers rely on chemical
concentrating in the larger fish and birds, eventually finding its way
                                                                         inputs like molluscicide, fertilizer, insecticide and herbicide -
back to the people. Based on a 2002 report, the WWF estimated
                                                                         resulting in environmental degradation and significantly increasing
that between 10-30 tons of mercury are released in the Madre de
                                                                         the cost of production.
Dios region each year while the miners in Suriname are releasing as
much mercury as they're capturing in gold, roughly 10 -20 tons per
The goal was to introduce technologies that eliminate the need for
mercury (Hg) during the mining process. The Cleangold sluice offers        The project wants to reduce environmental degradation from
an affordable, non-motorized, simple and non-chemical alternative to       pesticide use and increase farm income by raising ducks and
mercury and cyanide. The CleanGold ® process involves two parts.           cultivating rice together in an integrated system. Traditionally, rice
The first is to insert an array of panels into the sluice of each mining   and ducks are raised separately, but significant gains can be
dredge. The panels are a material patented by David Plath that             realized by raising both in the same field. The ducks can control the
attracts and collects mineral concentrates containing gold as they         golden snail population which will in turn improve rice field
pass over the panels. The second part relies on a modified version         productivity. Duck farmers will benefit from cheaper duck feed,
of panning techniques used by gold miners for more than 100 years.         while rice farmers will gain from an environmentally friendly and
One benefit of this technology is that it requires very few changes to     inexpensive way to fight the destructive snail. The rice-duck model
how miners already mine gold.                                              is comprised of at least 1 hectare of rice field, 100 Mallard ducks,
Based on preliminary testing, the CleanGold ® process was also             and a duck shed (100 sq ft floor space) built on elevated area near
more efficient recovering a higher percentage of the finer gold            the farm house, which is called “Duck Ranger” and moves the duck
particles, gold that is missed using current mining methods. It is         from one place to another. Furthermore, the rice-duck model works
estimated that each miner's initial investment from their purchase of      with a built-in rice-duck calendar with which the farmers are taking
CleanGold ® equipment will be paid for in less than three months.          advantage of the available feed resources by proper scheduling of
                                                                           farm activities.
Artminers first introduced their technology in Suriname, but are      The project has established 4 rice-duck zones (RDZs) with pilot
expanding to other countries in Africa, Asia and in South America.    sites located in Victoria, Siniloan, Sta Cruz, Laguna and San Pablo
Detailed results listed here concentrate on Suriname as the pilot     City., benefiting 100 farmers. The project improved farm
project. Artminers directly introduced Cleangold to roughly 400       productivity and increased income of the farmers. Cost and returns
miners in Suriname's two largest gold mining sectors and conducted    analysis showed an additional net income of US$ 1,152 for a rice-
workshops in remote regions. They successfully installed Cleangold    duck practitioner per year. Moreover, the cost of production were
adaptations to miners' current practices and designed a system to     reduced (US$ 87 per year = equivalent to 4 liters of chemical
profitably rework abandoned mine sites. Thereby gold and mercury      pesticides) and savings of about 30% on cost of feeds occurred.
that otherwise might have been lost to the environment is recovered   Economic activities in the area increased by creating jobs in duck
and deforestation, manpower and operational costs are reduced.        raising, duck herding, feed retailing, duck and egg trading, etc. The
Moreover, women in remote villages now have a new source of           need for molluscicide application was reduced by as much as 100%
income generation and individual miners are generating income (as     and the use of insecticide and herbicide was substantially reduced.
opposed to working under larger operations). One of Suriname's        Although the project intended to reduce the use of fertilizers
major mining retailers is now carrying their products. Moreover an    because of duck manure, most of the farmers applied the same
international market for ‘clean’ gold has been organized. As the      amount of fertilizers as before joining the project. Paddy fields and
number of clean gold miners increases, their capacity to earn more    the surroundings served as good feeding grounds for ducks.
money improves.                                                       Hence, feeding the ducks only required minimal cost.

                                                                           Area of forest, agricultural, aquaculture ecosystems under
                Water quality of aquatic ecosystems
                                                                                            sustainable management

      Proportion of products derived from sustainable sources
US NGO Artminers                                          University of the Philippines at Los Baños

                             2002                                                        2005

                           ongoing                                                       2007

                           sr Pe Mg                                                        Ph

                                                                     Development Marketplace Project Webpage:

                DM Project Completion Report                               DM Project Completion Report 05
newsletter ACEER Peru with good explanation of how the technology
                                                                                  Progress report on impact of project

                      WWF Report Guiana

     University of British Colombia: Presentation on alternative           Project: 'Aquaculture and rice pads' in Bangladesh:
  technologies for small scale gold miners: also presents data on
 health effects of Hg and neuropsychological tests done on workers                                  l
                                               Recotrino P. Escobin, Jr.
   Director, Kristina Shafer: or;
                                                                    Development Marketplace Winner 2005,                     Finalist in
                                                                    2006 Dubai Award on Best Practice
                                                                    Future Development:
                                                                    A proposal for upscaling the project has been forwarded to the
Development Marketplace 2005 Winner ; World Wildlife Fund and
                                                                    Department of Agriculture (DA) and Local Government Units
UNIDO have independently verified the efficacy of Cleangold and
                                                                    (LGUs) to replicate the Project in the Philippines where there are
also revealed that Cleangold recovers smaller gold than mercury,
                                                                    vast lands of rice fields facing similar problems of golden snail
which means a higher yield of gold without the continued expense of
                                                                    Meanwhile, the project managers will keep on monitoring and
                                                                    assisting the existing 4 RDZs, making sure that they remain to be
                                                                    fully functional
new report to look trough                       complete

 Saving the Albatross       Protecting the Environment: Profiting from Garbage

       Fisheries                                Recycling

  By-catch mitigation                       Urban Environment

                                            Pollution Reduction

                                            Poverty Alleviation

A study of trawl fishing in South Africa suggests that       Twenty thousand tons of plastic trash are chaotically spread about
around 18,000 seabirds may be killed annually in this        Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, and its environs each year. Waste
fishery, highlighting trawl fisheries as a major threat to   production is increasing, and 10% of it are plastic refuses (e.g.
seabirds, especially several species of albatross            20,000tons/year in Ouagadougou). These are polluting the soils used
already facing a risk of extinction. The majority of bird    for agriculture and killing wild and domestic animals, damaging
deaths were a result of collisions with wires - known        farmers’ and breeders’ activities, making local hygienic conditions
as warp lines - leading from the stern of the vessels.       worse for children and their families. It has been calculated that 30
Fisheries, including long-lining and trawling, are           percent of the area's animals died last year from ingesting plastic
believed to kill 100,000 albatrosses annually. Eighteen      while grazing. The proliferation of plastic refuse is caused not only by
of the world's 22 species of albatross are facing            people, but also by seasonal rains and winds. The result is that large
extinction, and bycatch in fisheries is the most             amounts of plastics are everywhere. Furthermore, the semi-arid
significant threat to the family worldwide. Potential        climate makes the natural degradation processes particularly slow. If
solutions to reduce seabird mortality, such as               people had an incentive to collect and recycle plastic refuse, the city
improving waste management and using devices                 and its environs could be cleaned up in no time. Average waste
protecting warp cables from bird strikes, already exist.     collection rates in African cities are usually very low (usually <40%).
BirdLife International believes addressing the
problems requires a combination of implementing best-
                                                         The main priority is to demonstrate that solving a dramatic
practice mitigation measures immediately, making
                                                         environmental problem in African cities through the creation of a
such measures a requirement for appropriate fisheries
                                                         market-oriented, self-sustaining plastic recycling operation is in fact
and conducting research to improve mitigation
                                                         possible. The project wants to show that the real solution is to
measures. ATF has developed the world's first
                                                         change people's behavior by working with sensitization activities and
international team of by-catch mitigation instructors
                                                         the physical location of the plastic recycling centre. As part of the
working with local fishermen, fishing company
                                                         public awareness and mobilization campaign, plastic refuse will be
directors and governments to demonstrate and
                                                         collected and sold for profit to the first plastic recycling center in the
encourage best practise use of mitigation measures
                                                         country, becoming a source of revenue for the poor. This “Green
that are known to rapidly reduce seabird mortality
                                                         brigade” initiative aims at improving the city environment of
once in use. ATF obtains a by-catch figure for each
                                                         Ouagadougou by providing secure employment to a group of 1200
fishery, identifies the detail of the fishing techniques
                                                         women, most of whom are bread winners, to clean the streets and
and gears used and then ascertains the most
                                                         public spaces. Finally, the recycling center will start market-based
appropriate mitigation measures based on its
                                                         production of recycled objects such as chairs, school equipment and
assessments. The affect of a longline fishery on
                                                         waste baskets.
seabirds is measured by recording the number of
seabirds killed per 1000 hooks set.
According to the project manager there are indications
                                                           Public awareness campaigns were organized on the risks and
of a reduction from 0.44 birds / 1000 hooks to 0.06
                                                           dangers of plastic waste and the benefits of recycling.
birds / 1000 hooks in South Africa, thanks to an
                                                           Ouagadougou’s first recycling centre was built and is now fully
increase of mitigation measure compliance, which is
                                                           operational (5 tons/month). It uses local resources, and appropriate
now at 99.5%. Developed and tested best practice
                                                           technology that can be understood even where literacy levels are
measures include:
                                                           low. The recycling centre is managed and now run independently by
1. Bird scaring devices: Using a curtain of plastic
                                                           30 women and two technicians (all locals).Moreover, 1,500 direct
streamers dangling from a piece of rope positioned
                                                           employments have been established through the collection system
over long lines scares seabirds away from baited
                                                           and 120 km of street are cleaned. It is estimated that over 6,500
                                                           children have directly benefited from the program (school fees, health
2. Chute setting: Using underwater chutes from which
                                                           care, and family nutrition). Apart from the Waste Management
to run the fishing lines out, so that the line goes into
                                                           Department of Ouagadougou, local authorities, organizations and
the water out of reach of the birds.
                                                           enterprises decided to join the project. Thanks to an official twinning
3. Dyed Bait: Bait that has been dyed blue makes it
                                                           agreement between the city and Turin in Italy, which runs a
harder for birds to see it in the water.
                                                           decentralized cooperation program in West Africa, the Italian
4. Night setting of fishing lines: Most albatrosses feed
                                                           Government offered relevant financial and technical assistance. The
by day.
                                                           environmental situation has improved noticeably.
5. Using heavier weights: Weighting fishing lines so
that the baited hooks sink more quickly.

   Proportion of products derived from sustainable          Health and well being of communities who directly depend on local
                      sources                                                ecosystem goods and services

   Trends in abundance and distribution of selected
                                                                         Ecological footprint and related concepts

                                                                 Proportion of products derived from sustainable sources
BirdLife International: Albatross Task Force (ATF)
                                                      Lay Volunteers International Association (LVIA)
funded by the RSPB

    2000 (ATF) but 2007 for mitigation instructors      Worldbank Project start in 2003, LVIA initiative started in 1997

                       ongoing                                  official project end date in 2005, but is ongoing

                  Br Za Uy Ar Cl Na                                                Bf Sn Mr

                  Case Study in Delnet Publication (ITC/ILO) on page 19

Newsletter of the Global Seabird Programme: covers
                                                                         Project Webpage in Italian:
 the ATF and numerous similar projects in different
 Albatros Taskforce 2007 Annual report        Project Desription in Best Practice Database - UN Habitat

                                                       Short Project description DM - Worldbank:

Trawl fishing is on its way out in Venezuela: President
  Chavez amended new law that bans trawl fishing:

                                                                              Andrea Micconi
   Oli Yates []Co-ordinator
                Albatross Task Force
                                                          Email Correspondence with project manager with links and
Project manager Oli Yates:"it will be unlikely that I can
provide information bycatch rates in all the fisheries as
we are still in the process of monitoring. To give
figures now would introduce error to the results.
However, I will detail countries and teams with bycatch
figures and indicate how they have been determined Winner of the 2006 Dubai International Awards for Best Practices
plus what action we have been taking to achieve these
reductions in bycatch plus what needs to be done to
improve the current situation."      waiting for report
                       complete                                       report to come

Banking on oil - Credit for Safe Collection of Used Oil   The grey partridge conservation project

                     Microfinance                                     Ecoagriculture

                     water quality                             Critically Endangered Species

                       pollution                                   Habitat Fragmentation

                       business                                 Environmental Management

                    human health                                    Farmer Cooperation
Every year Kenya generates 13 million litres of used lubricating oil from
about 40 million litres of new oil. The used oil generated simply
disappears from view - poured into sewers, spread on roads or dumped
                                                                             The grey partridge has been a very abundant bird in Central
with other garbage. Most used oil eventually end up in the water system
                                                                             Europe until the 1960’s when agricultural practices were
since there are no mechanisms in place to provide safe disposal which
                                                                             modernized and intensified. This resulting loss of
would ensure environmental sustainability.
                                                                             heterogeneity, higher use of pesticides, fertilization of soils,
This threatens water supplies in Kenya. This problem is more acute in
                                                                             etc. brought a decrease in habitat quality. Population numbers
Nairobi. Mukuru-Ngong River, like many other rivers in Nairobi, is heavily
                                                                             went down by 95 per cent making the grey partridge a critically
polluted by used oil poorly disposed by Motor vehicle mechanics who
                                                                             endangered species (IUCN). For the county of Goettingen
derive a livelihood by repairing vehicles along the riverbanks. Poor slum
                                                                             there were only circa 140 partridge territories found of which
households who live in the slums through which Mukuru-Ngong River
                                                                             most of them are not connected.
flows, utilize the water from the river. The incidence of waterborne
diseases among the slum households is high. According to the project
manager, used engine oil accounts for almost 91 percent of oil pollutants
in the river
and has therefore severely reduced the river's wildlife.
 This project is an incentive scheme which pioneers a novel approach of       The project aims at raising the population level of grey
collecting and recycling waste engine oils. Motor vehicle mechanics earn      partridge so that it becomes viable and stable in the long run.
   credit points for safe collection of used oils; credit points gained are   The crucial prerequisites are measures to enhance the quality
   redeemed by the mechanics in the form of cash, or accumulated as           of already available habitat and add additional areas suitable
     savings against which loan is obtained that in turn can be used to       for the still existing population throughout the county. The
  improve their businesses. Thereby motor vehicle mechanics have an           ultimate idea of the project is to connect the now isolated
 incentive to dispose used oil. An additive is then added to the collected    populations in order to establish a population as a whole to
used oil in order to make the oil highly flammable. This improved used oil    also maintain genetic diversity. The large need of areas can be
 is then sold as low cost fuel to scrap metal smelters - who use it as low    catered for by applying the Agricultural environmental
cost fuel and to shoe sole manufacturers - who use it in the production of    procedures of the state of Niedersachsen, called
zinc oxide which is used in the manufacturing process. The project is an      ‘Bluehstreifen’ (3 to 24 meter wide areas in between crop
 incentive scheme in which target participants make money and access          fields with a high heterogeneity of plant species that offer
         loans by trading pollutants hence curtailing poor disposal.          habitat to different animals). However, these areas do not
                                                                              particularly aim on partridge conservation. Therefore, an
                                                                              optimization of the measures is needed and realized by the
                                                                              centre of nature conservation in cooperation with local
                                                                              farmers. Surveys on partridge abundance are carried out
                                                                              annually on 280 square kilometers in the county.
The project so far safely collected and recycled 251,000 liters of used
engine oil from informal garages who would normally release the used oil    The considerable need for plots is met to a growing extent by
into sewerage systems, the ground or the river. A community driven          contributing farmers who welcomed the advisory service on
environmental governance initiative was established in which motor          environmental regulations. Thus, intensive counsel effected
vehicle mechanics, slum members, local authorities and government           management towards nature conservation being carried out
departments come together for effective management of used oil. The         on several hundred plots, amounting to a total area of ca. 500
project has also managed to involve major fuel retailers (Caltex, Total     hectares. Management towards partridge conservation
and Kobil) which dispose a proportion of used oil generated in their lube   appears to run well, with applied seed mixtures generating
stations through the project’s systems. As for the economic and social      suitable vegetation. As to vegetation structure and
impact, a total of 54,000 $ has been lent to the community and              heterogeneity, most plots seem to have improved in the
mechanics as low cost loans. A net sale of approx. 30,650 $ has been        second year. The grey partridge population increased to 372
generated through sales of used oil. This amount has been given out as      pairs in comparison to 277 pairs in 2007. Many sightings have
micro loans to mechanics and households involved in oil collection. A       been reported to the project managers from the 1.000
total of 144 mechanics are increasing their incomes from sale of used oil   established areas. A new mapping will be done in February
to the program. Therefore an incentive to make money out of this            2009.
pollutant has been created since used oil was worthless to most people
before.                                                                     Further, up-to-date results to come at the end of October…

                  Water quality of aquatic ecosystems                       Trends in extent of selected biomes, ecosystems, and habitats

   Health and well being of communities who directly depend on local
                                                                              Trends in abundance and distribution of selected species
                    ecosystem goods and services

                                                                                     Connectivity - fragmentation of ecosystems
                                                                   Biologische Schutzgemeinschaft
                                                                   Göttingen e. V., University of Goettingen: Centre for nature
Enterprise Professional Services (EPS)
                                                                   conservation (Zentrum für Naturschutz der Universität

                                                                      until population is established; for now planned period of
                                                                                           project is 5 years
                                  Ke                                                             De
                         Mukuru-Ngong River                              rural district of Goettingen; state of Niedersachsen

     Project Website:                   Project report 2006 in German

               Review of Legislation on used oil in Kenya             Journal article on the project (2007); summary in English
Literature Review on Ngong River pollution

                                             Applying the Ecosystem Approach to Biodiversity
                                             Conservation in Agricultural Landscapes
                                   Dr. Eckhard Gottschalk
                                  Zentrum für Naturschutz
Project Manager: Collins Apuoyo   Abt. Naturschutzbiologie            Von-Siebold-Str. 2
                                      37075 Göttingen

                                  Tel: +49(0)551/395637
Development Marketplace Winner 2005
         complete                             complete

 Predator Conservation          Removal of the Elwha and Glines Dams

          Leopard                            Restoration

                                           Dam Removal
Predator - Livestock Conflict

   Sustainable Farming
                                     Fragmentation of ecosystems

   consumer campaign
   Predator-friendly meat                   Policy change
                                                                    The Elwha is the largest watershed on the Olympic Peninsula
                                                                    and was once one of the most productive salmon streams in
                                                                    the Pacific Northwest, home to all five species of Pacific
                                                                    salmon. Furthermore, it has been the home of the Lower
                                                                    Elwha Klallam Tribe since time immemorial. The construction
Leopards (Cheetah) are rated as 'vulnerable' on a global scale of Elwha Dam (1913) and Glines Canyon Dam (1927),both
by IUCN. According to official numbers there have been 25           built without fish passage facilities, to provide hydroelectric
leopards killed mostly in the region around Baviaanskloof in the power devastated the river’s salmon runs, cutting salmon off
last 5 years, predominantly through the use of gin traps and        from historic spawning habitat The dams prevent the
farmers hunting them. However, the problem is massive and           downstream flow of important silt and other sediments,
widespread throughout the country, affecting all predators. The causing steady beach erosion at the river’s mouth and the
persecution of predators has had a dire impact on South             loss of important historic clam beds. Even Puget Sound’s orca
Africa’s biodiversity and has illustrated a neglect of biodiversity whales are suffering because of diminished salmon runs. In
conservation, and animal rights as well as welfare issues in the general, over 5 miles of river and 684 acres of lowland and
agricultural industry.                                              forest habitat have been degraded. The river itself faces
                                                                    increased temperatures, reduced nutrients and reduced
                                                                    spawning gravels downstream. Populations of at least 22
                                                                    species of wildlife, including the bald eagle and the black bear
                                                                    have declined due to a lack of salmon carcasses, an
                                                                    important source of food.
The Landmark Foundation strives to establish conservation           The Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe was the first to call for the
land uses that are economically viable alternatives to anti-        restoration of the river and its salmon. In addition to
conservation activities. They are involved in tourism, recycling,   advocating for dam removal, the Tribe has lead habitat
reserve establishment, renewable energy and species                 restoration efforts in the lower river, and operates a hatchery
conservation work. The predator conservation project engages        to maintain Elwha salmon runs. Removal of the Elwha and
in Leopard rescues, treatments and releases. They do research       Glines Canyon dam will restore the Elwha to its natural, free-
on leopards and the effectiveness of their interventions. They      flowing condition and will once again allow fish access to over
also provide farmers with holistic and acceptable means of          70 river miles of habitat now protected within Olympic National
reducing the conflicts between their economic practices and         Park. The restored, free-flowing river is estimated to produce
predators in the region especially through educational support.     approximately 390,000 salmon and steelhead in about 30
They lead a strong advocacy drive to outlaw gin and poison          years, compared with less than 50,000 fish if the dams were
traps, and hunting dog packs from agricultural production, and      fitted with upstream and downstream fish passage facilities.
to effect legislation changes to allow for the protection of        Dam removal will begin after the water quality protection
predators on rangelands. Finally, they promote the                  facilities are complete. These projects will protect the drinking
establishment of environmentally friendly meat and fiber            water and industrial water supply for Port Angeles and other
products and brands and a consumer campaign to force                Elwha water users. Removal of both the Elwha and Glines
retailers and producers into using ecologically sustainable         Canyon dams will occur simultaneously and is estimated to
methods in managing farmer – predator conflicts.                    begin in 2012 and take approximately three years to complete.
Since the project began in 2004, 17 leopards out of 27 cases
have been saved in a small area stretching from Uniondale in
the Western Cape, to Addo National Park in the Eastern Cape,
                                                                    Construction work has begun in earnest on the Port Angeles
and mostly around the Baviaanskloof reserve. There is a
                                                                    Water Treatment Plant and the Elwha Water Facilities project.
voluntary collaboration of 10 veterinarians in the region.
                                                                    Designs are being completed for additional mitigation projects
Habitats for predators are being expanded through the
                                                                    also scheduled to be built over the next four years. These
establishment of private nature reserves and collaboration with
                                                                    include an improved tribal fish hatchery that will meet the
participating farmers which let to the incorporation of more than
                                                                    needs of the restoration project, a greenhouse for growing
120 000 hectares of farming land in their predator-friendly
                                                                    native plants to be used in restoring vegetation to the areas
initiatives.12 Anatolian Shepherd Dogs have been introduced to
                                                                    now inundated by reservoirs and mitigation for well owners
livestock herds as well as Alpacas, more than 13 000 protective
                                                                    and individual and tribal septic system owners along the river.
sheep collars, live traps and farmer extension advice. The
publication of a practical farming manual on holistic, non lethal
and ethical management by the Landmark Foundation (2008)
will help changing farming practices. All partnering farmers
have agreed to forgo the use of gin and poison traps.

   Trends in abundance and distribution of selected species           Trends in abundance and distribution of selected species

Trends in extent of selected biomes, ecosystems, and habitats                Connectivity - fragmentation of ecosystems

                                                                    Health and well being of communities who directly depend on
                                                                                local ecosystem goods and services

                                                                                  Biodiversity for food and medicine

                                                                                 Water quality of aquatic ecosystems
Landmark Foundation                                      National Park Service US Department of the Interior

                            2004                                   Elwha Restoration Project signed in 2004

                          ongoing                                                    2015

                             Za                                                       Us
                 Eastern and Western Cape                                   Olympic National Park

                                                                        Project Homepage with extensive
       Project Report with pictures sent by Bool Smuts   information:

                                                                  Progress Report by National Park Service:
    Woolworths Press Release on predator-friendly meat
                                                                      Official Elwha Restoration Documents:
  Landmark Foundation Homepage with many more projects:

                                                                 Scientific articles, e.g. Winter 2008; Loomis 1996

Cheetah Conservation Botswana (Wildlife Conservation

The Livestock Guarding Dog Program of Cheetah Conservation
Fund Namibia
                                                      Barb Maynes
                     Dr Bool Smuts     
Landmark Foundation (NGO)                   PO   Public Affairs Specialist
                        Box 198                   Olympic National Park
                   The Crags 6602                 600 East Park Avenue
 ;        Port Angeles, WA 98362
                  +27 (0)83 324 3344                  360-565-3005
                 Landmark Foundation               (fax) 360-565-3015
A hard copy of the “Practical farming manual on holistic,
non lethal and ethical management” published by the
foundation is available. The project manager Bool Smuts will
be happy to send it on request.
                    complete                                    complete

Lake Dianchi Freshwater Biodiversity Restoration
                                                   Komodo National Park Conservation

                  Water quality                              Coral recovery

               Innovative approach                            Blast Fishing

                    Mussels                                   Micro-credits

              Scientific experiment                       alternative livelihoods

             Ecosystem rehabilitation
                                                                Komodo National Park (KNP), the last remaining habitat of the
Environmental improvements in China's plateau lakes are a
                                                                Komodo dragon, is widely recognized as an outstanding
major national priority, as demonstrated by the
                                                                storehouse of globally significant terrestrial and marine
Government’s US$300 million Yunnan Environmental
                                                                biodiversity, situated in the heart of an area known to
Project (including $125m support from World Bank). The six
                                                                scientists and conservationists as the Coral Triangle, the
plateau lakes of Dianchi, Fuxian, Erhai, Yangtsunghai, Ilung
                                                                global center of marine biodiversity and one of the world’s top
and Tatunhai are known to contain exceptionally high
                                                                priorities for marine conservation. Known threats to coral reefs
endemism in many biological groups. But pollution from
                                                                in KNP include:
dumping of untreated wastewater and over fishing have led
                                                                - Destructive fishing methods (notably blast fishing),
to declines and extinctions. As for the biggest of the lakes,
                                                                - Crown-of-thorns-starfish pests,
Lake Dianchi (310 square kilometers), 21 of its 25
                                                                - Mass bleaching events and anchoring damage,
indigenous fish species are gone, having been supplanted
                                                                - Over-exploitation of fish and other organisms in and around
by 31 alien species. Deterioration also affected local
                                                                KNP, which may affect the health of coral reefs through
communities who depend on the lakes for drinking water,
                                                                cascading effects in the trophic web.
sanitation and food resources, notably affecting commercial
                                                                The Indonesian Park authority focused conservation
fish stock, through accumulation of heavy metals and
                                                                management on protection of the Komodo dragon, and invited
persistent organic pollutants. Yunnan has a population of 40
                                                                The Nature Conservancy in 1995 to help implementing a
million; it is estimated that at least 10 million have some
                                                                conservation program for coastal and marine conservation
dependence on the lakes.
                                                                KNP wants to establish a fully protected terrestrial and marine
                                                                reserve. It wants to create an efficient surveillance system to
                                                                prevent illegal resource use and destructive fishing. By
This project builds on pilot trials. It introduced native
                                                                effectively enforcing the no-take fishing zones, fishing will be
mussels into experimental sites at lakes Dianchi, Erhai and
                                                                sustained around the Park. Moreover KNP wants to ensure
Fuxian and investigated propagating native mussels for
                                                                the long-term survival of the Komodo dragon as well as the
future scaling up. Mussels filter 50 litres of water per day,
                                                                sustainable use of the Park’s resources for tourism,
clearing water as they consume particulate organic matter
                                                                education, research and livelihood by offering various options
and algae and depositing other suspended solids onto the
                                                                to shift fishing pressure away from the reefs by offering
lake bed. As water clarity improves, native macrophytic
                                                                alternatives such as fish culture, pelagic fisheries, seaweed
plants re-establish themselves providing habitat for many
                                                                culture, wood carving and other home industries have been. In
native invertebrates, which in turn support diverse fish
                                                                2005, TNC handed over its operations to a local company,
communities. The project team hopes to demonstrate the
                                                                PNK (Putri Naga Komodo), whose shareholders (TNC and
widespread utility of the novel technique, which could be
                                                                Jaytasha Putrindo Utama/JPU) agreed not to take any profits
replicated in many of the world’s polluted freshwaters, to
                                                                in the form of dividends but, reinvest all profits back into the
remediate polluted waters important for biodiversity and
                                                                Park. PNK’s strategy is to generate tourism revenues to
household use.
                                                                finance park management through a 30-year license granted
                                                                to PNK by the Ministry of Forestry, which authorized PNK to
                                                                establish a conservation fee.
                                                                Blast fishing incidence in the Park decreased by ca. 90%
                                                                since it was effectively banned in 1996. Between 1996-2002,
                                                                live coral cover within the park increased by 60 %, while it
                                                                decreased outside of KNP between 2000-2002. In 2006 the
In the Xialiangwang experimental pond on Dianchi’s eastern
                                                                monitoring showed a within KNP. The apparent decline is
edge, three flagship species: golden-line barbels, Ottelia
                                                                relatively small and does not indicate coral decline throughout
(Ottelia acuminata), and mussels (Anodonta woodiana) have
                                                                KNP - indeed some sites showed an increase over this
been reconstituted. A single A. woodiana can filter 50 liters
                                                                period. In addition, the Rapid Ecological Assessment done in
of water a day, helping Ottelia flourish. The Ottelia thwart
                                                                2005 included a comparison with the 1995 data and showed
eutrophication by shading out algae, while golden-line
                                                                that the health and biodiversity of KNP coral communities was
barbels host A. woodiana larvae. The breeding center has
                                                                comparable between 1995 - 2005 which also indicates
begun selling limited quantities of golden-line barbells to
                                                                effective management (Lead TNC scientist). The fish species
wealthy customers for more than $100 per kilogram. If the
                                                                richness was confirmed and reinforced during the 2005
fish were to flourish in Dianchi, fishers could earn more
                                                                assessment. The data suggest that the fish communities
money from golden-line barbels than from carp, the present
                                                                appear to exhibit stable characteristics. As for viable
favorite catch. Furthermore, locals could supplement their
                                                                alternative livelihoods for Park villagers, PNK set up 3 village-
incomes by harvesting Ottelia stems for human consumption
                                                                based financial management units and began distributing
and its leaves for animal feed.
                                                                micro funds. By the end of 2007, PNK had approved 150
                                                                micro-credit proposals for activities such as handicrafts,
                                                                trading, fishing and seaweed farming projects.

            Water quality of aquatic ecosystems                 Trends in extent of selected biomes, ecosystems, and habitats

 Trends in abundance and distribution of selected species         Trends in abundance and distribution of selected species

                                                                Health and well being of communities who directly depend on
                                                                            local ecosystem goods and services
Cambridge Environmental Consultants (CEC)                  Komodo National Park Authority until 2005, now management
Kunming Institute of Zoology (KIZ)                         by local company, PT Putri Naga Komodo; supported by TNC,
                                                           GEF, IFC

                         2006                                 1995 (TNC was invited to support conservation efforts)

                         2008                                                        ongoing

                          Cn                                                            Id
                                                                             Komodo National Park

                                                              A Rapid Ecological Assessment of the reef fishes and
                   Project Homepage                         scleractinian corals of Komodo National Park, Indonesia in

Development Marketplace Site (World Bank) on the Project              PNK-Making a difference in Komodo
Science article about the project: 'From Remarkable Rescue
                                                                              Project Website
               To Restoration of Lost Habitat'

                                                                     Status of coral reefs in and around
                                                                          Komodo National Park –
            Development -Marketplace Report                             Results of a bi-annual survey
                                                               over the period 1996 – 2002, with an update of
                                                                              the status in 2006

                                                             Summary of key research results for komodo dragon
                                                   Marcus Matthews-Sawyer
                                  Senior Advisor: Tourism, Marketing & Communications Jalan
                                        Pengembak No. 2 Sanur, Bali, 80228, Indonesia
Project Manager: David Aldridge   T: +62-361-287-272 | F : +62-361-286-445 | M : +62-812-                                 387-7884
                              | |
                                                   for scientific
                                    questions regarding the interpretation of monitoring data
                                       contact: Joanne Wilson []
                                      Future Developments

                                      Future sampling of KNP and other TNC sites in Indonesia will
                                      use an updated method which is still consistent with this
                                      sampling but reflects recently developed international
                                      standards for coral reef monitoring (so we will still be able to
                                      compare the results). We plan to resample KNP and provide
Development Marketplace Winner 2006   an update later in 2009 on the results. PNK is also making
                                      preparations for the implementation of a new terrestrial
                                      monitoring program for Komodo dragons, their prey
                                      populations and key habitats in the Park. Dr. Andy Phillips
                                      from San Diego Zoo, who sits on PNK’s Board of
                                      Commissioners, has provided valuable technical advice on the
                                      program and will continue to be involved as an advisor on the
       complete                            complete

    Campi Ya Kanzi         Malua Wildlife Habitat Conservation Bank

   Maasai community                  New Business Model

  Wildlife conservation             Biodiversity Certificates

      Ecotourism                    Rainforest Conservation

 Compensation scheme

Human-Predator Conflicts
The ecolodge Campi ya Kanzi is located in front of Kiliamanjaro,
has 400 square miles of land, and is occupied by a few thousand
Maasai. The land is rich in wildlife since it adjoins Tsavo West
                                                                    The 34,000-hectare Malua Forest Reserve consists mainly of
National Park, Chyulu National Park and Amboseli National Park.
                                                                    lowland and freshwater swamp forests and provides vital habitat
Animals are fully protected in these National Parks, and they use
                                                                    for one of the world’s highest concentrations of orangutans, as
the property as a corridor connecting the Parks. Habitats range
                                                                    well as for the Bornean clouded leopard and the pygmy elephant.
from the grasslands of the savanna to green river woodlands and
                                                                    Logging and the development of oil palm plantations have
cool mountain forests. The Maasai have traditionally lived in
                                                                    reduced the area of rainforest and threatened many of Borneo’s
harmony with their land. For centuries, Maasailand was defended
                                                                    important wildlife species. Waterways are disturbed, food sources
from outsiders by the majestic and fierce Maasai warriors. Thus,
                                                                    for wildlife significantly depleted and the forest is more vulnerable
Maasailand has remained one of the few unspoiled African
                                                                    to fires. Sitting adjacent to the internationally famous Danum
ecosystems. However, the current threats to the ecosystem and
                                                                    Valley Conservation Area, one of the last remaining pristine
to the Maasai way of life are proceeding at a stunning rate.
                                                                    lowland tropical rainforests in the world, Malua is a crucial buffer
These include, overgrazing the grassland, diversion of water
                                                                    zone between virgin primary rainforest and oil palm plantations.
essential for wildlife, subdivision and land sales to non-Maasai,
poaching for game meat, deforestation, and predator-human
conflicts resulting in the killing of wildlife.
                                                                       The ultimate aim is to shift land use towards rainforest restoration
                                                                       and preservation, catalyzing a new economy of conservation by
                                                                       integrating rainforest conservation into the supply chain. It is a
Campi ya Kanzi is a joint venture between the founders and the
                                                                       joint effort between Sabah State Government and New Forests.
Maasai community, for which it provides about $30 U.S. per
                                                                       An Advisory Committee, composed of environmental and
guest/day as a conservation fee (used to employ game scouts to
                                                                       community groups as well as scientific experts, will provide
prevent poaching, provide medical assistance, assist schools,
                                                                       guidance on conservation and local community issues. Via
etc.). Together with its associated Maasai Wilderness
                                                                       investment from the Eco Products Fund, the BioBank will restore
Conservation Trust (created in 2000), the camp employs over 70
                                                                       and protect 34,000 of formerly logged areas of the forest for 50
Maasai. The camp wants to achieve the goals of protecting the
                                                                       years. The Malua BioBank will generate Biodiversity Conservation
wildlife, the wilderness, and the culture of the Maasai. The camp
                                                                       Certificates, each representing 100 square meters of protected
has been built with local materials only and renewable resources
                                                                       and restored rain forest, which will not represent an offset for
have been used as much as possible. Electricity is provided by
                                                                       rainforest impacts that a company may have elsewhere. The sale
solar power, water is heated with solar heaters, grey water
                                                                       of certificates will make the restoration and conservation of the
passes through lava filters that cleanse it before it is used in the
                                                                       Malua Forest Reserve commercially viable and competitive with
garden or put in a pond for wildlife. The camp assists the Maasai
                                                                       alternative land uses. Parts of the returns will also go to Yayasan
community in implementing sustainable ways to manage their
                                                                       Sabah, a foundation established by the Sabah Government to
land and their resources.
                                                                       improve the livelihoods of Malaysians in Sabah.
                                                                       The Malua Conservation Management Plan was finalized in 2008.
Through the Maasai Wilderness Conservation Trust the camp              The Sabah Government has contractually agreed to implement
was able to found the Simba project (in cooperation with Cartier)      the Conservation Management Plan and be monitored by the
which decreases human-predator conflicts by compensating the           Malua Trust. A Sabah Government-owned company that holds
Maasai community for all legitimate livestock losses inflicted by      the license to the Malua Forest Reserve ceased all logging
lions. Every 90 days credit notes are paid, only if no predators       operations on December 31, 2007. So far, 21,500 credits have
were killed in retaliation. In 2007 the project compensated 1,542      been sold at US$10 each to Malaysian firms. According to
heads of livestock, to more than a 1,000 Maasai. Lion population       Amanda Hawn (contact) they are in conversations with several
increased from 15 known individuals, to 25. Through the work of        parties about one or two potential large transaction.
the Trust, the Kuku Group Ranch recently agreed to set aside a         Expected results:The rehabilitation process will include planting
part of their land for conservation. One of the results of the data    seedlings to reestablish key rainforest species, enhancing natural
collection of the Simba Project has been that large numbers of         food resources for wildlife and preventing poaching and illegal
livestock are killed while lost or not being properly watched after.   logging. Regular monitoring of forest regeneration, water quality
These “negligence” cases account for 90% of the cases reported         and wildlife will ensure the viability of the conservation
(see their website for details). One of the jobs of the Simba          management plan, which will be reviewed annually. As the Malua
Scouts is to help herders properly keep track of their animals so      rainforest recovers, water quality for downstream communities will
losses remain at a minimum. If livestock is properly looked after,     improve and the people of Sabah will have future opportunities in
a consolation scheme might not be needed at all.                       eco-tourism and new markets for rare natural products.

 Trends in extent of selected biomes, ecosystems, and habitats          Trends in extent of selected biomes, ecosystems, and habitats

    Trends in abundance and distribution of selected species               Trends in abundance and distribution of selected species

           Connectivity - fragmentation of ecosystems

  Health and well being of communities who directly depend on
              local ecosystem goods and services

            Ecological footprint and related concepts
                                                       Joint Venture between New Forests Inc. of Washington, D.C.,
Campi Ya Kanzi                                         Equator Environmental, LLC of New York City, and the Governme
                                                       nt of Sabah

                          1996                          launched in August 2008; implementation period: 2008 - 2014

                         ongoing                                                   2058

                           Ke                                                       My
                                                                              Sabah (Borneo)

                     Project Website                       Malua Forest Reserve - Conservation Management Plan

      Rating Scheme of the Lodge by Ecotourism Kenya                            Homepage
                                                                         Press Release Malua Biobank August 2008


The certification scheme of Ecotourism Kenya goes regional by
   not only certifying lodges in Kenya, but also in Tanzania: Reuters Article
                        Newspaper article

                                                              Baker & McKenzie Advises TZ1 on the World's First Listing of
         Shompole Lodge won Equator Prize in 2006             Biodiversity Credits on the TZ1 Registry
Campi Ya Kanzi                           PO Box 236 Mtito
                  Andei, 90128 KENYA
                Tel/Fax +254 45 622516
              Sat phone +88 2165 1103557
                                                            Amanda Hawn ''

            Ecotourism Kenya: Philip Murithi
Gold rated by Ecotourism Kenya,Winner of Eco-Warrior Award
2006,Winner of TOURISM for TOMORROW 2006 -
Conservation Award Winner by The World Travel & Tourism
Council (WTTC),Winner of 2005 Skål International Ecotourism
Future Developments:
It is the hope of the MWCT that the Simba Project will not need       At the end of the 50 year period, the endowment will be fully
to be run forever. As the knowledge of the KGR lion population       capitalized and this funding can be used either to renew the
increases (through the work of Simba Scouts and lion collaring)      conservation rights to the Malua Forest Reserve or to establish a
and as the Maasai continue to understand the importance of the       conservation bank on another property with high biodiversity
lion presence in their land, the population will no longer need to   value.
be protected through compensation. Further, in collaboration with
Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) the introduction of white rhinos
and the re-introduction of black rhinos, and eventually greater
kudu and roan antelopes, once endemic to this area are
                 complete                         complete

Environmental Soap Opera for Rural Vietnam      Collins Pine

               Rice Farming                  Sustainable Forestry

               Insecticides                   Private Business

                  Radio                       FSC certification

            Nitrogen deposition

                                                                   Collins Pine Company is a privately held company since 1855 with
                                                                   all of its stock controlled by the Collins family and its descendants.
                                                                   It manages forests in Oregon, California and Pennsylvania with
                                                                   200-year-old trees, public hiking trails and campgrounds. Collins
The pilot site was Vinh Long province situated about 150 km
                                                                   Pine has been practicing responsible forest stewardship since
South of Ho Chi Minh City. Agriculture is the main economic
                                                                   1939 and is the first privately-owned timber company in the U.S.
activity with rice as the main crop supplemented by fruits and
                                                                   to be environmentally certified by the Forest Stewardship Council
vegetables. Rice farmers’ main pest control tactic is the use of
                                                                   (FSC). Moreover, the Collins Companies committed to reducing
pesticides and often large proportions of their sprays are
                                                                   their carbon dioxide emissions by 15 percent below 1999 levels by
misused because of poor knowledge and decisions thereby
                                                                   2009. Beginning in 1997 Collins also actively embraced The
degrading the environment (Heong and Escalada, 1997,
                                                                   Natural Step as one tool it will use in guiding its sustainability
Bandong et al., 2002). An audience analysis showed that
                                                                   efforts. The 295,000 acres of Collins timberlands are multi-
traditional information communication technologies (ICT) such
                                                                   layered, biodiverse, canopied forests that support bald eagles,
as TV and radio remain the main sources of technical
                                                                   black bears, wild turkeys, blue heron, and endangered red-
information in rural Vietnam.
                                                                   banded Goose Lake Trout. They are enriched by meadows,
                                                                   springs, creeks, rivers, as well as lakes and they are self-
                                                                   sustaining, containing more wood today than they did over a
                                                                   hundred years ago.
The environmental radio soap opera Que Minh Xanh Mai                   The Collins Companies’ long-standing commitment to land and
(Forever Green My Homeland) wanted to educate rice farmers             resource stewardship includes the following objectives: Maintain
in environmental conservation principles, methods to reduce            the health of the total forest ecosystem; Support the production of
environmental impacts from farm chemicals, straw burning and           wood on a sustained, renewable basis; and provide social and
water use, so as to protect ecosystem services. It aimed to            economic benefits to the surrounding areas and communities.
modify farmers’ attitudes towards pesticides, fertilizers, straw       Collins foresters leave more debris after logging, so more
burning, pollution, water saving, wildlife, soil health, and natural   nutrients return to the soil. Snags are allowed to remain for
biological control. The 104 episodes of the soap opera are             animals that need dead trees to live in. Collins Pine encourages
based on rural settings and feature the daily struggles, joys, and     research and educational projects on its forest land, supports
loves in rural life. Environmental issues are carefully weaved         schools and hospitals, and, through its long-term commitment to
into the conversations between characters. The soap featured           stable employment, is recognized as a contributor to community
three sets of characters, those who were positive towards IPM          economic stability. At Collins Pine, forest management revolves
practices, those who were negative and a transitional group.           around its system of "principal and interest," which essentially
Drama conversations were developed between these three sets            means cutting only the growth of the forest while keeping the
of characters, discussing the pros and cons of agricultural            overall stands of trees stable. In general, those trees with the
inputs. The main character was transitional who eventually             poorest health and/or form are removed, with the exception of
changed beliefs and practices in the series.                           those left for wildlife habitat.
Between pre- and post-launch farmers’ insecticide sprays
                                                                    From the SCS certification reports:Pennsylvania: CPF harvests
dropped 31% from 1.9 to 1.3 sprays per season. Corresponding
                                                                    and markets a diversity of sawlog and veneer species (black
changes in attitudes were also observed. In addition, farmers
                                                                    cherry, northern red oak, sugar maple, red maple, ash, beech,
also reduced their nitrogen and seed use by 7% and 9%,
                                                                    and other species). CPF also makes effort to maintain
respectively. In the post-test farmers who had listened had
                                                                    connectivity through Wildlife Habitats and Ecological Reserves
higher reductions in insecticide sprays (60%), nitrogen (9%) and
                                                                    (WHER). CPF was given access to the Natural Heritage
seeds (33%) compared to those who had not listened to the
                                                                    Database, demonstrating CPF’s commitment to protect rare,
soap. There were also similar changes in their belief attitudes
                                                                    threatened, and endangered species. Natural regeneration is the
favoring judicious use of pesticides, fertilizers and seeds. More
                                                                    near exclusive method for regenerating CPF forests. Lakeview:
farmers in the post-test (30.3%) reported not using any
                                                                    Harvest levels are determined by resource conditions. CLF
insecticides at all than in the pre-test (17.5%). More farmers
                                                                    collaborates with Department of Fish and Wildlife/Game in both
believed that pesticides can affect their health, from 61.6% to
                                                                    Oregon and California for conducting wildlife research. Riparian
86.1%. More farmers in the post-test believed that reducing
                                                                    zone management takes a conservative approach and is sensitive
seed rates from 150–200 to 80–100 kg/ha would result in the
                                                                    to presence of red band trout, additionally CLF monitors streams
same yields and farmers also modified their beliefs that nitrogen
                                                                    for shade cover, temperature, and red band trout populations. For
would produce healthier crops. Following the success of the first
                                                                    rare/protected species and or communities with known special
soap a new drama series called ‘‘Que Minh Xanh Mai’’ (Forever
                                                                    habitat requirements, conservation zones are established. CLF
green homeland) was launched in 2006.
                                                                    maintains native species, and a diversity of size/age classes.

                                                                      Trends in genetic diversity of domesticated animals, cultivated
                      Nitrogen deposition
                                                                       plants, and fish species of major socio-economic importance

   Area of forest, agricultural, aquaculture ecosystems under           Area of forest, agricultural, aquaculture ecosystems under
                    sustainable management                                               sustainable management

            Ecological footprint and related concepts                    Proportion of products derived from sustainable sources

                                                                                Ecological footprint and related concepts
International Rice Research Institute (IRRI)                     Collins Pine Company

                              2004                                            1855, sustainability approach since 1939

                              2006                                                            ongoing

                               Vn                                                                us
                       Vinh Long province

 Scientific Paper about the project: 'Entertainment– education   Certification and Evaluation Report by SCS (Scientific Certification
  and rice pest management: A radio soap opera in Vietnam'                        Systems) for Pennsylvania Forest

                   Short project description:                    Certification and Evaluation Report by SCS (Scientific Certification                                 Systems) for Lakeview Forest
                                                                 Certification and Evaluation Report by SCS (Scientific Certification
         DM Project Report about both Soap Operas
                                                                                    Systems) for Almanor Forest

 Scientific Paper on the outcomes of the first Soap Opera 'The
  Case of Using Mass Media: Communication and Behavior
                                                                                       Company's Homepage
                           Change in
                    Resource Management'

The project manager sent the CD containing the soap opera
                                                                             Article in The Business Journal from 1998
in Vietnamese and the PDF files for all of them in English

Example of one Episode in English:'Environment and                Short Article on Collins Pine in the International Herald Tribune,
Insecticides'                                                                                    1992
                                       Sustainable Forests Partnership Case Study: Collins Pine:
                                                       Lessons from a Pioneer

Heong, Kong Luen [K.HEONG@CGIAR.ORG]         Waner, Cameron []
                                                            *1997 Green Cross Millennium Award for Corporate
                                                            Environmental Leadership from Mikhail Gorbachev
World Bank Development Marketplace Award 2005 2007
                                                            *Business Ethics' Award for Environmental Excellence
COM plus Award by the
                                                            *In March 1996 Collins was one of only five U.S. companies (and
Alliance of Communication for Sustainable Development for
                                                            the only forest products
second soap opera
                                                            company) to receive the Sustainable Development Award from
                                                            the President's Council on
               report to come                                      complete

Xerces Society for invertebrate conservation   Involving Indigenous People in Forest Management

           Pollinator Conservation                  Empowerment of indigenous communities

          Endangered Invertebrates                           Responsible business

            Habitat Conservation                              Sustainable Forestry

            Agricultural Practices
94% of all species are invertebrates. They provide critical
services, such as pollination, seed dispersal, and nutrient       These forests in the Congo Basin are home to around 16,000
recycling. Although they are vitally important, invertebrates     forest people, of which 9,000 are semi-nomadic non-literate
are often overlooked by land managers, scientists, and            indigenous peoples of the Mbendjele Pygmy communities. They
policy makers. According to a recent Nature Conservancy           have traditionally been discriminated against and are politically
publication, 345 invertebrates are among the 539 extinct or       and economically disenfranchised. The forests are also managed
missing species in the United States, just in the last 200        for sustainable timber production by Congolaise Industrielle des
years. Invertebrates are significantly underrepresented in        Bois (CIB) under a concession agreement with the Congolese
endangered species programs. In the United States, only           Government. The creation of forest concessions and
179 invertebrates are listed as Endangered or Threatened          conservation areas exclude the indigenous people physically from
under the Endangered Species Act. Destruction of habitat,         their forest homes, and intellectually from forest management
displacement by introduced species, and degradation of            decision-making. Since they are widely dispersed throughout the
habitat by chemical pollutants (such as pesticides) are           concessions, it is difficult to involve them in formal meeting
leading to a decline in invertebrate populations, some to the     processes traditionally associated with participative management
point of extinction. Also, there is limited funding for species   practices. CIB has acknowledged the need to respect and include
conservation, most funding being directed toward the              indigenous people in forest management decisions.
protection of more "charismatic" vertebrates.
The Xerces Society works on different programs in the field
                                                                Since 2005, TFT has been managing a unique project in four
on invertebrate conservation. Two of their projects are the
                                                                large forest areas (over 1.3 million hectares in total). This project
work on pollinator habitat conservation in agricultural
                                                                will establish an indigenous forest peoples’ language radio
landscapes and the work on endangered species habitat
                                                                station.The project will build the capacity of indigenous
protection. They protect threatened, endangered, and
                                                                communities to manage the radio station and most importantly,
vulnerable species and their habitat and influence decision-
                                                                choose broadcast content. The station will facilitate a two-way
makers and policy development. The pollinator program
                                                                dialogue between these communities and CIB, which manages
works with farmers, land managers, golf course staff, public
                                                                1.3 million hectares of forest. The project will also distribute
agencies, and gardeners. The California Agricultural
                                                                portable radios to the community to enable their participation, and
Pollinator program promotes Agricultural Sustainability
                                                                train them to use GPS to make maps which will identify places of
through Pollinator Conservation and Research. It takes the
                                                                importance to them. The latter required the development of
research results on the habitat needs of crop-pollinating
                                                                unique, icon-based software and GPS technology. The maps will
native bees in Yolo County, California and applies that
                                                                form the basis of subsequent discussions with CIB, prior to any
information to working agricultural landscapes. Specifically,
                                                                logging activities. Once engaged in forest management, the
bees need abundant nectar and pollen. To meet this need,
                                                                indigenous communities will feel respected and protected and
project partners are providing a diverse buffet of flowering
                                                                thus be willing to support efforts to control illegal hunting of
plants that studies have shown are attractive to native bees.
                                                                endangered species and resist pressure to assist criminals
Nest blocks and large areas of consistently untilled soil
                                                                involved in such activities.
ensure that native bees have areas to nest in.
                                                                 The resource mapping component of this project has successfully
                                                                 delivered unprecedented practical results by training indigenous
                                                                 peoples across the whole forest area to make their own maps. By
Working with a coalition of scientists, the Xerces Society       locating and mapping forest areas important to their day to day
prepared status reviews and filed petitions with the U.S. Fish   lives, their culture or spiritual identity, they are able to present
and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in December 2002 requesting         their maps to CIB and negotiate areas for protection. To date, all
protection under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) for       mapped areas and community resources have been formally
three butterflies: the Taylor's checkerspot, the Mardon          protected by CIB and demarcated as such in the field. The
skipper, and the island marble which resulted in the             openness and respect shown by CIB, was one of the factors
protection of the Carson wandering skipper butterfly through     which contributed to the awarding of FSC certification in the Kabo
the Endangered Species Act. Working with the Oregon Zoo,         Concession in 2006.
the Society helped to determine the environmental cues that      The indigenous language radio station ‘Biso na Biso’ (between
trigger egg-laying of gravid Oregon silverspots. Furthermore,    us), will be staffed by indigenous people and work to ensure that
the Society stopped a massive pesticide spraying project in      consistent communication channels are enhanced and
Idaho and produced a manual for farmers on habitat               maintained and that communities’ rights are better understood.
management for invertebrates on agricultural lands.              To date, radio development has focused on a combination of
                                                                 assessing technical feasibility, designing appropriate technologies
                                                                 and socializing the radio concept locally.

   Trends in extent of selected biomes, ecosystems, and              Area of forest, agricultural, aquaculture ecosystems under
                           habitats                                                   sustainable management

                                                                   Health and well being of communities who directly depend on
 Trends in abundance and distribution of selected species
                                                                               local ecosystem goods and services

                                                                                    Access and Benefit Sharing
                                                                 Tropical Forest Trust;
Xerces Society
                                                                 Partner: Congolaise Industrielle des Bois (CIB)


                                                                                            still running

                             Us                                                                 Cg
                                                                                           Congo Basin

                                                                                    Project Short Description:
                 Biennial Report 2006-2007

Manual for Habitat Conservation of pollinators in agricultural
                                                                                           Final Report
                     Homepage                                             Nature Article - Mark of Respect

                                                          Tropical Forest Trust paper describes the project starting on page

The Butterfly Conservation Initiative by Xerces Society
                                          Scott Poynton
Mace Vaughan []
Mace Vaughan will send project reports or summaries on
the pollinator program and the endangered species
protection program
                  complete                  complete, but contact Janne in Jan./Feb. for final report

                                          Reduction of Environmental Impact from Tropical Shrimp
                                              Trawling, through the introduction of By-catch
                                           Reduction Technologies and Change of Management

           Sustainable Business                                    Fisheries

               Native Species                                 By-catch Reduction

      Restoration through Reforestation                       Mitigation Measures

             Carbon certificates                              Ocean Biodiversity

                                                                New Legislation
                                                             Bycatches constitute an important part of the total catch of the
                                                             world’s fisheries. Shrimp fishing, and in particular tropical shrimp
Forests that are sustainably managed and conserved help
                                                             trawling, produces large amounts of by-catch. Some of the by-
both sequester carbon and reduce the carbon emissions
                                                             catch may be retained and landed. Another part is usually
associated with deforestation and forest degradation. At
                                                             discarded (dead fish or turtles, dolphins or other unwanted
the same time they contribute to sustain rural livelihoods
                                                             catch). By-catches are generally unregulated and may pose a
and improve equity, conserve biodiversity and meet
                                                             threat to species diversity and to endangered species, e.g. sea
expanding demands for forest products. Futuro Forestal is
                                                             turtles, and to the balance and health of the ecosystem. By-
located in the Provincia Chiriquí, Corregimiento Las Lajas
                                                             catches, when consisting of juveniles of commercially valuable
in Panamá. The project consists of forest plantations with
                                                             species and food fish, also have an economic impact by
wood for commercial purposes, for a total of 570 ha. The
                                                             suboptimal use of the fishery resources and hence constitute a
reforested land was originally tropical rainforest before it
                                                             threat to food security and sustainable fisheries. Moreover,
was deforested for agricultural purposes, was then used
                                                             unwanted by-catches incur costs related to sorting and handling
for cattle grazing and finally abandoned because the soil
                                                             of catch. Although the use of certain by-catch reduction devices
had been degraded by this unsustainable use. There are
                                                             (BRDs) are mandatory in some tropical shrimp fisheries, i.e. the
Teak (Tectona grandis) plantations and native species,
                                                             turtle excluder device (TED) required for shrimp exports to the
riparian forests and protection forests.
                                                             U.S., better technologies and practices could be introduced and
                                                             the level of compliance improved.
Futuro Forestal is a private German-Panamanian
Reforestation and Forest Services Company that                   The main objective of the project is to reduce discards in tropical
developed an innovative investment model based on                shrimp trawl fisheries by introducing appropriate fishing
ecologically and socially sustainable reforestation in the       technologies,i n combination, where necessary, with the
tropics. The forest creates habitat and protects the tropical    introduction of legislation and a management framework,
soil from erosion, acts as water reservoir and has filtering     including control and enforcement strategies. The project
function. The company is FSC (Forest Stewardship                 objectives also include the reduction of overall by-catch by shrimp
Council) certified and all fertilizer applications consist of    trawlers, in particular the capture of juveniles of commercially
100% recycled organic by-products, such as chicken               valuable species, and a better understanding of the impact of
manure and sugar cane leaves.They recently established           shrimp trawling on marine habitats.
the Cool US/Futuro Forestal Partnership for carbon credits       Eleven countries and one regional organisation participate fully in
which is certified with the GOLD status by the Climate,          the project (Cameroon, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Indonesia,
Community and Biodiversity Alliance. The plantation              Islamic Republic of Iran, Mexico, Nigeria, Philippines, Trinidad
investment projects are intended to last 25 years of CO2.        and Tobago, Venezuela and SEAFDEC. In addition, Bahrain
The sale of the wood, seeds, as well as carbon credits           participates using its own funds although recent reports seem to
enables the investor to make a profit while contributing to a    indicate that no further budget is available.
socially and environmentally sustainable project. Investors      Thus, the project is implemented at three levels: national,
receive fully titled land, planted with up to seven species of   regional and global.
tropical hardwoods and the forestry services of Futuro
Forestal for 25 years.
                                                            Overall, the project has made important progress towards the
                                                            objective of reducing discards and by-catch although there are
                                                            differences in progress among countries. Although only a few
Since its foundation in 1994 Futuro Forestal has reforested countries can show concrete results with regard to the wider
more than 1,500 acres in the region of Las Lajas. Together implementation of the developed BRDs and gear or towards the
with the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute and the    formal legalization of their use, most are likely to have made
Yale University project Prorena they increased the tree     further progress at the end of the project. Outputs produced so
growth over 30% in the last 13 years through research and far include: Tests on BRDs and decision on what devices should
management expertise. Today the company is the largest be recommended for regulations completed for some fisheries
employer in the region of Las Lajas in the Chiriqui         (e.g. in Calbayog in the Philippines, Colombia, Pacific coast of
province. Meanwhile the company has grown from initially Mexico, etc) and trials under way in most other countries.
3 employees to more than 50 permanent workers and 80 Probable by-catch reductions estimated to be around 30-40
seasonal workers during the planting season. Futuro         percent (Mexico: 53% reduction of fuel consumption and
Forestal pays about average, in addition to social security increase of 20% of shrimp catch). Revised or new legislation
and offers proactive training courses for its employees     adopted in Nigeria and Mexico, and work started on legal reviews
such as literacy programs and computer courses.             in others. Recertification of Nigeria for shrimp exports to the USA
                                                            by reintroduction of TEDs (to be confirmed officially). An FAO
                                                            guide on BRDs published (‘A Guide to Bycatch Reduction in
                                                            Tropical Shrimp-Trawl Fisheries’).

  Trends in extent of selected biomes, ecosystems, and
                                                                 Trends in abundance and distribution of selected species

                                                                Area of forest, agricultural, aquaculture ecosystems under
 Trends in abundance and distribution of selected species
                                                                                 sustainable management
    Trends in genetic diversity of domesticated animals,
cultivated plants, and fish species of major socio-economic
Area of forest, agricultural, aquaculture ecosystems under
                 sustainable management

 Proportion of products derived from sustainable sources
Futuro Forestal S.A.                                     UNEP, FAO


                            ongoing                                                    2008

Pa                                                       Mx Ng Cm Ir Ve Cr Cu Ph Id Co Tt Bh
                       Chiriquí, Las Lajas                                         tropical waters

                                                          FAO - Main Project Website with links to all the country reports:
 Project Report on Cool US7Futuro Forestal Partnership

      Verification Audit Report by Rainforest Alliance                     Progress Report Mexico 2005
Website Tropical Forest Foundation about Futuro Forestal:
                                                          A Guide to Bycatch Reduction in Tropical Shrimp-Trawl Fisheries

                 Futuro Forestal - Website:               International Waters Learning Exchange and Resource Network:                                 Project Documents

                                                         Good summarized article with pictures

                                                         shrimping methods also affect the vaquita in
                                                                             Contact persons:
                                                                             Janne Fogelgren;
                                                                          Thomas Moth Poulsen
                                                          Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
                                                                      Viale delle Terme di Caracalla
Tel/fax: (507) 727-0010 and tel: (507) 727-0078. Email:                     00100 Rome, Italy
                              Phone: (+39) 06 570 52377; (+39) 06 570 55034
                                                                         Fax: (+39) 06 570 55188
                                                                UNEP Programme Officer Marie Prchalova
                                                                               Office phone:
Futuro Forestal wins Metafore Innovation Award 2006
                                                         Janna Fogelgren informed us that the project was extended by 3
Partnership Cool US/Futuro Forestal receives Gold Status
                                                         months. The FAO will be happy to send us the final report.
by CCB certification
                                                         Contact Janne!
                 report to come                                    complete

Iby’IWACU VILLAGEA - A Community Based Tourism
                                                 Tiger-friendly Certification in far East Russia

                Mountain Gorilla                                   Incentives
                 Eco-Tourism                                        Hunting

               Culture Exchange

                                                                 The Russian Far East (RFE) has been identified as one of the world’s top
Rwanda is a country with rich culture and traditions. Parc
                                                                 priority ecoregions for its high numbers of endemic species, including the
National des Volcans is home to world’s famous, rare and
                                                                 endangered Siberian tiger. The mere 8% of Amur tiger habitat that is
critically endangered species, the mountain gorilla (gorilla
                                                                 protected is insufficient to maintain a viable tiger population over the long
beringei beringei) and is one of the parks in the Albertine
                                                                 term. Therefore, managing habitat outside protected areas is vital for
rift rich in biodiversity. According to a pre-project- study,
                                                                 successful conservation. Hunting is an important recreational and
most visitors to Rwanda (95%) and in particular those
                                                                 subsistence tradition in the RFE. Tiger poaching in Russia is driven by
visiting the mountain gorillas are not only interested in
                                                                 global demand for their bones and other parts used in Traditional Chinese
viewing wildlife but are also interested in meeting with,
                                                                 Medicine. Hunters also poach tigers to eliminate competition though
learning from, and sharing of experiences with the local
                                                                 ungulate poaching is even more common, which eventually forces tigers to
people. 90% stay at the hotel after trekking gorillas without
                                                                 take domestic livestock and dogs, and brings them into conflict with rural
anything else to do in the afternoon or evening. Both local
                                                                 communities. The locally unemployed, comprising more than half of the
people and tourists feel that local people, their families and
                                                                 population, resort to poaching and illegal harvesting of forest products,
most of all their children will benefit from interacting with
                                                                 such as ginseng and Siberian tiger bones, to generate income.
guests from different cultures while enriching the wider
tourist experience.
Iby’Iwacu village is established as an area around
protected areas in Rwanda, to display lifestyles, activities,
artefacts and ways of living of local people. 40 % of the         WCS has initiated a program to engage hunters in rural communities to
profits will be reinvested in community development               help improve wildlife management techniques, increase ungulate
projects (research and conservation education, cultural and       numbers, and convert an antagonistic relationship into a cooperative effort.
ecotourism development and community enterprise                   One of WCSs projects is the ‘Tiger Friendly Certification program’. Its
development). 60% will go directly to local people in the         main objective is to provide economic incentives for local communities to
villages who will determine what to do with it. This will help    conserve tigers and their habitat by recognizing sustainably harvested
empowering local people politically, economically and             products with a Tiger Friendly Certification (TFC). WMOs can be certified
socially while establishing linkages to conservation. The         as “Tiger Friendly” if they can demonstrate effective poaching control,
research and conservation education center will evaluate          environmentally sustainable use of natural resources, fair distribution of
community projects and continue to monitor using ground           economic returns derived from WCS’ programs, and adequate densities of
indicators through on going research and monitoring               tigers. For communities it provides a link to Western markets by serving as
indicators. Tourism projects will include visits to traditional   both an indicator of ecosystem integrity and as a marketing tool. Higher
healers to learn about the flora and its uses in traditional      profits from TFC products would increase household incomes by 12 to 25
medicine.                                                         percent for up to 1,000 people-and have a corresponding conservation
                                                                  impact on approximately 400,000 hectares of land.
Revenue from tourism has encouraged communities to
protect gorillas and develop small-scale businesses. Local
                                                                 WCS-Russia is now assisting two local hunting leases to develop their
people own 100% of the project. The cultural village has
                                                                 organic NTFP
increased tourism arrivals by 40% and has generated a
                                                                 (non-timber forest products) harvesting, arrange contacts with U.S.
sustainable income base for the village. Poaching of
                                                                 buyers, and perform the first organic products export sale. In cooperation
gorillas has been reduced by 60% since community-Gorilla
                                                                 with the Institute for Sustainable Use of Natural Resources (a local NGO),
Volunteers have been nominated to curb down illegal
                                                                 WCS developed and implemented a regional education system for WMO
activities in the park and also to deliver much of
                                                                 managers. With WCS, the Union of Wildlife Biologists and Managers
conservation education to local people. Moreover, 6
                                                                 developed a framework for wildlife management and hosts the Conference
children have been identified by tourists to Iby’Iwacu Village
                                                                 of WMO Managers and Council of Wildlife Biologists and Managers. WCS
to be sponsored from primary school to University. A
                                                                 supports 5 experimental WMOs in piloting new management approaches
project report is supposed to come…
                                                                 and serving as models for replication. WCS supports small projects run by
                                                                 WMOs that aim to reduce poaching, improve habitat for ungulates, and
                                                                 increase economic solvency.

Health and well being of communities who directly depend
                                                                          Proportion of products derived from sustainable sources
         on local ecosystem goods and services

                                                                     Health and well being of communities who directly depend on local
 Indicator of access and benefit sharing (to be developed)
                                                                                      ecosystem goods and services
Iby’IWACU VILLAGEA                                          Wildlife Conservation Society

                                                              WCS work in region since 1996; Tiger-Friendly Certification Program
?                                                                                      started in 2006

                        ongoing                                                             ongoing

Rw                                                                                            Ru
                   Northern Rwanda                                                      Russian Far East

        Report on Edwin Sabuhoros Award and the

                   Project Description:                                 DM Project Report
Pole Pole Foundation
                                                              Anton Semyonov
                                                       Wildlife Conservation Society
                      Twagira Innocent                         Russia program
                Tel: 08451289, 08838979                   -------------------------------
Email:         or Edwin    17"a", Aleutskaya Str., Apt.#31
                      Sabuhoro directly                 Vladivostok, 690090 Russia
                                                     Tel/Fax: +7(4232)410033; 414906
                                                          The primary obstacle to date has been the constant restructuring of
                                                          the Russian Forest Management System, in particular in association
                                                          with the new Forest Code, which should provide the core regulations and
                                                          procedures for any NTFP-related business. This situation has prevented
                                                          the project manager from obtaining the necessary permits to export
                                                          products harvested from hunting leases in a timely manner. The first
Edwin Sabuhoro was given the IUCN-IRF Young
                                                          export of TFC products for sale to Herbal Trade Company, planned for
Conservationist Award in 2008.                         He
                                                          spring 2008, was thus postponed to fall-winter 2008, when the documents
wants to send a project report once he is back in Rwanda
                                                          for export will have been received. WCS also continues to work with U.S.
                                                          outfitters who are interested in Hunting Tours on the land of Amur Tiger
                                                          that might be also promoted under the TFC brand. In October 2008, WCS
                                                          Russia organized an acquaintance tour for U.S. outfitter who visited four
                                                          candidate hunting leases in Primorsky Krai to evaluate their readiness to
                                                          host U.S. hunters.
                          complete                                                            complete

The Juma Sustainable Development Reserve Project: Reducing
                                                               Project Twin Streams : “Working together for healthy streams and strong
 Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Deforestation in the State of
                                                                communities: creating a sustainable future" in Waitakere, New Zeland
                     Amazonas, Brazil

               Biodiversity and Climate Change                                   Land-use planning and management

                       RED - Project                                                      Ecological corridor

                         Amazonas                                                           Water quality

                     Private Investment                                                  Stream biodiversity

                      Legal Framework                                                   Community leadership
The biggest Brazilian state, Amazonas, has always had the lowest         A ‘Greenprint’was developed in 1994 by the City Council which set out how it would
deforestation rate in the Brazilian Amazon with 98% of the State’s       become an Eco City. New approaches to dealing with waste and water were
original forest cover still intact. However, according to the            fundamental to the innovative solutions being developed. As part of this, in 1997
SimAmazonia I deforestation model the rate of deforestation will         Waitakere City Council commissioned studies to explore the effects of stormwater
increase rapidly in the coming decades, which could result in a loss     on the Oratia and Opanuku Streams. Stormwater refers to the water running off
of up to 30% of Amazonas’ forest cover by 2050. The area of the          from roads, footpaths, driveways and other hard surfaces during rainfall, which then
Juma Sustainable Development Reserve ( 589,612 ha) has been              enters streams via stormwater drains.
identified as an extremely important area for biodiversity, especially   Any pollution such as chemicals from fertilised soil or oil from roads mixes with
for reptiles, amphibians and mammals. The major imminent threats         stormwater and ends up in the streams, lakes and oceans, provoking water
to the natural ecosystems are illegal logging, mining, land grabbing     pollution and banks erosion. These stormwater studies led to the creation of
for agriculture and cattle ranching, as well as overfishing. The         Project Twin Streams, with successful funding applications to Infrastructure
Federal Government’s plan to pave the roads bordering the Reserve        Auckland from 20037 for $39.5 million over a ten year period to 2012.
could bring a sharp increase in deforestation due to the illegal         The catchment covers the Oratia, Waikumete, Opanuku, Pixie and Swanson
logging, mining and hunting that occur as a result of the new access     Streams and incorporates 56km of stream banks, 10,000 hectares, 43,000
the road provides.                                                       households and 103,000 people.
The Juma Reserve RED Project will be the first project of its kind to
                                                                        The Project Twin Streams, a partnership between Waitakere City Council and
be implemented since the creation and approval of the State Policy
                                                                        Auckland Regional Government that received 39,5 million $ for ten years, aims at
on Climate Change Law (PEMC-AM) and the State System of
                                                                        restoring 56 kms of stream banks with the involvement of local Maori communities.
Protected Areas (SEUC-AM). This legislation provides the entire
                                                                        The project serves environmental, social, cultural, economical purposes and was
legal framework necessary to implement these types of projects in
                                                                        intending to :
the Amazonas. The resources necessary to cover the operational
                                                                        a) restore the natural environment through planting stream banks, removing weeds,
costs of implementing the project come from the incomes of the
                                                                        reducing animal pests, encouraging biodiversity, and building 13.8km of combined
fund of the Amazonas Sustainable Foundation. Moreover, there will
                                                                        cycle and walkways.
be the sponsorship of the hotel chain Marriott International (US$ 2
                                                                        b) reduce the effects of stormwater on streams and stream bank erosion through
million). Marriott's guests will be offered an option to offset their
                                                                        creating buffle zones, and purchasing properties to preserve flood plains
emissions at US$ 1 per night. In addition the project aims at
                                                                        c) increase community stewardship of the streams by initiating community contracts
generating social and environmental improvements such as:
                                                                        and facilitating the development of local governance structures
strengthening of environmental monitoring; increase in the
                                                                        d) raise awareness of Maori history in the catchment, Increase manawhenua
generation of income through the promotion of sustainable
                                                                        influence on stream management in the PTS catchment: community planting days,
businesses; development of scientific research, and direct payment
                                                                        art engagement
for environmental services.
                                                                        e) be a catalyst for iwi ,Maori & community economic development, develop
                                                                        opportunities for research and new water,waste & energy efficient technologies
                                                                      There are now (late 2007) five community contracts in place covering the
                                                                      majority of the catchment. Since the project commenced in 2004, over 10,000
                                                                      volunteers have been involved in weeding and planting stream banks
                                                                      There is active participation by a diverse range of groups, cultures and schools
Since 2003, 21 new State conservation units have been established -
                                                                      from local communities: 15 schools, five alternative education groups, local
 approximately 10 million hectares of protected areas - as part of a
                                                                      churches; sporting clubs, people with intellectual disabilities; a retirement village,
 policy for the valorization of the environmental services offered by
                                                                      Department for Corrections Community Work Programme and local residents. A
 the forest, which have been recognized by the State of Amazonas
                                                                      total of 24 community planting and celebrations days have been held. A total of
Law on Policy of Climate Change, Environmental Conservation and
                                                                      309,671 trees have been planted within the catchment area. Throughout their
Sustainable Development (Law 3135/2007). Based on the baseline
                                                                      lifetime, these trees will absorb the carbon from 13,458 cars doing 15,000km per
   scenario for the project area, the project expects to prevent the
                                                                      year. 75 houses have been purchased for stormwater management and riparian
   deforestation of about 329.483 hectares of tropical forests that
                                                                      planting. 14 km of cycle and walkways are under construction. These pathways,
   would release 189.767.027,9 tons of CO2 into the atmosphere.
                                                                      which will connect people with each other and their natural environment, will include
                                                                      art tiles depicting local flora, fauna, cultural and iwi stories, educational signs and a
                                                                      demonstration area for permeable paving.

   Trends in extent of selected biomes, ecosystems, and habitats                                Water quality of aquatic ecosystems

                                                                           Health and well being of communities who directly depend on local ecosystem
                    Coverage of protected areas
                                                                                                       goods and services

             Connectivity - fragmentation of ecosystems                            Trends in extent of selected biomes, ecosystems, and habitats

Health and well being of communities who directly depend on local
                 ecosystem goods and services

              Ecological footprint and related concepts
Amazonas Sustainable Foundation - FAS (Fundação Amazonas
                                                           Waitakere City Council suppported by Auckland Regional Government
Sustentável - FAS)


                           2050                                                                  2012

                            Br                                                                    nz
                     State of Amazonas                                                        Waitakere

                  Project Design Document                       Official website:

                   CCB Validation Report                                        Formative Evaluation framework, 2007
    CCBA - Project Website: http://www.climate-
                                                                                  Strategic Plan

  FAS - Summary of the project: http://www.fas-
                                                                           Key facts and figures, 2007

                                                   Catchment monitoring, Pressure and state of the environment: synthesis 2005-

                                                   Examplary of the Twin Streams Newsletter: Streamtalk Newsletter - May 2008
                                                                   Related project: "Ark in the Park" is a community restoration project for volunteers
                                                                                                   led by the Waitakere
                                                                    Branch of the Royal Forest and Bird Society, which is focused on intensive pest
                                                                          control. See

                       Gabriel Ribenboim
                     Title: Project Manager                                                            Anil Karan
Department: Technical Coordination Department for Carbon-related                                 Community Waitakere
                             Projects                                                               PO Box 21 – 068
                Address: Rua Álvaro Braga, 351                                                        Henderson
               Parque 10 de Novembro, Manaus                                       
                        Amazonas, Brazil
             Telephone number: +55 92 3648 4393
                    Fax: +55 92 3648 7425
CCB Approved - Gold Rating (Sept. 30, 2008)                        The
Amazon Sustainable Foundation is a nonprofit institution,
established in December 2007 through a partnership of the
Government of the State of Amazonas and Bradesco Bank. Each
institution gave donations of R$ 20 millions. Its activities focus on
                                                                       The project is due to run and funded until 2012
the implementation of projects which promote the sustainable
development in the 34 conservation units of the State of Amazonas,
aiming at the environmental conservation and at the improvement of
life quality of traditional populations in a area of 16, 4 million
                         report to come                                                            complete

   Koyam Society - Wepewen Project: A business partnership
                                                                  Conservation of the Atlantic Forest biodiversity focusing on the protection
between an indigenous NGO and a canadian corporation acts for
                                                                        of the golden lion tamarin (GLT) in its natural habitat, Brazil
 the reforestation of native trees in the Auracania region, Chile

                          Reforestation                                                       Endangered species

                          Native trees                                                          Forest corridors

                         Forest planning                                                     Invasive alien species

                      Agroforestry systems                                                       Reintroduction

                    Business and Biodiversity                                                    Translocation
Intended to bolster forests increasingly threatened by timber sales, a
law enacted in 1974 gives Chile’s small landowners economic
incentives for planting trees on eligible areas of their lands. But the law   The golden lion tamarin is endemic to the lowland Atlantic Coastal Forests of Rio
brought with it unintended consequences. Farmers planted fast-                de Janeiro State, Brazil. They use forests of well-preserved primary vegetation
growing, non-native species like eucalyptus and pine plantations to           as well as forest areas with secondary vegetation - areas which have been
make quick money from selling the wood. Planting non-native trees             exploited or where selective cutting of trees has taken place. One of the major
used more water, exhausted the soil, and result in a biodiversity loss.       problems that threaten the survival of the golden lion tamarin is the habitat loss;
Verde Ventures funding helps land owners plant native Araucaria               in other words, the lack of appropriate habitat. Deforestation fortimber,
araucana species instead of non-native trees. The native Araucaria is         production of charcoal, and agricultural expansion, as well as urban sprawl have
Chile’s national tree and is listed as Vulnerable on the World                reduced the habitat available for golden lion tamarins, confining the surviving
Conservation Union (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species.                     populations to small isolated islands of secondary vegetation, few exceeding
Because landowners plant trees at their own expense and are paid by           1,000 hectares. Hunting for the pet trade contributed to the almost complete
the government later, the loan from Verde Ventures is helping this            extinction of the species in in the wild in the 1960’s.
community cover the up-front costs of setting up the planting projects.
                                                                         The goal for the year 2025 is to reach a minimum viable population of 2,000
In 2004, Sociedad Koyam Limitada was created as a for-profit
                                                                         golden lion tamarins living in 25,000 hectares of protected forests.
partnership between Corporation Mapuche Lonko Kilapang and
                                                                         a) reintroduction ; to date the continuous growth observed is due to the
Timberline Natural Resources Group, a consulting organization
                                                                         reproduction on 33 privately owned ranches in Rio Bonito, Silva Jardim, and
based in Vancouver, Canada. Koyam provides natural resource              Casimiro de Abreu municipalities.
management services such as reforestation, forest planning and
                                                                         b) translocation: the GLT Translocation Program was initiated in December of
management, coordination between landowners and government
                                                                         1993 to save groups of tamarins isolated on small forest
authorities, technical assistance and training to small indigenous
                                                                         c) research on common marmosets, an IAS that disturbS GLTs
landowners in rural communities. In 2006, Conservation International’s
                                                                         d) implement forest corridors, by working with private landowners.
Verde Ventures program decided to fund Wepewen Programme with
                                                                         e) geoprocessing: integrating information about the environment
a credit over 4 years and the Equator Initiative issued a grant to it.
                                                                         d) Since 1992, GLTA maintains a Program of Incentive to Creation of RPPNs
Wepewen Programme intends to establish 440 hectares of
                                                                         (Private reserves of natural heritage) that now already represents over 30%
agroforestry systems per year, designed to contain strips of Araucaria
                                                                         of the habitat protected for the species. The landowners that are interested in
trees and pasture for ranching. It aims to:
                                                                         the creation of Private Reserves are visited by AMLD's technicians who inform
a) support an innovative business structure
                                                                         them of all aspects of the creation, the managment the importance of RPPNs for
b) support government initiatives to pay for ecosystems services and
                                                                         the conservation of biodiversity, and the advantages that these Reserves can
forest restoration;
                                                                         bring to the property.
c) assist in the reforestation of a highly threatened tree species
                                                                         The programmes is also active in involving the public.
d) improve internal business and management skills
a) In 2006 Koyam employed 34 full-time people, including 80% of
Mapuches and give them health and life insurance, and a system of
                                                                         The population of GLTs is now over 1500 and in 2004 the species was
                                                                         downlisted from "critically endangered" to "endangered.
In 2005, Koyam earned US$17,000 of net profit on a total operationg
                                                                         a)To date, 153 golden lion tamarins born in zoos have been released in their
income of US$120,000, for a return on sales of about 14%.
                                                                         natural habitat. 148 institutions contribute to the maintenance of the captivity
300 people were hired for the Wepewen project and 100 indirect jobs
                                                                         population. The proportion of the reintroduced population comprised by wild-born
                                                                         has increased by more than 95%. The reintroduction contributed to an increase
b) Reception of governmental grants that support forestation of
                                                                         of more than one third of about 1.200 tamarins living freely in several fragments
endangered araucaria was still pending in 2007.
                                                                         of Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro. This continuous growth is due to the
c) In 2006-2007 178 hectares of Araucaria trees were planted. This
                                                                         reproduction on 33 privately owned ranches in Rio Bonito, Silva Jardim, and
area is more than 50% the area of araucaria trees established in Chile
                                                                         Casimiro de Abreu municipalities. Around 700 births were registered in the
before Wepewen.
                                                                         reintroduced populations.
Koyam also organized workshops to introduce the Wepewen project,
                                                                         b) Six groups of L. rosalia were translocated from October 1994 to October of
identify community leaders, and help structuring community
                                                                         1997 to the União Biological Reserve.
involvement in the project. Training sessions were organized. Crews
                                                                         c) Researches have been conducted since 1998. Results have showed that
were created to monitor forest health and detect forest fires. Other
                                                                         there is competion beetwen tamarins and marmosets. Sterilization will be
crews were trained in soil preparation, planting techniques and
                                                                         developed while an awareness campaign will be launched.
production of seedlings.

 Area of forest, agricultural aquaculture ecosystems under sustainable
                                                                                             Change in status of threatened species

       Indicator of access and benefit sharing (to be developed)                    Trends in abundance and distribution of selected species

              Connectivity - fragmentation of ecosystems                                   Connectivity - fragmentation of ecosystems

                                                                                                 Trends in invasive alien species

                                                                                                   Coverage of protected areas
Implementation: Sociedad Koyam Limitada = partnership between
Corporación de Desarrollo Mapuche Lonko Kilapang (Lonko), and
                                                                         GLT Association in collaboration with National Zoological Park and Smithsonian
Timberline Natural Resources Group.
                                                                         Institution, Brzilian government's insitution for the environment and natural
Funding: Equator Initiative, Conservation International Verde Venture,
                                                                         ressources, Rio de Janeiro Primate Center, WWF, University of Maryland
Government of Chile

                                 2006                                                                         1973

                               ongoing                                                                        2025

                                   cl                                                                           br
                    Lonquimay, Auracanía Region                                             Atlantic coastal forests of Rio de Janeiro

                           Final report 2008                                      Website of the GLT Association:

                          Project report 2006                                                          Annual report 2003
                                                        Smithsonian National Zoological Park website on GLT Conservation
   Project summary for Equator Initiative

                                                “Golden Tamarin Monkey is saved form extinction ”, The Independent (London),
       Indicators and project's results
                                                April 4, 2001 by Michael Mccarthy:

                                                 “Tamarins are back form the brink ”, ITV News, Wednesday, 20 August 2008:
   Koyam website:     

Article on Conservation International website
          Adriana Madrigal, Senior Investment Officer                              Jennifer Mickelberg
                CFD- Verde Ventures Fund- CI                                     Smithsonian Institution
                  2011 Crystal Drive Suite 500                    GLT Conservation Program GHLT Conservation Program
                 Arlington Virginia 22202 USA                             North America National Zoological Park
                             P.O. Box 37012 MRC 5503 Washington, DC 20013-7012
                         (703) 341-2404                                              T 202.633.4203
Hari Balasubramanian, Verde Ventures' Monitoring and Evaluation                      F 202.673-0040
A complete report on monitroing and results should be available in
December 2008. Contact Hari Balasubramanian                                In 1998 the National Board of the Mata Atlântica Biosphere Reserve -
                                                                           UNESCO/MaB Program, recognized for the category Personnality the personal
Improved business and management skills are expected to result in          efforts of Denise Marçal Rambaldi, AMLD Secretary General, for conservation of
certification and re-financing for growth and future projects that benefit the golden lion tamarins and their natural habitat: the Atlantic Forest of the state
Chile’s ecosystem and indigenous communities.                              of Rio de Janeiro.
                      Scientific report to come                                                complete

Emergency Intervention to Prevent Slash and Burn and to Ensure the
                                                                     A comprehensive strategy adresses the threat of Bushmeat Trade
Sustainability of the Income Generating for Conservation Program, in
                                                                                 to Wildlife in the Upper Guinea Forest
                     Vohimana forest, Madagascar

                        Forest conservation                                            Hunting Trade regulations

                        Organic agriculture                                               Wildlife conservation

                     Slash and burn agriculture                                          Awareness campaigns

                            Ecotourism                                                National Laws and regulation

                     Business and biodiversity
                                                                           Bushmeat hunting is now a $350-million-a-year industry, fueled by new,
                                                                           more effective hunting technologies that are killing wildlife at
                                                                           unsustainable levels. Traditional prohibitions against the killing of
The Vohimana forest is a biodiversity hot spot and a key part of the       Ghanaian clan totems, or sacred animals, have been abandoned.
corridor between the Mantadia National Park and its southern forests.      Modern hunting restrictions, such as a closed season to allow species
There are more than seventy species of endemic frogs, eleven species of populations to regenerate, are routinely ignored, enforcement
lemurs, endemic medicinal plants which had still no conservation status in nonexistent. Ghana is home to 59 endangered mammals including
2002. Between 1962 and 2002 Vohimana lost more than half of its forest three of the world's top 25 most endangered primate species.
surface due to slash and burn agriculture, and meanwhile 98 percents of Bushmeat hunting is a major contributor to declining populations. The
the population living from this slash and burn agriculture were below the  trade also threatens the health and livelihood of millions of Ghanaians.
poverty line.                                                              Rural communities receive up to 75 percent of their protein from
                                                                           bushmeat. Indiscriminate, unsustainable hunting is devastating animal
                                                                           populations could ultimately destroy the livelihood of those who, like the
                                                                           market queens, earn a living from the trade.
                                                                           The project established a National Stakeholders task force which
                                                                           mobilized stakeholders (chiefs, elders, NGOs, government officials,
                                                                           bushmeat traders, and representatives of development organizations)
The Vohimana forest conservation program was based mainly on local         to adopt a concerted effort and a multifaceted approach to deal with the
people implication and private sector partnership. The goals were to :     crisis. The project aimed at:
a) reduce the threat of increasing the area under slash-and-burn           a) raising awareness on the threat to biodiversity. It is estimated that
agriculture by encouraging involvement of the local population and         85% of all the bushmeat road markets from Accra to Cape Coast and
administrative authorities.                                                Kumasi have ceased operation because of a consumer boycott.
b) develop an environment friendly ginger production, with anti erosive b) achieving greater commitment of policy makers to wildlife
practices developed (use of vetiver)                                       conservation and regulation of the bushmeat trade. The Ghana
c) achieve planed long term production development by generating           Standards Board has produced guidelines for export of dry and wet
incomes form local populations :                                           meat, which include regulations against the export of endangered
- agricultural activities : bananas, coffee, rice                          species and the Government is committed to review current by-laws
- ginger production and local plants distillation                          and enforcement policies. Enforcement of hunting regulations was
- ecotourism : a one-euro tax per night and per visitor was established to improved through establishing Community Biodiversity Advocacy
fund the programme.                                                        Groups (CBAGs) carrying out awareness campaigns in the
                                                                           communities and also arresting illegal hunters for prosecution. Finally,
                                                                           a Wildlife Data Bank was created to house information on wildlife
                                                                           species in Ghana.
a) No slash and burn : Although some farmers have slashed some
parcels the incomes have allowed to get a general agreement and local         Decreased demand in bushmeat has been proved through protein
pressure on these farmers from the traditional authorities. A reforestation   choice survey, which CI conducted, interviewing 17,500 school children
programme has been launched. 160 species are bred in a tree nursery,          in Accra. The major bushmeat markets in Accra and Kumasi are no
and 100 species have been replanted on 25 hectares in an experimental         longer selling bushmeat of the key species highlighted by the campaign
reserve of 4000 acres.                                                        such as elephant, endangered duikers, bongo, porcupines, and
b) Environmental friendly ginger production : 2 distillation units were       traditional totems. Finally, as a result of this project, the annual ban
installed and produce essential oil. Ginger production has been developed     on bushmeat hunting from 1 August-1 December each year is now
as planed and can now be confirmed as a true alternative to slash and         officially announced by the Minister of Lands and Forestry on the radio
burn cultivation. Use of vetiver for soil fixation has been promoted and it   and television giving the ban the necessary publicity for it to be
has been made clear with farmers that the use of vetiver is along term        effective.
obligation.                                                                   Due to the campaign and the publicity it created around the bushmeat
c) Long term income generating opportunity : Ginger production has            crisis, only species that are not protected such as grasscutter can be
been developed from 4 tons in 2006, 20 tons in 2007, 100 tons expected in     found in the market during the closed season. In order to reduce illegal
2008 with organic certification implicating 78 paysans out of around 250      hunting, the government has made it a law that all citizens with guns
families. Chanel has offered to support long term production of ginger        must register them with the police because of the implication gun
essential oil from the local communities of Vohimana and as a start to buy    ownership is having on social and political stability in the region.
all the production of 2006.

  Area of forest, agricultural aquaculture ecosystems under sustainable
                                                                                     Proportion of products derived from sustainable sources

      Trends in extent of selected biomes, ecosystems, and habitats

         Proportion of products derived from sustainable sources

    Health and well being of communities who directly depend on local
                     ecosystem goods and services
Implementation: The Man And The Environment
Funding: CEPF and FFEM (French Fund for Global Environment)
Partnerships: Chanel fragrance society; CIRAD (French Agricultural   Conservation International with the support of CEPF
Research Center for International Developpement); WWF

                                1-Nov-05                                                            Jan-01

                               28-Feb-06                                                            Apr-04

                                   mg                                                                 gh
                            Vohimana forest                                                  Upper Guinea Forest

                          CEPF project report                                                  CEPF final report

            Website of the NGO "L'Homme et l'Environnement":                Article "CI Targets Critical Threat to Biodiversity in Ghana":
                             andasibe.html                                                                xml
  FFEM report, 2008 “Vision de fonctionnement socio-economique et
                                                                              Article "Chiefs Join Bushmeat Campaign in Ghana":
environnement, reserve experimentale de Vohimana”, mai 2008, Fonds
               francais pour l’environnement mondial"
                        Olivier BEHRA                             Jessica Donovan Conservation International 1919 M Street, NW Suite
The Man And The Environment, Lot 102 B Ampandrana, Antananarivo     600 Washington, DC 20036 Tel: 202-912-1706 Fax: 202-912-1026
                       101, Madagascar                                            Email:
                     Tel : 261 33 02 586 72                                          Yaw Osei-Owusu CI Ghana
                                                                     Okyeame lead person for the
             Or monitoring officer                                            project in CI
                                                                            Ghana Wildlife Society
Awards: The Association “l’Homme et l’Environnment” was awarded the
2005 S’T’ prize (prix “Les Sommets du Tourisme’, decerne a Chamonix,

An ecological monitoring is being set up since the prject is initiating a
partnership with the WWF, the French Funf for Global Environment, and
the CIRAD. A report should be available in the next few months - recontact
monitoring officer
Projects description and report on mushrooms' production
                         to come
                                                              The Ezemvelo Farmers’ Organization promotes
  Inventory of Butterflies in the Missahoe Classified
                                                           homestead agriculture and provides big food suppliers
        Forest in Togo, Upper Guinea Forest
                                                                     with certified organic products

                Conservation of species                                       Organic farming

             Sustainable management Plan                                   Traditional knowledge

                 Invasive alien species                                      Land management

                      Ecotourism                                           Homestead agriculture

                 Education Programme
Butterflies capture and selling has expanded a lot in the
Missahoe region as a way for young people to earn a
                                                              Arable lands in the rural areas of KwaZulu-Natal Coast have
living at almost no cost. Butterflies are very important as
                                                              become less productive due to poor management that
pollinators, and their decreasing number causes the
                                                              caused destruction of the natural resource base, while local
extension of invasive alien species (compensated by
                                                              knowledge is being lost.
the use of insecticides) and the fall of coffee and
cocoa yields.
The Committee for the Protection and Management of the
Missahoe Forest built a partnership with the Association     The Ezemvelo Farmers Organisation (EFO) was created in
pour la Gestion Integree et durable de l’environnement       February 2000 by Albert Modi, a Crop Science lecturer at
(AGIDE) to protect butterflies while reducing poverty        the University of KwaZulu-Natal and 31 farmers from
of butterflies hunters. The objectives were:                 Ogagwini. It became their first certified group of subsistence
a) to conduct an inventory of butterflies and to identify    farmers in South Africa. A constitution adopted in 2000
ecological and biological factors that condition their       drafts good practices and management rules, including:
existence.                                                   a) an organic certification delivered in May 2000 by
b) to draft a sustainable biodiversity management plan       AFRISCO (Africa’s Farms Certified Organic). That involves
for the area. Since poverty was identified as the main       the use of natural fertilizers and a system of certification.
cause of forest destruction and butterfly hunting, the       b) a common cropping system derived form indigenous
stress was put on social actions. Ecotourism was also part   knowledge and based on crop rotation and polyculture.
of the strategy.                                             c) internal inspectors appointed on a voluntary basis
c) Raise people awareness and train populations on           d) a secured income provided through selling amadumbe
activities that can generate income without degrading        (taro) to Woolworths via a Packhouse (Farmwise) in the
natural ecosystems.                                          nearby small town of Amanzimtoti.
a) 164 species have been recorded, and studies had
been made on the ecological and biological conditions that
influence their existence.
b) A sustainable management plan for the 1500-                     The Ezemvelo Farmers Organisation has grown from 27
hectare protected area was drafted, consisting in                  members in the year 2001 to over 200 members in 2006, of
recommendations on curbing the use of agricultural                 whom 70 percent are women. They have been certified
chemicals, promoting agroforestry techniques,                      organic annually by different organizations [AFRISCO,
reducing the number of butterflies being taken in the wild,        BDOCA (Bio Dynamic and Organic Certification Authority),
protecting their habitats, and raising butterflies in captivity.   and CU (Control Union Certifications)]. But EFO has had
c) An environmental education programme for 11 adjacent            difficulties in follow the European Union standards for
villages was implemented, through Q & A workshops that             organic farming, not because of any problems with following
combined teaching about basic environmental concepts,              organic production guidelines, but rather because the
legislation, national conservation strategy, local ecology         record-keeping requirements of HACCP and product
and the importance of the butterflies for the future               traceability demand a sophisticated system which is beyond
economic health of the area. Women were trained on                 the capability of a small group of modest farmers.
mushrooms cultures. A butterfly sanctuary was also
built, and ecotourism initiatives are being set up.

Trends in abundance and distribution of selected species             Proportion of products derived from sustainable sources

Area of forest, agricultural aquaculture ecosystems under           Health and well being of communities who directly depend
                 sustainable management                                      on local ecosystem goods and services

Health and well being of communities who directly depend            Area of forest, agricultural aquaculture ecosystems under
         on local ecosystem goods and services                                       sustainable management
                                                           Implementation: Ezemvelo Farmers Organization
                                                           Funding: Department of Arts, Culture, Science and
AGIDE or the Association for Integrated and Sustainable
                                                           Technology (DACST) in South Africa (grant in 2000)
Environmental Management Partners : Ministry of Water
                                                           Support: Kwa-Zulu Natal Department of Economic
and Forests, University of Lome, and CEPF
                                                           Development and Tourism (provided the infrastructures)

                      2003 october                                                   Feb-00

                     2004 december

                            tg                                                          za
     Missahoe Forest (highlands of southwest Togo)               Umbumbulu district on the KwaZulu-Natal coast

                                                              Ezemvelo Farmers Organisation: Situation analysis for
                   CPEF project report

                 Article on CPEF website: A technical synopsis for conceptualisation of training needs
  PLAN DE GESTION DURABLE DE LA DIVERSITE                      Woolworths' website:
                 AU TOGO                           ntext&Post=CO-Community_Initiatives_Madumbi

                                                          Article published in Ipsnews:
                                                          Dr Albert Modi
                                                           Crop scientist
          AGBALENYO Koss
                                                   University of KwaZulu-Natal
Mailing address: B.P 149 Tsevie TOGO
                                       Extn1: 5854 - Location: Rabie Saunders Building 301
         Tel: 002280 909 05 84
                                                     Pietermarizburg Campus
                                                    Department: Crop Science
Future developments: The sustainable management plan
forecasts to develop ecotourism in the classified forest of
                            complete                                                        complete

Carpentaria Ghost nets programme: Indigenous communities work       Bycatch initiative: fishermen-based marine turtle bycatch
  together to get rid of marine debris and protect marine turtles                      reduction programme

                          Marine turtles                                                  Marine turtles

                          Marine debris                                                 Fisheries bycatch

                     Aboriginal communities                                            Sustainable fishing

                           Ghost nets

                                                                                    The mortality of marine turtles when they are by-caught in long-line
The freshwater and marine environments of the Northern Gulf are a haven
                                                                                    fishing is, among others, one of the major actors affecting their
for a number of marine and coastal animals.
                                                                                    population survival. In the Eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO), Leatherback
Marine debris and in particular, derelict fishing nets are increasingly
                                                                                    turtles (Dermochelys oriacea) and Loggerhead turtles (Caretta
becoming a threat to marine wildlife and an unwanted burden to industry.
                                                                                    caretta) are the species of most concern because of their critical
Ongoing recordings of marine life entanglements in north east Arnhem
                                                                                    condition. For example, populations of nesting leatherback turtles
indicates a high number of threatened and endangered marine turtle
                                                                                    have decreased to record low numbers in Mexico and Costa Rica.
species are killed and injured by marine debris each year (Roeger 2004).
                                                                                    Experts have predicted their disappearance from the Pacific by mid-
Of all debris types responsible for the fatality and injury of marine wildlife in
northern Australia, derelict fishing nets are of greatest concern, entangling       However, there are promising technologies which could help solve
around 90% of the greater than 200 marine turtles stranded at Cape                  the problem of turtle bycatch.
Arnhem between 1996 and 2003 (Roeger 2004).                                         In 2003 WWF started a joint venture project with the Inter-American
Added to that the environment is extremely remote and unpopulated with              Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) and other partners to test the
areas difficult to access by land. The people are mostly Indigenous
                                                                                    performance in marine turtle bycatch reduction of circle hooks
scattered in isolated pockets.
                                                                                    against J hooks in the artisanal surface long-line fisheries in the
                                                                                    Eastern Pacific Ocean
The project's aims are:                                                         IThe initial project idea was an IATTC initiative in Ecuador, aiming at:
a)To clean up the coastline in the Gulf of Carpentaria of existing nets         a) replacing J hooks with circle hooks by enabling fishermen to test
to stop them re-entering the ocean: remove the ghost nets from the              them
coastline and waters, rescue the animals trapped in                             b) training fishermen in better fishing practices, including on-board
b) Enhance existing monitoring activities in the region that determines         handling and resuscitation techniques for turtles caught by hooks or
the source, quantity and potential impact of derelict fishing gear (nets) and   entangled in branch-lines
other marine debris: record the number, size and location of the ghost nets     c) on-board data collection by observers regarding catches and
found, research factors that influence distribution, movement of the nets       bycatches during long-line fishing operations.
c) Build capacity of local communities to undertake planning, monitoring,       A regional, multi-stakeholder alliance including industrial and
and clean-up activities: report the activities that the communities have        artisinal fishermen, government agencies, NGOs, and regional
done to improve people’s awareness about the ghost nets issue                   management authorities is driving the up-take of best practices in
d) Develop a Gulf Ghost Nets Communication Strategy, including                  long-lining and more than 4,000 fishermen have participated in
preparation of a ‘Ghost Nets Documentary’, a school awareness program,          training workshops. WWF and IATTC started building a database to
Gulf Ghost Nets Website, lobbying opportunities, community awareness            compile scientific evidence to study marine turtle and long-line
raising                                                                         fisheries bycatch interactions and test circle hooks and other fishing
A clear contribution will be made by this project to larger scale activities    gear modifications to save marine turtles. Results show that in
including the "Dugong and Marine Turtle Management Project".                    almost all ports and fisheries circle hooks effectively reduce bycatch
                                                                                and produce a lower rate of ‘bad hookings’.
                                                                         The first round of experiments with the artisanal longline fleet of
                                                                         Ecuador was completed in 2004 and it has expanded to 7 other
                                                                         countries: Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Panama,
                                                                         Colombia and Peru.
                                                                         Bycatch rates for TBS (Tuna, Billfish, Shark) fisheries: among 24
Entanglements were recorded regularly on the coast of Cape Arhem since
                                                                         cases of paired experiments, distributed among 7 ports, circle
1996. In the area of Djirrkawuy were surveys were conducted every year,
                                                                         hooks had lower turtle bycatch rates in 13 cases (54%), J hooks
results show a decreasing number of turtle entanglements, from 51
                                                                         had lower bycatch rates in 6 cases (25%), while in 5 cases there
turtles in 1996 to 11 turtles in 1999, 32 in 2001 and 15 in 2004.
                                                                         were no turtles caught with either J or circle hooks. For mahi-mahi
The composition and source of marine debris affecting this section of
                                                                         fisheries: from the 28 cases selected for this fishery, circle hooks
coastline has been the subject of surveys conducted each year since 2000
                                                                         resulted in lower numbers of marine turtles caught in 18 cases
in collaboration with the WWF, Conservation Volunteers Australia and
                                                                         (64%), while J hooks resulted inlower bycatch rates in 9 cases
previously the NT Department of Business Industry and Resource
                                                                         (32%). Only one case had zero turtles caught for either J hooks or
                                                                         circle hooks
                                                                         To date the programme has recruited 279 voluntary fishing vessels,
                                                                         and performed 918 experimental fishing trips, deploying over 1.5
                                                                         million hooks in 4,178 long-line sets rigged with experimental

        Trends in abundance and distribution of selected species                Trends in abundance and distribution of selected species

                Ecological footprint and related concepts                               Ecological footprint and related concepts
Implementation: Gulf Resource Management Group (NGO)
Support: WWF, Northern Land Council, North Australian Indigenous Land
                                                                        WWF, Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC)
& Sea Management Alliance, Clean Up Australia & Oceanwatch Aust Ltd.

                                 2004                                                              July 1st 2004

                               ongoing                                                             June 30 2010

                                  au                                                          ec mx gt sv pe pa cr co
                  Queensland and Northern territories                                            Pacific coastline

                                                                                                  WWF webpage:

                      Project brief October 2004                               See turtle bycatch rates in: Progress report July 2008
                           "Fishing Technology Letting Turtles Off The Hook " in ScienceDaily
Project report 2005-2006                            (Aug. 27, 2008)
              Riki Gunn
                                                        Moise Mug
         Project Coordinator
                                      WWF Central America Regional Programme Office
            PO Box 155
                                                    P.O. Box 629-2350
         Karumba Qld 4891
                                            San Francisco de Dos Ríos San José
          PH: 07 4745 9661
                                                        Costa Rica
          FX: 07 4745 9660
                                                     +506 2234 8434
        MOB: 04 2747 6500
                                     or Sandra Andraka, WWF Senior Program Manager,
Priority initiatives for Dhimurru remain:
- Access to reliable recurrent funding to enable regular helicopter charters
for the monitoring of this annual event.
- The continuation of a monitoring and information sharing network along       "Circle hooks are available in some countries and we are working
the northern Australian coastline, with particular focus on the involvement    with government and industry to made them available in countries
of indigenous communities.                                                     where they are not at this time. The question of price comes along
- Promote recognition of the international implications of marine debris,      with question of the material the hook is made of, the brand, but also
foster collaborative relationships with external agencies which can            the economic return (fish is often alive as are turtles when they
contribute to addressing the problem of marine debris at source and            retrieve the gear and thus better quality and price), thus we are
encourage inter-governmental dialogue with foreign governments                 seeking resources to undertake an economic assessment of fishing
responsible for fisheries affecting the North Australian coastline             trial trips." (Moise Mug, WWF)
- Seek opportunities for dialogue between traditional Yolngu owners of
coastal areas in NE Arnhem Land and Asian fishing communities from
which the marine debris may be originating.
                   more information to come                                          complete

Empowering the Manobos of Mt. Magdiwata Forest Reserve Area Wild Edible Plants: Promoting Dietary Diversity in Poor
to Effectively Manage their Ancestral Domain Claim, Philippines      Communities of Lebanon (WEP-DD)

                     Forest conservation                                            Wild Plants

                      Indigenous people                                          Chronic diseases

                           Training                                              Human Nutrition

                      Land management                                                  Diets

                        Land property                                          Indigenous knowledge
The Mt. Magdiwata Watershed Forest Reserve is an located in the             Due to the nutrition transition occurring in Lebanon, rates of
Municipality of San Francisco in the Eastern Mindanao Biodiversity          chronic disease, particularly overweight, obesity and
Corridor. A biodiversity inventory was conducted last 2002-2003 and         cardiovascular disease, have reached alarming levels. Yet
was identified 331 endemic plant species and some faunas, but still         this Mediterranean country enjoys a rich biodiversity, with
there are several destructive activities done in the watershed;             thousands of endemic species and an equally rich culinary
- Migrants and IPs get into timber poaching, small scale mining and         history, largely based on its local biodiversity, including wild
sand and gravel gathering due to lack of stable alternative.                edible plants. Knowledge regarding the identification,
- IPs are dependent on the extraction of forest products to support their   conservation, and use of wild plants is not being actively
daily needs because their farm lands are producing lesser yields.           disseminated, and the rapid urbanization in the region may
- IPs were driven out from their ancestral lands because of palm oil        be responsible for a break in the transmission of indigenous
and logging operations                                                      knowledge. In the Mediterranean region, 4% of wild plants
- The traditional knowledge of the IPs is diminishing which contributes     are edible but only 15 to 200 are currently being consumed
to natural resources conservation and appreciation.                         by humans. The loss of expertise in the sustainable use of
- Less recognition of the IPs in the local government as one of the         such natural resources contributes to their extinction, for
stakeholders of the watershed.                                              example by overharvesting of plants or by neglecting to
                                                                            preserve the environments in which they thrive.
When the Indigenous People’s Rights Act (IPRA) was institutionalized, This 2-year research and development project was initiated
the IPs organized themselves in an Oyay Masanloay Antod Ogow             in Lebanon in 2004 with the aim of i) improving the health
Bando Ugong (OMAUBAO) Tribal Organization to protect the natural         status of the rural and urban poor through the promotion of
resources of their ancestral domain. In 2005, an IP-based project was the preservation and sustainable use of wild plants
implemented by LEAF Foundation, Inc. (LFI). The objectives were to: using sustainable practices to reverse unhealthy reliance on
a) Assist the IP organization in formulating their organization          refined grains, especially among the urban and rural poor
management plan and Natural resource management plan.                    and ii) investigating policy options to improve dietary
b) Provide at least 5 management and technical trainings and             diversity with governments, non governmental
exposures to the IP leaders and members.                                 organizations, community based organizations based on
c) Promote active participation of the IP’s in the management of the     incorporation of wild edible plants in the diet.
watershed.                                                               The specific objectives were:
d) Support advocacy and follow-up activities on the application of the   - Development of an in depth understanding of the role of
OMAUBAO for the CADT (Claim for Ancestral Domain Claim).                 indigenous knowledge about wild plant identification,
The project was implemented utilizing the participatory processes in all collection, and usage
components and activities. Trainings/workshops on environmental para- - Assessment of nutritional and health status in the
legal, basic leadership, organizational management, and natural          surveyed communities
resource management were conducted.                                      - Undertake a program of promotion of wild plants to
                                                                         improve dietary diversity
                                                                         - Capacity development at the academic and local levels in
                                                                         the region
 Major outputs were the 2006-2009 Organizational Management Plan,           After several training workshops, four “Healthy Kitchens”
the Policies and Systems on Financial and Operations, the Natural           have been established in Batloun, Kuakh, Aarsal, Burj el
Resource Management Plan and the Documented Traditional                     Barajeni. Kitchens created new employment opportunities
Knowledge.                                                                  for women and supported the economy in the community in
The active participation of IP leaders and members to all project           addition to promoting use of wild edible plants. Focus group
activities such as planning, workshops, meetings and trainings was          meetings were done to collect information about indigenous
significantly noted. The IPs learned the process of lobbying their issues   knowledge regarding wild edible plants. The report entitled
and concerns to the Barangay government.                                    “Surveying and Monitoring of Wild Edible Plants ” was
The OMAUBAO officers had completed all the required documents to            published, and first used a qualitative method by collecting
be accredited by the NCIP, Barangay and Municipal Government. The           information from the rural people. Then, a quantitative
Management Framework was designed by the IP leaders in                      approach was taken and included data recording of site
accordance with the IPRA law and the ancestral laws. The ancestral          location, elevation, physiology, habitat, microenvironment,
domain was agreed to be overseen by the chieftain and it was                soil drainage, soil texture, stoniness, population density and
emphasized that Mt. Magdiwata should be free from any activities and        spatial distribution of target plant species. Accordingly, a
its cultural importance should be promoted.                                 database was initiated containing specifications of 46
                                                                            plants and 38 recipes.

 Area of forest, agricultural aquaculture ecosystems under sustainable       Health and well being of communities who directly depend
                               management                                             on local ecosystem goods and services

                                                                                         Biodiversity for food and medicine
Implementation: Livelihood Enhancement in Agro-forestry
Foundation (LEAF)
Partners: OMAUBAO (Manobo Tribal Clan Organization) ; National          Department of Nutrition and Food Science in partnership
Commission for Indigenous People (NCIP) Provincial Office ; Local       with the Initiative for Biodiversity in Arid Regions (IBSAR)
Government Unit                                                         and the Environment and Sustainable Development Unit
Technical support on watershed monitoring activities: San Francisco     (ESDU) at the American University of Beirut (AUB)
Water District

                           February 1 2005                                                        30-Nov-04

                          January 31 2006                                                      March 31,2007

                                 ph                                                                    lb
                Eastern Mindanao biodiversity corridor                                       Lebanon mountains
                                                                                               Scientific article
n_in_the_conservation_and_protection_of_mt_magdiwata_watershed_                         Project summary from IRDC

                        Final report

  Report: "Surveying and monitoring of wild edible plants"

   Related project: “Bio-prospecting in the Middle East
    Initiative ”. This project is run by IBSAR and aims at
identifying various plant uses as well as developing products
      attractive to biotechnology industries derived from
    indigenous Lebanese plants. See: Project summary

             Daily Star article, January 11 2007
                                                                                 Article in "Main Gate" fall 2005

                                                                   Related project: Aboriginal Bush Food project in Australia -
                                                                     This project investigates the environmental, economic,
                                                                  social and cultural sustainability of bush food harvesting and
                                                                  micro-enterprise in Central Australia. Its goal is to contribute
                                                                  to better income, employment and livelihoods for Aboriginal
                                                                    harvesters as part of the commercial bush food industry.

                                                                                        Malek Batal, PhD
                   ROBERTO A. DORMENDO                                      Associate Professor, Nutrition Program
Mailing address: 2nd Floor, Coop Tower, P.Lauron St., Mangagoy,       Faculté des sciences de la santé / Faculty of Health
                            Bislig City                                                     Sciences
                      8311 Surigao del Sur                                Université d'Ottawa / University of Ottawa
                    Tel: +63 (086) 853- 4315                                     43 Templeton bur./room 105
                    Fax: +63 (086) 628- 2124                                            Ottawa K1N 6X1
                    E-mail:                                       Tel: (613) 562-5800 # 8897
                                                                                     Fax: (613) 562-5632
Following the same objectives worked on, a set of activities
are suggested and planned to be implemented in the future.
Activities will target representative poor communities in
Lebanon. Phase II of the project can include a 1) community
development component that includes promotion of
sustainable livelihood, 2) a research component that links
ecosystem to health, 3) communication and publication
components that include dissemination of information. The
WEP-DD allowed a thorough investigation of the linkages
between the ecosystem, the diet, and health and pointed to
a number of problematic areas in the health of the
environment as well as that of the community and the
individuals. “We propose to address, and redress, these
problems through a phase II of the project with some
strategic shifts towards the priority areas.”
                        complete                                                      complete

Healthy Basket: A socially responsible business in organic   Wastewater Treatment using Water Lettuce for Reuse in Market
                 agriculture in Lebanon                                      Gardens, Rufisque (Sénégal)

               Socially responsible business                                       Urban agriculture

                    Organic agriculture                                              Waste water

                      Farm planning                                                 Aquatic plants

                 Agricultural cooperatives                                           Water reuse

                                                                                   Water treatment
Marketing agricultural products is one of the key problems facing
farmers in Lebanon.
The organic agriculture (OA) movement started in Lebanon in the
                                                                        The high urban growth rate in Dakar, Sénégal, has strained municipal water
late 90’s through private initiatives (environmental NGOs and
                                                                        supply and sanitation services. At the same time, the practice of urban
universities). In absence of any regulatory framework, those
                                                                        agriculture has spread to meet the growing demand for affordable food.
initiatives adopted the EU regulations on OA (EEC No. 2092/91)
                                                                        Unfortunately, the scarcity of fresh water has meant that urban gardeners are
and hired the services of European inspection and certification
                                                                        increasingly irrigating their plots with wastewater. This poses a threat to public
bodies. This was very important to protect the “correct” organic
                                                                        health as evidenced in the typhoid epidemic of 1987, when 400 residents
farmers and to provide the organic guarantees to the confused
                                                                        became seriously ill after consuming vegetables contaminated by raw
consumers at the time.
Healthy Basket started in 2001 as a Community-Supported
                                                                        Before the project, there was also illegal dumping of rubbish in the streets
Agriculture (CSA) programme launched by the American
                                                                        where the women poured their waste water as well.
University of Beirut to improve Lebanese farmers’ livelihood in rural
areas, preserving the environment and protecting human health by
adopting organic agriculture as a key strategy.
Fresh, certified organic fruits and vegetables sold by HB are
produced by small farmers throughout Lebanon, closely supervised
by two certification bodies: the Lebanese “LibanCert” and the
Swiss “Bio inspecta”.                                                    The overall objective is to examine the technical and socioeconomic feasibility
Since 2005, HB has become a socially responsible business                of using aquatic plants to treat wastewater for reuse in market gardens
under the form of a Limited Liability Company (LLB). Customers           in two peri-urban areas of Dakar.
who join the CSA program receive a weekly basket of fresh organic        Phase 1 (1992-2002): That project involved two aquatic treatment systems
fruits and vegetables of the season at their doorstep. In addition, HB   employing pistia stratiotes (water lettuce). Community members, primarily
operates a retail shop in Hamra and a weekly stand in Beirut’s           women, finance, operate and maintain the plant, and the fruit and vegetable
farmer’s market “Souk El Tayeb”.                                         plots. The youth and women were trained in network installation and
The business includes:                                                   maintenance, waste water management and treatment, as well as in
- collaborative farm planning                                            household waste composting and horticulture. They grouped together into
- technology transfer, training in farm management                       “GIE” units (economic interest groups) and local micro-enterprises.
- support of women’s processing activities                               Phase 2 (2002-2006): researchers work to optimize the existing treatment
- awareness campaigns on organic products, TV advertisements             system so that it meets the World Health Organization (WHO) standards for
- financial mechanism: no contracts, but customers pay in advance,       unrestricted wastewater reuse. They also test new aquatic plants in the
providing a sufficient incentive for farmers to complete production      existing systems, identify opportunities to upscale both the collection and
cycle                                                                    treatment components of the project, and gather data on the impact of urban
                                                                         agriculture and wastewater treatment on household incomes.
In 2002, EU organic certification for the 40 HB farmers is obtained,     1) With the participation of local residents, Enda-RUP built two wastewater
for the first time in Lebanon.                                           treatment stations under the PADE program, in 1994 and 1995.
Now, Healthy Basket is operating very efficiently and it has become
                                                                         Researchers found that some vegetables irrigated with treated wastewater
a fully sustainable business promoting trade locally. It supports the
                                                                         produced higher yields, compared to plants irrigated with tap water and fed
livelihoods of nearly 40 small and medium scale producers who
                                                                         fertilizers. For example, cabbages watered with treated wastewater are
have recently converted to organic farming, and employs 4 staff. It
                                                                         yielding 47.8 tons a year per hectare, compared with 32.1 tons a year per
focuses on the national market rather than on exports and is
                                                                         hectare in fields where tap water and fertilizers are used, according to Enda-
estimated to constitute 40-50% of the Lebanese organic market.
                                                                         RUP. Moreover, research has shown that malaria-carrying mosquitoes cannot
HB also helps farmers apply for funding from NGOs for individual or
                                                                         breed in the ponds where water is treated.
collective projects. Recently, HB was able to help 6 olive oil
                                                                         In Castor, the water lettuce is thriving and the community is growing and
producers secure $10,000 from the US-based NGO SEAL (Socio-
                                                                         selling hot red peppers, corn, zucchini, okra, onions and fruits such as
Economic Action for Lebanon) to create a new brand of organic
                                                                         bananas, apples, and papayas on-site.
olive oil called “Les Artisans de l’Olivier”.
                                                                         Malaria, cholera, and diarrhoea, which in the past were frequent in children,
HB also helped the women-owned company “Earth and co” to
                                                                         have practically disappeared. Women’s household chores were considerably
improve their production and quality and obtain organic certification,
which has resulted in improving their ability to export to the Gulf
countries. Today, 30% of the total sales of HB are processed
products manufactured by women.

      Proportion of products derived from sustainable sources                                 Water quality of aquatic ecosystems

                                                                         Health and well being of communities who directly depend on local ecosystem
     Indicator of access and benefit sharing (to be developed)
                                                                                                     goods and services

                                                                                               Biodiversity for food and medicine
                                                                    Environmental Development Action in the Third World (ENDA Tiers Monde)
Health Basket is a Limitied Liability Company owned by the          with support of International Development Research Center (IDRC), in
American University of Beirout                                      partnership with the town hall in Rufisque, the Senegalese environmental
                                                                    ministry and the district administration of the Castor Arafat neighbourhood.

                               2001                                                                      1992

                             ongoing                                                                   ongoing

                                lb                                                                        sn

   “Business for the poor: Healthy Basket, a socially responsible
                                                                    IDRC project overview, phase 1:
  company trading in organic produce in Lebanon and the Middle
            East” by Rami Zurayk and Rania Toumal

                                                                    IDRC project completion report, phase 1:
       HB website:
            Webpage from American University of Beirut:                IDRC project overview, phase 2:                                    1-IDRC_ADM_INFO.html

                                                                       “Low Cost Sanitation - A Project that Needs Refreshing ” , by Madieng Seck*
                                                                                          in S-dev Geneva 2005: http://www.s-

                                                                        “Liquid manna? Treating Urban Wastewater for local gardening”, Coumba
                                                                                                Sylla, AFP, Dakar, 2004

Related project: “Holistic landscaping project ” in Deir Nbouh
village, Lebanon. This project run by IBSAR aims at promoting a
sustainable utilization of regional biodiversity through supporting
essential oil production from native Lebanese plants, goats raising,
honey beekeeping and organic faring. Contact: Arbi J. Sarkissian,
IBSAR - Outreach Project Manager, See:
Project summary or:
                                                                            Malick Gaye
Rami Zurayk, Professor of Land and Water Resources
                                                     ENDA, Relais pour le developpement urbain participle (RUP)
     Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences
                                                                    Rue Félix Eboué x Faidherbe
           American University of Beirut
                                                              B.P. 27 083 Malick SY, Dakar - Sénégal
                                                         Tél.: (221)33 822 09 42 / Fax: (221) 33 821 41 66
                   +961 3 733227
                                                                       E-mail :
                                                                      Web :
At the 1996 Habitat Summit in Istanbul, UN-Habitat recognized the project as
a model for other African nations. In 1998 Six years ago, the “Femmes
Assainissement” group won the Head of State’s Grand Prize which rewards
women’s groups in Dakar.
    Progress report to come in 2009                    Systematization document to come

  Management of Natural Resources in     SME “Jambi Kiwa” Association of Medicinal Plant producers in
the Coastal Zone of Soc Trang Province                 Chimborazo Province, Ecuador

              Mangroves                                            Biotrade

            Climate change                                 Small alternative business

              Typhoons                                     Business and Biodiversity

             Tree planting                                     Medicinal Plants

                                                                            Migration from rural to urban areas has become widespread in Ecuador
                                                                            and can be largely attributed to soil deterioration and decreased crop
                                                                            productivity. In most cases, land degradation has been a result of non-
About 74 percent of Vietnam's 80 million people live in the low-lying
                                                                            sustainable practices, such as intensive production processes and
coastal areas potentially at risk from rising sea.
                                                                            excessive use of agrochemicals. Repercussions on rural family incomes
In case of unpredictable storms, forests can reduce the size and the
                                                                            have been significant, forcing them to search for new income-earning
power of waves. But thousands of hectares of mangrove forest were lost
                                                                            activities, mainly in urban areas.
to shrimp farming in the 1980s and 1990s, and soil erosion is important.
                                                                            The sustainable production of biodiversity derived products is therefore an
The main environmental concerns include the ecological consequences
                                                                            opportunity for rural communities as well as an important development
of conversion of natural ecosystems, particularly mangroves, for
                                                                            option for biodiversity-rich countries like Ecuador.
construction of shrimp ponds, flooding and salination of groundwater and
                                                                            Jambi Kiwa started in 1998 as a pilot project of 20 women that
agricultural land, use of fish meal in shrimp diets, pollution of coastal
                                                                            transformed medicinal and aromatic plants then commercialized them at
waters from pond effluents, and biodiversity issues arising from collection
                                                                            the local/national market. By 2001, the project evolved into a community-
of wild brood and seed.
                                                                            run SME named Jambi Kiwa, aiming to improve the quality of life of its
                                                                            members by increasing their income through better production of
                                                                            traditional crops; to revalue their traditional knowledge on natural medicine
                                                                            and avoid the destruction of their environment.
The objective for the first phase (2007-2010) is to promote co-             Jambi Kiwa uses more than 64 plants – some of them from degraded
management of the coastal zone between resource users (local                ecosystems – to produce raw materials used for national agroindustries
communities, shrimp farmers) and local, district and provincial             and finished products, including 44 plants.
authorities. The project provides methodological, sectoral and financial    The system includes good practices such as organic cultivation,
assistance for the establishment of a multi-stakeholder and institutional   collection and reforestation with native plants, prevention of forest
setup at provincial, district and commune level. These committees,          burning, agro-forestry management plans at individual property
working groups and fora will improve integrated land and resource-use       level, seeds banks, construction of terraces, and penalizes those who
planning, clarify institutional responsibilities, and test and implement    refuse to comply.
participatory co-management approaches:                                     A three years strategy was initiated in 2005-2008 by PNBSE (Programa
- Co-management regulations and mechanisms for the protection and           Nacional de Biocomercio Sostenible Ecuador with 6 objectives:
sustainable use of the coastal zone.                                        1) a training program: native plants production, management, good
- Techniques for effective management and rehabilitation of mangrove        agricultural practices
forests.                                                                    2) a products’ diversification program: obtain organic certification, improve
- Conservation objectives integrated in village development and land use    advertisement
planning.                                                                   3) a communication program
- Participatory environmental impact monitoring system.                     4) a financial assistance program
- Concept for the sustainable financing of ecosystem services provided      5) a coordination and monitoring program
by coastal wetlands.                                                        6) a systematization program
                                                                        This SME involves more than 632 families in 62 communities of the
                                                                        Chimborazo province. Eighty percent of its members are women between
                                                                        the ages of 20 and 50 years with high levels of illiteracy and 75 percents of
                                                                        members are indigenous Puruha.
                                                                         Volumes of raw material distributed have increased and organic
                                                                        certification was obtained. Jambi Kiwa products are now distributed in
                                                                        the main national supermarkets and in France and Canada. The SME has
                                                                        9 stable clients, especially phytopharmaceutical and tea companies.
                                                                        Family income from plant production varies according to the size of their
                                                                        lands, running from US$10 to US$50 monthly for lands ranging in size
                                                                        from 100 m2 to 1000 m2. The family incomes have globally been
                                                                        increased by 25%.
                                                                        Jambi Kiwa have also achieved healthier products and plantations: low
                                                                        pollution concentration in the soil by avoiding the use of pesticides,
                                                                        fertilizers or chemicals; lands and crops under sustainable management
                                                                        (agroforestry systems), which is being profitable in economic and
                                                                        environmental terms

Area of forest, agricultural aquaculture ecosystems under sustainable     Area of forest, agricultural aquaculture ecosystems under sustainable
                              management                                                                management

   Trends in extent of selected biomes, ecosystems, and habitats                             Biodiversity for food and medicine

                                                                            Health and well being of communities who directly depend on local
                                                                                             ecosystem goods and services
GTZ (German Development Agency) in cooperation with the International SME Jambi Kiwa with support of GTZ-Germany, Comart Foudation of
Center for Environmental Management                                   Canada, CORPEI, Sustainable Biotrade Initiative-Ecuador

                              Mar-07                                                                 2005

                              ongoing                                                               ongoing

                                 vn                                                                   ec
                        Soc Trang Province                                                   Chimborazo Province

                        Project flyer, page 1                                            Project summary (in spanish)

                        Project flyer, page 2                                        Project presentation (see pages 17-18)
"Vietnam: Mangrove project to protect residents from storm surges ”,         Report “Trade and sustainable land management in drylands”,
               September 17 2008, IRIN News Asia:                        International Center on Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD),                                      August 2007 (see page 75)

                                                                                       Case study by UNCTAD (see pages 2-3)

                                                                                             Systematizacion Jambi Kiwa

                                                                       Related document: Study published by Biotrade Initiative UNCTAD,
                                                                       "Primeras experiencias en el apoyo a cadenas de valor de productos de
                                                                       Biocomercio". This document contains several related case studies about
                                                                       incentive measures and private sector involvement.
           Dr Klaus Schmitt, Chief Technical Advisor               Nancy Sanchez, Analista del Programa Nacional Biocomercio Sostenible
Management of Natural Resources in the Coastal Zone of Soc Trang                                 Ecuador
                           Province                                                              CORPEI
         Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH                                           Av. De las Américas # 406
       164 Tran Hung Street, Soc Trang Town, Vietnam                       Centro de Convenciones de Guayaquil Simón Bolívar
                       T + 84 79 622165                                                    Guayaquil, Ecuador
                      M + 84 91 4645051                                              Tel: +593 4 228 7123 ext. 277
                       F + 84 79 622125                                                   Fax: +539 4 229 2910
A progress report report will be available in 2009 => contact Klauss
Schmitt. The project will also: - draft a regulatory framework, principles
and guidelines for sustainable management and utilisation of coastal
- raise awareness about environmental issues for local communities and
authorities, and
- identify opportunities for partnerships with the private sector, to create
income for local communities as part of aquatic value chains.

Namibia Crane Action Plan


    birds conservation

   endangered species
Namibia boasts three of the world's fifteen crane species:
- The Blue Crane which is rated as globally Vulnerable, but Critically
Endangered and possibly declining in Namibia; numbers are 20 000
overall, with 60 (maximum) in Namibia.
- The Wattled Crane which is also Critically Endangered and the global
population is stable; numbers are 8 000 overall, with 200 in Namibia.
- The Grey Crowned Crane which is Near Threatened and the world
population is stable/ declining; numbers are 58 000 - 77 000 overall (8 000 -
12 000 in southern Africa and 50 000 - 65 000 in East Africa), with less
than 50 in Namibia.
The main threats are: hunting and trapping, water pollution, deforestation,
burning and overgrazing that destroy the habitat, and traditional beliefs
(owls being bad luck).
Due to growing concerns regarding the continued survival of cranes, the
Namibia Crane Working Group (NCWG) was established at a workshop
in Etosha in May 2004 and a Namibia Crane Action Plan was drawn up in
consultation with representatives from five crane areas, namely Etosha,
North Central, Kavango, Caprivi and Bushmanland.
The Namibia Crane Action Plan therefore has the following objectives,
namely to:
1. Co-ordinate conservation effort and promote networking.
2. Obtain information and data: crane counts, local cranes awareness
3. Promote conservation awareness/education: regular newsletter, events
4. Conserve crane populations and habitats.
5. Promote the economic value of cranes and their habitats.
6. Build capacity: field guide training is in progress and the group has
been in¬volved in its exciting "Children in the Wilderness" programme.
7. Develop area-based crane management strategies: policy changes,
incentives for conservation
A Namibia Blue Crane Project was initiated in March 2006, as part of the
Namibia Crane Action Plan
In April 2006 a survey of Blue Cranes at Etosha National Park yielded a
good count, namely minimum of 60 adults plus 6 juveniles compared
to the previous estimate of 60 (49 adults and 11 juveniles) in 1996.
But as conditions became progressively drier, crane numbers dropped and
by September 2007, no cranes were recorded within the Park, although
around 30 were reported in East Caprivi (some 900 km to the east). An
aerial survey over parts of southern Angola in September 2007 also
yielded no sightings of Blue Cranes, but around 25 individuals at Lake
Despite the varying numbers of adult birds, successful breeding is
continuing with at least seven chicks produced in 2006, only one
chick (recorded) in 2007 and at least eight chicks in 2008.
An effective communication system has been set up, supported by regular
newsletters. Much activity has centred on gathering information and data,
and promoting conservation awareness. A crane data recording sheet has
been implemented. Red Data Book and popular species accounts have
been compiled for cranes.

        Trends in abundance and distribution of selected species

  Area of forest, agricultural aquaculture ecosystems under sustainable
Implementation: Namibia Crane Working Group
Partners: Ministry of Wildlife and Tourism (MET) and the African Wattled
Crane Programme of the International Crane Foundation (AWAC)
Funding: Namibia Nature Foundation and SIDA through the Swedish




      Project's webpage:

                   Article on Crane Surveys, April 2006
Article published in Africa, Birds and Birding August/September 2006

     NCWG report on an annual meeting and workshop, 2005

             Media release on Blue Cranes, April 2008
           Dr. Mike & Ann Scott
Namibia Crane Working Group co-ordinators
            Tel: (064) 40-4866
            Cell: 081-284-5130
The nest steps will be:
- Focus on gathering information on cranes and continue develop people’s
awareness: Further crane surveys are planned for the coming year.
Information on cranes will be distributed more widely, using existing
channels where possible, and through a website. Public involvement will
be promoted, e.g. in the form of "crane custodian" certificates. Further
guide training will form part of the development of a crane/wetland-based
tourist route. A crane resource book and poster are being developed.
Youth nature clubs are being encouraged.
- Policy changes: “this is something we can start looking at if necessary
when we start with the drafting of a species management plan for the Blue
Crane in Namibia, but that will still take a while ” (Dr Ann Scott).
- Tourism: “we are trying to promote the economic value of birds through
the development of sustainable, community-based tourism (mainly the
training of guides and the development of bird-based tourism routes) ”

Swazi Secrets: Improving primary producers incomes through organic
                 certification of Marula oil, Swaziland

                        Organic certification

                       Sustainable business

                             Fair Trade

                         kernels harvesting
Poverty is still widespread in Swaziland but so too is natural woodland, retaining a
marvellous biodiversity of indigenous plants and trees. As elsewhere in the world,
 that biodiversity is under threat: invasive alien species, overgrazing and erosion,
 cutting down of woodlands, use of chemicals and pesticides. Such has been the
  backdrop for the formation of Swazi Indigenous Products (SIP) in 2004 as a
   community owned, not for profit Company set up to empower rural Swazi
 women through the development and commercialization of Marula kernels. The
  primary purpose of the project has always been rural income generation but
  environmental sustainability and protection of biodiversity have always been
                         fundamental planks in the strategy.
SIP started trading in July 2005, operating from a factory in Mpaka in the heart of
the Swazi Low Veld. It currently employs 17 permanent staff. It purchases seed
kernels from over 2,000 rural Swazi women, which it processes into natural oils.
1) Rural income generation: SIP raw material suppliers are currently individual
producers who are currently forming into Member Groups which will own the
Company. It is being done through having suppliers of Marula kernels voluntarily
becoming members of the company by paying a membership fees which entitles
them to a higher price for their kernels. To qualify as organic suppliers, individual
harvesters must attend the company’s organic training programme and then
comply with the rules for organic supply.
2) Environmental sustainability: Organic suppliers are contractually required to
plant at least one tree annually. Organic certification also involve imparting
extensive education to suppliers about what they put on their fields.
1) Through support from the Natural Futures Programme grant, SIP has gained
organic certification for its Marula oil in 2007, becoming the first Swazi organisation
to achieve this status. The organic certification was awarded by Ecocert and
allows the Company to secure a 50% price premium on bulk oil sales to Europe.
420 organic suppliers are registered by the end of August 2008, 122 in January
2007. 1,400 kg of organic kernels purchased during the first year of organic
certification (although the target was 3 metric tonnes of organic kernels for 2007).
The amount of sales was R839,708 in 2007 and should reach R1.6m in 2008.
Over E360,000 were paid directly to rural harvesters in 2006.
2) If SIP is purchasing up to 30 tonnes of kernels per year, it is taking only 10% of
kernels of the harvested trees, i.e. all seeds from 90% of the trees in the
lowveld remain in the natural cycle. The project has stimulated local chiefs to
emphasize that marula trees should be protected. The organic certification has
had some impact among organic suppliers and created a higher level of
awareness about what fertilizers and pesticides they use.

              Proportion of products derived from sustainable sources

             Indicator of access and benefit sharing (to be developed)

  Health and well being of communities who directly depend on local ecosystem
                              goods and services
Swazi Indigenous Products (SIP)
Funding: Natural Futures Programme (implemented by IUCN-SA and Phyto-Trade
Africa), WK Kellog Foundation
Additional support: Swaziland Government




             Project summary by PhytoTrade Africa, August 2007

      Swazi Secrets website:
SIP conclusions on the harvesting of sustainable volumes

             self assessment report to IFAT

Related project: "Tawaya - Murmuru butter and soaps"
John Pearce, Executive Director
  Swazi Indigenous Products
       Mpaka, Swaziland
    Tel: (+268) 3333281/2
P O Box 163, Mpaka, Swaziland
     Fax: (+268) 333 3283
Awards: 2006 Winner of The PhytoTrade Africa Ubuntu Natural Award for
outstanding achievement in Fair Trade natural products.
Future developments: - SIP is a member of IFAT (International Fair Trade
Asoociations) and is awaiting confirmation of fully registered membership, having
conducted a self assessment two months ago.
- In order to ensure that the members/suppliers continue to enjoy a plentiful long-
term supply of fruits and kernel, SIP will attempt to conduct tree counting in
supplier communities at regular intervals, in order to monitor for any change in
inventory that may result from harvesting.
- The development of an Environmental Charter is scheduled to be completed by
March 2009.
- SIP is engaged in debate with the Ministry of Agriculture over plans to eradicate
alien invasive species – in particular, we are lobbying for this to be done where
possible without the use of pesticides that will adversely affect indigenous species.
        complete                           complete

Proyecto Titi in Columbia   Painted dogs Conservation in Zimbabwe

   Endangered species                Endangered species

       Rainforest                    Wildlife conservation

        Pet trade                       Illegal poaching

     Forest corridors               Environmental education

                                         Local artwork
                                                                            The painted dog, or African wild dog, was once common in Africa with
                                                                            over 500,000 in 39 countries. The effects of human encroachment
The cotton-top tamarin is endemic to Colombia and found only in the         have drastically reduced their range and numbers. Currently, an
country’s northwest region. It is estimated that only 6,000 individuals     estimated 3,000 dogs remain, restricted to four southern African
remain. The species was declared endangered in 1973 following the           countries: Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Botswana and South Africa. While
exportation of 20,000 – 40,000 tamarins to the United States for use in     there is no record of a painted dog ever attacking a human being,
biomedical research. These close relatives of human beings were found people remain the greatest threat to the dog's survival.
to spontaneously develop colonic adenocarcinoma (a cancer of the colon). Major threats to painted dogs in Zimbabwe include snares, shooting
Today the primary threat to the survival of the cotton-top tamarin is       and poisoning (for traditional medicine and fear of livestock predation)
destruction of its rainforest habitat for agriculture, fuel, and housing. and road kills.
An astonishing 98% of its original habitat has been lost in the last seven
years. Only 7,600 acres of forest suitable for cotton-top tamarins remain.
The capture of individual monkeys for the pet trade also endangers the
species. Proyecto Titi is dedicated to increasing understanding and respect
for the tamarin and fostering community involvement in conservation.
                                                                            The Painted Dog Conservation Organisation’s mission is to conserve
                                                                            and increase the range and numbers of the painted dog (Lycaon
                                                                            pictus) both in Zimbabwe and elsewhere in Africa by providing
Proyecto Tití was established in 1985 to develop a long-term conservation conservation tools and education material that can be used to protect
program to insure the survival of cotton-top tamarins. It combines:         this highly endangered carnivore. The project has 5 components:
- field research: Tamarins are monitored by radio telemetry.                1- Research: community-based monitoring, radio collars
- forest conservation: PT is working to purchase land that contains the     2- Direct conservation of the dogs: anti-poaching units, road signs,
last remaining contiguous forest suitable for cotton-top survival. PT also  injured dogs rehabilitation
works closely with local communities: Farmers set aside sections of their   3- Conservation education: Community Outreach Programme in local
land to plant young trees. These tracts of new forest also serve as         schools and communities
important travel corridors for the tamarins. The introduction of “clay      4- Capacity building for the future: training ; Bush Camp free of charge
bindes” in local communities reduces the amount of firewood required for for schoolchildren.
cooking (clay bindes burn 2/3 less wood per day).                           5 - Community development: Community members are employed
- education initiatives and community programs: The eco-mochila project in anti-poaching units to clear snares which are then turned into
is a community-led enterprise. Local women learn how to transform           artwork by local artisans and sold to generate income for
discarded plastic into colorfully designed, hand-knit mochilas and hats.    communities.
Children from the communities collect the bags, which are carefully cleaned PDC also offers HIV-AIDS testing and treatment to conservation
before they are crocheted into attractive accessories. The mochilas are     workers and is helping establish HIV programs in some of the
sold throughout Colombia and internationally.                               country's most desperate communities.
A census was conducted in 2005-2006 examining the status of the wild            Zimbabwe's wild dog population has increased from 400 to 700
population of cotton-top tamarins. The results of the census in addition to     individuals since the project's inception.
the challenges with habitat destruction, resulted in the IUCN Primate           PDC has placed road signs warning “painted dog crossing” at key
Specialist Group recommending the classification of cotton-top                  traffic locations, which together with the reflective collars have
tamarins be changed to Critically Endangered in 2008.                           resulted in a 50% reduction of road kills.The anti poaching units
Significant advances have been made in developing self-sustaining captive       provide a blanket of protection over a region of approximately 1,600
breeding populations in both laboratories and zoos. Through the efforts of      square kilometres and have collected over 15,000 wire snares since
the American Zoo and Aquarium Association Species Survival Plan more            they were first deployed in August 2001. In 2007 five orphaned dogs
than 300 cotton-top tamarins are cooperatively managed in more than 80          were released following rehabilitation.
U.S. zoos.                                                                      The year 2007 saw the completion of PDC's Education Complex
Proyecto Titi has been actively involved in studying wild cotton-top tamarins   facilities (the culmination of five years of work), which now includes a
for many years, and released a lot of publications on the behavior,             painted dog viewing platform and a Visitors Center with a world class
reproductive patterns, and parental care strategies of this primate.            Interpretive Hall. The snare wire art is promoted through the
The women’s artisan group, ASOARTESANAS, have recycled more than                Iganyana Arts Center, founded by PDC in 2003. Artisans now produce
1.5 million plastic bags.Until 2008, Proyecto Titi has provided training to     over 70 products.
more than 300 women.                                                            PDC employs 67 local staff.

                  Change in status of threatened species                              Trends in abundance and distribution of selected species

                                                                                 Health and well being of communities who directly depend on local
                Connectivity - fragmentation of ecosystems
                                                                                                  ecosystem goods and services

          Proportion of products derived from sustainable sources

    Health and well being of communities who directly depend on local
                     ecosystem goods and services

         Indicator of access and benefit sharing (to be developed)
Implementation: Proyecto Titi, Inc. (non-profit organization)
Partners: CARDIQUE (Corporación Autónoma Regional del Canal del
                                                                           Painted Dog Conservation (PDC), supported by Wildlife Conservation
Dique) ; Disney’s Animal Kingdom; Wildlife Conservation Network (WCN);
                                                                           Network (WCN)
Zoologico de Barranquilla


                                 ongoing                                                                  ongoing

                                    co                                                                       zw
                                                                                                    Hwange National Park

                                                                               An interview with Peter Blinston of Painted Dog Conservation,
    Project website:
                                                                                 , September 29 2008

                              WCN webpage:                                                             WCN webpage:
               Last developments in Newsletter, July 2008                            Project website:

Article published in "OnEarth", 2007:               Article published on September 18, 2008:

           Article published in El Tiempo columbian newspaper

           Article on endangered primates in Columbian forests:
                                                                               Related project: African Wild Dogs Release in Northern Tuli Game
                                 Painted Dog Conservation
                                   Hwange National Park
                                    Post Office Box 72        Dete, Zimbabwe
                                  Peter Blinston, manager
Proyecto Tití has been working closely with The Nature Conservancy and
local conservation agencies to establish a protected area for cotton-top
Based on the census results and visits to the sites identified as priority area
for cotton-top tamarin conservation, TNC is developing a plan to
conserve some of the last remaining dry tropical forests in the region.
In collaboration with several local agencies, TNC is hoping to purchase
approximately 1,000 hectares of forested land or land that can be
recuperated for wildlife conservation efforts.
     Report on tourism and biodiversity to come                            complete

Community Tourism in Andaman Islands: Andaman
                                                  Alas de Columbia : native butterflies breeding in Columbia

                    Ecotourism                                     Business and Biodiversity

                      Islands                                              Biotrade

                     Orchids                                          Butterflies breeding

               Waste management                                          Illegal Trade
Since rebuilding their lives after the 2004 tsunami, some villagers
                                                                          Butterflies are biodiversity indicators, and the areas were the
in Ban Talae Nok, a village of 67 homes situated in between the
                                                                          company works host a broad variety of species: El Arenillo
coral reefs and dense rainforests of Southern Thailand, are using
                                                                          counts almost 300 species, 220 classified in a taxonomy, and
tourism as a tool for sustainable development. Community
                                                                          100 studied in their complete life cycles. Rio Bravo, Darien,
members offer homestays, eco-tours and other activities —
                                                                          which counts a superior number of species though still
allowing visitors to participate in the traditional way of life that so
                                                                          undetermined, is on of the most famous regions of the country
often eludes the casual tourist. Their work has been assisted by
                                                                          for its fauna and flora diversity.
Andaman Discoveries, a social enterprise founded in 2006 that
                                                                          Columbia is well-known around the world for its illegal trade of
works as part of the North Andaman Community Tourism Network.
                                                                          butterflies. Legal trade thus appears to be the best
Under the sponsorship of the International Union for Conservation
                                                                          alternative to value Columbian species.
of Nature (IUCN), these two groups are serving as a bridge
between local villages and the private sector.
The project’s objectives are:                                         The Butterfly Farm, located southwest of Colombia in the
- Initial engagement with community tourism stakeholders and          Andean Tropical Woodland Zone has started in 2001 as a
synthesis of baseline information, through organization of meetings   unique non-traditional export company. Its initial goals are: a) to
with local NGOs, and workshops.                                       breed and export butterflies b) to foster the understanding
- Relationship-building between stakeholders leading to mutual        of butterflies and to increase awareness of the natural
benefit, and ongoing cooperation. The methods used were the           habitat in which butterflies thrive.
organization of tours, village-to-village group tours.                The centre is home to over 350 butterflies of 30 different
- Increased promotion capacity for community tourism: production      species. The company has the environmental license to export
of communication material, promotional trip leading to contract       butterflies issued by the proper authorities of the country.
rates between five communities and nine tour operators.               The company works with 16 families from the area. In October
The majority of guests’ fees go directly to villagers and 20% of      2003 it began to work with the Indian community Cristal Chami
in-village costs is donated to the community fund, which              from Cauca Valley who was used to extract illegally the exotic
finances community-led projects including waste                       insects to sell them to foreign people who used to come to
management, mangrove conservation, adult education and                Colombia to smuggle this insects and sell them for high prices
children’s activities. Villagers decide on how they use the           abroad paying really few to the indigenous.
community fund.
                                                                             An Environmental Law in Colombia asks to the Company to
In a survey in June 2007, over 90% of 176 villagers responded that
                                                                           release 5% of butterflies monthly produced and in addition, they
tourism has positively impacted on their community. Guests in
                                                                           have to plant a quota of trees and host plants for butterflies all
village participating in daily activities and local tours demonstrate to
                                                                           around in forest and rivers. In consequence, butterfly population
villagers the value of their culture. Since late 2006 when AD
                                                                           has increase last years in the area even if they do not have
developed from NATR they have had approximately 250 visitors,
                                                                           statistics or numbers about. All the raised species come from the
generated nearly $19,800 USD direct income to villagers and
                                                                           areas of primary and secondary forests located in the breeding
contributed $3,500 USD to the community fund to support
                                                                           farm’s zone of influence, thereby avoiding the introduction of
village-wide projects. The waste management programs have
                                                                           species from other habitats. The national market is centered in
collected and sold several thousand kg of litter and recyclables,
                                                                           the city of Cali and its surrounding communities. The
reducing the amount of glass and metal going into landfills.
                                                                           merchandise is also sold in an ecological store in Bogota.
Proceeds fund litter awareness programs. The orchid
                                                                           Right now Alas de Columbia works with 16 families from the
conservation project has placed several hundred orchids in the
                                                                           mountains. There are 12 families living with incomes of butterfly
surrounding forest. Our efforts in capacity building lead to one
                                                                           farming and other 4 families are being trained in the activity and
village, Ban Talae Nok, to be awarded approximately $7,000 USD
                                                                           are having first results and will be receiving incomes in one or
by the Thai government for tourism promotion in July 2007.
                                                                           two months.

Health and well being of communities who directly depend on local
                 ecosystem goods and services

     Indicator of access and benefit sharing (to be developed)                 Indicator of access and benefit sharing (to be developed)

     Trends in abundance and distribution of selected species

              Ecological footprint and related concepts
Implementation: Andaman Discoveries; North Andaman         Funding: “Acción Social”, a Columbian government programme
Community Tourism Network (NACTN); North Andaman Tsunami   Support: Alexander von Humboldt Institute Sustainable Biotrade
Relief (NATR)                                              Programme
Funding: Ecosystem Grants Programme (EGP) from the IUCN    Corporation del Valle del Canca (CVC)
National Committee of the Netherlands; Thai Government     Smurfit Cartón Foundation of Colombia which published a
                                                           children' story about butterflies


                         ongoing                                                      ongoing

                            th                                                           co
                     Andaman islands                                               Cauca Valley

                       Draft report                                     Biotrade brochure (see pages 15-16)

                                                                              Alas de Columbia website:
                      News release
                Andaman Discoveries' website:

           Partnership Andaman Discoveries/ NATR:

           Interview of Kelly May, Co. Director of AD:
                                                      Mrs. Vanessa Wilches Restrepo
             Bodhi Garrett                        E-mail:
            Lead Consultant                                 Directora Comercial
North Andaman Community Tourism Network        ALAS DE COLOMBIA, mariposas nativas Ltda.
                        Calle 26 Norte # 2BN - 130 Cali - Colombia
                                          Tel: 57-2-6605066 Fax: 57-2-6605096 Cel: 310 3884534
                                                                   Awards: In 2002 the Company won the First Prize in the
In recognition of their unique approach, Andaman Discoveries
                                                                   Colombian Biotrade Contest in the Small Business category,
recently received a 2008 SEED Award for Entrepreneurship in
                                                                   Andean Development Corporation – Alexander von Humboldt
Sustainable Development. Chosen from close to 400 applications
from over 100 countries worldwide, Andaman Discoveries will use
the Award to expand its partnerships with the local Community
                                                                   Future developments: “Right now there we are starting a
Tourism Network. AD won the 2007 Virgin Holidays Responsible
                                                                   research project with some students of biology who will
Tourism Award for Preservation of Cultural Heritage and we were
                                                                   determinate the increase in butterfly population in the area
the finalist of the 2007 Wild Asia Responsible Tourism Award.
                                                                   of our butterfly farm and here in Cali where we sell butterflies to
AD is preparing a report for IUCN on tourism and biodiversity =>
                                                                   release in weddings and celebrations ”
contact Bodi Garrett

EHS projects with ALCAN
Business and biodiversity

  Invasive alien species


The Yellow Crazy ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) is recognised by the Global Invasive
Species Programme as one of the world's worst invaders. It has infested more
than 350 hectares over a 25,000 km2 area in remote north-east Arnhem
Land, and represents a major environmental and economic threat to northern
The density of foraging worker ants in supercolonies is amazing, reaching around
1000 per square metre or 79 million per hectare of bush.
The ants have a significant impact on biodiversity, and seriously disrupted
ecological processes. They can cause outbreaks of sap-sucking insects, which in
turn are able to kill vegetation.
Alcan is currently supporting a three-year program to control or eradicate Crazy
Ants from the Gove Peninsula in order to minimize the economic and
environmental impacts of this infestation.
The Yellow Crazy Ant management project is led jointly by the Commonwealth
Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) and Dhimurru Land
Management Aboriginal Corporation, along with support and funding from several
government and non-government organizations. Alcan bought the majority of the
ant bait and provided the funding for the wages of two Indigenous staff for a 12-
month period. Initial work has concentrated on areas where Crazy Ants and
people are interacting in order to prevent the spread of the ant to new locations. In
2005, AU$500,000 was allocated to ensure the continuation of the project. Beyond
eradication, this program also incorporates a monitoring program designed to
ensure that re-infestation does not occur. "Specifically for treatments, we use
Presto (fishmeal bait matrix with .01% fipronil) at the rate of 10 kg/ha dispersed by
helicopter. We are unable to detect any non-target impacts 12 months after
treatment, rather a rapid recovery of the native fauna. There are large impacts
imposed by A. gracilipes instead."
To date, over 10,000 locations have been inspected for the presence of
Yellow Crazy Ants, detecting approximately 100 infestations. Sixty-eight (68)
sites with a combined area of 1,200 hectares have been treated, including all
places where the ant and people are known to coexist. Of the sites inspected,
almost 100% eradication was achieved in the savanna sites, using the single
treatment, with minimal impact on native species. It is believed that further spread
of the ant has been stopped. Ongoing activities include the identification and
treatment of remaining infestations, followed by the measurement of eradication
success. "Eradication success is measured by the use of attractive cat food lures
placed at a density of approximately one per 2 square metres (we have used over
500,000 lures to date). We have 20 infestations declared eradicated. Luring is
conducted no less than 12 months post-treatment to ensure ease of finding (any)
persisting populations ."

                         Trends in invasive alien species

  Health and well being of communities who directly depend on local ecosystem
                              goods and services
Implementation: Dhimurru Aboriginal Land Management Corporation; local
Aboriginal communities; the Northern Territory Government; the Northern Land
Council; the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
Funding: the Natural Heritage Trust and the Indigenous Land Corporation; ALCAN-




                               Project summary

                               Media release, 2004:
       CSIRO's website:

 Yellow Crazy Ant management - document compiled by the IUCN SSC Invasive
                      Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

“Tailing Reservoir revegetation project ” in Brazil: Tailings ponds are reservoirs
constructed in mined-out areas where bauxite residue is thickened with no
addition of chemical products. After drainage, the now-empty reservoirs are
prepared for planting, using seeds of native species.
With an average annual investment of US$2.6 million, the project involves
technological development and monitoring of the pond revegetation. The return of
the tailings to the mined-out area avoids the use of new areas for its storage,
avoiding the deforestation of about 1,200 hectares of Amazon forest during
the operation's life span.
                 Ms Barbara McKaige
             Research Support Manager
           CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems
                Phone: 61 8 8944 8411
              Alt Phone: 61 8 8944 8400
                  Fax: 61 8 8944 8444
or CSIRO’s Yellow crazy ant research, Dr Ben Hoffmann
" We have treated approximately 70 sites (infestations) covering approximately
1200 ha, but have only been able to do detailed assessments on 20 to
demonstrate that the ant has been fully eradicated. We have learnt a lot during
the course of the project, and have modified our protocols many times, and we
now believe that we know how to effectively eradicate this ant from large areas.
We also know that the ant is so widely dispersed throughout the region that we
will not be able to fully eradicate it - the area that would need to be treated is just
too large. Instead, we propose to eradicate all of the outlier populations, all
populations where people are present (e.g. Aboriginal communities), all
infestations within the Rio Tinto Alcan mining leases, and from the Dhimurru
Indigenous Protected Area. This will regionally contain yellow crazy ant to a very
remote section of unmanaged bushland and greatly reduce the rist of spread
throghout northern Australia."
          report for FFI to come

Saiga Conservation Alliance, Central Asia

          antelope conservation

             illegal poaching

           habitat degradation

              wildlife trade
The saiga antelope roams the steppes and plains of Central Asia and Russia. It is a
relic of Ice Age fauna that included mammoths and saber-tooth cats. Herds of saiga
once numbered in the millions, but today only 40,000 survive. In the past ten years,
saiga numbers have declined by 96%, the fastest decline ever recorded for a mammal
species.The saiga antelope is listed as Critically Endangered by IUCN's Red List.
The main threats are:
- illegal poaching: the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 brought poverty and
unregulated hunting to this region. Borders were opened up to poachers in search of
saiga horns to sell for use in traditional medicine and for meat to sell and feed to their
- migrations’ disturbance: Saigas’s migration is currently threatened by a gas pipeline
that is being built in the main saiga range from Uzbekistan into Russia.
- habitat degradation: loss of grazing land due to ever-increasing numbers of domestic
The Saiga Conservation Alliance (SCA) is a group of scientists and conservationists
that started working as a research effort to collect information on saiga antelope
ecology, but evolved into a community-based conservation initiative across the range
countries. It works by
a) adressing the economic forces which threaten its survival:
- rotating cow project: to alleviate pressure on wild animals hunted for food, a cow is
given to poor families who could not otherwise afford one, to provide milk and offspring
for building a small herd. The first female calf is given back as payment, which will then
contribute to the supply for another family in need.
b) by engaging local communities in saiga protection:
- public awareness including use of media appearances, talks in schools, puppets
shows, publication of Saiga News bulletin.
- education through arts with saiga art competitions, cooperative of women promoting
traditional artistic skills
c) and by fostering collaborative efforts in saiga conservation: collaboration with
governments and companies, community involvement in participatory monitoring
There is evidence that the previous severe decline in the global Saiga population
has stabilised since 2002 with increases reported for some populations. National
reports indicate: 15-20,000 in Russia and stable; c. 40,000 in Kazakhstan and an
upward trend; maximum 2,000 in
Turkmenistan in some winters, and stable; maximum 15,000 in Uzbekistan in winter
and declining ; 3,240 in Mongolia in January 2008, an 11.8% increase in saiga
numbers in comparison to last year’s survey.
The following achievements can be recognized:
• Conservation interventions by governmental and non-governmental organisations
have increased, and there is improved collaboration between them.
• The severe global population decline has apparently been halted and some
populations may have begun to increase.
• Improved techniques have led to regular breeding of captive animals.
• Integration of Saiga conservation into wider biodiversity conservation was initiated.
• Widespread public awareness campaigns have been effective.
• The Government of China has expressed its commitment to control trade in Saiga
products (new legislation in November 2007 : see progress report July 2008)

               Trends in abundance and distribution of selected species

 Health and well being of communities who directly depend on local ecosystem goods
                                    and services
Saiga Conservation Alliance (SCA) with support of World Conservation Network



                                      Central Asia

                Project's website:

                                 WCN's related webpage:
                                    Overview report

                               Progress report July 2008

An article in the Independent newspaper published on 31 January 2008 has
higlighted saiga antelopes as one of the world's rare-but-ugly species that need greater
attention from conservationists, the public and media alike.
Jonathan Baillie of the Zoological Society of London (ZSL) said of the saiga: "I would
put this in the unusual, almost cute category. You're not repulsed when you look at it.
You think more of Star Wars."
The interview with Baillie follows ZSL's recently developed EDGE list, which ranks
species according to not only how endangered they are, but also how distinctive.
The saiga antelope comes 62 on the list.
Alexander Esipov & Elena Bykova []
In February 2008, a plan for joint activities towards the conservation of the Ustiurt saiga
population was agreed between the Governments of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, for
the period 2008-2010. An agreement has been signed between the Uzbekistan Ministry
of Nature Protection and the Institute of Zoology, for joint scientific monitoring and
conservation work, starting in May 2008 for 4 years.
  More information to come                        complete

Lachua project in Guatemala     Ethiopian Wolf Conservation Programme (EWCP)

Sustainable land management                   Wolf conservation

    Economic incentives                            disease

    Forest conservation                             Rabies

 Deforestation/ reforestation                Population regulation

      Forest corridors
The Ecoregión Lachuá is composed of a population of indigenous Q´eqchi´
                                                                                   The Ethiopian wolf is the only species of wolf in Africa, as well as the most
subsistence farmers, all of whom reside in communities located in an area of
                                                                                   rare and endangered canid in the world. Fewer than 500 wolves remain in
high-biodiversity sub-tropical rainforest that encompasses the National Park
                                                                                   seven isolated populations.
named Laguna Lachuá.
                                                                                   The most pressing threats to wolves are:
The principal threat is deforestation: an estimated 73,148 hectares are
                                                                                   - Loss and fragmentation of the Afroalpine habitat: high-altitude
deforested in Guatemala every year, which corresponds to a rate of
                                                                                   subsistence agriculture and overgrazing; road construction and sheep
deforestation of 1.43%. It has been determined that 39% or 28,517 hectares
of the deforestation occurred inside national protected areas, an astounding
                                                                                   - Diseases: particularly rabies, transmitted by domestic dogs. Wolf
number considering the impact such activities have on Guatemala’s
                                                                                   populations were decimated by such outbreaks in 1991 and 2003, which
                                                                                   reduced the wolf population in the Bale Mountains (their last large
The Ecoregión Lachuá is the home to an ambitious and comprehensive
                                                                                   stronghold) from an estimated 440 individuals to fewer than 150.
development effort formed to save the National Park and resources of the
                                                                                   - Conflicts with humans: poisoning and persecution in reprisal for livestock
region. The project unites eight government institutions, international funding,
                                                                                   losses; road kills
a team of professional technical workers, and Q´eqchi´ community members
                                                                                   - Hybridisation with domestic dogs: seemingly limited to one local
integrated into six community associations, three women’s groups and three
                                                                                   population in Bale
youth groups.
The project has four components:                                                 EWCP was founded in 1995 to promote sustainable solutions for protecting
1) environmental: in 2006 the Ecoregión Lachuá was declared a RAMSAR             the Ethiopian wolf. As a keystone species, the strategies designed for the
site for its importance in protecting vital wetlands home to thousands of        conservation of the wolf also protect the fragile Afroalpine system. The
tropical rain forest animals and plants.                                         programme includes several components:
- forest protection: Through a program with the Guatemalan government,           a) capacity building, through: training of Ethiopians in aspects of natural
community members are able to receive annual payments in exchange for            resource management and wildlife conservation, development of
protecting lands near the Park. This economic incentive is coupled with social   partnerships, and transfer of skills and knowledge.
programs such as training and community planning.                                b) disease control: vaccination of domestic dogs, sterilization campaigns
- forest inventory in partnership with National Forest Institute                 to limit the growth of domestic dogs population, disease monitoring,
- reforestation: a government program called PINFOR gives incentive to           vaccination of Ethiopian wolves.
land owners in exchange for reforesting parcels of land                          c) habitat protection through protected area infrastructure support and
2) economic : production of pineapples, avocado, lemon, oranges, bee-            the development of community-based sustainable use strategies.
keeping and honey production, raising tilapia fish, artisan crafts               d) monitoring and research
3) political:                                                                    e) community education by targeting governments, local authorities,
- institutional development: 2 Community-development Councils created            farmers and school children within and surrounding wolf ranges
- community involvement: each community in the Ecoregión Lachuá has              f) population management in order to prevent the reproduction of dog-wolf
formed small Community Development Committees that serve as an open              hybrids; to manage small wolf populations as a metapopulation.
forum to discuss community needs.
4) social: community training, youth groups and environmental education
a) In 2005 the Ecoregión reforested 410 hectares via community-run tree
nurseries; in 2006 this number increased to 464 hectares, with plans to           The domestic dog populations in and surrounding the wolf population in the
continue reforesting for three years.                                             Bale Mountains have been targeted with a vaccination campaign against
b) Currently 9.6 hectares are devoted to pineapple production, with each          rabies and distemper. In a recent survey of the western half of the Bale,
hectare capable of producing 30,000 pineapple. Currently, 200 community           93% coverage of the dog population was achieved.
members are taking care of 2,000 bee-hives in order to provide income from        The EWCP is the principal employer in the town of Dinsho, seat of the Bale
an extremely environmentally friendly resource: in the year 2006, the             Mountains National Park headquarters. The programme currently employs
Ecoregión produced 1,375 gallons of honey to be sold at the national and          25 full-time staff (21 of whom are from communities within the wolf‘s
international level. In 2006 the Ecoregión imported 70,000 seeds of cocoa in      range), and over 50 casual workers involved in various activities including
order to begin an ambitious new project which reforested 98 hectares,             administration, construction, maintenance, dog vaccination, education,
providing a new source of income and the added benefit of the fixation of         community liaison and field research.
carbon. In 2006, tilapia was brought to the region to start a project that will   The total counts in Web showed the fall and rise of wolf numbers following
provide 60,000 full-grown fish every 6 months, creating a source of income        the 1992 epizootic. Previously, this population fluctuated slightly with no
and food in order to raise the standard of living for the poor in the area.       significant trend (1987–1991). There was no sign of recovery when
                                                                                  monitoring restarted in 1996, but the population grew consistently
                                                                                  afterwards at a rate of 8.0 wolves year,reaching pre-epizootic levels
                                                                                  by 2000.

        Trends in extent of selected biomes, ecosystems, and habitats                      Trends in abundance and distribution of selected species

Health and well being of communities who directly depend on local ecosystem           Health and well being of communities who directly depend on local
                            goods and services                                                         ecosystem goods and services

    Area of forest, agricultural aquaculture ecosystems under sustainable

                      Biodiversity for food and medicine
                                                                                  Ethiopian Wolf Conservation Programme (EWCP) supported by Ethiopia’s
Lachua Foundation (created in 2007), with support of the National Forest          Wildlife Conservation Department, in cooperation with the Zoological
Institute (INAB), the Ministry of Agriculture, the National Council for Protected Society of London, the WildLife Conservation Research Unit (WildCRU)
Areas (CONAP) and IUCN                                                            and the University of Edinburgh, with funding from the Born Free

                                   1996                                                                          1995

                                   2009                                                                        ongoing

                                     gt                                                                            et
                             Ecoregion Lachua                                                       Bale Mountains National Park

                                EWCP website:

            Article published in Tierramerica on November 2008:                                              WCN website:        
   Scientific paper: "An integrated disease management strategy for the
control of rabies in Ethiopian wolves" in Biological Conservation 131 (2006)

  Scientific paper: "Trends, dynamics and resilience of an Ethiopian wolf
                population" in Animal Conservation 9 (2006)

BBC News article:
7a Avenida 6-80, Zona 13
                                        Jorgelina Marino, DPhil
  Ciudad de Guatemala
                                     WildCRU, University of Oxford
    Guatemala 01013
                           Tubney House, Tubney, OX13 5QL, United Kingdom
    +(502) 2473.5214
                                        Ph: 01865 393110/100
    +(502) 2472.2977
A senior member of EWCP staff received a Darwin Biodiversity
Scholarship from the UK government.
A workshop lead in Guassa area recently led EWCP being granted to
develop a draft management plan for the area.
                       complete                            Progress report to come in February 2009

Integrated water management and up-scaling of successful
                                                                 Bees, trees and elephants
    dialogues in the Cotahuasi sub-basin, Southern Peru

                   Water management                                 Elephant conservation

                                                                      Animal deterrents

                 Agro-ecological farming

                                                                   Human-wildlife conflicts

The Cotahuasi sub-basin is a vulnerable area. The soil is fragile,
and its water resources are being affected by negative climatic             When elephants must survive in a limited range, the pressure on
changes, including the El Nino phenomenon. Studies indicate that            trees can become extreme. The average adult elephant
during the next twenty years it will become one of the most sensitive       consumes 110 tons of forage annually. Their browsing can
zones in the southern coastal region and will suffer a crisis. It is also   significantly damage or even destroy trees, and crop raiding by
foreseen that the increased flow of tourists and the development of         elephants is a cause of increasing levels of conflict between
mining interests will seriously affect the biodiversity unless              local people and wildlife management strategies across Africa.
preventive and corrective measures are taken. A main challenge is           Upon hearing stories that African honeybees have been reported
to encourage the population to carry out profitable yet sustainable         to drive off elephants that threaten their hives, STE decided to
economic activities. Through engaging in such activities, people can        test whether bees could be used to guard trees.
create sustainable alternatives to tackle the environmental problems
they are facing.
Since 1994, the initiative of AEDES was oriented towards
elaborating a Local Agenda 21 for the Cotahuasi basin, focusing on     Lucy King and her assistant constructed a “fake tree trunk” from
institutional strengthening and development of instruments to lobby    a plastic vegetable rack and some brown reeds and cut a small
for the establishment of the Cotahuasi National Landscape              window in the front through which they fitted a wireless speaker.
reserve. It aimed at:                                                  This fake tree trunk was gently placed within 10 meters of the
a) raising awareness, mainly among members of farmers                  elephants and then they drove off a fair distance. They filmed the
associations and school children                                       response of the elephants before, during, and after the playback
b) carrying out participatory studies and investigations to gather     of 4 minutes of bee sounds. To check that their responses were
useful information for the design of sustainable actions in the sub-   not just due to the presence of an unusual loud noise disrupting
basin, for example inventories of flora and fauna, investigations on   their peace, thy used natural white noise extracted from a
cultural diversity, and studies on the basin’s hydrographical          waterfall as a control sound.
characteristics                                                        STE has begun working closely with beekeeping farming
c) strengthening organizations in the sub-basin                        communities who are suffering from severe crop-raiding and has
d) implementing specific sustainable land use actions such as in       started community-based trials testing bees as a deterrent. This
situ conservation with special attention to agro-biodiversity, agro-   simple and low-cost strategy holds promise as another tool to
ecological farming, eco-tourism, soil recovery, promotion and          reduce economic damage from crop-raiding and tree-stripping
reforestation.                                                         by elephants, one which can potentially provide jobs, income,
The second stage was the inauguration of the Platform of the           honey, and eventually become self-sustaining.
Water consumers Boards of the Ocoana Basin.
Since 2003, the area has been given the legal status of a
national protected area, allowing them to develop sustainable
economic activities while simultaneously dosing the area for large-
scale interventions.
Certified organic production of amaranth, quinoa, yacon, anise,       The results were encouraging. No tree hung with a hive
Adean grains and medicinal plants has been developed for sale at      occupied by bees was touched by elephants. Even trees hung
home and export markets. Organic production of maize, canihua,        with unoccupied hives suffered reduced browsing damage. 16
achita is in transition. 25% of the agriculture economic units are    out of the 17 elephant herds studied (94%) ran or walked
involved with organic production, with as its main destiny the        away from the sound of bees within 80 seconds of the sound
international market.                                                 being played compared to 27% in response to the control sound.
Some popular organizations were created such as Federation of         For mode of retreat, 41.2% of families responding to bees
rural Communities, FEMELU, ADIMUs, APCO, APROPLAME                    ‘ran’away, 29.4% ‘walked fast’ away and 23.5% ‘walked’ away.
Several eco-businesses are worked with a business portfolio that      No ‘running’ or ‘walking fast’ behaviour was observed for the
includes not only agro-ecology and ecotourism, but also handicraft    control groups.
and others. Capacities have been developed in settlers who offer
services in feeding, lodging, guidance and crafts, allowing
entrepreneurship associability through local committees of tourism
and a provincial association that joints these committees.

                                                                         Area of forest, agricultural aquaculture ecosystems under
                   Coverage of protected areas
                                                                                          sustainable management

                                                                       Health and well being of communities who directly depend on
      Proportion of products derived from sustainable sources
                                                                                   local ecosystem goods and services

     Indicator of access and benefit sharing (to be developed)
                                                                 Save the Elephant association, (STE) with the support of Wildlife
Asociación Especializada para el Desarrollo Sostenible (AEDES)   Conservation Network (WCN), and donation for 2007-2008 from
                                                                 Disney Wildlife Conservation Fund

                              1994                                                             2002

                            ongoing                                                          ongoing

                               pe                                                               ke
                        Arequipa region                                    Samburu/ Buffalo Springs National Reserves

                                                                    STE Website:
   Case study from AEDES website on the Cotahuasi sub-basin

“Contribution of the Cotahuasi sub-basin to the UNFCCC, UNCCD,      Scientific paper : "African elephants run from the sound of
                 and CBD ”, AEDES, Manuel Tejada                  disturbed bees" by Lucy King, in Current Biology vol 17 No 19
Correspondance with Manuel Tejada : about biodiversity monitoring,
                                                                                    See page 18-19: STE 2007 report
     organic production and trade, banefit-sharing, ecotourism

                                                                                                WCN website:

Related project: EASE-Solo Ecologicos is a processing and
marketing company that is owned by Andean farmers from
Peru, who grow and export natural and organic products. All of
the products are certified by BIO LATINA and come from fields that
belong to Natural Protected Areas and are grown by producers that “Bees to make elephants ‘buzz of’ ”, BBC News, October 8 2007:
are reinforcing their ancient culture. The production accomplish
international standards like CEE 2092/91, NOS-USA and JAS.
Manuel Tejada is the general manager. The company replicates the
experience of promoting agro-ecology started in the Cotahuasi sub-

                                                                        Related project: "Elephant pepper - Chili as a Tool for
                                                                         Conservation and Development" (in the database)
   Manuel Tejada
                               Lucy King
                                                                 Lucy King is currently working on a series of community based
In the biannual Pro Sustainable Development contests, AEDES won research projects using beehives as elephant deterrents for
two prizes (in 2000 and 2002) for its work in the Cotahuasi Sub- farms and crops in Kenya. A first pilot study is to be published in
basin.                                                           November 2008, and more complete report should come in
                                                                 Easter 2009 ==> Contact Lucy King
                         complete                                      . Progress report to come in February 2009

Community involvement in the Annapurna Conservation Area,       Conservation and sustainable use of the wetlands and
                          Nepal                             fisheries for poverty alliviation in the fluvial coast of Argentina

                      Protected area                                               wetlands and coasts

               Community-based conservation                                        sustainable fisheries

                           Nepal                                                      RAMSAR site

                          Forest                                                   endangered species

                      Illegal poaching                                                 over-fishing
                                                                         The coastal communities in the Argentinean side of the Paraguay-
                                                                         Paraná river basin face serious threats to their livelihoods, due to
The Annapurna Conservation Area is the largest PA in Nepal, covering
                                                                         the depletion of the fishing resources. These communities are the
7629 km2, located in the mountainous west-central region. More than
                                                                         poorest in Argentina with 22,7% of its population under the poverty
472 bird species, 21 species of amphibians, 32 species of reptiles and
                                                                         line. Among other important factors, the noticeable decrease in the
more than 101 species of mammals have been reported from the area
                                                                         resources is caused by the absence of a management plan for the
(Inskipp & Inskipp 2001; KMTNC-ACAP 1997), which is inhabited by
                                                                         fisheries of low capacity and involvement of the local fishermen
approximately 120 000 people from five major ethnic and other tribal
                                                                         communities. Fishing is threatened by the big hydroelectric dams on
groups (Bajracharya 2002).
                                                                         the upper Paraná, which affect the breeding grounds of the fish.
The Conservation Area Management Regulation (CAMR) introduced in
                                                                         Another major factor is the intensive exploitation of fish stocks
1996, under the 1993 amendment of National Parks and Wildlife
                                                                         by large companies that sell the fish to foreign markets, which has
Conservation Act, provided a legal basis to involve the local
                                                                         seen a sharp increase in the last five years.
communities in conservation, and has been of particular importance in
                                                                         The aim of this project is to promote the conservation and
providing power to local communities to control and manage local
                                                                         sustainable use of the wetland resources of the Paraná-Paraguai
                                                                         System, through increasing the self- management skills of coastal
                                                                         communities and consolidating the results of previous phases.
ACAP was launched in 1986 with the initiation of King Mahendra Trust
for Nature Conservation (KMTNC) to protect the environment with
sustainable community development in Annapurna area by the local             The Proteger Foundation has been woking for 10 years on fisheries
people without any intervention from the Nepalese Government and/or          and wetland conservation. In March 2008, it was granted by IUCN
any other institutions. ACAP is a non-profit organization is divided into    for a two-years project whose specific objectives are:
seven unit conservation offices and spread out in 5 districts of the         a) to develop and to implement a participatory fishing
Western Development Region of Nepal covering 55 Village                      management plan at community level in a RAMSAR site,
Development Committees (VDC). Each village development                       Jaaukanigás, first, and to replicate this experience in other sites
committee is assigned to carry out the responsibilities to manage,           within the Basin.
utilize and protect all the natural resources within the respective VDCs.    b) to encourage the community (fishermen association and other
The goals are:                                                               related groups) to monitor the fishing sites in Argentina
- To conserve the natural resources of the ACA for the benefit of the        c) to reduce the threats to ecosystems, to biodiversity and to coastal
present and future generations (tree plantings, illegal poaching             communities generating measurable benefits from conservation and
control, regular village clean-ups, introduction of alternative sources of   sustainable use by contributing to the elaboration of a conservation
energy to reduce pressure on native forests)                                 program for the whole System Paraná-Paraguay.
- To bring sustainable social, institutional and economic development        The strategies to achieve these objectives are: To consolidate the
to the local people;                                                         civil society organizations and to work with local and national
- To develop tourism in such a way that it will have a minimum               authorities plus private sector establishing conservation
negative environmental impact                                                incentives, to increase the living standards of the local community
                                                                             and to discourage unsustainable practices.
The participatory wildlife matrix scoring suggested that wild animal
populations inside ACA have increased following conservation
                                                                            For 10 years, women have been trained in traditional small-scale
intervention. Mean abundance scores for wild animals in 1971 and
                                                                            fish preserves in Santa Fe, along the Parama river. The experience
2001 inside ACA were 2.0 and 4.24, respectively, whereas the mean
                                                                            has advanced further and various products are produced, including
scores outside ACA were 2.48 and 2.80, respectively.
                                                                            smoked fish, pickled fish and fish paste. The fishing village of
The decline in fuelwood use has been complemented by increased
                                                                            Puerto Reconquista, along another arm of the Paraná in northern
tree planting efforts. More than 1 666 000 tree seedlings were planted
                                                                            Santa Fe, is working to replicate the experience.
on communal lands and private farmlands in ACA by the local
                                                                            Between March and September 2008, 30 specialists studied the
communities during 1986–2000 .
                                                                            threat level for species in la Cuenca del Plata, following the criteria
The majority of local communities in ACA have abandoned hunting of
                                                                            of the IUCN Red List. They monitored 192 species, of which 11
animals such as barking deer, common goral, Himalayan thar and kalij
                                                                            were classified as “endangered” and 50 as “lack of data”. It is the
pheasant which were previously game animals sought after by the
                                                                            first time there is such a study of fresh water fish at a regional level.
local communities. The local communities are now also able to control
                                                                            Partnerships have also been consolidated between local NGOs, and
recreational hunters from urban centres and peripheral villages.
                                                                            a political compromise has been found that will enable the
ACA appears to have been successful in involving a majority of
                                                                            elaboration and implementation of the fishing management plan in
residents in the area. In addition to planting tree seedlings and regular
village clean-ups, the majority of respondents in ACA indicated that
they were involved in making conservation decisions through various
local institutions.

                                                                                 Area of forest, agricultural aquaculture ecosystems under
       Trends in abundance and distribution of selected species
                                                                                                  sustainable management

Area of forest, agricultural aquaculture ecosystems under sustainable
                                                                                              Biodiversity for food and medicine

                                                                            Health and well being of communities who directly depend on local
    Trends in extent of selected biomes, ecosystems, and habitats
                                                                                             ecosystem goods and services
                                                                     Implementation: Proteger Foundation
                                                                     Partners: REDEPESCA (fishermen association)
King Mahendra Trust for Nature Conservation (KMTNC) with financial
                                                                     Funding: Inter-American Foundation until December 2008; IUCN
assistance of New Zealand Overseas Development Assistance Fund
                                                                     Netherlands from 2008 to 2010; support of Ramsar convention

                               1986                                                               2008

                             ongoing                                                             ongoing

                                np                                                                  ar
            Annapurna Conservation Area, North Nepal                                           Parama river

 Good scientific paper: "Effectiveness of community involvement in                         IUCN project description:
delivering conservation benefits to the Annapurna Conservation Area,
Nepal" by S.B Bajracharya, P.A Furley, A.C Newton in Environmental se_of_the_wetlands_and_fisheries_for_poverty_alliviation_in_the_fl
                      conservation nr 32, 2005                                            uvial_coast_of_argentina_1/

                               Progress report (in spanish)
                                                                                       Article published in
                                                                                            IUCN project proposal

Other scientific paper: "Impacts of community-based conservation on
                                                                        First monitoring results:
   local communities in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal"

                                                                      Related project: “Sustainable Management of the Water Resources
                                                                           of the la Plata Basin with Respect to the Effects of Climate
                                                                         Variability and Change ” – regional project covering Argentina,
                                                                      Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, granted by GEF and coordinated
                                                                       by CIC (Comité Intergubernamental Coordinador de la Cuenca del
                                                                      Plata). See:
Dr Adrian Newton. E-mail:       Liliana Jáuregui Bordones, EGP Grants Programme
            Siddhartha B Bajracharya, PhD                       IUCN Netherlands Committee (IUCN NC)
Executive Officer - Projects and Programmes Development        Tel: + 31 20 6261732 Fax: + 31 20 6279349
          National Trust for Nature Conservation               
                            Nepal                         Julieta Peteán, Programa Agua, Humedales y Pesca
                  Ph. No. +977 1 5526571                                 Fundación PROTEGER
                 Fax No. +977 1 5526570                   
The first progress report of the IUCN-funded project is due for the
first of February 2009 - contact Liliana Jauregui Bordones from
IUCN or Julieta Petean form Fondation Proteger
                              complete                                                     complete

                                                                     Genetic Resource Conservation through native andean
Bees for water: community-based forest and watershed management in
                                                                                   potatoes crops, Bolivia
                   Ambora National Park, Bolivia

                         forest conservation                                          Genetic resources

                   community-based management                                              Potatoes

                             watershed                                                  Native species

                            beekeeping                                               Traditional agriculture

                    conflict over natural resource
                                                                                Native species and varieties of potato abound in Bolivia. However,
                                                                                these varieties are increasingly under pressure as standardised,
                                                                                mass-produced varieties take the agricultural world by storm. In
The Los Negros Valley covers approximately 270 square kilometers, with 35
                                                                                Europe and other industrialised regions, some genetic resources
kilometers separating the upstream Santa Rosa from downstream Los Negros.
                                                                                have already disappeared. Plant breeding programmes that are
Bordering the upper reaches of the Los Negros watershed is the 637,000-
                                                                                now colonising the majority of agricultural lands are usually limited
hectare Amboró National Park, one of the most biologically diverse areas in the
                                                                                in scope; the genetic base of the materials used is generally narrow
world—712 species of birds have been discovered so far. Over the past 20
                                                                                and common to all varieties. This reduces the variety of species,
years the numbers of farms in Santa Rosa has been increasing. More forest
                                                                                which creates a risk of intensive damage to the crops by pests and
has been cleared to free land for agricultural purposes, which in turn
affected the local watershed, as farming consumed much of the water
                                                                                Genetic variability has been cultivated for thousands of years
resource upstream of Los Negros. The national park and its buffer zone are
                                                                                through the work of rural agricultural communities, and is evidently
also increasingly threatened by illegal land incursions, that result in timber
                                                                                well preserved by them. Thus, support for conservation among
extraction and logging, owing to unclear property rights.
                                                                                rural communities is a highly efficient means of preserving and
                                                                                making rational use of resources.
                                                                                 Fundación para la Promoción y la Investigación de Productos
In the Los Negros valley, a System of Compensation for Watershed Service         Andinos PROINPA is a non-profit organization oriented to promote
(CWS) created in 2002 involves the simultaneous purchase of two                  technology innovation and the conservation, use, management and
environmental services. The US Fish and Wildlife Service is paying for the       development of genetic resources for the benefit of farmers in the
protection of habitat for migratory bird species, while downstream irrigators    municipality of Colomi. Since 1989, PROINPA has encouraged in
through the Municipality of Pampagrande are paying to conserve the same          situ conservation of potato varieties. PROINPA has also been
upland forest vegetation that likely helps maintain dry-season water supplies.   working with local farmers’ groups, such as the Native Potato
The service buyers are jointly compensating individual upstream landowners       Producers’ Association (APROTAC), to encourage the adoption of
through the provision of benefits such as beehives, apicultural training, and    forage crops such as purple clover and alfalfa that improve the
barbed wire. Transfers are made each year, conditional upon approval by a        soil by fixing nitrogen and help to control pest.Thousands of
local monitoring and enforcement committee that verifies that the native         farmers from Colomi participated in various forms of training
vegetation has indeed been protected.                                            through Farmers' Schools, Committees of Local Agricultural
The program also includes a mapping of the area using GIS, the creation of       Research (CIALs), and Producers’ Associations.
Environment Committees to set up a community-based management,                   PROINPA also facilitates the development of retail markets for
training in beekeeping and honey harvesting, environmental education, and        their potato crops. Farmers have founded the Association of
birdlife and hydrological research.                                              Andean Tuber Producers of Candelaria (APROTAC), which
                                                                                 negotiates favorable business deals for its members.
By August 2007, 46 landowners were protecting 2774 hectares. Total                  About 5000 people in urban centers have been involved in
payments are usually 5000$/yr. Only one infraction has been reported.               promotional campaigns about the consumption of native crops.
An avifaunal survey in 2005 found highest bird diversity in cloud forests,          Since 2002 about 9,000 people have visited the annual Biodiversity
suggesting that the current PES focus on the cloud forests is appropriate from      Fair in Colomi, where they are exposed to the broad principles of
a biodiversity point of view.                                                       the sustainable use of agrobiodiversity.
In terms of forest cover, the PES scheme has achieved little benefits. As noted     The promotion and sale of quality native varieties of native potato
by Robertson and Wunder (2005): “In terms of land-use change, the land              (Solanum spp.), oca (Oxalis tuberosa) and ulluco (Ullucus
currently put under conservation contracts is not the most threatened by            tuberosum), which started in 1998, has roughly doubled the market
agricultural clearing, if it is in danger at all”. This is because the steep,       prices obtained by the farmers of Colomi. Increased demand of
inaccessible forests that have clear ownership are at low risk of deforestation.    native potatoes has increased a typical family's yield by 13%.
Upstream farmers are thus likely adopting a risk-averse strategy and trying out     Average farmer's family income is now $200 a year.
the PES concept by enrolling patches of their forests they would likely not have    Farming of 5 potato varieties was prioritized, without impacting the
cut anyway.                                                                         production of other crops or substantially affecting soil renovation.
Livelihood impact: The transfer of a beehive has a cash value of US$30. PES         The Farmers’ Association created to commercialize these native
participants have in addition received apicultural training, But in practice, the   products has been able to negotiate better prices with
returns to beekeeping have been extremely skill-dependent; and not everyone         supermarkets, to obtain credit and to establish commercial links of
in the village has been equally successful.                                         various kinds.

     Area of forest, agricultural aquaculture ecosystems under sustainable            Trends in genetic diversity of domesticated animals, cultivated
                                   management                                          plants, and fish species of major socio-economic importance

Health and well being of communities who directly depend on local ecosystem
                                                                                                     Biodiversity for food and medicine
                            goods and services

                                                                                    Health and well being of communities who directly depend on local
        Trends in extent of selected biomes, ecosystems, and habitats
                                                                                                     ecosystem goods and services

                                                                                                            Nitrogen deposition

                                                                                         Indicator of access and benefit sharing (to be developed)
                                                                              Fundación para la Promoción y la Investigación de Productos
                                                                              Andinos PROINPA with support of Municipality of Colomi, Ministry
Funadacion Natura Bolivia with financial assistance of US Government Fish     of Sustainable Development, COSUDE, Swiss Cooperation,
and Wildlife Service, and International Institute for Environment and         Government of Belgium, IESE Institute of Socioeconomic Studies
Development (IIED)                                                            and the Program of Foods and Natural Products (PAPN), Center
                                                                              for Fitoecogenetic Research from Pairumani and AGROECOL,
                                                                              Andean Agroecology

                                    2002                                                                    1989

                                  ongoing                                                                  ongoing

                                     bo                                                                       bo
                           Ambora National Park                                         Candelaria area, departement of Cochabamba
                                                                                                Equator Initiative summary:
                      Bees for water - project summary                        

Scientific paper published by the Property and Environment Research Center:
          Scientific article published in Ecological Economics , 2008        Project summary

                            Hydrological analysis

    Natura Foundation website:

Related project: Sustainable Management of Pimampiro's renewable natural
ressources for the maintenance of water quantity and quality - PES scheme
for watershed protection, but using cash payments and contracts for entire
farm holdings. See project database
Nigel Asquith – Natura Bolivia - +1 617 495 1417
One potential remedy would be to move to a more proactive strategy of
negotiating entire blocks of desired conservation areas. As long as
landowners can freely offer any self-selected areas for involvement, as is
currently the case, the rational farmer with a 100 ha sized forest would over the
next five years annually clear the one hectare that he would have deforested
anyhow, and offer the remaining 95 ha of “passive” reserve land for PES
enrollment, at zero conservation additionality. Conversely, if conservation
contracts were to be made for the entire farm holdings (or pre-determined         The project was nominated for the Equator Initiative Award in 2006
target blocks), this ‘on-farm leakage’ is precluded. As shown for the Pimampiro
case, relatively small per-hectare payments could still be competitive in this
case, as long as at any point intime only aminor share of a relatively large
forest area is threatened by clearing: for the above landowner, receiving US
$300/year for protecting the entire 100 ha of forest might still be attractive,
compared to the incremental net gains from clearing one hectare every five
                  complete                                          complete

Yunnan Golden Monkey Conservation Programme   Orangutan Research and Conservation Project in Borneo

             monkey conservation                               endangered species

               protected areas                                 species conservation

                illegal hunting                                    reforestation
The yunnan golden monkey dwells in the the cloud-shrouded
Yunling mountains of northwestern Yunnan and southeastern Tibet         Orangutans are a critically endangered species according to IUCN. The
(southwestern China) —high-altitude evergreen forests at elevations     species today may have diminished in the past decade by 50%. Estimates of the
from 3,000 to 4,500 meters (9,800 to 14,800 feet), where                current population are from less than 50,000 to 60,000 with more than three
temperatures may fall below freezing for several months in a row.       quarters of all orangutans found on Borneo.
Today there are fewer than 2,000 Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys              The destruction and degradation of the tropical rain forest, caused primarily by
remaining.                                                              human activity (intense permitted logging, illegal logging, conversion to palm
Hunting and habitat loss have brought the species, which is limited     oil plantations and farm lands, mining, settlements, road construction) and
to a single mountain range, to the brink of extinction. Today           also by natural phenomena (large-scale fires), is the main reason orangutans
subsistence fuelwood collection and timber harvesting are probably      are threatened. The illegal animal trade has also been a significant factor, and
the greatest threats to monkey habitat, though the species' narrow      orangutans are occasionally hunted and eaten by some of the indigenous
genetic base and small population, coupled with a naturally low birth   peoples of Borneo as well as immigrant loggers.
rate and an abysmal infant survival rate of less than 50 percent,       With a total population of fewer than 30,000 individuals and a slow reproductive
continue to present risks to its long-term survival. Climate change,    rate, this loss is having a significant impact on the population and genetic
which could cause dramatic shifts in the distribution of the monkey's   diversity of the species. Some scientists fear that declining population could
ridge-top "islands" of subalpine primary forest habitat, is also a      reduce the genetic viability of the species and result in its eventual extinction.
concern. The monkeys have a poor genetic diversity, with 3
genepools only.
The objectives of the project are:
a) to build and sustain partnerships, through cooperation with the
                                                                     The program works by rehabilitating orangutans that have been captured in
State Forestry Administration, and establishement of the Project
                                                                     raids or turned over voluntarily to authorities. OFI built an orangutan care center
steering Committee;
                                                                     and quarantine for confiscated orangutans needing to be medically treated in
b) capacity building for local Management Authorities. A
                                                                     preparation for reintroduction. Then the orangutan is released, but twice a day
management effectiveness appraisal was conducted and a
                                                                     food is left on a feeding platform. The feedings serve as an important outreach
patrolling and monitoring system established. A Golden Monkey
                                                                     and educational function to the local community, building interest and
Conservation Association (GMC) was established in 2006;
                                                                     appreciation for wildlife and the rain forest ecosystem among children and adults
c) conservation actions: the ”Hunters to protectors” project
                                                                     alike. In addition to that:
focuses on encouraging local hunters to join the patrolling and
                                                                     - OFI funds the active patrolling of the northern portion of Tanjung Puting
ranging work in the protected areas. Other community-based
                                                                     National Park. The Community-Based Patrols are comprised of local police
conservation activities are developed. TNC is supporting local
                                                                     officers and OFI staff and keep illegal loggers and miners from degrading
government agencies to set up a national park in the Laojunshan
                                                                     orangutan habitat.
                                                                     - OFI manages the Lamandau Nature Reserve with the Natural Resources
d) to gather information on the Yunnan Golden Monkey by tracking
                                                                     Department of the Indonesian Forestry.
monkeys using GIS technologies and GPS collars, and leading a
                                                                     - OFI has a Rainforest Restoration Program in degraded areas outside of the
conservation science study.
                                                                     National Park. OFI's botanical nursery helps grow seedlings and saplings and
e) to formulate the China Golden Monkey Conservation Action
                                                                     local women are hired to plant various species of trees.
f) to promote public awareness
Surveys on the Yunnan Golden Monkey distribution show a long-
term increase: 11 groups with 800 individuals were recorded in
1988, 13 groups with less than 1500 individuals in 1996, and 15
groups with 2000 individuals in 2008. 12 of these groups live in
the existing nature reserve, and 3 outside the protected area.
For its part, the Chinese government has taken steps to reduce
pressure on the monkey, enacting a hunting ban in Yunnan province
and confiscating almost all hunting guns. The government has also
moved to stem habitat loss by establishing protective reserves like
the Laojunshan Area National Park and banning logging and shifting
agricultural practices.
Some pilot community-based co-management projects have been
set up in 3 villages in 2006, providing people with sanitation and
solar energy. They have been extended to 5 other villages in 2007.

     Trends in abundance and distribution of selected species                   Trends in abundance and distribution of selected species

                                                                          Area of forest, agricultural aquaculture ecosystems under sustainable
                   Coverage of protected areas

 Health and well being of communities who directly depend on local    Health and well being of communities who directly depend on local ecosystem
                  ecosystem goods and services                                                    goods and services
Implementation: The Nature Conservancy
Partners: State Forestry Administration (SFA), Chinese Academy of Implementation: Orangutan Foundation International (OFI)
Forestry (CAF), and many others.                                  Financial support: USAID
Funding: CEPF, Conservation International                         Partnership: Orangutan Foundation UK

                        November 1 2004

                          June 30 2007                                                               ongoing

                               cn                                                                       id
                             Yunnan                                             Tanjung Putting National Park, Kalimantan, Borneo

                Article published in Mongabay News:
                                                                                Orangutan Foundation International (OFI) website:

                        Project's website:
                                                                    Article published in Mongabay News:
                                                                                      Interview of Dr. Galdikas in The New York Times:
          Project presentation including monitoring results

                 Project final report (April 15 2008)

                            CEPF article:

Related project: see Conservation of the Atlantic Forest biodiversity
focusing on the protection of the golden lion tamarin in its natural  Related project: Mountain Gorilla Conservation
habitat, Brazil (in this database)
          Dr. Long Yongcheng
            Project Manager
Yunnan Provincial Meteorological Building
                8th Floor
                                            OFI WEBSITE Email:
           77 Xi Chang Road
      Kunming, Yunnan Province
   People's Republic of China 650034
          (+86-871) 418-2966
                                                                    Awards: In June 1997, Dr. Galdikas won the prestigious "Kalpataru" award, the
The next steps for the project will be the formulation of the China highest honor given by the Republic of Indonesia for outstanding environmental
Golden Monkey Conservation Action Plan (still in process), the      leadership. She was also awarded with Tyler Prize for Environmental
support of the newly created GMC, the creation of an International  Achievement, Institute of Human Origins Science Award, Officer, Order of
Yunan Golden Monkey Center, the setting up the community-based Canada, PETA Humanitarian Award, United Nations Global 500 Award, among
nature reserve in two sites (Bamei and Nanren-Shayong).and the      many others.
continuation of all the existing initiatives..                      Future developments: The next goals are to develop ecotourism. Dr. Galdikas
The project manager would like to promote tourism in the region, as hopes that an increase in the fees—currently $5 per day per person—that
it is an “ultimate incentive” which has much potential to mobilize  tourists pay to visit the park can generated more revenue and encourage the
local governments’efforts.                                          local government to see the economic virtues of ecotourism.

                                                                    Dr. Galdikas is due to answer in November 2008
                       complete                                                 complete

                                                         Ciment company Lafarge's biodiversity strategy through
Sustainable Tourism in the Srepok Wilderness, Cambodia
                                                             rehabilitation of quarries: an example in Spain

                      ecotourism                                        business and biodiversity

                    protected area                                        endemic plant species

                  wildlife conservation                                      ciment quarries

               community empowerment                                            drylands

                                                                          With the nearly 1000 quarries Lafarge operates around the globe, the
                                                                          group’s initiatives to promote biodiversity can play a useful role. Today,
                                                                          Lafarge has made a commitment to screen all its quarries around
                                                                          the world according to criteria validated by WWF International
                                                                          and introduce a biodiversity development plan on all sites with
                                                                          potential in terms of rare animal and plant species, in partnership
The dry forests in the Srepok Wilderness Area (SWA) of Cambodia
                                                                          with local environmental associations.
contain some of Southeast Asia’s last significant populations of iconic
animals such as Asian elephant, tiger and gaur. A serious decline in      The Ypes-Ciruelo quarry has been extracted since the early 1970’s.
species populations in the last few decades due to unsustainable          This quarry is on a large acreage of a rich but shallow limestone. It
harvesting and habitat loss has prompted urgent action from the           extends on more than 200 ha and is located in the semi-continental
Government, WWF, and other local partners to address this trend.          part of SPAIN, in the semi-aridic hills usually dominated by bushes and
                                                                          olive trees. The environment of the quarry includes the Thyme and
                                                                          Alfa-grass fields and with Kermes Oaks bushes. Two endemic
                                                                          protected species of the Iberian peninsula have been identified
                                                                          (Limonium tolentanum and Gypsophila bermejoi) in the surrounding
The Srepok Wilderness Area Project2, aims to: "restore the once
populations of large mammal species in the Srepok Wilderness Area.       The restoration project was intended to:
(SWA) through community based natural resource management and            - Identify the most interesting habitats and species and helping to
by developing ecotourism as a source of income for local                 accelerate their arrival on restored land through restoration
communities". Project's objectives are:                                  management. (2 habitats and 2 of their characteristical species)
a) To improve natural resource management through increased              - Take advantage of the quality of the environment, the size of the
community participation in natural resource use decision-making, and     quarry and its situation close to 2 big cities to encourage ecological
to ensure access and sharing benefits of the associated economic         awareness raising.
benefits;                                                                - Use the designated area as a family cross-country cycling for
b) To initiate wildlife ecotourism activities in the SWA                 employees and neighbors.
c) To establish community-based monitoring of indicator species in       Operations included :
order to track the progress of wildlife restoration and inform natural   - Monitoring of the history of natural recolonization
resource management efforts, through training and mapping                - Evaluating the conditions of success of the most interesting habitats
workshops for example.                                                   - Encouraging these opportunities for biodiversity in the rehabilitation
d)To increase the wildlife populations of the area through               process through management of the earth moving operations of
conservation law enforcement. Ranger patrolling to fight illegal         restoration.
poaching and logging is planned and monitored using MIST surveys.
a) Core protection zone and surrounding conservancies’ boundaries       Some of the targeted habitats and species have been observed on the
has been established, and co-management agreements endorsed by          quarry ground and 2 of the protected endemics are already
communities and local government.                                       recolonising the quarry. Return of bees (adapted to some of the
b) A socio-economic status established, and a tourism economic          restoration targets in habitats and development of honey harvesting)
feasibility study completed; the SWA Community Tourism Council was      has been observed too.
established, and the SWA tourism plan developed and endorsed.           A botanical and avian field observation track on the quarry was
c) Baseline biological data collated and analysed; Communities, Gov’t   created, as well as a larger Cycling circuit including posters stops and
institutions and CBOs participate in wildlife surveys.                  observation hides.
d) 10 teams from 5 outposts patrol the SWA. There is a confirmed        A visitor’s and education center has been built.
presence of a growing number of large mammal species in the MPF         School packages and visit programs have been designed with the
including the repeat confirmation of tiger and wild water buffalo       University; this proves a great occasion to share and spread this
presence, as well as leopard and elephants.                             knowledge with school children on the botanic and avian field track

Area of forest, agricultural aquaculture ecosystems under sustainable
                                                                                       Ecological footprint and related concepts

       Trends in abundance and distribution of selected species                Trends in abundance and distribution of selected species

                                                                          Health and well being of communities who directly depend on local
       Indicator of access and benefit sharing (to be developed)
                                                                                           ecosystem goods and services
Implementation: International Institute on Environment and
                                                                       Implementation: Lafarge
development (IIED) and WWF-Cambodia
                                                                       Scientific partner : The University of Castilla La Mancha (Prof.
Funding: Darwin Initiative
                                                                       Santiago SARDINERO)
Support: Ministries of Agriculture, Forest and Fisheries (Forestry
                                                                       NGOs partners : WWF Spain on communication issues; Local Cross
Administration), Environment, and Tourism; The Dry Forest Coalition;
                                                                       Country cycling association;
Mondulkiri provincial authorities and protection forest management
                                                                       Ecological restoration ingeneers from a renowned consultancy working
board; Mondulkiri communities; Phnom Prich Wildlife Sanctuary; and
                                                                       for National Parks in Spain
the Cat Action Treasury


                                2008                                                                 ongoing

                                 kh                                                                    es
                         Mondulkiri Province                                               Castilla La Mancha, Toledo

IIED webpage (summary):
     issues/environmental-economics/sustainable-tourism-srepok-                         Case study of Ypes-Ciruelo quarry

                       Annual report April 2007                                             Lafarge biodiversity index
                                                                            Lafarge general document: "Driving quarry rehabilitation: a simple
                    Progress report October 2007
                                                                                         system of monitoring and evaluation"

                          Monitoring report                                                 Lafarge sustainability report 2007

                         Article in BBC News:                        Lafarge/WWF partnership

                                                                      Related project: In March 2007, Holcim Lanka and IUCN Sri Lanka
                                                                      signed a Programme Agreement for a period of five years. The
                                                                      objective is to enhance marine biodiversity by rehabilitating a
Related project: "Co-management of Forests and Wildlife in Bi Doup- degraded reef along the South Western coast of Sri Lanka where
Nui Ba Nature Reserve, Vietnam " - supported by Darwin Initiative for over the last 10 years, more than 50% of the corals from the known
                           2007-2010. See:                            reefs have been degraded by both natural and human intervention.
                   Most of the destruction was to produce lime for masonry construction.
                                                                      Contact: Rashila Tong, P.E. Holcim Secondee, IUCN Species
                                                                      Programme- Office +41 22 999 0157- Fax +41 22 999 0015- Mobile
                                                                      +41 79 599 7990-

                                                                          Related project: another quarry rehabilitation implemented by Holcim
                                                                          in New Zeland. See:
                           Related project: another quarry rehabilitation implemented by Holcim
                           in Spain. See:

                           “Tailing Reservoir revegetation project ” in Brazil: Tailings ponds are
                           reservoirs constructed in mined-out areas where bauxite residue is
                           thickened with no addition of chemical products. After drainage, the
                           now-empty reservoirs are prepared for planting, using seeds of native
                           With an average annual investment of US$2.6 million, the project
                           involves technological development and monitoring of the pond
                           revegetation. The return of the tailings to the mined-out area avoids
                           the use of new areas for its storage, avoiding the deforestation of
                           about 1,200 hectares of Amazon forest during the operation's life

                                                     Pierre de Prémare
                            Lafarge – VP Environment and Public Affairs quarries, Aggregates &
   James MacGregor                                        Concrete
         IIED                         61 rue des Belles Feuilles, 75116 Paris, France                           tel: +33 1 44 34 12 47
                                                  mob: +33 6 85 94 68 16
The project has secured funds beyond year 2007-2008 that will enable
continuation of the project goals. The MOM system monitoring is being
developed, and results on species distribution will come when the
system is fully operational.
       complete                               More information to come

                          MicoValdorva : Sustainable management of wild fungus-producing
Pedra Tosca Parc, Spain
                                        forest ecosystems in Valdorva, Spain

   urban development                                mushroom

  restoration measure                           forest management

      ecotourism                                nature conservation

environmental education

     protected area
The “Bosc de Tosca”, situated within the Natural Park of the Volcanic         The Valdorba region’s main ecosystems are meadows, woodlands and
Area of la Garrotxa in northern Spain, was once a major European forest.      traditionally cultivated land. The area boasts a wide variety of wild
The forest was primarily home to oak trees, until the beginning of the 19th   mushrooms, the demand for which has increased greatly in recent years.
century when they were cut down for coal and wood. After deforestation,       In Navarra, most mushrooms of interest grow in woodland areas owned
the area underwent a process of land clearing to prepare the land for         by local authorities and managed by the Navarra Regional Government.
cultivation; the volcanic stones were removed from the land, creating         However, mushroom production and collection is generally not controlled
small cultivatable plots enclosed by walls built with the stones. Today the   and managed in a sustainable manner. The lack of management often
“Bosc de Tosca” is threatened by the growing city of Olot and unchecked       leads to conflicts between landowners and mushroom collectors.
activities, such as illegal waste sites and the proliferation of shanty       Furthermore, in the long-term, unsustainable picking practices are
towns. The environmental degradation of this area is further accelerated      threatening to have important negative impacts on the mushroom
due to the extinction of traditional crops, changes in agricultural           populations, affecting soil fertility, plant development, and the
systems and irrigation problems.                                              overall equilibrium of the natural ecosystems.
                                                                              Micovaldorva enables rural communities to achieve a sustainable balance
                                                                              between economic development and, the protection of their mushrooms
                                                                              as a natural resource, as well as the related ecosystems and landscapes.
The project aimed to restore the “Bosc de Tosca" through:
a) the creation of a Pictorial scenic park with thematic walking routes,      The objective of the project was to establish an integrated management
which integrates artistic and cultural activities with environmental          system for mushroom-producing ecosystems in the Valdorba region,
resources. Recovery actions were carried out in the project area with the     promoting a responsible and sustainable use of mycological resources,
removal of rubbish and dense vegetation to facilitate the restoration of      while generating social and economic benefits.
walls, shelters and artigas, that form a rich biotope for both flora and      A prior study of the comarca at ecological and socioeconomic levels was
fauna.                                                                        conducted throughout the first year of the project. 11 types of forest and
b) The recovery of traditional crops, whose use is not bound by the           43 types of mushroom with commercial interest were studied with their
logic of productivity, together with the practice of environmentally          respective distribution maps throughout Valdorba.
friendly agricultural techniques. The crops are selected, taking their        Mycological management plans, technical plans and forestry
environmental benefits into account, their attractiveness in the landscape    programmes were elaborated, integrating environmental and economic
and their potential to provide an educational value. Farmland recovery has    criteria to achieve a sustainable production of mushrooms. A truffle sales
been carried out in conjunction with the reforestation of those areas with    model has been generated in which the producer can obtain 30% more
the greatest visual impact using native plant species (oak, fruit trees and   over normal profits by selling them directly to the end consumer. A
species of river trees and old vine stumps) . In order to provide water to    tourism-based model, on the other hand, was created. It included the
the artigas and alleviate short-term droughts, a retention and distribution   creation of a series of six routes for mushroom collecting, and eco-tourism
system using underground water was created.                                   offers that combine accommodation, gastronomic offers focusing on
                                                                              mushrooms, courses and guided walks.
The result of this task has been the configuration of the ”Parc de Pedra
Tosca” in which actions of recovery and intervention have been
undertaken with the cooperation of private landowners with public and        In total, 72 ha of woodland were managed using forestry practices based
private entities. The creation of a “Nature Reserve” has been achieved.      on sustainable mycological resources management. 17 ha of land were
More than 30,000 people visited the Park. Every year, a set of               reforested and mycorrhized trees planted.
sustainability focused activities are carried out in the Pedra Tosca Park.   20 has of truffle replanting has been carried out whose estimated
26 hectares of the woods of the “Bosc de Tosca” have been restored           production is between 3,000–4,500 €/ha per year. 10 courses on truffle
for tourist use and natural conservation. The recovery of 48 farming         culture have been carried, 1 tourist package for collecting truffles, a
artigas and traditional environmentally-friendly farming techniques, the     tasting and lodging at a rural home has been created. 7 tourist routes
application of ecological agriculture without the use of fertilizers and     have been created for collecting mushrooms in the region.
pesticides, the training of future farmers withsustainable management        It is estimated that the project contributed directly to a 30% increase in the
techniques, and the awareness and education of our citizenstowards the       project area’s hotel occupancy, with 500 visitors/year attributable to
environment are the main achievements which have helped to promote           region’s mushrooms and truffles.
the biodiversity of the area.

                      Coverage of protected areas                                  Trends in extent of selected biomes, ecosystems, and habitats

                                                                                 Health and well being of communities who directly depend on local
     Trends in extent of selected biomes, ecosystems, and habitats
                                                                                                  ecosystem goods and services

  Area of forest, agricultural aquaculture ecosystems under sustainable
                                                                                                  Biodiversity for food and medicine

         Proportion of products derived from sustainable sources                      Indicator of access and benefit sharing (to be developed)
Implementation: municipality of Les Preses
                                                                         Implementation: Municipality of Leoz
Financial support: LIFE (European Commission financial instrument for
                                                                         Funding: LIFE (European Commission financial instrument for the
the Environment)
                                                                         Environment), Navarra Government, Energía Hidroeléctrica de Navarra
Partners: municipality of Orot ; Territory and Landscape Foundation of
                                                                         Partners: Technological Forest Centre of Catalonia, Valladolid University,
Caixa, Catalonia ; Environmental department of Catalonia, General
                                                                         Orbalan S.L., “Trigo Limpio” Ecologic Agriculture Community
Direction of Natural patrimony and Natural areas.

                               15-Sep-02                                                                  3-Sep-01

                               15-Sep-05                                                                  ongoing

                                   es                                                                        es
                               Catalonia                                                                  Navarra

                         LIFE project summary                                                      LIFE project summary

                             Project's report                                                        Project's summary
  Website of the municipality of Los Preses (only available in catalan):
                                                                              Project's website:

Related project: Project Twin Streams - rehabilitation of a peri-urban area
                                                                                  Esther Capellán
Municipality of Les Preses:              
                                                       Esther Caellan is due to send up-to-date information before the end of
Micovaldorba has been declared by the United Nations as one of the best
practices in sustainable development in the world during the 2002-2004
period and has received the prize for the best practice in sustainable
development in Navarra for this same period.
                           complete                                              complete

EBEX21: Emmissions/Biodiversity exchange project, New Zeland   "Fish to feed HIV affected families in Malawi”

                         reforestation                                       sustainable fishing

                      carbon emissions                                          aquaculture

                   business and biodiversity                                        HIV

                      ecological footprint                                       agriculture
                                                                              As fish caught from natural lakes and streams have traditionally been an
                                                                              important part of the diet in landlocked Malawi, increasing population
New Zealand biodiversity is typified by many endemic species like the
                                                                              and declining catches reduced annual per capita fish consumption
flightless kiwi and kokako, the dinosaur descendent, tuatara, and many
                                                                              from 14 kilograms in the 1970s to 4.2 kilograms in 2005. Aquaculture
different plant species.
                                                                              has since been seen as an exit option to relieve pressure from dwindling
However the introduction of aggressive weedy plants and animal pests, the
clearance of land for agriculture and urbanization, the erosion of land after capture fisheries, fight overfishing and environmental degradation
forest clearance, and the fragmentation of once continuous habitat, have      and increase fish production and consumption. The project “Fish to feed
had devastating effects. 33 species of bird are known to have become          HIV affected families in Malawi” implemented by WorldFish Center in
extinct, and many reptile and amphibian species, invertebrates, and plant     collaboration with World Vision with funding through Global Giving in
species are threatened or locally extinct.                                    southern Malawi, helps HIV/AIDS affected and infected poor families
A very significant proportion of the New Zealand land area is under           including women to live a better life with nutritious food on the table and
government protection. But conservation resources are severely stretched money in their pockets through appropriate adoption of Integrated
and have to be focused on relatively few, high priority areas. There is a     Aquaculture-Agriculture (IAA) technologies to the needs of the
need for a much wider engagement of land-owners in the protection and         affected families.
restoration of biodiversity.
                                                                                 The project assists farmers by digging small, rain-fed ponds of about 20
EBEX21 carbon credits are a unique type of forest carbon credit, because         meters by 10 meters on their land. The farmers use the ponds to raise
the project does not actually plant trees. Instead, it carefully chooses sites   commonly cultivated fish species such as tilapia. Farm and kitchen
that will naturally regenerate into forest. The sites are typically privately    waste serves as food for fish and when the ponds are emptied, a rich
owned marginal farmland that has been retired from agricultural production.      layer of silt can be dug from the base - to use as fertiliser. They can use
The majority of the revenue is given to the landowner to replace the income      it to grow maize, which in turn ensures that the goats and chickens keep
lost from retiring the land out of production.                                   popping out manure for the pond. It's a perfect circle, or what we call an
EBEX21 works with businesses to set targets for reducing emissions               integrated agriculture-aquaculture (IAA) system.
over a certain time period, while investing in the restoration of forests as     Labor requirements are not intensive—children and the elderly can
both a carbon sink and biodiversity reserve. Purchasers to date have             assist—making the ponds easy to manage for households affected by
approached EBEX through Landcare Research’s carboNZeroCert™                      the AIDS pandemic. The fish supply essential protein, calcium, and
programme (carboNZero) with a goal of attaining “carbon-neutral” status.         vitamin A - essential for children and the elderly, and those with
The project also works with land-owners to make land available under             HIV/Aids.
permanent protection through best management practices. Forests are              A latest research project aims to quantify the nutritional value of different
protected either through covenants-in-perpetuity or long term forest             species of tilapia.
management agreements. On-site audits are carried out every five years           School feeding programs are initiated, encouraging primary schools to
to monitor gains in carbon stocks and indigenous plant diversity.                assist in constructing ponds, stock the ponds with fish and use the fish
                                                                                 in the existing feeding program.
In the six months since its launch, EBEX21 has attracted over thirty             WorldFish has introduced aquaculture to 1,200 HIV affected families in
businesses to the first stage of footprinting emissions and discussing           Malawi - doubling their average annual income and increasing their
reduction options. Four organizations have made an initial investment in         intake of fish by 150%. The ponds have proven capable of producing
restoring bush.                                                                  1,500 kilograms of fish per hectare each year, which often leaves
The EBEX project has thus far succeeded in providing financial incentives        some excess food available to be sold to pay for medical care and
for the restoration of 5,000 hectares of new indigenous forest, with a           household needs.In addition, some farmers have started growing
further 10,000 hectares pledged for immediate utilisation once integration       valuable crops like bananas and guava on the perimeter of their ponds,
of the project with the Government registries for carbon credit sale from        taking advantage of the water that seeps into the surrounding soil to
forest sinks becomes feasible. Forty New Zealand businesses or events            keep their plants thriving.
certified by carboNZero, and 250 further clients on a household register,        A WorldFish impact study shows that between 1999 and 2004, the
have thus far participated in the EBEX project through the purchase of           number of fish farmers in Malawi grew by 300 percent.
forest sink credits.                                                             A 2006 nutrition survey by World Vision found that for households
Since 2007 all land management agreements are between the Crown and              adopting the integrated agriculture-aquaculture approach to farming, in
the landowner. These agreements ensure: farm animals are removed and             three years malnutrition among children under five dropped from 45
the site is fenced off to prevent grazing, weed and pest control, no trees are   percent to about 15 percent.
harvested, native forest is the intended long-term use for the site and          Nineteen (19) ponds have now been constructed through school
carbon credits therefore remain on-site forever.                                 programs and stocked with fish. All schools have now opened maize
                                                                                 and vegetable fields that are being irrigated from the pond water.

   Area of forest, agricultural aquaculture ecosystems under sustainable
                                                                                         Proportion of products derived from sustainable sources

                                                                                   Health and well being of communities who directly depend on local
                  Ecological footprint and related concepts
                                                                                                    ecosystem goods and services

                                                                                  Area of forest, agricultural aquaculture ecosystems under sustainable
      Trends in extent of selected biomes, ecosystems, and habitats
                                                                       Implementation: Worldfish Center
New Zeland Business Council for Sustainable Development (NZBCSD)       Partners: World Vision
AND Landcare Research, a national environmental research Institute     Funding: Global giving


                               ongoing                                                                ongoing

                                  nz                                                                      mw

                           NZBCSD webpage: Project's keyfacts:

                           Project summary                                                      WorldFish summary
                EBEX21 website:                                                   Press release

EBEX21 Newsletter Issue May 13, 2008 about Emissions Trading Scheme:                                     Article in BBC News:

                             EBEX21's booklet                                    CGIAR webpage:

Example of an EBEX21 partner: Adventure South
This firm gives tourists the opportunity to experience the New Zealand
natural environment through adventure sports and more gentle outdoor
recreation. The firm’s success is linked strongly to the natural values of the
country and to its customers’ attraction to our native ecosystems.
Adventure South saw EBEX21 as the preferred mechanism for offsetting its
greenhouse gas emissions footprint that arises from its tour buses and fuel

Another EBEX Partner: Grove Mill Winery
Grove Mill Winery, has publicly chosen to associate itself with credits from
indigenous forest regeneration. Grove Mill Winery was the first winery in the
world to achieve carboNZero certification and they have deliberately sought
credits from regenerating forest within their immediate area, strengthening
economic development in the region and consciously reinforcing the
connection between their product and the local environment.
Related article on business and biodiversity and carbon markets: Merryll
Lynch invests $9M in reforestation project in Aceh, Indonesia. See:

                             Fiona Carswell
                                                                                           Daniel Jamu,
                                                                            Regional Director - East and Southern Africa
                   Landcare Research New Zealand Ltd
                                                                                           P.O. Box 229
                        PO Box 40, Lincoln 7640
                                                                                          Zomba, Malawi
                          Gerald Street, Lincoln
                                                                                          +265 1 536 298
                          T: +64 3 321 9631
                          F: +64 3 321 9998
                                                                           This person was contacted but did not replied.
EBEX21 has negotiated its status within both the Permanent Forest Sinks
Initiative (PFSI) and the Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS). At present,
                                                                           "Urban" fish farming could be the key to success in the longterm - by
landowners are only able to sign up to the PFSI scheme but will have the
                                                                           easing the burden on Lake Chilwa's precious natural resources.
option to migrate to the ETS. Once completed, EBEX21 offsets will be
Kyoto units and they will be listed on the New Zealand Emission Unit
Register (NZEUR). For more details see in "references" the link to EBEX
                         complete                                                  report to come

Involving local communities in the conservation of Kahuzi-   Daintree Rainforest Conservation Initiative and Cassowary
                   Biega National Park                                    Conservation project, Australia

                      protected area                                           rainforest conservation

                          forests                                                   revegetation

                          gorilla                                                 wildlife corridor

                     artisanal crafting                                       stewardship programme
Kahuzi Biega National Park was established by presidential law in
1970, and recognized by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site in             Australia’s tropical rainforests are the oldest and one of the most biodiverse
1980. The park's biological richness is immense. It contains intense   repositories of life forms on this planet. These small refuges of flora and
forest diversity with many endemic species. The park was               fauna, some 140 million years old are under threat in the World Heritage
established to protect 200-300 eastern lowland gorilla.                Listed Daintree forest of far north Queensland in Australia.
In 1997, UNESCO inscribed Kahuzi Biega National Park on the list       About 3,000 plant species from 210 families are found in the rainforest. This
of World Heritage Sites in Danger. The causes of destruction in        area is also home to about a third of Australia's 315 mammal species - 13 of
Kahuzi Biega National Park are many and implicate actors on            these species are found nowhere else in the world.
different levels. The government has been ineffective at ensuring      However, a disastrous subdivision of land in the 1980’s saw an influx of
protection of the natural resources. Tracking and poaching             private landowners and a rise in tourism. This pressure has resulted in a
continue unchecked. The unstable political and military                combined effort by Government and private citizens to save the Daintree and
situation in DR Congo has caused increased destruction of the          the surrounding tropical rainforest.
park and increased difficulties in conservation. Overcrowding in       The Australian Rainforest Foundation (ARF) is leading the recovery of the
the area of Kahuzi Biega National Park is a serious problem for its    Daintree rainforest through a buy back of freehold land for conservation
natural resources. The gorilla population especially is threatened     using binding conservation covenants on the land title and by
by poaching and logging that destroy its natural habitat, and          revegetating rainforest once cleared for farming.
animals are often caught in snares.
POLE POLE Foundation (POPOF), created in 1992, develops
                                                                         The ARF leads two main programs:
initiatives aimed at improving the living conditions of people in the
area and enlisting the local population in actively protecting natural   1. The Daintree Conservation Initiative. The ARF aims to buy up privately
resources. Projects include:                                             owned land in the Daintree rainforest to protect it from development, through
a) conservation through law enforcement (the POPOF has                   different fund-raising mechanisms: tax deductible donations through payroll,
                                                                         corporate partnerships (ABC tissues for example) or adoption of a square by
created patrols that monitor the animals and prevent poaching and
                                                                         private individuals. The ARF then offers conservation land for sale through
logging) and reforestation.
                                                                         conservation covenants. The centrepiece of the ARF’s efforts is restoration
b) environmental education at school. The goal is to train future
                                                                         of The George Mansford Reserve. The ARF is constructing a specialist
park guards and conservationists capable of implementing
sustainable practices within the park.                                   nursery to gather seeds and forest stems for use in the revegetation of the
c) job-creation to provide income to families that formerly relied on    tropical rainforest.
poaching and foraging in the park as a means of survival. The            2. The Cassowary Conservation Project. Under the working banner
POPOF assists Batwa (Pygmy) women living in the vicinity of the          ‘Operation Big Bird’ the Foundation plans to create a 250km wildlife corridor
park through a sewing project which provides training in                 along Australia’s Wet Tropical Rainforest coast. The project also aims at
dressmaking skills for rangers’ uniforms. Similarly, the sale of wood    conducting DNA research on cassowary ; implementing land acquisition and
carvings and embroidery done by Bantu and Batwa men and                  landowner stewardship payments ; managing invasive species (feral
women provides income to those who may have formerly been                pig) ; and community education.
poachers in the park. Pole Pole Foundation also encourage
farming by providing cattle.
                                                                     The ARF has acquired 143 hectares of land over 14 titles, valued at
The Pole Pole Foundation has encouraged tree-growing around the      $4,130,000 for the cost of $3,772,000. This is a leverage of 1.11 at a median
park, and has participated in the creation of tree nurseries 543     per hectare rate of $26,916. In May2008 the Australian Rainforest Foundation
000 trees were planted since 1998.                                   (ARF) transferred 12 blocks, totaling 22 hectares of Daintree rainforest to the
The POPOF has opened two schools in 1999 and 2004, with a            Queensland Environmental Protection Agency for inclusion into the Daintree
strong environmental emphasis.The number of training centres and     National Park.
women participating in the project has increased steadily since it
began. 127 women are running a coop with a cassava grinding mill,    The Garners Beach Cassowary Recovery facility was built in 2001.
a poultry farm and soon a micro credit project. There are also 28    Following the destruction by Cyclone Larry in the area the Foundation entered
former paochers are employed in the carving program program.         into a 6 month trial of a pig trapping program with Mission Beach company
The Pole Pole Foundation has also distributed 642 goats and 136      NQ Feral Pig Management Solutions Pty Ltd which commenced in June 2006.
chickens to Batwa and Bantu women in three different villages        Eleven pig traps were deployed in the area resulting in 327 pigs being caught
around the park to encourgae farming.                                and destroyed.
Human incursions in the habituated gorilla sector have               The Foundation accepted a contract from the Commonwealth for $130,000 to
decreased by 12% from 2005 to 2007. The number of gorillas           manage a research project into Indian Myna Birds, an imported pest variously
monitored has increased from 100 individuals in 2004 to 129 in       described as the ‘flying cane toad’ due to its persistence and environmental
2008. A Health and Conservation program is being implemented:        damage.
cattle is sampled in order to establish an epidemiologic plan

     Area of forest, agricultural aquaculture ecosystems under
                                                                            Trends in extent of selected biomes, ecosystems, and habitats
                      sustainable management

Health and well being of communities who directly depend on local
                                                                               Trends in abundance and distribution of selected species
                 ecosystem goods and services

     Trends in abundance and distribution of selected species                         Connectivity - fragmentation of ecosystems

  Trends in extent of selected biomes, ecosystems, and habitats                             Trends in invasive alien species

                                                                                              Coverage of protected areas
Implementation: Pole Pole Foundation (POPOF), NGO                   Implementation: Australian Rainforest Foundation
Partners: Canadian Ape Alliance, Zerofootprint (Canada), Rotary     Funding: Australian Government through Maintaining Australia’s Biodiversity
Club (Canada), Partners in Conservation (US) and Gorilla Org (UK)   Hotspots Program (2005-2007) ; Queensland Government ; Wet Tropics
Funding: Canadian Ape Alliance                                      Ministerial Council (grant in 2002)
                                                                    Partners: Cairn's City Council; several corporate partners (ABC tissues)

                              1992                                                                      1999

                            ongoing                                                                   ongoing

                               cd                                                                        au
                   Kahuzi-Biega National Park                                                    North Queensland

  POPOF's website:              Australian Rainforest Foundation's website:

                    Power point presentation                                                     Annual report 2007
Evaluation of the Daintree Conservation Initiative and the Cassowary
                     Conservation Project, 2007

            Cassowary genetics September 2007 report

                  Cassowary corridor - synthesis
Dominique Bikaba, who went to give a presentation at the SCBD
                                                                            Roger Phillips
                   on October 23, 2008
                                                                CEO - Australian Rainforest Foundation
            POPOF coordinator and co-founder
                                                                          P - (07) 40512000
                   P.O. Box 325 Bukavu
                                                                          F - (07) 40312400
                    470 Cyangugu, Rw
                                                                  P.O. Box 3006, Cairns Qld 4870
              Democratic Republic of Congo
                                                                    E -
                  Tel: +243-997-731-370
Awards: The project was a finalist for the 2006 Equator Initiative
Park                                                                  Future developments for Cassowary Conservation Initiative: "The project is
                                                                      ongoing. ARF has supported the Commonwealth Scientific Industrial
Future developments: Priority now is to develop markets for the       Research Organisation (CSIRO) the peak research body in Australia, to
artisanal products produced. Also, women are encouraged in            undertake DNA testing of cassowary dung collected at various sub sites
starting small businesses and assisted with small business loans.     within the Wet Tropics. This will assist in determining cassowary gender,
Ecotourism is being developed, but the war is the main challenge.     family relationships and hopefully give us a better understanding of their real
In the period of peace the park attracts around 10 tourists a week.   range and distribution. "
                   more information to come

Reducing Carbon Emissions form Deforestation in the Ulu Masen
                Ecosystem, Aceh , Indonesia



                        carbon finance

Aceh Province retains the largest contiguous area of forest left in
Sumatra. The Ulu Masen mountains are known to support a diversity of
forest types, due to their complex geology, climate types, range of soil
types and altitudinal range. Forests of Aceh are rich in tropical hardwood
trees like semaram, merbau, kruing, andmeranti, which fetch a high
price on international markets and make logging a lucrative business.
This and conversion of forested areas for new development projects
such as roads and other infrastructures, and plantation crops, are the
major factors driving deforestation and fragmentation. Official
government estimates suggest forests of Aceh continue to disappear at
a rate of approximately 21,000ha per year. It is clear that habitat loss
and fragmentation are the major threats to the biodiversity, particularly
the mega-fauna that require large areas of contiguous suitable habitat.
Poaching, which is projected to accelerate following the improved
security situation in the province, also represents a serious threat for
target species.
The project proponents can, with adequate carbon finance, institute
measures that will reduce legal and illegal deforestation, promote
reforestation and foster sustainable community forest management.
Carbon-finance funds will be established to offset all, or most, of the
opportunity costs of avoiding deforestation as well as support project
activities and operations. A substantial portion of carbon finance will be
deposited into these funds and will directly benefit local communities
and forest guardians. The project’s goal is reducing deforestation by
85%, through:
- Prevention of legal logging via land re-classification
- Prevention of illegal logging: support for enhanced
enforcement,community agreements, increased employment and
income for local people, recruiting forest wardens, conducting forest
monitoring and patrols, and improving synergies through law
enforcement and other relevant agencies.
- Reforestation, agro-forestry, mangrove restoration, fruit and coffee
microplantations, orchards and sustainable forestry
   Trends in extent of selected biomes, ecosystems, and habitats

Area of forest, agricultural aquaculture ecosystems under sustainable

 Health and well being of communities who directly depend on local
                  ecosystem goods and services

      Indicator of access and benefit sharing (to be developed)
Implementation: The Provincial Government of Nanggroe Aceh
Darussalam (Aceh)
Partners: Fauna and Flora International (FFI); Carbon Conservation Pty.
Ltd; World Bank Multi-Donor Fund’s Aceh Environment and Forest
project (AFEP)




                             project report

                          project evaluation
Related article on business and biodiversity and carbon markets: Merryll
Lynch invests $9M in reforestation project in Aceh, Indonesia. See:
None of these contacts have replied so far
Awards: This project has been audited under the Climate, Community &
Biodiversity Standards by independent 3rd party certifiers. It has been
silver-rated in February 2008.

Future developments: The project is planned to begin January 1, 2008
and to be in a development phase from 2008 – 2012, prior to post-Kyoto
frameworks. It is then scheduled to run for 25 years after 2012, until
                       complete                             Scientific paper to come before the end of 2008

Conservation of Cory's shearwater on the Hyeres islands   "Municipalities adopt Limburg species" , Belgium

                   marine ecosystem                                        Countdown 2010

                     protected area                                         local initiatives

                  endangered species                                       endemic species


                 invasive alien species
The Hyères archipelago hosts Mediterranean seabirds such as the Cory's
shearwater, the Mediterranean Shearwater and the storm petrel. These birds
                                                                                        More than 40% of the total surface of the Flemish nature is
nest in burrows which are only visited at night to avoid predation by large gulls. In
                                                                                        situated in Limburg. 90% of the ‘Flemish’ animals and plants can
the past, these species did not benefit from the same conservation measures.
                                                                                        also be found in Limburg. A lot of rare and endangered plant and
Although, the Cory's shearwater is included in Annex 1 of the Bird's Directive,
                                                                                        animal species even appear exclusively in Limburg. Globally the
both are listed as "least concern" by the IUCN.
                                                                                        natural resources disappear noticeably.
In recent years, the insular ecosystems of the Hyères archipelago, has suffered
                                                                                        All the municipalities of Limburg (44) signed the Countdown 2010
from several factors: increase in tourism, pollution (hydrocarbons, light and
                                                                                        Charter and committed themselves to do everything to combat the
sound) and an overabundant population of nesting yellow-legged gull ( Larus
                                                                                        decline of biodiversity. In 2005, they launched together with the
cachinans ). These plentiful colonies of gulls have generated ecological
                                                                                        financial support of the European Regional Development Fund
imbalances on the islands. They scavenge open-air dumps on the mainland to
                                                                                        (ERDF) the project ‘Municipalities Adopt Species of Limburg’
feed their chicks and consequently bring a huge amount of organic matter to the
                                                                                        (Gemeenten adopteren Limburgse Soorten – GALS).
islands. This has lead to an increase in the availability of food sources for
introduced predators such as rats and cats. In recent years, the populations of
these predators have increased rapidly.
                                                                                    GALS is an unique project: every municipality in Limburg was
The main aim of the project was to stop the decline and to ensure the long-term
                                                                                    asked to adopt a plant or an animal species which is typical for her
conservation of the Cory's shearwater and Yelkouan Shearwater Pon the Hyères
                                                                                    territory. That could be a species which is the ambassador of the
archipelago. The following actions were planned:
                                                                                    typical landscape of the municipality or it could be a species that
- Predator control by trapping (rats and cats) and removal of the yellow legged
                                                                                    can almost exclusively be found in that municipality. A species that
gull nests located inside the shearwaters colonies.
                                                                                    emphasizes the character of the municipality and for which the
- Restore and increase the carrying capacity of breeding sites by the creation of
                                                                                    municipality wants to make special efforts.
artificial burrows, the consolidation of deteriorated sites and the installation
                                                                                    For every municipality the project office wrote an action plan. It
of acoustic devices.
                                                                                    contains the outlines within which the municipalities can protect
- Develop educational and communication tools to increase awareness among
                                                                                    their adopted species. Territory actions, communication,
the general public, school children and professionals, of the existence and the
                                                                                    sensitization and education get their place in it. Monitoring both the
fragility of shearwaters.
                                                                                    adopted species as the developed activities receives due attention.
- Launch a study programme to improve scientific knowledge about the ecology
                                                                                    The action plan constitutes a manual by which the municipalities or
and biology of this poorly known species.
                                                                                    their inhabitants can manage their adopted species.
- Exchange of knowledge and know-how amongst managers and scientists
                                                                                     In June 2006 each one of the 44 municipalities of Limburg had
Between before the project and 2007, the populations increased from 195-245
                                                                                     adopted her species.
couples to 226-306 (Cory’s shearwater) and from 230-300 cuoples to 1 112-
                                                                                     On the 19th of February 2008 the action plans of the GALS-project
1 576 (Mediterranean shearwater). 36 artificial burrows were put in place and
                                                                                     have been handed over
both species of shearwater responded positively: traces of frequentation
                                                                                     during a final event. A lot of municipalities already undertook some
increased every year.
Other significant results of the project include:
                                                                                     In Wellen and in Peer, some new pools have been constructed and
- Improved knowledge of the Hyères island seabirds thanks to a monitoring
                                                                                     in Tessenderlo they are arranging a buffer zone around
                                                                                     Tessenderlo Chemie, where the common redstart can find a home.
- Improved knowledge and management of predators introduced on the Hyères
                                                                                     Others reserved a budget for the protection of ‘their’ species. In
islands: priority was given to the capture and export of 29 cats, and integrated
                                                                                     many municipalities working groups have been established. It are
control measures were put in place;
                                                                                     ‘think tanks’ which not only develop actions, but also evaluate how
- Limiting public access to the reproduction sites and controlling access to the
                                                                                     the actions are being executed and what the effects are for the
- Great number of publications, creation of an educational kit on Mediterranean
                                                                                     Some examples of practical actions: municipalities dig pools and
marine birds, presentation of an exhibition (88 000 visitors), presentations in 24
                                                                                     plant hedges, organize educational walks, name streets after their
schools, participation in 5 national and international events.
                                                                                     species or commission art projects.

            Trends in abundance and distribution of selected species                      Trends in abundance and distribution of selected species

                         Trends in invasive alien species
Implementation: Ligue pour la Protection des Oiseaux (LPO), an NGO which
represents Birdlife International in France.
                                                                               Initiative: Province of Limburg and Regional landscapes
Partners: National Park of Port-Cros; Mediterranean Institute of Ecology and
                                                                               Funding: European Regional Development Fund
Funding: LIFE Initiative, French ministry of Environment

                               September 1 2003                                                        December 1 2005

                               September 1 2007                                                        February 28 2008

                                       fr                                                                      be
                          Provence-Alpes Cote d'Azur                                                  province of Limburg

                                                                                                 Countdown 2010 webpage:
                              LIFE project sumary

             Project website:                                Project document-part 1
                            LIFE project final report                             Project document-part 2

    Scientific study on the Cory's sheawater conservation process (in french)     Power point presentation

                         Article from a periodic (french)

Related LIFE-funded project: "Conservation of marine birds of Marseille
islands". These marine birds face the same threats as cory's sheawater, such
as invasive rats species, tourism and human activities that destroy the natural
habitat. See:
Benjamin Kabouche, Directeur
          LPO PACA
     6, rue Jean Jaures                           Peter Baert
      83400 HYERES             Coordinator Biodiversity in the province of Limburg
     Tel : 04 94 12 79 52           
    Fax : 04 94 35 43 28
                                                                                 Awards: On the 21st of May, the project received the “Countdown
An After-LIFE conservation plan was elaborated, with 3 main objectives: 1)       2010-activity award”.
Integration and continuation of LIFE actions in the Natura 2000 ‘objectives      Future development: “A logical step would be a cooperation across
document’ (document d’objectifs — DOCOB) for the Parc National de Port-Cros.     the borders, for example the combining of adoption species to
2) Elaboration of a national conservation plan for the Yelkouan Shearwater and   habitats. (…) The province of Limburg, together with partners in
changing its IUCN status from "Least Concern" to "Near Threatened". 3) Further   other provinces, an interregional project. ”
designation of coastal and marine Natura 2000 sites in France.                   A scientific paper is due to be published before the end of 2008 -
                                                                                 contact Peter Baert
                complete                                                complete

                                           "Dolphin for development: chance for survival"project in Kratie and
Green roofs in the city of Malmo, Sweden
                                                           Stung Treng provinces, Cambodia

             green building                                       Dolphin conservation

         water sanitation system                                        Fisheries

                  birds                                               Food security

                 insects                                          Health and sanitation

            urban biodiversity
                                                                            The Mekong River population of the Irrawaddy Dolphin only inhabits the
                                                                            short stretch of the Cambodian Mekong from Kratie to the Lao border. The
Along with the spread of large cities, green areas are reducing in size and
                                                                            accepted estimate is of less than 100 individual animals remaining, a
are becoming fewer in total. The interest in making use of the unused
                                                                            spectacular decline form several thousand dolphins in the 1960s. Mekong
surface areas of roofs for green space has increased in recent years. A
                                                                            river dolphins are recognized as critically endangered, and their mortality is
green area can be created on a roof as a roof garden. A relatively new
                                                                            very high: in 2004 a total of 18 bodies were recovered from the river, 14
and interesting alternative to high maintenance roof gardens is the so-
                                                                            bodies in 2005 and 19 dolphins in 2006. The pools where the dolphins live
called extensive green roof i.e. those with a growing medium of six
                                                                            are also havens for a wide range of fish species, and are therefore favoured
inches (150 millimeters) or shallower. In recent years development of
                                                                            by local fishermen. An interim order has been issued by the Prime Minister
thinner and lighter earth layers has been achieved making it possible to
                                                                            to ban all gill-net fishing in the area, but it has strong negative consequences
green large roof areas, such as industrial buildings, with light allowable
                                                                            on the people who live along the river, and have no option but to fish. That’s
roof loadings.
                                                                            why it is imperative to provide them with alternative livelihood opportunities.
The goal of the 'Extensive Roof Greening' project was to achieve a wider          The short-term objectives are: a) Improved food security through improved
application of an innovative roof greening technique throughout                   agriculture, aquaculture and small livestock training and supply, and
Scandinavia through demonstration and dissemination of associated                 provision of income generation opportunities - through surplus production of
environmental benefits. An easily accessible facility, with around 9500m2         vegetables, fish and livestock, and introduction to tourism.
of industrial roofing laid with 'lightweight green roofing' of different types,   c) Improved health and sanitation - through provision of pump wells to
was created, called '"Augustenborg’s Botanical Roof Gardens".The                  supply clean drinking water and construction of biodigesters and toilets
action plan included the following steps:                                         throughout the village.
- Detailed planning and best practise study                                       The long-term objectives are: d) Reducing fishing pressure in the River (and
- Detailed engineering design                                                     potential dolphin entanglement in fishing gear), by provision of alternative
- Roof reparation/sealing/platform construction                                   livelihoods within the villages.
- Construction of green roofing elements                                          e) Contributing towards conservation of dolphins and the riverine ecosystem
- Seminar centre fit-out                                                          through a dedicated education and awareness program
- Quality control and auditing                                                    f) Encouraging local co-operation with conservation activities through village
- Experimentation and academic reporting.                                         development activities and training for project sustainability.
In 2001, the storm water system in the area was also replaced with a              The CRDT Project Team was able to conduct 109 meetings, workshops and
nearly 1000 m long new open system wich runs from IGRI (International             training sessions during 2007 project period. Approximately 895 beneficiary
Green Roof Institute) between the houses, through parks and ponds until           families have been participating with the project directly.
it reaches the old below ground system for storm water.
The construction of the demonstration facility for green roof installations   a) During 2007, the Project Team worked with 20 families, implemented
have been completed. Expectations have been met:                              pilot techniques to improve rice production, provided training courses on
- Green roofs ensure considerable reduction of the storm water run-off:       vegetable growing techniques and have successfully facilitated the
Green roofs provide a significant water regulation effect during rainfall     establishment of 83 integrated home gardens that are now producing
events. Up to 60 % of the yearly precipitation can be managed in-situ and     sufficient vegetables to supply food for beneficiaries’ home consumption. In
returned to the atmospheric hydrological cycle through evaporation and        2007, 147 families become involved in duck farming and 59 participated in
transportation.                                                               chicken raising activities. Community development tours were developed in
- Significant energy savings for heating can be achieved: the roof’s          2007 and tourism has proved to be a valuable income generation strategy
thermal insulation is better and provides active summer cooling through       for both CRDT and the village of Koh Pdao.
evaporation and transpiration effects.                                        c) During 2007, a total of 113 household Rain Water Collectors and 12
- Wider biodiversity in urban environment can be achieved: a study            community river hand pump systems were constructed.
conducted from 2001 to 2003 showed that in 2003, 28 bird species were         d) e) Despite dedicated efforts by the Cambodian Mekong Dolphin
found in the study area. This is the highest number since the onset of the    Conservation Project (CMDCP) and CRDT, 2007 saw 14 dolphin mortalities
study. Compared with 2002 two new species was observed (fieldfare and         f) The project team worked closely with village chiefs, VDC and group
common swift. In total 95 different species of insects were found, which is   leaders the target villages to share their experiences, and to help them
an increase with 6 compared to 2002. The numbers of mammals and               understand the importance of natural resource management and
molluscs are stable ( see below: "Report: Birds and Insects in                sustainable livelihood strategies.
Augustenborg Ekostad")

                                                                                 Area of forest, agricultural aquaculture ecosystems under sustainable
                Ecological footprint and related concepts

                                                                                   Health and well being of communities who directly depend on local
        Trends in abundance and distribution of selected species
                                                                                                    ecosystem goods and services

     Trends in extent of selected biomes, ecosystems, and habitats                      Proportion of products derived from sustainable sources
Implementation: Municipality of Malmo
Funding: grant from LIFE Environment 1998-2003; Swedish Department   Cambodian rural development Team (CRDT) with the help of WWF and Pro-
of Environment                                                                                Victimis Foudation

                                1999                                                            January 1 2006

                                2003                                                          December 31 2007

                                  se                                                                   kh
                             Malmo City                                                 Kratie and Stung Treng provinces

                                                                             Website of Cambodian Rural Development Team (CRDT):
                          Project summary

              Project's website:                                       2007 final report
Report: Birds and Insects in Augustenborg Ekostad (this study conducted
 from 2001 to 2003 surveys the distribution of mammals, birds, molluscs                             Interim report 2008
           and insects species in green roofs and water ponds)

                                 Brochure                                                      Baseline Survey Report 2008

   Article: "The influence of extensive vegetated roofs on runoff water

                                                                            “Fight to save Cambodian Dolphin Continues ”, by Rory Byrne, Kratie,
Related article: a very good general scientific paper on greenroofs                     Cambodia, September 1st 2008 in VOA News:
and biodiversity: English Nature Research Reports n. 498: "Green            
Roofs: their existing status and potential for conserving biodiversity in
urban areas"
                                       Related project: WWF Cambodian Mekong Dolphin Conservation. See:

          Anna Bernstad
Augustenborgs Botanical Roof Garden                                    Erin Guth                                    Management advisor, CRDT
          Ystadvägen 56                                          Mobile: 017 246 322
              Malmö                                               Office: 023 357 230
    Telephone: + 46 40 94 85 20            Would like to be kept informed of how SCBD will use her project

PSA PROGRAMME, Pago por Servicios Ambientales, Costa Rica

             Payments for environmental services

                    Hydrological services

                     Forest conservation

                    Carbon sequestration

                   Agro-pastoral systems
Forest Law No.7575, enacted in 1996, explicitly recognized four environmental
services provided by forest ecosystems: (i) mitigation of greenhouse gas
emissions; (ii) hydrological services, including provision of water for human
consumption, irrigation, and energy production; (iii) biodiversity conservation; and
(iv) provision of scenic beauty for recreation and ecotourism. The law provides the
regulatory basis to contract landowners for the services provided by their lands,
and establishes the National Fund for Forest financing (Fondo Nacional de
Financiamento Forestal, FONAFIFO).
The purpose of the project is to increase the production of environmental services
in Costa Rica by supporting the development of markets for services supplied by
privately owned forests, including protection of biological diversity,
greenhouse gas mitigation, and provision of hydrological services. The global
environmental objective is to foster biodiversity conservation and preserve
important forest ecosystems through conservation easements on privately-
owned lands out of protected areas in the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor. The
project will strengthen offices within the Ministry of Environment and Energy
(MINAE), as well as local and regional non-governmental organizations, to reach
the following outcomes:
a) an additional 50,000 hectares of privately owned lands in Tortuguero, La
Amistad Caribe, and Osa Conservation Areas incorporated into Costa Rica’s
conservation easement program;
b) establishment of a financial instrument to support conservation easements in
Costa Rica over the long term; and
c) increased landowner participation in, and benefits from, forest conservation-
related activities within the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor in Costa Rica.
The forest area enrolled in the PSA program at the end of 2005 represented
270,000ha, i.e 10% of the country’s forest area.
The PSA program has been very popular with landowners, with requests to
participate far outstripping available financing. Forest conservation has
consistently been the most popular contract, accounting for 95% of enrolled area
at the end of 2005. Studies estimate that primary forest cover nationwide in
2005 was about 10% greater than it would have been without the PSA
Once fully implemented, the water tariff will provide about US$5 million a year to
FONAFIFO. Carbon financing will also provide a reasonably long-term income
stream for activities eligible under the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development
Mechanism. As noted, an initial sale of 0.61 million CO2e has been made to
World Bank’s BioCarbon Fund. FONAFIFO hopes to generate about S$1 million a
year from carbon sales by 2012.
PES to cattle farmers resulted in a 2.2% decrease in the total percentage area
of degraded pastures, and in an increase in the percentage area of improved
pastures with low and high tree density (10% of total area).

      Area of forest, agricultural aquaculture ecosystems under sustainable

  Health and well being of communities who directly depend on local ecosystem
                              goods and services
FONAFIO (National Fund for forest financing), and funds form World Bank, GEF
                      and KfW German Aid Agency




Report, “Payments for environmental services in Costa Rica”, by Stefano Pagiola,
                       World Bank, December 20, 2006

        Additional reports on alternative approaches to PES in spanish:
Effects of PES on land restoration in Agroforestería en las Américas N º 45 2007

Effects of PES on agropastoral systems, in Agroforestería en las Américas N º 45

  Effects of PES on land-use change, in Agroforestería en las Américas N º 45
Muhammad Ibrahim, regional cordinator for the silvopastoral project CATIE
A new project, “Maintreaming Market Based Instruments for Environmental
 Management” (MMBIEM) continues supporting the program since 2007.
                           complete                                                     complete

Eco-friendly coffins: a pilot project part from the Working for   Negative story: failure of a Community Conservation
              Water programme in South Africa                       Concession in Setulang (Kalimantan, Indonesia)

                     Invasive alien plants                               Community Conservation Compensation

              Payment for environmental services                  Integrated Conservation and development project (ICDP)

                        Wood products                                               Opportunity costs

                   Business and biodiversity                                             Logging

                                                                                     Forest clearance
The cost of funerals are crippling for the poor in many developing
countries and communities. In some cases, predatory industries have
been built around this vulnerability of the poor. In many such areas, a
“Mafia” has developed that controls this lucrative industry.               Setulang Village is located in the Malinau River watershed. In
The Working for Water programme (WfW) lanched in 1995 by the SA            2005, 945 people (226 households) lived in the village in five
government has cleared over one million hectares of invasive alien         community clusters, and practice a mix of shifting cultivation,
plant infestations across South Africa, which has yielded large amounts    agroforestry, and semi-permanent gardening, supplemented
of biomass. In certain circumstances, leaving this dry plant material in   by fishing, hunting, and gathering. The area, close to Kayan
the cleared area can exacerbate the risks and negative impacts of fire,    Mentarang National Park, is one of a few remaining patches of
                                                                           pristine forest in the lowland–mountain transition zone.
soil erosion and floods. The opportunity therefore exists for the
                                                                           Between 2000 and 2003, the area was threatened by a wave
biomass to be utilised for the production of wood products that
                                                                           of logging sweeping through the district, as well as by
over time would reduce the cost of clearing, thereby contributing
                                                                           increasing pressures to convert forest to other land uses, both
to the greater sustainability of clearing operations, and one of the
                                                                           of which threatened the biodiversity values of the region.
products that WfW intends to produce from this biomass is
The project is a two-year pilot project initiated in 2005 that works as a
partnership between the Working for Water programme, key
                                                                            The idea involved paying the community of Setulang to keep
Government Departments and faith-based groups.
                                                                            their 5300-ha forest intact rather than sell the logging rights to
1) Marketing and research: it was planned to develop an advocacy
                                                                            a timber company. The Center for International Forestry
                                                                            Research (CIFOR) discussed the basic idea of a Community
2) Production: Local people and especially women are trained in
                                                                            Conservation Concession with villagers at four meetings, and
carpentry or crafting. The objective was also to build a partnership
                                                                            it was received positively. They suggested using the
with the Department of Correctional Services. Awaiting-release
                                                                            prospective payments for such things as financing the costs of
prisoners were due to be trained in carpentry skills and then
                                                                            forest protection, strengthening land tenure through land
incorporated into coffin-assembly units post release.
                                                                            demarcation, and improving village infrastructure, with a
3) Distribution: The faith-based organizations were envisaged to be the
                                                                            preference for smaller periodic disbursements. Between July
distributors of the coffins and key partner in making pronouncements
                                                                            2002 and December 2003, CIFOR prepared three proposals:
against the culture of expensive funerals. On the distribution side,
                                                                            two for corporate donors and one for an international
additional agents have been brought on board to ensure that the coffins
                                                                            conservation organization.
reach the bereaved when and where they are needed.
                                                                             None of the three prospective donors (a foreign oil company, a
200 girls between 15 and 25 years old were trained in crafting and           large international bank’s corporate fund and an international
gardening through four skill-building courses. Half of the trained girls     conservation NGO) were convinced enough to support it. The
began earning steady income within 6 months by participating in village donors contacted wanted to pursue a more traditional
markets. 68 people, comprising mostly of women and youth have been Integrated Conservation and Development Project (ICDP).
trained in capentry, tree felling, business and life skills. All the trained Their reasons were :
people began to earn steady income in their first month of training by       a) None of the donors had a time horizon to make continuous
being part of the felling of trees to be used in the manufacturing of        payments over more than 3 years,
coffins and they are also part of the manufacturing of coffins. 408          b) All the potential donors felt uncomfortable ultimately with
families are being supported in terms of food, access to basic education the notion of contingent payments.
and health facilities due to these employment of 68 people by Eco-           c) The donors also raised two important legitimate concerns:
Coffins Programme.                                                           uncertain land tenure and the nature of the conservation
1900 coffins have been manufactured, and more than 300 persons               problem. One donor in particular was apprehensive about the
have been buried with dignity in these coffins. R55 000 in revenue was potential for a CCC to exacerbate inter-village conflicts over
generated. The Eco-coffins are being sold at R300 for the Rope-handle land.
Eco-coffin, R420 for the clear Gold-handle Eco-coffin, R440 for the dark- d) They identified “the risk of a too direct link between
stained Gold-handle Eco-coffin, R1,990 for the Eco-coffin Casket, and conservation and money given” (the NGO)
R100 for the Infant Eco-coffin.                                              e) They did not want to support a scheme that placed a cap on
                                                                             local land use (the bank)

                    Trends in invasive alien species

        Proportion of products derived from sustainable sources              Indicator of access and benefit sharing (to be developed)

       Indicator of access and benefit sharing (to be developed)

  Health and well being of communities who directly depend on local
                   ecosystem goods and services
Departement of Agriculture and Environmental Affairs with the financial
support of Alliance of religion and Conservation and the cooperation of
                                                                          Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR)
 Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, South African Council of

                                2005                                                            2002

                                2007                                                            2003

                                  za                                                              id
                           KwaZulu Natal                                                     Kalimantan

                         Project report, 2007                   

Media release by the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, 6 June
           Description of the Working for water programme

Related article: "Biological control in the management of invasive alien
     plants in Suoth Africa, and the role of the Working for Water
 programme", published in South African Journal of Science , 2004

Related article: "Scientific challenges in the field of invasive alien plant
 management", published in South African Journal of Science , 2004
Related article: "Invasive alien plants and water resources in South
   Africa- current understanding, predictive ability and research
 challenges", published in South African Journal of Science , 2004

                        Bekhi Dlamini
                                                                         Sven Wunder , Peter GH Frost Ramses Iwan Center for
                    Programme manager
                                                                                  International Forestry Research (CIFOR)
    KZN Department of Agriculture and Environmental Affairs
                                                                           Bruce Campbell Forests and Livelihoods Programme,
                     Private Bag X9059
                                                                       CIFOR, School for Environmental Research, Charles Darwin
            Pietermaritzburg, South Africa, 3200
                                                                       Jeffrey A. Sayer IUCN Landscapes and Livelihoods Initiative,
              Tel 033 355 9353 / 082 858 0907
                                                                                Lini Wollenberg The University of Vermont
                      Fax 033 355 9334
 Awards: The project won the Development Marketplace World Bank
            Award in 2005, and was awarded US$150,000.
      Future developments: The project is due to be replicated.
A non-profit organization is being established to recover the money for
                   the coffins sold in the long-term.
                 World Bank final report to come                                          complete

RISEMP, Regional Integrated Silvopastoral Ecosystem Management    Sustainable Management of Pimampiro's renewable natural
          Project in Colombia, Costa Rica, Nicaragua             ressources for the maintenance of water quantity and quality

               Payment for environmental services                          Payment for environmental services (PES)

                     Silvopastoral practices                                        Watersheds protection

                      Economic incentives                                               Water quality

                  Carbon-sequestration service                                        Incentive measures

                  Environmental benefits index
                                                                                Pimampiro is located in the highlands at an altitude of between 1,600
                                                                                and 4,000 metres above sea level, on the river Pisque watershed. The
About 38 percent (94 million out of 248 million hectares) of Central            municipality is regularly subject to water shortages. Despite the lack
America’s total land area is used as permanent pasture, and this area has       of hydrological information, the common perception is that the forests
expanded over the last decade in Costa Rica, Columbia and Nicaragua at a        ensure water supply, particularly during the dry season, and water
rate of between four and nine percent, mostly at the expense of tropical        quality, since the trees can prevent erosion. But the area has faced
forest. In the past, government-backed conversion of forest to other land       strong deforestation pressure for timber extraction, agriculture and
uses, such as large scale ranching, was one of the leading causes of            cattle raising. In 1985, Pimampiro had 19,000 hectares of primary
deforestation. Today poverty, joblessness and inequitable land distribution     forest and today there are less than 7,000 hectares (Municipalidad de
is forcing many landless peasants to clear the forest for subsistence           Pimampiro, 2002).
farming. In addition to the environmental problems caused by the initial loss   The project is a 1999 agreement between: DFC, an FAO-funded
of forest, traditional approaches to pasture are often unsustainable. After     project for community forest management, the NGO Cederena, The
an initial period of high yields, soil fertility is depleted and grass cover    Inter-American Foundation, a US donor, and the municipality of
diminishes, resulting in soil erosion, contamination of water supplies,         Pimampiro. Its objective is a “sustainable management of
air pollution, further loss of biodiversity, and degradation of landscapes.     Pimampiro’s Renewable Natural Ressources for the Maintenance of
                                                                                Water Quantity and Quality ”.
The main development objective of this pilot project is to introduce
payment incentives for environmental services to farmers on their             This PES system provides incentives for the people to conserve the
adoption of integrated silvopastoral farming systems in degraded              forest, through:
pasture lands in Colombia, Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Launched in July         - maintenance of forest capacity to regulate water quality and quantity
2002 by the Centro Agronomico Tropical de Investigacion y Ensenanza           - carbon sequestration
(CATIE), the project aims at                                                  - ecotourism
a) achieving local environmental and social benefits: sylvopastoral systems   - biodiversity protection
improve pasture and livestock productivity, provide the farmers with an       In the beginning of 2001 the municipality established a Water
additional income, improve the quality of soils, and reduce dependence on     Regulation for the Payment of Environmental Services for Forest and
agrochemicals                                                                 Páramo Conservation. The fund was created with an initial investment
 b) achieving global environmental benefits through creation of               of US$15,000, and an increase in water charges. It is managed by an
biodiversity corridors (trees being a refuge for biodiversity), landslides    ad-hoc comitte that determines the amount to be paid to each family
and erosion prevention, carbon sequestration                                  that owns lands in Nueva America, after verifying the property titles,
c) experiencing the management of incentives. Contracts were established      measuring the holdings and inspecting the condition of the land.
with farmers for annual on-going payments based on two point-systems, a       Landowners sign up a 5-year conservation agreement and receive
biodiversity conservation index and a carbon-sequestration index.             monthly payments based on available resources. A penalty system
d) developing guidelines for sector and environmental policies in terms of    exists in case of violations of the rules.
land use, environmental services and socio-economic development
                                                                       An hydrological analysis showed that the current payments, even low,
                                                                       represent an incentive for the producers since their opportunity cost to
                                                                       deforest at a 0.5Ha/year rate is the same as what they obtain in
                                                                       payments. If they chose not to deforest, PES increase their net
                                                                       income by 7%. There was a real improvement in water quantity
                                                                       and quality reaching the city, mainly due to the infrastructure
                                                                       improvements (undertaken by the municipality).
                                                                       There has been reduced intervention in forest and páramo land.
 The publication of the World Bank final report which was expected for Although monitoring shows that at some point there have been some
October 2008 has been delayed. The report should however be available violations to the agreements (in the form of slash-and-burn practices,
              before the end of 2008 - Contact John Ruiz.              unauthorised selective timber extraction and soil and undergrowth
                                                                       extraction), the frequency and intensity has reduced following
                                                                       introduction of the PES.
                                                                       Through the scheme, participants received technical assistance and
                                                                       training to develop agro-ecology projects (creation of organic
                                                                       family gardens) and agro-forestry projects (medicinal plants
                                                                       collection and commercialisation, and production of highly valued
                                                                       ornamental plants, like orchids).

 Area of forest, agricultural aquaculture ecosystems under sustainable
                                                                                          Water quality of aquatic ecosystems

              Connectivity - fragmentation of ecosystems                     Trends in extent of selected biomes, ecosystems, and habitats

                                                                           Health and well being of communities who directly depend on local
     Trends in extent of selected biomes, ecosystems, and habitats
                                                                                            ecosystem goods and services
                                                                          Local NGO CEDERNA (Ecological Corporation for the Development
 Centro Agronomico Tropical de Investigacion y Ensenanza (CATIE) and
                                                                          of renewable ressources). Funding: Inter American Foundation (IAF),
             other donors : Worlds Bank, GEF, LEAD-FAO
                                                                                            FAO, municipality of Pimampiro

                            August 1 2002                                                                1999

                           January 31 2002

                                co cr ni                                                                  ec
                                                                                                  Imbabura province

     Scientific paper "Paying for Biodiversity Conservation Services in
                         Agricultural Landscapes" :

          Report from the Environmental Economics Programme, January 2004
Project appraisal document from GEF   Paper presented at the ZEF-CIFOR workshop on PES in 2005

                                                   Hydrological analysis (in spanish)
Juan Pablo Ruiz,         Andrea Garzón, M.Sc.
               World bank                 Coordinadora de Proyectos
1818 H St – NW Washington DC 20443           EcoDecisión Cia. Ltda.
          Tel: 1(202)473-0347             Telefax: (593) 02 2450671
         Fax: (1 202) 522-0262            Celular: (593) 09 3579855
     or:       E-mail:
     Or;                 Skype: andreoskygs
 The publication of the World Bank final report which was expected for
October 2008 has been delayed. The report should however be available
              before the end of 2008 - Contact John Ruiz.
                complete                                  Scientific article to come in November 2008

                                             An organization of reponsible beef and grain producers who commit
The Vittel payments for ecosystem services
                                                     to better land management in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Payment for environmental services                          Responsible land management

               Water quality                                         Economic incentive

          Watersheds protection                                         Deforestation

         Business and biodiversity                            Social environmental responsibility

                                                                  Business and biodiversity
Vittel waters are characterized by a total absence of nitrites and a           In Mato Grosso (Amazonia), ranchers and farmers are getting organized in
particularly low level of nitrates. To be labeled ‘Vittel’, the water cannot   order to slow down deforestation and struggle against civil disobedience.
contain more than 4.5 mg of nitrates per liter and must not contain            Since the early 1970s, environmental groups have spent billions of dollars
pesticides. In the early 80s, the de la Motte family, owners of the Vittel     on conservation efforts in the Amazon, but have failed to slow the
brand, realized that the intensification of agriculture in the Vittel          destruction of its rainforests – the Brazilian Amazon has lost more than
catchment posed a risk to the nitrate and pesticides level in                  700,000 square kilometers (270,000 square miles) of forest in that time. As
Grande Source and consequently to the Vittel brand. The increased              donor dollars poured into the region, deforestation rates continued to
nitrate rate was caused primarily by the heavy leaching of fertilizers         climb, peaking at 73,785 square kilometers (28,488 sq mi) of forest loss
from the maize fields in the winter when fields are barren,                    between 2002 and 2004, before falling sharply in 2005 and 2006 due to
overstocking, and poor management of animal waste.                             declining commodity prices. A law makes landowners retain 50 per cent of
In 1988, Vittel proposed to farmers with land in the protection                their properties as forest reserve, and ranchers and farmers are also
perimeter that they transform their land into grassland, a solution            expected to maintain permanent protection areas (APPs) on hillsides and
outlined by a group of experts in the French Committee for the                 by waterways, but theses rules are not respected, resulting in soil erosion
Reduction of Water Pollution by Nitrates, but farmers felt the proposal        and biodiversity loss.
was not adapted to their production system and rejected it.
In 1989 Vittel, in partnership with the French National Agronomic           John Carter, a Texan landowner, created in 2004 in partnership with IPAM
Institute (INRA), launched a four-year research program in order to         (Amazone research Institute) Alianca da Terra, an association of
understand the farming systems. Simultaneously, another research            responsible beef and grain producers who commit to better land
led to the conclusions that in order to maintain nitrate rates below 4.5    management. The organization, supported by the Xavante indigenous
mg/l in the aquifer, the nitrate rate had to be lower than 10mg/l in the    tribe, :
root zone. A number of practices were identified to maintain this rate      a) supports the development of a national certification system through a
and a zero pesticides level, among which give up maize cultivation for
                                                                            registry of producers whose properties and management practices are
animal feed, compost animal waste, give up agrochemicals, and adopt
                                                                            surveyed by an environmental engineer and then audited by IPAM. Each
an intensive land-and-labour system.
                                                                            farm has to comply to rules to enter a Social Environmental
In 1992 Nestlé Waters, then owner of Vittel, created Agrivair, an
                                                                            Commitment register (CCS). The producers having in possession the
intermediary responsible for negotiating and implementing the
                                                                            Social Environmental Diagnosis of their property, it makes possible an
program. A package of incentives was developed: 18 or 30 year
                                                                            elaboration of environmental planning that looks for the regularization of
contracts, abolition of debt linked to land acquisition, subsidy of about
                                                                            their property.
200 euros/ha/year over five years, free labour to apply compost, free
                                                                            b) provides some incentive measures : Rabobank (a Dutch farm bank)
technical assistance including individual farm plans. The payments
                                                                            gives money for replanting on the basis that this will generate
are not based on the change in nitrate rates but on new farm
                                                                            saleable carbon credits, and an agreement was signed with Grupo
investment and the cost of adoption of new farming practices.
                                                                            Bertin, one of Brazil's biggest meatpackers.
Simultaneously, Agrivair also purchased lands available in the area.
                                                                      Though criticized by NGOs for its use of market forces, the organization
                                                                      now counts 18 employees and has completed 77 surveys covering 1.6
                                                                      million hectares of land.
The programme was ultimately successful.                              “Today we have more than 1.6 million hectares registered in our database
According to INRA: the nitrate rate in water increased from 1975 to   and the demand is increasing. We managed to introduce good land
1989, and then has become stabilized since 1989 ; there was also a    stewardship in areas of the agricultural frontier, allowing a better use of the
decrease in the winter nitrate rate, from 47,3 mgN03/liter in 1991- land and reducing the pressure for further deforestation ” (Aline
1992 to 41,7 mgN03/litre in 1994-1995.                                Maldonado, Alianca da Terra)
By 2004, all 26 farms in the area had adopted the new farming         Xingu pilot project is in process with 11 properties to develop carbon
system; 1,700 ha of maize had been eliminated; and 92% of the sub- credits: “Last year we started a project of rehabilitation of riparian buffer
basin was protected. The programme speeded up the retirement of       zones in partnership with Rabobank, which provided resources for this
the marginal farmers who sold their land to Agrivair. The number of   recovery. The bank had as a requirement, that the estate be registered in
farms in the sub-basin declined from 37 to 26 while average size farm the RSR. It was a pilot project of 40 ha and this year it will be 1,000 ha.
increased to 150 ha as the extensive production required additional   We are elaborating a carbon program with this project so that the carbon
land. A clear indicator of success has been the request from young    absorbed in this recovery would become carbon credits. ”
farmers who have taken over the family farm to enter into 30-year
contracts. At present, all farmers have signed 30-year contracts.

                 Water quality of aquatic ecosystems                           Trends in extent of selected biomes, ecosystems, and habitats

Area of forest, agricultural aquaculture ecosystems under sustainable
                                                                                         Connectivity - fragmentation of ecosystems

                                                                                  Proportion of products derived from sustainable sources
   Implementation: Agrivair (intermediary agency created by Nestle
    Partners: INRA (Institut National de la recherche agronomique)      Alianca da terra partnership with IPAM, Amazone research Institute
 through a Vittel Agriculture-Environment Programme called AGREV       (Brazilia), Woods Hole Research Center, Finance : David and Lucile
and International Institute for Environment and Development, London,    Packard Foundation (US), Blue Moon Fund, USAID agreement with
                                   UK.                                                     Rabobank and Grupo Bertin
       Funding: UK Department for International Development

                               1989                                                                   2004

                                 fr                                                                    br
                      Champagne-Ardennes                                                     Mato Grosso, Amazone

The Vittel payments for ecosystem services: a “perfect” PES case?”
                                                                                            Alianca da Terra website:
 Danièle Perrot-Maitre, September 2006, International Institute for
            Environment and Development, London, UK.

                 Scientific paper see pages 16-18                              IPAM website:
  INRA hydrological data: impact of new practices on water quality:
                                                                                          Social environmental comitment registeréeau

                       article on INRA's website:               Social Environmental Analysis of Example Farm

          Nestle Waters website:                            Article in, interview of John Carter:

                                                                          Finanacial Times article: Times

                                                                                                  Washington Post article
                                                                 Daniel Nepstad (scientist, works with IPAM)
Danièle Perrot-Maître • Email:    Woods Hole Research Center 149 Woods Hole Road Falmouth, MA
Forestry and Land Use, Natural Resources Group, International    02540-1644
 Institute for Environment and Development 3 Endsleigh Street,   Phone: 508-540-9900 x131 ax: 508-540-9700
       London WC1H 0DD, UK • Tel: +44 (0)20 7388 2117 •          Aline Maldonado Locks ( Alianca da Terra contact)
                     Fax: +44 (0)20 7388 2826          
         ou Marc Barbier, INRA:          Gina Cardinot (IPAM)
                                                                 skype contact: ginacardinot
                                                                   wA proposal is being studied that seeks the creation of incentives to the
                                                                   environmental recovery through the isolation of APP's (Permanent
                                                                   Preservation Areas), starting from the industrial section, where the
                                                                   members of SEC would receive a bonus on its slaughtered cattle price, to
                                                                   invest in this recovery.
                                                                   wIn partnership with IPAM we will begin to develop the tracking of
Nestle began to use the same PES approach for Perrier and Contrex,
                                                                   mammals and fish in the properties registered” (A. Maldonado, Allianca
                        and then dropped it.
                                                                   da Terra)
                                                                   wThe implementation of a REDD programme that invest in the
                                                                   environmental preservation compensating landowners that opt not to
                                                                   deforest is debated by governmental organizations.
                                                                   w A scientific article will be available in mid-November, and should include
                                                                   some monitoring results
                information to come                                           complete

A stewardship programme was initiated in 2003 to
facilitate conservation on privately owned land, in   Protection of the mangrove in the Pichavaram region, India
             Western Cape, South Africa

                Land conservation                                        Mangrove restoration

                 Protected areas                                              Tsunamis

             Endangered plant species                                   Community leadership

                Financial incentives

               Invasive alien species
                                                             Mangrove wetlands provide a variety of protective and productive
                                                             services to the coastal communities: they mitigate the adverse impact of
                                                             storms, cyclones and Tsunami in coastal areas, reduce coastal erosion
                                                             and gains land by accreting sea and adjacent coastal water bodies, act
                                                             breeding, nursery and feeding grounds for many commercially important
  The Cape floristic region host many endangered plant
                                                             prawns, fish, crabs and mollusks, and enhance the fishery potential of
 species, including cancer bush (used as a treatement for
                                                             adjacent coastal waters by providing them with large quantities of organic
AIDS and cancer) and renosterveld. The fact that about 80
                                                             and inorganic nutrients.
  percent of South Africa's priority conservation land is in
                                                             The 2004 Tsunami has not only caused destruction to life and property but
 private and communal hands, lead scienctists to develop
                                                             also serious damage to the coastal ecological and economic resources. On
         strategies that involve these landholders.
                                                             the other hand, the coastal vegetations have played a role in mitigating the
                                                             impact of Tsunami on these coastal communities to some extent.
                                                             In 1996 M. S. Swaminathan Research Foundation (MSSRF), Chennai,
                                                             launched a major programme on the restoration of the mangrove wetlands of
                                                             the east coast of India.
                                                              The programme aims at: a) conserving and regenerate mangroves along the
                                                              east coast of India: establishment of bio-shields along the coast involving
                                                              raising plantations of mangrove trees in suitable areas; intensive nursery
 A Conservation Stewardship Programme was initiated in
2003 by the Western Cape Nature Conservation Board and        management system for mangrove plants with coastal communities;
  the Botanical Society of South Africa. The landowners       propagation of techniques manual for mangrove plants
undertake to protect and manage their properties to sound     b) strengthening the participation of stakeholders in the conservation and
  conservation management principles and CapeNature           management through education, training and policy support: creation of a
       supports this management by providing advice,          “Coastal Bio-village” tool-kit (sustainable use of natural resources,
                                                              introduction of market-driven, non-farm livelihood options as well as value
  management plans and assistance in planning alien
                                                              addition to primary products).
    invasive species clearing and fire management
                                                              c) identifying and transferring salt tolerance genes from mangroves species
schedules. These agreements may take the form of one of
                                                              to crops like rice and mustard growing in coastal areas.
     three categories with differing levels of obligation :
                                                              The Community-based group is the active implementing agency at the village
Conservation Areas, Cooperation Agreements and Contract
                                                              level. An agreement was signed between MSSRF and the local community-
                      Nature Reserves.
                                                              based group, indicating clear roles and responsibilities for each of the
                                                              partners, monitoring mechanism and sharing of the resources and benefits.
                                                            The area of the mangrove forest cover in Pichavaram mangrove
                                                            wetland has increased by about 90% between 1996 and 2002.
                                                            During 2006-2008 a mangrove bioshield was raised in 45 ha in MGR
                                                            Thittu and Mudasalodai. A total of 223000 propagules (seedlings) were
                                                            planted in these areas, consisting of Avicennia marina seedlings and
                                                            Rhizophora species. During 2008, 800 saplings were planted in 1.5 ha as a
                                                            non-mangrove bioshield.
                                                            At Kalpakkam, rice cultivation under organic farming in the demo plot
In 2007, 625 685 Ha were covered by one of the three        yielded 3.78 ton/ha. Four Coastal Village Knowledge Centres have been
                forms of agreements.                        established and provide need-based information. In the Community
                                                            Agrobiodiversity Centre of Wayanad, identification of the targeted 80 Rare
                                                            Endangered and Threatened (RET) plant species have been completed,
                                                            and 13,558 seedlings of these species were raised as a conservation
                                                            Sixteen training and awareness generation programmes were conducted,
                                                            including organic farming, vermi-composting, nursery raising, bee keeping.
                                                            446 people attended the programme, of whom 233 were women with 70 %
                                                            of the participants belonging to tribes.

              Coverage of protected areas                          Trends in extent of selected biomes, ecosystems, and habitats

Area of forest, agricultural aquaculture ecosystems under        Health and well being of communities who directly depend on local
                 sustainable management                                           ecosystem goods and services

                                                             Trends in genetic diversity of domesticated animals, cultivated plants, and
            Trends in invasive alien species
                                                                         fish species of major socio-economic importance

                                                               Area of forest, agricultural aquaculture ecosystems under sustainable
                                                     M. S. Swaminathan Research Foundation (MSSRF), Chennai in cooperation
Western Cape Nature Conservation Board Finance: CEPF
                                                     with Forest Department, Government of Tamil Nadu and participation of local
        (Critical Ecosystem Partnerships Fund)
                                                                            mangrove user-communities

                          2003                                                            1996

                           za                                                               in
                 Western Cape Province                                              Tamil Nadu region

    Western Cape province State of Biodiversity 2007        MSSRF webpage:

Article in CEPF website:                            Scientific paper
            Project leaflet                              Article published in Courrier International

Landlowner negotiation workshop report                       MSSRF2007-2008 annual report

    Leaflet on landowners options

                                         Related project: Management of Natural Resources in the Coastal Zone of
                                                                  Soc Trang Province
            Contact : Cape Nature Conservation                              M S Swaminathan Research Foundation
            Stewardship Programme Manager:                    3rd Cross Street, Institutional Area, Taramani Chennai - 600113, India
              Chris Martens: (028) 314 0185                         Ph: +91-44-22542698, 22541229 Fax: +91-44-22541319
or or Caoe Nature Scientific Service                               hmrc@mssrf.res
                                  or directly: Dr Gnanam -
Awards: Pr. MS Swaminathan has been awarded with 1999. UNESCO
Gandhi Gold Medal, The Economic Times Awards for Corporate Excellence
– Lifetime Achievement (2002), and many others. Its foundation won the
Young National Women Bioscientist Award for the year 2001 (Ministry of
Science and Technology, Government of India).

Future developments: An Integrated Mangrove-Fishery Farming System
is being developed. Culture of the commercially important fish Lates
calcarifer (sea bass) was attempted in the farm. 500 fingerlings of 8 cm
length were purchased in December 2007 and acclimatised in the farm itself.
At the end of January 2008 nearly 85 % of the fingerlings survived and
reached a length of 13 cm. They were released into the farm in February
2008 and the survival and growth performance of the released fingerlings are
being monitored.
List of Indicators
Trends in extent of selected biomes, ecosystems, and habitats
Trends in abundance and distribution of selected species
Change in status of threatened species
Trends in genetic diversity of domesticated animals, cultivated plants, and fish species of major socio-economic importance
Coverage of protected areas
Marine Trophic Index
Connectivity - fragmentation of ecosystems
Health and well being of communities who directly depend on local ecosystem goods and services
Biodiversity for food and medicine
Water quality of aquatic ecosystems
Nitrogen deposition
Trends in invasive alien species
Area of forest, agricultural, aquaculture ecosystems under sustainable management
Proportion of products derived from sustainable sources
Ecological footprint and related concepts
Status and trends of linguistic diversity and numbers of speakers of indigenous languages
Indicator of access and benefit sharing (to be developed)
Official development assistance provided in support of the Convention
-economic importance
      Quality of Project

                                    Evaluates the actual impact on the reduction of
                                 biodiversity loss through conservation or sustainable
                                  use and/or achievements in terms of the equitable
                                      sharing of the benefits of genetic resources

                                  Evaluates if projects have adopted the partnership
                                 approach by linking activities with non-governmental
                                 organizations, community-based organizations (e.g.
                                    indigenous), the private sector, governments,
                                 research and/or academic institutions and public or
                                                  private foundations.

                                   Evaluates if projects can demonstrate that they
                                 operate sustainably over at least two years and that
                                   changes in local socio-economic conditions last
                                   thereby having positive impacts on biodiversity.

                                      Projects demonstrating new and adaptable
                                 approaches that overcome prevailing constraints and
Innovation and Transferability
                                  offer knowledge, experience and lessons to other
                                      communities and can be replicated there.
                                  Projects that have demonstrated leadership which has
                                    inspired action and change; including policy and/or
Leadership, Community Empowerment
                                  institutional change, the empowerment of local people
        and Gender Equality
                                   and community management of protected areas. The
                                   promotion of gender equality is an additional benefit.

                                         Projects that bring benefits to local communities by
   Additional social/developmental
                                          improving their income, living conditions, health
                                                            standards, etc.

                                         Evaluates how well a project is to be communicated
                                        due to a very special approach, a special animal, very
                                           easy, simple to understand problem with simple
                                                            solutions, etc.

        Process of Evaulation:               Give each criteria a number from 1 to 5

                                         Write a short summary highlighting the most
                                       important good, but also bad points of the project;
                                                     e.g. what is missing.
                                        Don’t give a number to a category if this category
                                         is not covered - mention that this category isnt
                                                    covered in your summary.
Quality of information material

                                   Evaluates the quality of the presentation of the
                                   project and if the writing style is easily
   Layout and Writing Style
                                   understandable (or maybe difficult to understand
                                   because it is an in-depth scientific paper).

                                   Evaluates if the project is documented well - if
                                   there is just a project report or a lot of additional
     Media Coverage and
                                   information, due to the fact that the project was
                                   covered by different media; preferably different
                                   types of media (newspaper, videos, internet).

                                   Evaluates if the documentation proofs the
Validation of results/Monitoring
                                   claimed results of the project.
af     Afghanistan
al     Albania
dz     Algeria
ad     Andorra
ao     Angola
ag     Antigua and Barbuda
ar     Argentina                               x
am     Armenia
au     Australia
at     Austria
az     Azerbaijan
bs     Bahamas
bh     Bahrain                                 x
bd     Bangladesh
bb     Barbados
by     Belarus
be     Belgium
bz     Belize
bj     Benin
bt     Bhutan
bo     Bolivia
ba     Bosnia and Herzegovina
bw     Botswana                                x
br     Brazil                                  xx
bn     Brunei Darussalam
bg     Bulgaria
bf     Burkina Faso                            x
bi     Burundi
kh     Cambodia
cm     Cameroon                                x
ca     Canada
cv     Cape Verde
cf     Central African Republic
td     Chad
cl     Chile                                   x
cn     China                                   x
co     Colombia
km     Comoros
cg     Congo                                   xx
ck     Cook Islands
cr     Costa Rica                              x
ci     Côte d'Ivoire
hr     Croatia
cu     Cuba                                    x
cy     Cyprus
cz     Czech Republic
kp     Democratic People's Republic of Korea
cd     Democratic Republic of the Congo
dk     Denmark
dj     Djibouti
dm     Dominica
do    Dominican Republic
ec    Ecuador
eg    Egypt
sv    El Salvador
gq    Equatorial Guinea
er    Eritrea
ee    Estonia
et    Ethiopia
eur   European Community
fj    Fiji
fi    Finland
fr    France
ga    Gabon
gm    Gambia
ge    Georgia
de    Germany                            x
gh    Ghana
gr    Greece
gd    Grenada
gt    Guatemala
gn    Guinea
gw    Guinea-Bissau
gy    Guyana
ht    Haiti
va    Holy See
hn    Honduras
hu    Hungary
is    Iceland
in    India
id    Indonesia                          xx
ir    Iran (Islamic Republic of)         x
iq    Iraq
ie    Ireland
il    Israel
it    Italy
jm    Jamaica
jp    Japan
jo    Jordan
kz    Kazakhstan
ke    Kenya                              xxx
ki    Kiribati
kw    Kuwait
kg    Kyrgyzstan
la    Lao People's Democratic Republic
lv    Latvia
lb    Lebanon
ls    Lesotho
lr    Liberia
ly    Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
li    Liechtenstein
lt    Lithuania
lu    Luxembourg
mg   Madagascar                         x
mw   Malawi
my   Malaysia                           x
mv   Maldives
ml   Mali
mt   Malta
mh   Marshall Islands
mr   Mauritania                         x
mu   Mauritius
mx   Mexico                             x
fm   Micronesia (Federated States of)
mc   Monaco
mn   Mongolia
me   Montenegro
ma   Morocco
mz   Mozambique
mm   Myanmar
na   Namibia                            xx
nr   Nauru
np   Nepal
nl   Netherlands
nz   New Zealand
ni   Nicaragua
ne   Niger
ng   Nigeria                            x
nu   Niue
no   Norway
om   Oman
pk   Pakistan
pw   Palau
pa   Panama                             x
pg   Papua New Guinea
py   Paraguay
pe   Peru                               x
ph   Philippines                        xx
pl   Poland
pt   Portugal
qa   Qatar
kr   Republic of Korea
md   Republic of Moldova
ro   Romania
ru   Russian Federation
rw   Rwanda                             x
kn   Saint Kitts and Nevis
lc   Saint Lucia
vc   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
ws   Samoa
sm   San Marino
st   Sao Tome and Principe
sa   Saudi Arabia
sn   Senegal                            x
cs   Serbia
sc   Seychelles
sl   Sierra Leone
sg   Singapore
sk   Slovakia
si   Slovenia
sb   Solomon Islands
so   Somalia
za   South Africa                                           xx
es   Spain                                                       Conservation project
lk   Sri Lanka                                                   Integrated conservation and development
sd   Sudan                                                       Sustainable resource management projec
sr   Suriname                                               x    Community-based resource management
sz   Swaziland                                                   Sustainable business
se   Sweden                                                      PES scheme
ch   Switzerland                                                 Research project
sy   Syrian Arab Republic                                        Technology transformation approach
tj   Tajikistan                                                  Restoration project
th   Thailand                                                    Negative case-study
mk   The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia                   Law enforcement project
tl   Timor-Leste
tg   Togo
to   Tonga
tt   Trinidad and Tobago                                    x    Response to future trend
tn   Tunisia
tr   Turkey
tm   Turkmenistan                                                “innovative initiative”
tv   Tuvalu
ug   Uganda
ua   Ukraine
ae   United Arab Emirates
gb   United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
tz   United Republic of Tanzania
us   United States of America                               x
uy   Uruguay                                                x
uz   Uzbekistan
vu   Vanuatu
ve   Venezuela                                              x
vn   Viet Nam                                               xx
ye   Yemen
zm   Zambia                                                 x
zw   Zimbabwe   x
d conservation and development project
 le resource management project
 ty-based resource management project

gy transformation approach

 cement project

e to future trend
             Handbag              Artminers
                  s-              - Cutting
Elephant     “Sustaina             Release
                                                               Protectin    Banking
pepper -         ble                  of
                       Tawaya -             The Duck             g the      on oil -
Chili as a   conserva              Mercury
                       Murmuru              Ranger - Saving Environm       Credit for
 Tool for     tion and                by
                        butter                Rice-     the       ent:        Safe
Conserva     communi              applying
                         and                  Duck   Albatross Profiting   Collectio
tion and          ty                 new
                        soaps               Systems              from      n of Used
Develop      developm             technolo
                                                               Garbage         Oil
  ment          ent of                gy
               Phu My             CLEANG
             Lepironia               OLD
              n of
            Shrimp                                        Komodo
          Trawling,           Removal           Environm National
The grey                              Freshwat                                Malua
           through             of the           ental       Park
partridge            Predator             er                                  Wildlife
              the              Elwha            Soap      Conserva Campi Ya
conserva             Conserva         Biodivers                               Habitat
          introducti            and             Opera for   tion -  Kanzi
  tion                 tion              ity                                Conserva
           on of By-           Glines           Rural      Dragon
 project                              Restorati                             tion Bank
             catch             Dams             Vietnam Conserva
           Reductio                                        tion??
           gies and
People in
                  Interesting references for project databases

               LIFE Environment Database

               World Banks Development Marketplace

               Database of the Climate, Community and
               Biodiversity Alliance

               International Institute for Environment and
               Development (IIED)
               Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund Database
               UNDP and GEF Publication published in May 2008:
               Biodiversity: Delivering Results has 20 very good
               case studies on mainstreaming biodiversity and on
               protected areas

  General      Wildlife Conservation Network
               RARE Conservation database

               International Council for Local Environment
               Initiatives (ICLEI)
               DOC-File with Abstracts for Scientif Papers on
               Conservation Projects_sent by Danush
               Fauna and Flora International - Conserving
               Threatened Species and Ecosystems Worldwide

               Darwin Initiative - project database

               International Development Research Center (IDRC)

               Friends of the Earth - Success stories

               Fonds francais pour l'environnement mondial
               The Center for Environmental Leadership in

              Anglogold Ashanti: Mining operations serve to
              protect endangered species in Brazil: this project
Business and sounds promising but it needs verification, so far we
 biodiversity have not contacted them
               World Business Council for Sustainable
               Development (WBCSD)
Business and

                Business and Biodiversity Resource Center

                Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR)
  biomes        Case studies on marine conservation which would
                need further research:

                Biotrade Initiative

                Report “Trade and sustainable land management in
                drylands”, International Center on Trade and
  Biotrade      Sustainable Development (ICTSD), August 2007

                Report “Biotrade in the Andean sub-region –
                Development Opportunities” by UNCATD Biotrade

             Watershed Markets
biodiversity The Katoomba group's Ecosystem Marketplace

                HandsonTV : the Earth Report from



                ENN Environmental News Network

                Journal of Conservation Biology
                New Scientist

                JED Journal of Environment and Development

                Science Daily

                IRIN News

                Ecology and Society

LIFE is the EU’s financial instrument supporting environmental and nature conservation projects
throughout the EU, as well as in some candidate, acceding and neighbouring countries. They have a
project database with web summaries, and a selection of "LIFE Best projects".

Projects are evaluated and rated (gold-silver-bronze)

Contains links to projects organized by topics

Links towards 11 good mammals' conservation programs

8 very good success stories

See the link to Local Action for Biodiversity (LAB) : 20 best approaches to urban biodiversity

Project database by countries

8 success stories and a link to other case studies

Project database by countries
Case studies listed by sector

Check the different projects

This report contains good case studies

Very good case studies in the Andean region

On this site you can view and and download a number of case studies from affected regions, and a
detailed analysis of the results of those studies.

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