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					          VOICE INTERACTION



Introduction:
      Voice interactive systems can recognize a
customer’s voice and answer queries as well as any
person. It can enhance your organizations efficiency
and make your customers feel happier, unlike
conventional interactive systems.


    A growing number of companies are adding or
replacing their existing call centers with an IVRS
(Interactive Voice Response Systems), which is a
computer based system that can take queries from
callers and give them answers automatically without
any human intervention.


Drawbacks of existing call centers:


                                                   1
     For example consider a      customer interacting
with the Indian Railways for enquiry. In the present
system, when you dial the number, a live agent (a call
center employee) has to answer the call. She/He may
be busy with other callers, so you might have to wait
for a long time before you get a reply. Even when
he\she attends your call, you may not be satisfied
with the answer. Since the agents has to answer other
calls also, she/he can’t spend for long time on one
call. Also the agents are expensive. They need to be
trained appropriately for the work and perfect
service. An IVRS offers a better solution for all these
reasons.


An IVR system can easily handle more than one call
simultaneously. For example, the responses that need
to be given in a railway enquiry system are typical
train timings, which the IVR computer system can

                                                      2
retrieve from a database or from the existing
computer network. The advantages such a system has
over live agents are many, more than one caller can
be handled simultaneously. Callers can ask all their
questions and the system replies to every query
patiently without getting tired, which may not always
possible with live agents. The system can be operated
24/7 . All these advantages can hike customer
satisfaction. Also an IVRS is less expensive than live
agents.


.


Interactive Voice Response System


     Information and services through any touch-
tone telephone. All such telephones become, in
effect, computer terminals for retrieval of information
and service requests. This capability greatly enhances

                                                      3
any company's position, particularly with the
advances in hand-phones and the inevitable growth of
wireless communications for the general consumer.


Voice System provides the following functions to
customers and employees alike, via a telephone
• Automated access to information
• Automated services
• 24 hour operations
• Consistent quality voice responses


Impact on Business
Netsity Voice System will help you to:
• Increase customer service levels
• Extend customer service hours
• Improve information dissemination
• Increase employee productivity
• Reduce operations cost
Industrial Benefits

                                                   4
     The Voice System is proven beneficial in the
following industry:
• Financial institution


         The system is easy to operate with industry-
standard Microsoft tools for on-line backups and a
graphical user interface for all IVR maintenance
tasks.
         The system has powerful reporting tools and
statistic gathering capabilities.
Error reporting can be sent via Internet electronic
mail for ease of integration with other office
technology
     The system uses one simple text database to store
all data rather than requiring both a text and recorded
voice      version.   By    providing   text-to-speech
technology is able to read text to callers therefore
substantially reducing system maintenance costs.
 .

                                                      5
   An on-line help system and substantial on-site
support allows easy setup and operation.


     The system can deliver fax backs and web
documents that are virtually identical to the spoken
reports callers hear from the IVR. Changing report
code options (adjustable on a per code basis) in the
IVR automatically affects the format of fax backs and
web documents.


    IVRS is relatively new technology aimed to
integrate computer and telephony. We find number
IVR system in daily walk of life giving various types
information to caller like tele banking, product
information, fax servers, call centers, and others. All
these can be implemented using this module under
linux. Newer linux kernel had computer telephony
support but that was restricted to specific hard ware
and not the ordinary modem.

                                                      6
Modem –
      The use of standard voice modem (33.6kbps
and above ) obviates the need for additional hardware
for IVRS. The modem has a micro controller and a
data pump (analog to digital to analogue converter).
These two makes a beautiful voice /fax/ data
interface to telephone line which can play voice files
up   sampling   rate   of   11025   bytes/sec   (most
commercial card allow up to 7200 byts/sec only) .
Beside this you can divert your voice signal to / from
internal speaker and microphone, and add external
speaker and microphone. The PC communicates to
Modem via serial port and AT commands. The
complete AT command set contains more than 100
commands and available on net. The new voice
modem has ability to read the CallerID information,
receive/send fax , dial another number, line quality
diagnosis etc. Due to use of modem , this IVRS is
limited to two channel (or Telephone lines), because

                                                     7
PC has only two serial ports. Multi port serial card
can be installed.
Voice files –
      There is lot of reading material for sound file
on the net. I will restrict this discussion to IVRS only.
The modem understands only rmd (raw modem data)
files. The pvftools (Portable Voice Format Tools)
which is included with Vgetty has excellent utilities
to convert files from one format to another format. I
have used two types of files ( in sfiles/ of this
package), one is raw modem data type which can be
sent directly to modem for playing and another is lin
type. In any IVRS to play smoothly messages
,numbers, the messages have to be created on the fly.
This is where another type of file called lin is use
full. These are nothing but the voice data files with
no header or footer. You can cut and paste these file
to make a new file. This lin file is converted to raw
modem data type and then played to modem. The lin

                                                        8
and rmd files can be created from wave (mono) using
pvftools, I have used and included some pvftools
with this distribution. The voice files with this
distribution are customized for Rockwell chip set
modem, which is most popular. The pvftools supports
other modem type also also. I have tested Dlink,
GVC, LanBit and many other modem. The modem
speed does not matter because voice modem with
33.6   Kbps      and   above     will   work     fine.


Adaptability –
   This distribution is complete with all the voice
files and to make a full functional IVRS you need a
few line of perl scripts and additional message files.
You may need to record messages, if you want
additional messages or you do not like the tone of
these files, and cut them in to separate file. These
messages can be recorded in wav format then
converted to rmd or lin format. File convert utilities

                                                     9
are also included with distribution. You also need to
write small scripts to fetch the numerical data from
files which is played to caller. The demo scripts
included in this distribution gives fair knowledge of
module.
Electronic               Patient               Diaries
    An electronic patient diary system allows
patients to enter study related diary information using
a touch-tone telephone. Typically, study centers enter
or initialize enrolled patients into the IVRS patient
diary system. Once initialized into the system,
patients then can begin to enter the required patient
diary information.
Reporting
     Reports can be customized to meet specific
project needs and provided via a secure web-site.
This reporting function will allow designated
personnel, who have internet access, to browse
project specific reports through a dedicated and

                                                     10
secure web site. These reports are updated in “real
time” and available 24 hours a day seven days per
week.
The following reports will be provided at a
minimum:
   Patients enrolled overall and by site
   Daily or weekly non-compliance report


Validation and testing-       The IVRS will be fully
validated and tested prior study initiation in
accordance with standard policies and procedures
governing IVRS development and validation. A copy
of the validation summary will be available to the
Sponsor prior to study initiation. The Sponsor will
perform User Testing of the system prior to the “live”
date.
FDA (21 CFR Part 11), Electronic Signature
Compliance
All systems are developed, validated and maintained
                                                    11
in compliance to FDA’s Proposed Rule on Electronic
Signatures (21 CFR Part 11), Electronic Records.
Data      Protection        &       Disaster       Recovery
       The IVRS database is backed up onto data tapes
as outlined by SOPs that govern electronic data
backup procedures. The IVRS is connected to an
uninterrupted power supply to protect against power
failure. In the event of power failure greater than 8
hours,    IVRS     server       and    telecommunication
capabilities are maintained off-site.
Liz systems–
   In the late 1990s, Dell and Gateway were among
the better-known computer manufacturers to offer
customers a way to find automated answers to tech
support questions by calling interactive voice
response (IVR) systems.


       Callers   heard      menus     of       options   that
corresponded to software or hardware products. They

                                                           12
selected options by pressing digits on touchtone
phones or by saying the names of the components
that weren't working. :
Accessibility - LIZ provides an easy way to contact
your company via phone, e-mail, and the web. Day or
night, regardless of location, better customer service
means customer satisfaction.

Time-Saving - No customers waiting on hold, and no
need to describe the problem repeatedly to a series of
support technicians.

Cost-effective - LIZ saves time and money by
eliminating the need to use telephone operators and
letting you cut down on expenses from incoming 800
toll-free lines.

Automation - Now you can record and store ALL
service requests in one unified database. This
consolidated view of your operations reveals where
problems may surface, providing vital information

                                                    13
for resource allocation and planning. LIZ enables you
to monitor customer preferences and perform trend
analysis.

Programmable,        Customizable,     Flexible     -
Customize LIZ with unique prompts for answers to
be recorded in. LIZ lets you customize the voice and
data prompts you use to suit your company. You can
determine what kind of information you'll capture,
assign priority to your most valuable customers and
plan the best use of your resources.

Accurate - Because your customers describe
problems in their own words, there's no chance of
misunderstandings. The customer's own description
of the problem is stored in your database for easy
retrieval. Customer history resides in one place for
easy cross-reference and better service. Customers
are able to work with agents who are familiar with
their history.

                                                   14
Scalable - LIZ can answer up to 256 calls at once. It
adapts as your company expands and your customer
base grows.

Responsive - LIZ gives your customers a ticket
number on the spot as a confirmation of their call.
You can assign each ticket immediately to the
qualified service technician for handling.

Assignable - LIZ routes tickets automatically or
manually to a service technician based on the nature
of the problem. It maximizes the technicians' time
because it lets you assign tickets to the right
technician; first time, every time.

Teaching Tool - New employees can listen to and
learn from customer service calls so they get up to
speed faster, lowering your training expense and
resulting in a more efficient workforce.




                                                   15
Accountability - LIZ logs the caller's voice as an
MP3 or WAV electronic file for easy access. LIZ
ensures that your trouble tickets never get lost or
overlooked.

Easy to Use - Customizable greeting and prompts are
simple and easy for customers to use. Customers find
it reassuring to describe problems in their own words,
with no misunderstandings. New hires can listen and
learn and get up to speed fast with details of customer
base.

Unified - The customer's history of phone, e-mail and
Web requests all resides in one place for faster access
and easy cross-referencing.

Flexible - LIZ is accessible from any browser.
Technicians can work from any location and can
access, listen to and repeat any part of the customer's
message.



                                                     16
   Voice-recording and voice-logging systems,
    such as those used to capture and store distress
    calls to police, fire and other public safety
    agencies.

   Answering machines or voice-mail, where access
    is limited largely to one or two people at a time.

   Voice-monitoring systems, in which a supervisor
    or others listen in and oversee each call for
    training purposes.

   Unified messaging, which lets users retrieve and
    send voice, fax and e-mail messages from a
    phone or a computer.

   Call-routing and distribution systems, which
    send incoming calls to the first available agent
    and can cost as much as $200,000.

   Voice-recognition      technology    tool,   which
    translates voice input into text.


                                                         17
     POINT Information Systems is a worldwide
provider of Customer Relationship Management
(CRM) and e-commence solutions that enable
organizations to link their sales, marketing, customer
care, and back office functions. As a distributor of
Point Information Systems in Hong Kong, IVRS
offer customisation, installation, training and support
services for POINT's CRM solutions to financial
institutions (banks, insurance, securities), telcos, and
others, integrating the marketing, sales and customer
service organizations with their partner organizations
and back offices, providing multiple channel access
to   the     convenience      of    their   customers.


Nuance
     Nuance 8.0 and Nuance 8.0 NVP Edition™ are
the most accurate, scalable and reliable speech
recognition software on the market. It's at the core of

                                                      18
some of the most advanced speech applications ever
built. From AT&T, British Airways, and CalTrans to
Xelion, Ydilo and Z-Tel. All these companies — and
hundreds more — have chosen Nuance speech
recognition software for the delivery of customer care
applications and enhanced services to people around
the                                               world


      Nuance develops, markets and supports a voice
interface   software   platform    that   makes     the
information     and     services    of     enterprises,
telecommunications     networks    and    the   Internet
accessible from any telephone. Every day, millions of
people interact with Nuance systems at marketing
leading companies like American Airlines, Charles
Schwab, The Home Shopping Network, Lloyds TSB,
Sears, Sprint PCS, Verizon and United Parcel
Service. Nuance is also driving the creation of the


                                                      19
Voice Web and delivering software for V-Commerce
(voice-enabled e-commerce) services and
partners supporting solutions in multiple languages
around the world
An example:
      Consider the example of an airline enquiry
based systems.
When caller dials the number, system says
“Welcome to GenX Airlines. What can I do for you?
”, Caller says “ can you tell me the departure time of
the flight leaving from India to USA tomorrow? “
system says , “20.00 hours.” System says “Do you
need any more help?” caller says “No thanks.” Caller
may hang up.


     IVR systems have evolved a lot over the years.
From basic touch tone systems (in these systems data
could be given in only one way, by pressing the
telephone pad keys)

                                                    20
                       Speech
database               recognition
                       system




IVR software        Text-to-speech




Voice card system
software




                                     21
       Central   processing
unit
         Voice card





                         22
                       PSTN(public
                       switched
                       telephone
                      network







    These systems now became sophisticated natural
language recognition systems. The IVR is a natural
language recognition        system that   is   able   to
understand the free flow speech of the caller and
respond accordingly.


     In the figure the voice card is the hardware that
takes care of all telephony control. The voice card
system software is the software layer on top of the
voice card this software talks directly only with the
voice card. The IVR software lies on top of the voice
card system software (in order to keep the
programmer away from the voice card’s internal


                                                      23
details) and provides a rich set of tools and utilities to
design, develop and deploy the computer telephony
applications. IVR software uses a database, a speech
recognition system and text-to-speech software.


Touch-Tone         Based   IVR     Systems(Old       IVR
Systems)


     Touch-tone allows you to authorize, capture and
settle credit card transactions using a normal
touchtone     or    cellular   telephone.     Touchtone
Processing is simple to use and a great alternative for
low volume merchants who prefer to avoid
purchasing or leasing a credit card terminal. There is
no term to the contract and we can usually set your
account up the same day you apply.
        In old IVR systems, input from users was
taken by asking them to press telephone pad keys and
callers very well knew that they were not dealing

                                                        24
with a live agent. Here’s an example of a touch-tone
IVR used for handling customer calls in a bank.


      When a caller dials the number, system says,
“Welcome to GenX Bank. Press 1 to know account
balance. Press 2 for any other information.” The
caller press 1. the system says, “enter your account
number.” The caller enters “432156423049094233.”
The   system   says,   “your   account    balance   is
Rs.50000.” Hang up.




How Touchtone Processing Works
      By dialing an 800 number from any touchtone,
portable, payphone, or from an ordinary cellular
telephone, you are connected to an interactive voice
response unit. Using the telephone's keypad you will
key in the required information as it is prompted such


                                                    25
as your merchant PIN number, the customer's credit
card account number, expiration date, CVV2 code,
and the dollar amount of the sale. Once approved,
the transaction is captured and held for settlement
which automatically occurs once each night. The
funds are electronically transmitted via the Federal
Reserve's ACH system to your business checking
account at your local bank within 48 to 72 hours.
There are no sales slips to mail or time consuming
trips to the bank to deposit credit card drafts. Every
month you will receive a statement detailing each
days credit card sales. This can be easily reconciled
to the checking account statement you receive from
your bank.    Anytime during the month you can
access batch settlement totals to review and track
daily activity from any touchtone phone.
    Tthey are talking to a machine. Also these
systems can not handle a large variety of calls


                                                    26
Touch-tone systems have some disadvantages. For
one, callers are aware that the way natural language
recognition systems can (i.e advanced speech
recognition systems).


Touchtone Processing is ideal for the following types
of merchants:

     Small Retail Stores

     Home-Based Low Volume Businesses

     Craft Vendors

     Trade Show Sales

     Mobile Merchants

     Plumbers, Electricians, Painters, Tradespeople

     Seasonal Merchants




                                                       27
Speaker verification(voice authentication):


        The process of verifying a caller’s identity in
customer service and telephone banking/trading
applications is cumbersome and time consuming for
both the customer and the call center. It can involve
either a series of questions (e.g. mother’s maiden
name, address on file, etc.), or the dialing of account
numbers and PINs. For customer service calls, the
result is more time per call, and in the end, more cost
per call, and increased customer wait times.
     For telephone banking/trading, the opportunity
to provide better security and much improved
customer experience is a compelling combination.
Rather than key in the account number, and PIN
codes, what if the caller could simply state their name
and we could authenticate the caller with a level of

                                                     28
assurance greater than we do today, in a fraction of
the time


    Voice verification is an advanced speech
recognition system, which can remember and
recognize a particular user’s voice.


    Voice signature service offers the ability to
securely interact with customers - particularly in a
telephone or Internet-based context.        The Voice
Signature Service system uses “best of breed”
technologies to authorize, authenticate, and provide
audit trails of legally valid signatures. In the capture
and analysis of a person’s voice the VSS system
provides improved efficiency and increased security
that can easily pay for itself through cost reduction,
fraud deterrence, and consumer confidence.




                                                      29
       For example when you start an account with
the bank, the speech recognition system with voice
verification stores your voice print, along with your
account number and other details, in database. Once
that is done, whenever you make a call to this
system, it does not need to take your account number
and other details. It will only ask for your name, and
form the words spoken it will verify your voiceprint
with voice print in the database, and check for a
match (to ensure you are authorized for access). Once
the voice prints are matched, the system retrieves the
personal information needed from the database (in
this case the account number). Using this account
number, the system finds your account and informs
you of the balance.


    With speaker verification, the IVR system can
skip taking the caller details and identification


                                                    30
information, which decreases the duration of the call
and is an important advantage.


Example:
           When the caller dials the number, the
system says, “Welcome to GenX Bank. Press 1 to
know account balance. Press 2 for any other
enquiry.” The caller press 1 then the system says,
“May I know your name please?” the caller says,
“sure my name is vijay.” The system says, “your
account balance is 50,000.” Hang up.


Versay:
     Vail Systems, a leader in telephony application
services and hosting, today announced a successful
first two quarters for its subsidiary, Versay Solutions
This shift is being driven primarily by a convergence
of mature speech recognition technology and the
wide-spread acceptance of VoiceXML as an open-

                                                      31
standard programming language. Companies are
increasingly replacing aging proprietary IVR systems
with more compelling natural language speech
solutions. To support the full development lifecycle
of these speech solutions, Vail created Versay as a
consulting and solutions company


·         Versay can provide a hosted application that
uses Nuance’s voice authentication technology. The
application authenticates a caller before providing
access to customer service-related transactions, such
as “update profile”, “report stolen card”, “transfer
balance”, etc.


Vocent:


·   Vocent is the leader in voiceprint authentication
solutions for Help Desks and Call Centers. Vocent's
solutions securely automate caller authentication, and

                                                    32
as a result, reduce cost, improve efficiencies, and
provide users with improved convenience. Vocent's
Password Reset and Confirmed Caller applications
combine proven voice technology with unique
application-level functionality to maximize caller
automation      processes        while         maintaining
comprehensive security


        Vocent’s Voice Secure is a series of
packaged     applications    which      integrate    voice
authentication into an existing call center or customer
support system. The software includes all of the
necessary components to deliver voice verification in
an   existing   system,     including    the    voiceprint
authentication technology (Nuance or SpeechWorks),
the voice user interface and dialogs, and adapters to
integrate the system with IVR systems, CRM
applications, databases, and operating systems. It
also integrates with all major PBX, ACD and CTI

                                                        33
systems. The software handles caller identification,
authentication, and transfer within the system
according to whether or not there is a matched
voiceprint.


·          Voice Secure – Password Reset and Voice
Secure – Confirmed Caller can be used for a
PIN/password reset application or a telephone
banking/trading authentication application, and may
also be applicable for use in wire transfer or other
two-factor authentication application.


        Vocent's Voice Secure is a series of
packaged      applications    which      integrate   voice
authentication into an existing call center or customer
support system.     The software includes all of the
necessary components to deliver voice verification in
an   existing    system,     including    the   voiceprint
authentication technology (Nuance or SpeechWorks),

                                                        34
the voice user interface and dialogs, and adapters to
integrate the system with IVR systems, CRM
applications, databases, and operating systems.    It
also integrates with all major PBX, ACD and CTI
systems. The software handles caller identification,
authentication, and transfer within the system
according to whether or not there is a matched
voiceprint.
.
    · Voice Secure is integrated on-premises at the
financial services company, with Vocent providing
remote    maintenance   and   upgrades.      Typical
installations take between 30 and 60 days, including
all planning, development, testing and installation.
The actual implementation itself at the customer site
takes about one week.




                                                   35
Text-to-speech:


      Old IVR systems respond by playing a pre-
recorded message. In places where numbers have to
be mentioned or responses are to be based on some
condition , such as amount of money, time, quantities
or order status, this playing of pre-recorded messages
sounds like an unnatural broken sentence        to the
caller. And in cases where new words and sentences
have to be spoken (new words and sentences are
those for which the IVR system does not have pre-
recorded messages), depending on the call, a pre-
recording of message just won’t help.


  A    Text-To-Speech    (TTS)    synthesizer   is   a
computer-based system that should be able to read
any text aloud, whether it was directly introduced in
the computer by an operator or scanned and
submitted to an Optical Character Recognition

                                                     36
(OCR) system. Let us try to be clear. There is a
fundamental difference between the system we are
about to discuss here and any other talking machine
(as a cassette-player for example) in the sense that we
are interested in the automatic production of new
sentences.     This   definition   still    needs      some
refinements.    Systems    that    simply        concatenate
isolated words or parts of sentences, denoted as Voice
Response Systems, are only applicable when a limited
vocabulary is required (typically a few one hundreds
of words), and when the sentences to be pronounced
respect a very restricted structure, as is the case for
the announcement of arrivals in train stations for
instance. In the context of TTS synthesis, it is
impossible (and luckily useless) to record and store
all the words of the language. It is thus more suitable
to   define    Text-To-Speech      as      the    automatic
production of speech.


                                                          37
     Texts might range from simple messages, such
as local cultural events not to miss (cinemas,
theatres,... ), to huge databases which can hardly be
read and stored as digitized speech. Queries to such
information retrieval systems could be put through
the user's voice (with the help of a speech
recognizer), or through the telephone keyboard (with
DTMF systems). One could even imagine that our
(artificially) intelligent machines could speed up the
query when needed, by providing lists of keywords,
or even summaries.




   Solution for all these problems is text-to-speech
technology because it can convert plain text into
speech.   If you have a text message like “Good
evening”, then the system can say the same words in
human-like voice. And a sentence like “your balance
is 20,000 rupees” when played, come across as one

                                                    38
continuous sentence, with no gaps.


   Newer IVR systems are equipped with good text-
to-speech technologies. The most popular text-to-
speech products are speechify from speechworks,
vocalizer   from nuance and scansoft realspeak
telecom.


Speech recognition:


     This is the most evolved part of the new IVR
system. Older speech recognition systems were not
accurate, so conformation of user provided data was
needed every time and you could only direct some
predefined commands in order to navigate, which
emphasized the fact that you were dealing with a
machine. To under stand the problems, consider a
bank enquiry call, answered by an      IVR system
equipped with older speech recognition technology.

                                                     39
    ART provides a comprehensive, feature-rich
speech recognition technology that enables users to
easily activate and navigate their devices. Designed
for ultra-fast response


     When the caller dials the number , system says
“Welcome to GenX bank. Please say Balance to
know the account balance. Please say Other for any
other enquiry.” Caller says, “Balance” system says
“you want to know the balance? If this correct say
Yes, otherwise say No.” Caller says “Yes”. System
says “please tell me your account number.” Caller
says “ for thousand”. System says , “you said four
thousand. If this is correct say Yes, otherwise say No
.” the caller says “Yes”. The system says “ your
account balance is Rs.50,000.” Hang up.


     The call duration is long here and the

                                                    40
communication is not natural. There are new speech
recognition technologies coming that have a natural
language recognition capacity. A few good products
of this kind are: say any thing from nuance, and open
speech recognizer and open speech dialog modules
from speech works. Other speech recognition
products viavoice from IBM and syntellect.


    For routine telephone call based transactions
(data entering) touch-tone IVR is faster than speech
recognition IVR. But for grater customer satisfaction,
speech recognition IVR is the better option.


   In India too, these IVRs are being used by many
organizations. The passport office uses this system to
give responses for enquires on passport status.
Another popular application of IVRS is booking of
movie tichets in advanced over the phone. Both these
IVR systems are touch-tone based.

                                                    41
Voice portals (voice sites):
      Voice portal applications are becoming a key
access point to the large volume of corporate
information and Internet content. NMS' platform
products   provide   for   rapid   development    and
deployment of voice web solutions.


     Recent advances in voice recognition and
speech synthesis are making this possible by enabling
communication and information systems of all kinds
to recognize spoken input and provide readily
understood verbal responses. The challenge is to
implement these exciting new capabilities by adding
reliable and accurate "voice portals" to existing
systems as well as new designs, thereby allowing
users to make requests using only their voice, such as
telephone extensions, check account balances, initiate
transactions and verify their identify simply by

                                                    42
speaking.


       These are voice enabled sites for applications
similar to IVR systems, such as stock quotes, yellow
pages, weather reports, movies, news and train
timings that are navigated through voice. They can be
accesed through a landline or a mobile phone.


    Since we can access these voice sites from
mobile phones also, they are more robhust than
websites, which are not so easy to access or
comfortable to view on the mobile phone.


       Voice XML is becoming increasingly popular
as an easy, fast and flatform-independent way of
designing voice portals and IVRS. And there are
some who feel this voice revolution could get faster
and be more useful than the Internet a few years from
now.

                                                   43
44
BIBILOGRAPHY




http://www.netsity.com/servies-ivrs.html.

                                            45
http://padcpan.cpan.org/authors/id/m/mv/mvkvnd
/ivrs-0.03readme.


http://www.registart.com/innovative6htm.


http://www.nmscommunications.com/solutions/voi
ceportals.html.


http://www.commweb.com/article/com
2002/22390007


http://www.the callcenterschool.com/glossary.html




                                               46
Glossory


Agent. The person that handles calls in a contact
center. Also referred to as a telephone service
representative   (TSR)   or   customer    service

                                               47
representative (CSR).
Call Center. An operation with two or more persons
handling incoming or outgoing calls. Call centers
may be help desks, customer service centers, catalog
sales     centers,      reservations      centers,    or
telemarketing/collections operations.
Caller ID. A telephone network feature of the local
telephone company by which the telephone number
of the caller is passed to the called party.
CRM. Customer Relationship Management. The
strategy of identifying customer needs, improving
customer interactions, and customizing contacts,
sales approaches, and automation to provide optimum
service to each type of customer to maximize the
bottom line benefits to the organization
Database.     Collection    of   data   structured   and
organized in a disciplined fashion for quick and easy
access to information of interest.
Handled Call. A call that is answered by an

                                                      48
employee as opposed to being blocked or abandoned.
Handle Time. The combination of conversation time
and after call work time
IVR (Interactive Voice Response). A device which
automates retrieval and processing of information by
phone using touch tone signaling or voice recognition
to access information residing on a server to give a
response. The response may be given by a recorded
human voice or a synthesized (computerized) voice.
IVRs are used in applications such as "bank by
phone" or "check on my order" which not only
distributes information but collects transaction
information as well.
Virtual Call Center. The concept of having network
and agent resources that are located at multiple
physical sites perform as if all resources were located
at a single site.
Voice Identification. A technology used to verify the
identity of a person accessing a system by comparing

                                                     49
spoken passwords with prerecorded computerized
voice patterns.
Voice Processing. The technology that allows
computers to speak, store human voices, and react to
human speech.




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