Busan International Foreign School

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					  Busan International Foreign School



                                       2010 - 2011




                                                           IGCSE
                                                     Course Descriptions
                                                       Grades 9 – 10


Busan International Foreign School
            798 Nae-ri, Gijang-eup
                        Gijang-gun
                             Busan
                      South Korea
                           619-902
                (+82) 51 742-3332
                (+82) 51 742-3375
Contents
Core Subjects ............................................................................................................................. 3
   IGCSE Mathematics 0580 .................................................................................................................... 3

   Grade 9................................................................................................................................................ 4

   Grade 10.............................................................................................................................................. 4

   IGCSE First Language English 0500 ..................................................................................................... 5

   IGCSE Literature (English) 0486 .......................................................................................................... 7

   IGCSE Co-ordinated Science 0654 ...................................................................................................... 9

Elective A................................................................................................................................. 12
   IGCSE History 0470........................................................................................................................... 12

   IGCSE Spanish 0530 .......................................................................................................................... 15

Elective B ................................................................................................................................. 18
   IGCSE First Language Korean 0521 ................................................................................................... 18

   IGCSE Design and Technology 0445 .................................................................................................. 19

Elective C ................................................................................................................................. 26
IGCSE Music 0140 ................................................................................................................. 26
   IGCSE Information Technology 0418 ................................................................................................ 27

Elective D................................................................................................................................. 29
   IGCSE Art and Design 0400 ............................................................................................................... 29

   IGCSE Geography .............................................................................................................................. 32

Sporting .................................................................................................................................... 35
   IGCSE Physical Education 0413 ........................................................................................................ 35
Core Subjects
IGCSE Mathematics 0580

Introduction
Students will be encouraged to develop their mathematical knowledge and skills in a way which
encourages confidence and provides satisfaction and enjoyment. They will develop a feel for numbers
and for patterns and relationships in Mathematics. There will be a strong emphasis on solving
problems and presenting and interpreting results. Students will be encouraged to communicate clearly
and reason logically using mathematical concepts. The Mathematics syllabus aims to encourage
students to make use of Mathematics in other subjects and to provide a firm foundation for the further
study of Mathematics and other disciplines.

Aims
The aims of the curriculum are the same for all students. The aims are set out below and describe the
educational purposes of a course in Mathematics for the IGCSE examination.
The aims are to enable students to:
    develop their mathematical knowledge and oral, written and practical skills in a way which
        encourages confidence and provides satisfaction and enjoyment;
    read mathematics, and write and talk about the subject in a variety of ways;
    develop a feel for number, carry out calculations and understand the significance of the results
        obtained;
    apply mathematics in everyday situations and develop an understanding of the part which
        mathematics plays in the world around them;
    solve problems, present the solutions clearly, check and interpret the results;
    develop an understanding of mathematical principles;
    recognise when and how a situation may be represented mathematically, identify and interpret
        relevant factors and, where necessary, select an appropriate mathematical method to solve the
        problem;
    use mathematics as a means of communication with emphasis on the use of clear expression;
    develop an ability to apply mathematics in other subjects, particularly science and technology;
    develop the abilities to reason logically, to classify, to generalise and to prove;
    appreciate patterns and relationships in mathematics;
    produce and appreciate imaginative and creative work arising from mathematical ideas;
    develop their mathematical abilities by considering problems and conducting individual and
        co-operative enquiry and experiment, including extended pieces of work of a practical and
        investigative kind;
    appreciate the interdependence of different branches of mathematics;
    acquire a foundation appropriate to their further study of mathematics and of other
        disciplines.

Assessment
The abilities to be assessed in the lGCSE Mathematics examination cover a single assessment
objective, technique with application. The examination will test the ability of candidates to:
    1. organize, interpret and present information accurately in written, tabular, graphical and
        diagrammatic forms;
    2. perform calculations by suitable methods;
    3. use an electronic calculator;
    4. understand systems of measurement in everyday use and make use of them in the solution of
        problems;
    5. estimate, approximate and work to degrees of accuracy appropriate to the context;
    6. use mathematical and other instruments to measure and to draw to an acceptable degree of
        accuracy;
    7. interpret, transform and make appropriate use of mathematical statements expressed in words
        or
    8. symbols;
    9. recognize and use spatial relationships in two and three dimensions, particularly in solving
        problems;
    10. recall, apply and interpret mathematical knowledge in the context of everyday situations;
    11. make logical deductions from given mathematical data;
    12. recognize patterns and structures in a variety of situations, and form generalisations;
    13. respond to a problem relating to a relatively unstructured situation by translating it into an
        appropriately structured form;
    14. analyze a problem, select a suitable strategy and apply an appropriate technique to obtain its
        solution;
    15. apply combinations of mathematical skills and techniques in problem solving;
    16. set out mathematical work, including the solution of problems, in a logical and clear form
        using appropriate symbols and terminology.

Students will address all core topics as well as completing extended topics for the “extended paper”.

Summary of Content
                       Grade 9                                                   Grade 10
Numbers/Whole Numbers                                      Numbers
         Fractions and decimals                                      Vectors
         Percentages                                                 Ratios
         Ratios                                                      Absolute value
         Travel graphs                                               Using a calculator
         Squares and square roots
         Conversion graphs
Algebra Sets                                               Algebra Revision
         Inequalities                                               Formulae
         Linear graphs/Nonlinear graphs                             Linear equations
         Expansion                                                  Inequalities
         Factorization                                              Directed numbers
         Quadratic equations                                        Simultaneous equations
         Graphing                                                   Linear graphs
         Algebraic fractions                                        Simple non-linear graphs
         Indices                                                    Expansion
         Direct and inverse proportion                              Factorization
         Simultaneous equations                                     Quadratic equations
                                                                    Algebraic fractions
                                                                    Using graphs
                                                                    Indices
                                                                    Direct and inverse proportion
                                                                    Matrix algebra
Geometry                                                   Geometry
           Properties of polygons                                   Angles of polygons
           Pythagoras’ theorem                                      Angle property of a circle
           Areas of geometric shapes                                Pythagoras’ theorem
           Circle properties
           Mensuration of 3-dimensional geometric shapes
           Scales
           Similarity
Trigonometry in 2 and 3 dimensions                   Trigonometry in 2 and 3 dimensions
           Similarity                                           Similarity
           Sine and cosine rules                                Sine and cosine rules
           Transformations                                      Transformations
           Matrices applied to transformations                  Matrices applied to transformations
           Translations                                         Translations
           Reflections                                          Reflections
           Rotations                                            Rotations
           Enlargements                                         Enlargements
Statistics and Probability                           Statistics and Probability
           Cumulative frequency curves                          Cumulative frequency curves
           Histograms                                           Histograms
           Combining probabilities                              Combining probabilities
           Independent events                                   Independent events
           Probability trees and tables                         Probability trees and tables


IGCSE First Language English 0500

Introduction
The aims of the syllabus are the same for all students. The aims are set out below and describe the
educational purposes of a course in a First Language for the IGCSE examination. They are not listed
in order of priority.

Aims
The aims are to:
   1. enable students to communicate accurately, appropriately and effectively in speech and
       writing;
   2. enable students to understand and respond appropriately to what they hear, read and
       experience;
   3. encourage students to enjoy and appreciate variety of language;
   4. complement students' other areas of study by developing skills of a more general application
       (e.g. analysis, synthesis, drawing of inferences);
   5. promote students' personal development and an understanding of themselves and others


Curriculum Content
Students aiming for grades A* to C should be able to in:

Reading
        demonstrate understanding of words                   show some sense of how writers achieve
         within extended texts                                 their effects
        show a more precise understanding of                 show understanding of how writers
         extended texts                                        achieve their effects
        scan for and extract specific information            recognize and respond to simple
        identify main and subordinate topics,                 linguistic devices including figurative
         summarize, paraphrase, re-express                     language
        recognize the relationship of ideas                  recognize and respond to more
        draw inferences, evaluate effectiveness,              sophisticated linguistic devices
         compare, analyze, synthesize

Writing
        express thoughts, feelings and opinions              exercise care over punctuation and
         in order to interest, inform or convince              spelling
         the reader                                           demonstrate accuracy in punctuation and
        show a wider and more varied sense of                 spelling
          different styles to interest, inform or       write accurate simple sentences
          convince the reader                           write accurate complex sentences
         show some sense of audience                   attempt a variety of sentence structures
         show a clear sense of audience                employ varied sentence structures
         demonstrate adequate control of               recognize the need for paragraphing
          vocabulary, syntax and grammar                write in well-constructed paragraphs
         demonstrate a sophisticated use of            use appropriate vocabulary
          vocabulary and structures                     use imaginative and varied vocabulary

Assessment
Component 2: Reading Passages (Extended) (2 hours)
Questions will relate to two passages of approximately 600-700 words each, linked by a
common theme.

It will test the following Reading Objectives:
         R1 Understand and collate explicit meanings
         R2 Understand, explain and collate implicit meanings and attitudes
         R3 Select, analyze and evaluate what is relevant to specific purposes
         R4: Understand how writers achieve effects

Component 3: Directed Writing and Composition (2 hours)
This paper will be divided into two sections:

Section 1 – Directed Writing (25 marks)
Candidates will be required to use and develop the given information in another form, e.g. a
letter, a report, a speech, a dialogue.

Section 2 – Composition (25 marks)
At least two argumentative/discursive, two descriptive and two narrative titles will be set.
Candidates will be required to write on one title only.

These sections will test the following Writing Objectives:
W1 Articulate experience and express what is thought, felt and imagined
W2 Order and present facts, ideas and opinions
W3 Understand and use a range of appropriate vocabulary
W4 Use language and register appropriate to audience and context
W5 Make accurate and effective use of paragraphs, grammatical structures, sentences,
punctuation and spelling

Percentage breakdown:

Component 2:                  50%
Component 3:                  50%
                           -----------
                              100%
Resources

IGCSE English                                           First Language English Workbook
IGCSE Study Guide for First Language                    Pocket Oxford English Dictionary
English                                                 Pocket Paperback Thesaurus
First Language English: IGCSE



IGCSE Literature (English) 0486
Aims
The aims are to encourage and develop students’ ability to:
   a. enjoy the experience of reading literature
   b. understand and respond to literary texts in different forms and from different periods and
       cultures
   c. communicate an informed personal response appropriately and effectively
   d. appreciate different ways in which writers achieve their effects
   e. experience literature’s contribution to aesthetic, imaginative and intellectual growth
   f. explore the contribution of literature to an understanding of areas of human concern

Curriculum Content
Candidates should be able to demonstrate an appreciation of texts and themes in ways which may
range from straightforward knowledge of content and surface meaning to the communication of an
informed personal response.

Candidates should study in detail individual texts in the three main literary forms of prose, poetry, and
drama.

A. Knowledge with Understanding
       recall, narrate                                        paraphrase
       summarize                                              select relevant detail

B. Critical Interpretation
       distinguish viewpoint                                  explore theme, motivation
       detect theme, motivation                               analyze plot, characterization
       comment on plot, characterization                      employ basic critical terminology
       demonstrate some awareness of the                      discuss the ways writers achieve their
        ways writers achieve their effects                      effects

C. Judgement and Personal Response
       draw inferences                                        evaluate, interpret
       state opinions                                         integrate apposite quotation and
       articulate and discuss feelings and                     comment
        attitudes                                              communicate a considered personal
       make connections                                        response
Assessment

Paper 1 Set Texts: (Open Books 2 hours 15 minutes)
The paper has three sections: Drama, Prose and Poetry. Students must answer one question from each
section.

Candidates will be asked to demonstrate:
    personal response: sometimes directly, for example, ‘What do you think?’, ‘What are your
       feelings about…?’ and sometimes by implication: ‘Explore the ways in which…’
    knowledge of the text through the use of close reference to details and use of quotations from
       it

       understanding of characters, relationships, situations and themes
       understanding of the writer’s intentions and methods, and response to the writer’s use of
        language. (Empathic tasks (sometimes known as ‘empathetic’ or ‘creative response’ tasks)
        address the same
       assessment objectives as the essay and passage-based questions. They are intended to test
        knowledge, understanding and response; but they give the candidate the opportunity to
        engage more imaginatively with the text, by the assumption of a suitable ‘voice’, i.e. manner
        of speaking, for the character concerned.)

Paper 3 (Unseen 1 hour 20 minutes)
The paper will contain two questions, each requiring a critical commentary and appreciation of
previously unseen writing printed on the question paper.

One of the questions will be based on a literary prose passage (e.g. an extract from a novel or short
story); the other question will be based on a poem or an extract of a poem.

ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVES

Students will be assessed on their ability to:
    1. show detailed knowledge of the content of literary texts in the three main forms (Drama,
        Poetry, and Prose);
    2. understand the meanings of literary texts and their contexts, and explore texts beyond surface
        meanings to show deeper awareness of ideas and attitudes;
    3. recognize and appreciate ways in which writers use language, structure, and form to create
        and shape meanings and effects;
    4. communicate a sensitive and informed personal response to literary texts.

Percentage breakdown:

Paper I: 70%
Paper 3:           30%
               -----------
                   100%

Resources:

Songs of Ourselves              University of Cambridge International Examinations
                                Anthology of Poetry in English
Into the Wind                   Contemporary Stories in English
A Raisin in the Sun             Lorraine Hansberry

                                                                                                   8
As You Like It                    William Shakespeare
A Streetcar Named Desire          Tennessee Williams
Macbeth                           William Shakespeare
Things Fall Apart                 Chinua Achebe
Lord of the Flies                 William Golding
To Kill a Mockingbird             Harper Lee

IGCSE Co-ordinated Science 0654

Introduction
The syllabus provides topics through which students can discuss issues that arise from the interaction
of science, technology and society. At the same time the science studied should have immediate
significance for the student in terms of its intrinsic interest and its applications to students' individual
lives and preoccupations.

Aims
The aims are to:
1.       Provide well-designed studies of experimental and practical science. Students’ studies should
enable them to acquire understanding and knowledge of the concepts, principles and applications of
biology, chemistry and physics and, where appropriate, other related sciences so that they may:

        1.1      become confident citizens in a technological world, able to take or develop an
                 informed interest in matters of scientific import,
        1.2       recognise the usefulness, and limitations, of scientific method and appreciate its
                 applicability in other disciplines and in everyday life,
        1.3      be suitably prepared to embark upon certain post-16 science-dependent vocational
                 courses and studies in any of the pure sciences and applied sciences;

2.      Develop abilities and skills that:
        2.1    are relevant to the study and practice of science,
        2.2    are useful in everyday life,
        2.3    encourage safe practice,
        2.4    encourage effective communication;

3.      Stimulate
        3.1     curiosity, interest and enjoyment in science and its methods of enquiry,
        3.2     interest in, and care for, the environment;

4.      Promote an awareness that:
        4.1    the study and practice of science are co-operative and cumulative activities subject to
               social, economic, technological, ethical and cultural influences and limitations,
        4.2    the applications of science may be both beneficial and detrimental to the individual,
               the community and the environment,
        4.3    the concepts of science are of a developing and sometimes transient nature,
        4.4    science transcends national boundaries and that the language of science is universal;

        In addition to these general aims, IGCSE Co-ordinated Sciences seeks:
5.      To emphasise that some principles and concepts are common to all science, whilst others are
        more particular to the separate sciences of biology, chemistry and physics;
6.      To promote interdisciplinary enquiry through practical investigations and through the co-
        ordination of the subject matter of the three separate sciences;
7.      Introduce students to the methods used by scientists and to the ways in which scientific

                                                                                                          9
        discoveries are made.

Assessment:
The three assessment objectives in Co-ordinated Sciences are
A       Knowledge with Understanding
B       Handling Information and Problem Solving
C       Experimental Skills and Investigations.

A description of each assessment objective follows.

A       KNOWLEDGE WITH UNDERSTANDING
Students should be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding in relation to:
1.      scientific phenomena, facts, laws, definitions, concepts and theories,
2.      scientific vocabulary, terminology and conventions (including symbols, quantities and units),
3.      scientific instruments and apparatus, including techniques of operation and aspects of
        safety,
4.      scientific quantities and their determination,
5.      scientific and technological applications with their social, economic and environmental
                 implications.
The curriculum content defines the factual material that candidates may be required to recall and
explain. Questions testing this will often begin with one of the following words: define, state,
describe, explain or outline.

B       HANDLING INFORMATION AND PROBLEM SOLVING
Students should be able, in words or using other written forms of presentation (i.e. symbolic,
graphical and numerical), to:
1.       locate, select, organise and present information from a variety of sources,
2.       translate information from one form to another,
3.       manipulate numerical and other data,
4.       use information to identify patterns, report trends and draw inferences,
5.       present reasoned explanations for phenomena, patterns and relationships,
6.       make predictions and hypotheses,
7.       solve problems.
These skills cannot be precisely specified in the curriculum content because questions testing such
skills are often based on information which is unfamiliar to the candidate. In answering such
questions, candidates are required to use principles and concepts that are within the syllabus and apply
them in a logical, deductive manner to a novel situation. Questions testing these skills will often begin
with one of the following words:
                  discuss, predict, suggest, calculate or determine.

C        EXPERIMENTAL SKILLS AND INVESTIGATIONS
Students should be able to
1.       use techniques, apparatus and materials (including the following of a sequence of
         instructions where appropriate),
2.       make and record observations, measurements and estimates,
3.       interpret and evaluate experimental observations and data,
4.       plan investigations and/or evaluate methods and suggest possible improvements (including
the selection of techniques, apparatus and materials).

The approximate weightings allocated to each of the assessment objectives in the assessment model
are summarised in the table below



                                                                                                      10
Assessment Objective                              Weighting

A Knowledge with Understanding                    50% (not more than 25% recall)

B   Handling Information and Problem Solving      30%

C Experimental Skills and Investigations          20%


 Summary of Content:

Biology                                 Chemistry                            Physics

Cells, osmosis, diffusion and active Atoms, bonding and the periodic Units and measurement
transport                            table.
Transport systems in plants and Materials and structures                     motion
animals (including human gas
exchange and circulation)
Respiration                             Solvents and solutions               Kinetic energy        and
                                                                             momentum
Nerves, hormones and drugs              Acids and alkalis, soils and Molecular forces
                                        rocks
Homeostasis and excretion               Rates of reaction                    Particles in motion
                                                                             (Boyle’s and Charles’
                                                                             law)
Support and movement in humans Petrochemicals and fuels                      Revision of heat and
(skeleton and muscles)                                                       waves
Reproduction in plants and animals Solvents, solutions and colloids Energy and electricity
(including animals)
Revision of nutrition (including Fertilizers, dyes and drugs                 Magnetism, electricity
food testing)                                                                and energy distribution
Inheritance                             Oxidation, reduction and metals Communications
Revision of ecology (including Ions, electrolysis and batteries              Electronics
classification)
Evolution                               Chemicals from plants                Radioactivity         and
                                                                             electrons

 Resources:

 New Coordinated Science: Biology; Chemistry; Physics.

 These are Oxford University press books and will be supplied to the students when needed. The
 students will work in a fully equipped laboratory, enabling students to receive a ‘hands on’ approach
 to the sciences as well as the theoretical background needed.



                                                                                                   11
Elective A
IGCSE History 0470
Introduction

The History syllabus offers students the opportunity of studying some of the major international
issues of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, as well as looking in somewhat greater depth at the
history of particular regions. However, the emphasis within the syllabus is as much on the
development of historical skills as on the acquisition of knowledge.

Aims
The aims are to:
  1. stimulate interest in and enthusiasm about the past;
  2. promote the acquisition of knowledge and understanding of human activity in the past;
  3. ensure that the candidates' knowledge is rooted in an understanding of the nature and use of
      historical evidence;
  4. promote an understanding of the nature of cause and consequence, continuity and change,
  5. similarity and difference;
  6. provide a sound basis for further study and the pursuit of personal interest;
  7. encourage international understanding;
  8. encourage the development of linguistic and communication skills.

Curriculum Content

All students will study the 20th century Core Content, and two Depth Studies.
Core Content

The 20th century, International Relations since 1919

Were the Peace Treaties      What were the motives and aims of the Big Three at Versailles?
of 1919-23 fair?             Why did all the victors not get everything they wanted?
                             What was the impact of the peace treaty on Germany up to 1923?
                             Could the treaties be justified at the time?

To what extent was the       How successful was the League in the 1920s?
League of Nations a          How far did weaknesses in the League's organization make failure
success?                     inevitable?
                             How far did the Depression make the work of the League more
                             difficult?
                             How successful was the League in the 1930s?
Why had international        What were the long-term consequences of the peace treaties of 1919-
peace collapsed by           23?
1939?                        What were the consequences of the failures of the League in the 1930s?
                             How far was Hitler's foreign policy to blame for the outbreak of war in
                             1939?
                             Was the policy of appeasement justified?
                             How important was the Nazi-Soviet Pact?
                             Why did Britain & France declare war on Germany in September
                             1939?



                                                                                                  12
Who was to blame for       Why did the USA-USSR alliance begin to break down in 1945?
the Cold War?              How had the USSR gained control of Eastern Europe by 1948?
                           How did the USA react to Soviet expansionism?
                           What were the consequences of the Berlin Blockade?
                           Who was the more to blame for starting the Cold War, the USA or the
                           USSR?

How effectively did the    America and events in Cuba, 1959-62;
USA contain the spread     American involvement in Vietnam.
of Communism?
How secure was the         Why was there opposition to Soviet control in Hungary in 1956 and
USSR's control over        Czechoslovakia in 1968, and how did the USSR react to this
Eastern Europe, 1948-      opposition?
c.1989?                    How similar were events in Hungary in 1956 and in Czechoslovakia in
                           1968?
                           Why was the Berlin Wall built in 1961?
                           What was the significance of 'Solidarity' in Poland for the decline of
                           Soviet influence in Eastern Europe?
                           How far was Gorbachev personally responsible for the collapse of
                           Soviet control over Eastern Europe?

How effective has the      What are the functions of the UNO?
United Nations             How far has the organization of the UNO hindered its effectiveness?
Organization been?

DEPTH STUDIES

Candidates will study both of the following Depth Studies:
   (a) The USA, 1919-41
   (b) Israelis and Palestinians, 1945-c.1994

Depth Study: The USA, 1919-41

How far did the US            On what factors was the economic boom based?
economy boom in the           Why did some industries prosper while others did not?
1920s?                        Why did agriculture not share in the prosperity?
                              Did all Americans benefit from the boom?
How far did US society        What were the ‘Roaring 20s’?
change in the 1920s?          How widespread was intolerance in US society?
                              Why was prohibition introduced, and then later repealed?
                              How far did the roles of women change during the 1920s?
What were the causes and      How far was speculation responsible for the Wall Street Crash?
consequences of the Wall      What impact did the Crash have on the economy?
Street Crash?                 What were the social consequences of the Crash?
                              Why did Roosevelt win the election of 1932?
How successful was the        What was the New Deal as introduced in 1933?
New Deal?                     How far did the character of the New Deal change after 1933?
                              Why did the New Deal encounter opposition?
                              Why did unemployment persist despite the New Deal?
                              Did the fact that the New Deal did not solve unemployment mean
                              that it was a failure?
Depth Study: Israelis and Palestinians, 1945 - c.1994


                                                                                                 13
How was the Jewish state What was the significance for Palestine of the end of the Second World
of Israel established?   War?
                               What were the causes of conflict between Jews and Arabs in Palestine?
                               Why did the Arabs reject UNO plans to partition Palestine?
                               Why was Israel able to win the war of 1948-9?
How was Israel able to         Why was Israel able to win the wars of 1956, 1967 and 1973?
survive despite the            How significant was superpower involvement in Arab-Israeli
hostility of its Arab          conflicts?
neighbours?                    Why have Israel's neighbours become more ready to accept her
                               existence?
                               By the 1990s, how far had the problems, which existed between Israel
                               and her neighbours, been solved?
What has been the impact       Why were so many Palestinians refugees?
on the Palestinians of the     How effective has the PLO been in promoting the Palestinian cause?
existence of Israel?           Why have Arab states not always supported the Palestinians?
                               How have international perceptions of the Palestinian cause changed
                               over time?

What has been the effect       How has the hostility of her Arab neighbours influenced the lives of
of the Arab-Israeli            the people of Israel?
conflict on life in Israel?    What has been the political significance of Judaism within Israel?
                               What differences have existed amongst Israelis about how to treat the
                               Palestinians?
                               Have Palestinians within Israel and the occupied territories been more
                               or less fortunate than Palestinians in exile?

Assessment
Candidates must be entered for the following papers:
(i) Paper 1;
(ii) Paper 2;
(iii) Paper 4.

Paper 1 (2 hours) will consist of two sections.

Section A (Core Content) will contain eight questions, four on the 19th century Core and four on the
20th century Core. Candidates must answer two questions.

Section B (Depth Studies) will contain two questions on each of the Depth Studies. Candidates must
answer one question.

Paper 2 (2 hours).

This paper will have two options: a 19th-century topic and a 20th-century topic. Candidates answer
the questions on one option. The topic will be taken from the Core Content. Each option will include
a collection of source material and a series of questions based on the material.

For the examination in 2007 the topics will be: 20th century core: The Korean War, 1950-53
Paper 4 (1 hour).

On each of the Depth Studies one question will be set. It will be source-based and will be structured
into several parts. It will test all the Assessment Objectives. Candidates must answer one question.

Assessment Objectives
Candidates will be expected to:

                                                                                                    14
    1. recall, select, organize and deploy knowledge of the syllabus content;
    2. demonstrate an understanding of:
           (a) change and continuity, cause and consequence, similarity and difference;
           (b) the motives, emotions, intentions and beliefs of people in the past;
    3. comprehend, interpret, evaluate and use a range of sources as evidence in their historical
       context.

Percentage breakdown:

Paper 1:         40%
Paper 2:         33%
Paper 4:         27%
             -----------
                 100%

Resources:
IGCSE Twentieth Century History: International Relations Since 1919
The World This Century: Working with Evidence
The Arab-Israeli Conflict
The USA: 1917-1941

Longman 20th Century Series:
The Cold War: Superpower Relations, 1949-1989
Conflict in Palestine: Arab, Jews and the Middle East Since 1900
The Great War: The First World War 1914-18
A New Deal: America 1932-45
The Age of Excess: America 1920-32

IGCSE Spanish 0530

The aims are to:
   1. Develop the ability to use the language effectively for purposes of practical communication
       within the country of residence, where appropriate, and in all the countries where the
       language is spoken;
   2. Form a sound base of the skills, language and attitudes required for further study, work and
       leisure;
   3. Offer insights into the culture and civilisation of the countries where the language is spoken –
       this may include literature where appropriate;
   4. Encourage fuller integration into the local community, where relevant;
   5. Develop a fuller awareness of the nature of language and language learning;
   6. Encourage positive attitudes toward language learning and towards speakers of other
   7. languages and a sympathetic approach to other cultures and civilisations;
   8. Provide enjoyment and intellectual stimulation;
   9. Complement other areas of study by encouraging skills of a more general application (e.g.
       analysis, memorising, drawing of inferences).

Curriculum
 PAPER                          CORE                                     SUPPLEMENT
              All students should be able to:                  Students aiming for grades A* to C
                                                               should, in
                                                               addition, be able to:

                                                                                                   15
Listening     - demonstrate understanding of specific        - demonstrate general and specific
              detail in short, formal public                 understanding of longer and more
              announcements, informal announcements,         complex material
              short conversations and interviews             - identify the important points or
              - demonstrate general comprehension of         themes of
              the                                            the material, including attitudes,
              Above                                          emotions and ideas that are
                                                             expressed
                                                             - draw conclusions from, and
                                                             identify the relationships between
                                                             ideas within the material
Reading       - demonstrate understanding of words           - show comprehension of a wider
and           within                                         range of texts, including magazines
Directed      short texts such as public notices,            and newspapers likely to be read by
Writing       instructions and signs                         young people
              - extract relevant specific information        - demonstrate the ability to identify
              from texts such as brochures, guides,          the important points or themes
              letters and forms of imaginative writing       within an extended piece of writing
              considered likely to be within the             - draw conclusions from, and see
              experience of and reflecting the interests     relations within an extended text
              of young people
              - show a general understanding of more
              extended texts
              - scan for particular information, organise
              the relevant information and present it in a
              given format
              - carry out basic writing tasks (such as
              asking for detailed information, giving
              some
              personal information, reporting)
Speaking      - perform Role Playing tasks which             - play a part in discussion; choose
              involve both taking the initiative and         and organise ideas and present them
              responding to questions, with both             clearly
              strangers and friends                          - adapt to the needs of the audience
              - report, express opinions and respond to      and the situation
              questions on a topic of the candidate’s
              choice
              - respond to unprepared questions in a
              general conversation on topics of interest
              to the candidate
Continuous                                                   - express thoughts, feelings and
Writing                                                      opinions in order to interest, inform
                                                             or convince
                                                             - demonstrate adequate control of
                                                             vocabulary, syntax and grammar,
                                                             punctuation and spelling

Assessment
The one assessment objective is Communication, which incorporates the four sub-skills:
A Listening

                                                                                               16
B Reading
C Speaking
D Writing

Candidates who have followed the Core curriculum and take papers 1, 2 and 3 are eligible for the
award of grades C to G only. Candidates who have followed the Core and Extended curriculum and
take all the relevant papers 1, 2, 3 and 4 are eligible for the award of grades A* to G.

Paper 1, Listening (approximately 45 minutes)

Section 1
(a) Short recordings (one or two sentences), some involving two speakers, tested mainly by visual
material (pictures, line drawings, etc.)
(b) Recordings containing largely factual information, about travel, weather, opening times, facilities
available, etc.
Section 2
Recordings containing information which will be of interest to the candidate without directly
concerning him/her: conversations, discussions, simple radio programmes such as news, current
affairs, interviews, factual reports are likely sources.
Section 3
Recordings of discussions between two or three people on a subject of mutual interest: holiday plans,
recalling a shared experience, etc. Questions will test appreciation of the speakers’ use of language to
express agreement or disagreement, apologies or complaints, attitudes, emotions and ideas, etc., as
well as understanding of the gist of their conversation.

Paper 2 Reading and Directed Writing (1½ hours)

Section 1
Exercise 1: Signs, notices, advertisements, etc. – multiple-choice questions.
Exercises 2 and 3: Brochures, guides, short texts, etc, – objective questions testing specific detail;
questions to test scanning for required information.
Exercise 4: One simple directed writing task in the form of a message, note or postcard.
A maximum of 40 words will be required. 3 marks will be available for Communication and 2 for
appropriateness of Language.

Section 2
Exercise 1: One text with questions testing general understanding, e.g. identifying the main points.
Exercise 2: One directed writing task. Candidates will have to perform tasks (e.g. asking for
information, giving personal information, reporting) in the form of a simple letter. 80-100 words in
total will be required. 10 marks will be available for Communication and 5 for Quality of language.
Section 3
Exercises 1 and 2: Two longer texts. Questions will be set to test general and specific comprehension.
Questions may also require the ability to identify attitudes, emotions and ideas,
the main points or themes, and to draw conclusions and make inferences.



Paper 3, Speaking (15 minutes)

Test 1: Role Plays
Test 2: Topic (prepared) Conversation
Test 3: General (unprepared) Conversation

Paper 4, Continuous Writing (1¼ hours (Extended candidates only))

                                                                                                     17
Candidates are expected to produce two pieces of continuous writing in which they demonstrate their
mastery of the written target language in a more 'open' way than in the writing task on Paper
2. The first of the two tasks will be fairly structured and the second one will be more creative
(narrative, descriptive, etc.).



Elective B
IGCSE First Language Korean 0521

Introduction
The first sitting of this exam will take place in 2007. The preparation of the detailed syllabus and
assessment is still taking place.

Aims
The aims are to:
   1. Enable students to communicate accurately, appropriately and effectively in writing;
   2. Enable students to understand and respond appropriately to what they read;
   3. Encourage students to enjoy and appreciate the variety of language;
   4. Complement the students’ other areas of study by developing skills of a more general
       application (e.g. analysis, synthesis, drawing of inferences);
   5. Promote the students’ personal development and an understanding of themselves and others.




All students should be able to:                    Students who are aiming for Grades A* to C
                                                   should, in addition, be able to:
Reading
demonstrate understanding of words within          Show a more precise understanding of extended
extended texts                                     texts
Scan for and extract specific information
Identify main and subordinate topics, summarise,   Recognise the relationship of ideas
paraphrase, re-express                             Evaluate effectiveness, draw inferences, compare,
                                                   analyse, synthesise
Show some sense of how writers achieve their       Show understanding of how writers achieve their
effects                                            effects
Recognise and respond to simple linguistic         Recognise and respond to more sophisticated
devices including figurative language              linguistic devices
Writing
Express thoughts, feelings and opinions in order   Show a wider and more varied sense of different
to interest, inform or convince the reader         styles to interest, inform or convince the reader
Show some sense of audience                        Show a clear sense of audience
Demonstrate adequate control of vocabulary,        Demonstrate a sophisticated use of vocabulary
syntax and grammar                                 and structures
Exercise care over punctuation and spelling        Demonstrate accuracy in punctuation and
                                                   spelling
Write accurate simple sentences                    Write accurate complex sentences
Attempt a variety of sentence structures           Employ varied sentence structures
Recognise the need for paragraphing                Write in well-constructed paragraphs
Use appropriate vocabulary                         Use imaginative and varied vocabulary

                                                                                                  18
Grade Descriptions

Grade A
• Candidates understand and communicate information at both a straightforward and a complex level
• Candidates understand facts, ideas and opinions, and order and present in detail what is relevant for
specific purposes
• Candidates describe and reflect upon experience and detail, analysing effectively what is felt and
what is imagined
• Candidates recognise implicit meanings and attitudes of a writer
• Candidates show a clear sense of audience and an understanding of appropriate uses of language
• Candidates write in well-constructed paragraphs, using a full range of appropriate sentence
structures and showing accuracy in spelling and punctuation

Grade C
• Candidates understand and convey information both at a straightforward level and at a more
complex level
• Candidates understand basic facts, ideas and opinions, presenting them with a degree of clarity and
accuracy
• Candidates evaluate material from texts and select what is relevant for specific purposes
• Candidates describe and reflect upon experience and express effectively what is felt and what is
imagined
• Candidates recognise the more obvious implicit meanings and attitudes of a writer
• Candidates show a sense of audience and an awareness of appropriate uses of language
• Candidates write in paragraphs, using sentences of varied kinds and exercising care over spelling
and punctuation

Grade F
• Candidates understand and convey information at a straightforward level
• Candidates understand basic facts, ideas and opinions, presenting them with a degree of coherence
• Candidates select material from texts and comment upon it at a literal level
• Candidates describe experience in concrete terms and express intelligibly what is felt and what is
imagined
• Candidates recognise clear meanings and explicit attitudes of a writer
• Candidates show awareness that language is used in different ways in different circumstances
• Candidates write at least in simple sentences – weaknesses in spelling and punctuation and the
construction of complex sentences will be apparent, but will not seriously impair communication

IGCSE Design and Technology 0445
Aims
The aims are to enable students to:
   1. foster awareness, understanding and expertise in those areas of creative thinking which can be
       expressed and developed through investigation and research, planning, designing, making and
       evaluating, working with media, materials and tools;
   2. encourage the acquisition of a body of knowledge applicable to solving
       practical/technological problems operating through processes of analysis, synthesis and
       realization;
   3. stimulate the development of a range of communication skills which are central to design,
       making and evaluation;
   4. stimulate the development of a range of making skills;
   5. encourage students to relate their work, which should demand active and experimental
       learning based upon the use of materials in practical areas, to their personal interests and
       abilities;


                                                                                                    19
   6. promote the development of curiosity, enquiry, initiative, ingenuity, resourcefulness and
      discrimination;
   7. encourage technological awareness, foster attitudes of co-operation and social responsibility,
      and develop abilities to enhance the quality of the environment;
   8. stimulate the exercising of value judgements of an aesthetic, technical, economic and moral
      nature.

Curriculum Content

PART 1
Candidates should be able to:
Observe                   identify and describe needs and opportunities for design and
need/requirement          technological improvement;
Design                    analyze and produce design specifications for problems which have
brief/specification       been self-identified or posed by others;
Identification/research    identify the constraints imposed by knowledge, resource availability
                           and/or external sources which influenced proposed solutions;
                           gather, order and assess information relevant to the solution of
                           practical/technological problems;
                           produce and/or interpret data (e.g. diagrams, flow charts, graphs,
                           experimental and test results);
Generation of             generate and record ideas as potential solutions to problems using a
possible ideas            range of techniques;
                          identify the resources needed for the solution of
                          practical/technological problems;
                          use a variety of media and equipment to produce models and mock-
                          ups as a means of exploring a problem and as a means of testing the
                          feasibility of a solution;
                          recognize the need for continuous appraisal of their own progress,
                          thinking and decision making, in order to provide themselves with
                          opportunities for review;
                          relate these judgements to the purpose of their study, in particular the
                          specification which they set themselves;
Select/organization       select and develop a solution after consideration of time, cost, skill and
                          resources;
                          organize and plan in detail the production of the selected solution;


Evaluation                evaluate existing products/systems, the work of others and their own
                          work;
                          check the performance of the product/solution against the original
                          specification;
                          use different methods and sources to assess the effectiveness of a
                          product (e.g. sampling, questionnaires, interviews);
                          suggest any possible modification and improvements (consideration to
                          include functional, safety, aesthetic, ergonomic and economic factors);
Implementation and        show an awareness of correct procedures for their preparation;
realization               show an awareness of the correct and accurate methods of drawing,
                          marking out and testing;
                          select appropriate processes for shaping, forming, cutting, joining,

                                                                                                 20
                      fitting, assembling and finishing a variety of materials;
Health and Safety     show an awareness of the correct use of hand and machine tools and
                      equipment;
                      show a proper regard for all mandatory and other necessary safety
                      precautions relevant to the use of a variety of tools, machines,
                      materials and other resources;
                      show a concern for economy in the use of materials, components,
                      media, time, energy and other resources;
Initiation and        extract relevant information from sources (written, graphical, oral,
development of ideas, computer based);
and recording of data interpret and record information and data
Communicating ideas use technical vocabulary, number skills, colour, shading and other
with others           media to produce sketches, models, diagrams, drawings (such as
                      perspective, isometric, orthographic, sequential) and written materials,
                      which communicate their ideas with precision and clarity;
Design and            w awareness of the effect of design and technology activity on social,
Technology in         environmental and economic issues;
Society               demonstrate awareness of the role of designers, craftsmen and
                      technologists in industry and society;
                      take account of human needs in aspects as diverse as aesthetic,
                      ergonomic, economic, environmental, cultural and social;
Aesthetics            appreciate the use of line, shape, form, proportion, space, colour and texture as
                          appropriate to their designed solutions and the work of others;
Anthropometrics and  demonstrate an understanding of the concept of ergonomics and the
Ergonomics           use of anthropometric data in their own design work and that of
                     others.
Energy               recognize that different forms of energy sources exist, namely, fossil
                     fuels, nuclear, solar, water power;
                     understand how different sources and forms of energy can be stored,
                     converted and transmitted to produce a work capability and to
                     improve the quality of life;
                     understand the inefficiencies of energy conversion methods, eg.
                     ‘losses' into by-products such as heat, light and sound;
                     understand the difference between the finite and almost finite nature
                     of energy sources and how through design, all energy sources can be
                     conserved;
                     use energy sources effectively and efficiently;
Control              identify the features of a control system in terms of input devices,
                     processing elements, output devices, feedback;
Mechanical Control   understand the use of common fastenings and fittings applicable to the
(Static)             holding of metal, wood, plastics, card and paper;
Permanent Fastenings choose sensibly between common and appropriate methods applicable
                     to most common materials; this should include simple joining, the use
                     of adhesives, riveting and welding;
Mechanical Control   understand methods of transmitting motion using simple systems
(Dynamic)            only; examples should include belts, chains, pulleys, gears and cams;

PART 2
Candidates will be expected to follow a course centred on the following:


                                                                                                   21
     System and Control
     Introduction
     This area of study is concerned with developing the skills and knowledge used by designers within the
     context of a group of related technological resource areas; namely Structures, Mechanisms and
     Electronics. It is intended that practical experience be used to create a broad understanding of the
     three resource areas and by identifying how they interrelate, their role in designing and making
     controlled systems can be appreciated and exploited.

     Candidates should be able to:
Designing and          design and make working models and practical products using the concepts,
Making                 knowledge and skills listed, and resistant materials, components and kits;
                       design, make and evaluate a static structure;
                       use the principle of levers to design and make a simple machine that is structurally
                       sound;
                       use electric motors and solenoids to power simple mechanical models, and both
                       bread-boarded and pcb built electronic circuits to control them;
Testing                use a simple dial gauge to measure the deflection of simple structures;
                       be aware of the use of strain gauges for testing, common structural and mechanical
                       members/components under strain;
Moments (Turning        define a moment as force x distance (Nm);demonstrate an understanding of the use of
Forces)                 moments in simple calculations relating to the loading of beams and levers;

Energy                  describe the power sources used to drive mechanical systems and recognize a battery
                        as an electrical energy storage/conversion device;
                        be aware of the energy costs of powering systems and how, through good design and
                        manufacture, the potential energy demand can be reduced;
Structure and Forces    calculate and analyze simple forces using triangle and parallelogram representation;
                        examples will include support wires, tripods, shear legs and frames;
                        understand the design and construction of structures which withstand stress and take
                        stationary and moving loads;


Types of Structure      identify and classify both natural and man-made structures as they occur in everyday
                        life;
Types of Structural     draw, describe and identify various types of member such as beam, strut and tie;
Member

Materials               describe, compare and contrast the properties of the following structural materials
                        when used in the construction of beams, frames, arches and cables:
                                − woods, metals, stone, concrete, plastics and composites;
Nature of Structural    be aware of how performance is affected by length, shape of cross-section and
Members                 material selection
Joints in Structures    apply sound judgement when selecting the appropriate method of joining materials of
                        solid and hollow cross section;
                        select and use different methods of reinforcing such as gussets, ribs, braces and
                        laminating;
Framed Structures       recognize frames in use and identify the use of triangulation to establish rigidity;

Applied Loads and       apply the concept of equilibrium as a result of applied load and reaction;
Reactions               understand what is meant by the following terms and their relationship to structural
                        design: tension, compression, shear, bending, torsion and static load (simple

                                                                                                               22
                   examples)
Forces             understand Hooke's Law and the relationship between extension and load;
                   understand Stress = force/cross sectional area
                   understand Strain = change in length/original length
                   understand Young's Modulus of Elasticity as: Stress/Strain (N/mm2)
                   draw and interpret a typical stress/strain graph for mild steel and identify the important
                   features on this graph;
                   understand the significance of these features to structural design;
                   understand the term Factor of Safety and its importance to structural design;
Mechanisms
General Concepts   explain and use the following terms correctly:
                           − load, effort, fulcrum, mechanical advantage, velocity ratio and
                           efficiency;
Levers             identify and sketch simple examples of first, second and third order levers,
                   and associated linkages;
Transmission of    select appropriately and list the factors influencing the choice of the
Motion             following for practical applications:
                           Gears − spur, bevel, worm, rack and pinion;
                   Belts and Pulleys
                           − flat, toothed, round and vee belts and pulleys;
                           − sprockets and chains;
                           − standard systems to maintain tension in drive belts and chains;
                   calculate simple gear ratios and transmission speed;
                   determine the Mechanical Advantage (MA), Velocity Ratio (VR) efficiency
                   and rotational direction for the following:
                           − wheel and axle, screw jack, compound pulley and gear
                           arrangements;
Bearings and       be aware of the need to reduce friction between two surfaces by design, and
Lubrication        describe the types of lubrication, and other methods of application for
                   different situations;
                   compare and contrast the use of plain, roller and ball bearings, and give
                   reasons for their suitability for specific operational conditions;
Conversion of      recognize and give examples of the following types of motion:
Motion                     − rotary, linear, reciprocating and oscillating;
                   understand the terms crank, cam, follower, dwell, stroke, screw thread, pitch;
                   compare and select appropriately crankshafts, crank/slider mechanisms, rack
                   and pinion, ratchet and pawl, eccentrics, simple cams and screw threads as
                   methods of converting motion from one type to another;
Electronics
Basic Concepts     use correct symbols and conventions when drawing circuit diagrams;
                   describe the operation of a circuit in terms of conventional current flow;
                   identify and compare the following properties when selecting materials:
                           − conductivity and insulation
                   understand and apply units used to measure current, voltage, resistance and
                   capacitance, including multiple and sub-multiple units;
                   understand the relationship between current, voltage and resistance (Ohm's
                   Law) and use to calculate the value of a current limiting resistor;
                   use ammeters, voltmeters and multimeters to measure current, voltage and
                   resistance;
                   perform simple power calculations using P = VI;

                                                                                                                23
                    Switches understand the action and application of common switches:
                             − toggle, push button (PTM/PTB), micro, rotary and reed;
                    understand the terms normally closed (NC), normally open (NO), single pole
                    single throw (SPST) and double pole double throw (DPDT) in relation to
                    switches and relays;
                    use relays to switch higher voltage circuits for motors, solenoids etc.;
                    construct and draw circuits which use a two pole change-over relay to give
                    motor reverse control and latched (memorized) switching;
Resistors           make use of the resistor colour code to determine the value and tolerance of a
                    resistor and to select the nearest suitable value;
                    draw circuit diagrams and perform calculations for resistors in series and
                    parallel
                    understand the term potential divider and perform calculations to determine
                    values of resistance and voltage in potential divider circuits.
Transistors         Describe the operation of transistors in terms of the collector emitter circuit
                    being controlled by the base bias voltage. Select appropriately the use of NPN
                    transistors as switches in circuits.
Diodes              understand the use of a diode as a one way conductor, and its use in a relay
                    circuit to protect against back emf;
                    use LEDs in circuits and be able to calculate the value of a suitable current
                    limiting resistor to protect LEDs;
Transducers         understand the use of the following transducers,
                             − LDR, thermistor, strain gauge;
Capacitors          explain with the aid of diagrams/graphs, the charging and discharging of a
                    capacitor;
Time Delay Circuits construct and draw circuit diagrams for time delay circuits (monostable and
                    astable) using capacitors, resistors, transistors and the 555 timer IC;
                    use T = C x R to calculate simple time delays;
                    use graphs and data to be able to select components to achieve a desired time
                    delay;
Logic gates         Have knowledge and understanding of the use of logic gates (AND, OR,
                    NAND, NOR, NOT) and truth tables for simple logic control systems. Give
                    examples of the use of logic control systems in everyday life, e.g. heating
                    control, traffic lights, environmental control in a greenhouse etc.

    Assessment
    Candidates must take Paper 1, Paper 4, and a Project.

    Paper 1 and Paper 4 will be taken together in one session of 2 hours and 15 minutes.
    Paper 1
    This question paper will be set on Part 1 of the syllabus.
    Paper 4
    In this paper there will be a Section A and a Section B. Section A will consist of compulsory
    questions, testing subject knowledge in Systems and Control. Section B will consist of longer
    structured questions. Paper 4 will provide a choice of one out of three questions in this section.

    Paper 5, School-based assessment
    Each candidate will undertake a personally identified Project centred on the Systems and Control of
    the syllabus. The Project is expected to be worked over the final two terms of the course.

    While the Project will be option based the nature of the Common Core within the subject Design and

                                                                                                    24
Technology is such that each candidate's work is likely to be of a cross-optional character.

Assessment Objectives
The four assessment objectives in Design and Technology are:
    Knowledge with understanding
    Problem solving
    Communication
    Realization.
A description of each assessment objective follows:

Knowledge and Understanding
Students should be able to:
    1. demonstrate the ability to state facts, recall and name items, recall and describe processes;
    2. demonstrate the ability to apply and relate knowledge to designing and making;
    3. make reasoned arguments and anticipate consequences about the outcomes of the Design and
        Technology process;
    4. demonstrate a crucial awareness of the interrelationship between Design and the needs of
        society.

Problem solving
Students should be able to:
    5. recognize problems, identify clearly, from a problem situation, a specific need for which a
        solution is required and compose a design brief;
    6. analyze a problem by considering any relevant functional, aesthetic, human, economic and
        environmental design factors and draw up a design specification;
    7. investigate, research, collect and record relevant data and information;
    8. generate a range of outline solutions to a design problem, giving consideration to the
        constraints of time, cost, skill and resources;
    9. develop, refine, test and evaluate the effectiveness of design solutions.

Communication
Students should be able to:
    10. recognize information in one form and where necessary change it into a more applicable
        form;
    11. produce or interpret data in a variety of forms such as charts, diagrams, graphs, and flow
        charts;
    12. propose and communicate ideas graphically using a range of media;
    13. develop ideas and represent details of form, shape, construction, movement, size, and
        structure through graphical representation and three dimensional modelling.

Realization
Students should be able to:
    14. plan and organize the work procedure involved in the realization of a solution;
    15. select, from a range of resources, those appropriate for the realization of the product;
    16. demonstrate appropriate manipulative skills by showing an understanding of materials and
        their characteristics in relation to their use;
    17. evaluate the process and product in terms of aesthetic, functional and technical quality.

Percentage breakdown:
Paper 1:        25%
Paper 4:        25%
Project:        50%
                100%

                                                                                                 25
Elective C
IGCSE Music 0140
Introduction
The aims of the curriculum are the same for all students. These are set out below and describe the
education purposes of a course in Music for the IGCSE curriculum. They are not listed in order of
priority.

Aims
The aims are to:
1.     enable candidates to acquire and consolidate a range of basic musical skills, knowledge and
       understanding, through the activities of listening, performing and composing;
2.     assist candidates to develop a perceptive, sensitive and critical response to the main historical
       periods and style of Western music;
3.     help candidates to recognise and understand the music of various non-Western traditions, and
       thus to form an appreciation of cultural similarities and differences;
4.     provide a foundation for the development of an informed appreciation of music;
5.     provide a foundation for further study in music for those candidates who wish to pursue their
       studies at a higher level.

Assessment Objectives
The three assessment objectives in Music are:
A Listening
B Performing
C Composing

The examination will reward candidates for positive achievement in:

A.      Listening

          Aural awareness, perception and discrimination in relation to Western music of the
           baroque, classical, romantic and 20th-century periods;
         Identifying and commenting on a range of music from cultures in different countries;
         Knowledge and understanding of one Western Prescribed Work and one Prescribed Focus
           from a non-Western culture.
B.      Performing

           Technical competence on one or more instruments;
           Interpretative understanding of the music performed.

C.      Composing

           Discrimination and imagination in free composition;
           Notation, using staff notation and, if appropriate, other suitable systems.


Assessment Objectives        Components 1 and 2        Component 3       Component 4
A Listening                  √
B Performing                                           √
C Composing                                                              √

                                                                                                     26
Scheme of assessment
Candidates must offer four compulsory components:
       Component 1 Unprepared Listening      (24%)
       Component 2 Prepared Listening        (16%)
       Component 3 Performing*               (30%)
       Component 4 Composing*                (30%)


Summary of Content
   Music around the world (eg, Africa, India, Japan)
   Study of one set work
   Singing or playing individually
   Singing or playing in an ensemble
   Listening and appraising – Baroque, Classical or Romantic music, 20th century styles, music
    from Latin America, Africa, India and the Far East
   Composing – 3 contrasting compositions

For a much more detailed description of the content and assessment of the music IGCSE, please refer
to the CIE website at www.cie.org.uk

IGCSE Information Technology 0418

Introduction
The aims of the curriculum are the same for all students. These are set out below and describe the
educational purposes of a course in Information Technology for the IGCSE examination. They are not
listed in order of priority.

Aims
The aims are to:
   1. Help students to develop and consolidate their knowledge, skills and understanding in
       Information Technology;
   2. Encourage students to develop further as autonomous users of Information Technology;
   3. Encourage students to continue to develop their Information Technology skills in order to
       enhance their work in a variety of subject areas;
   4. Provide opportunities for students to analyse, design, implement, test and evaluate
       Information Technology systems;
   5. Encourage students to consider the impact of new technologies on methods of working in the
       outside world and on social, economic, ethical and moral issues;
   6. Help students to grow in their awareness of the ways in which Information Technology is
       used in practical and work-related situations

Curriculum Content
The curriculum content is set out in eight interrelated sections. These sections should be read as an
integrated whole and not as a progression. The sections are as follows:
    1. Components of a Computer System
    2. Input and Output Devices
    3. Storage Devices and Media
    4. Computer Networks
    5. Data Types
    6. The Effects of Using IT
    7. The ways in which IT is used
    8. Systems Analysis and Design

                                                                                                  27
Assessment Objectives
The two assessment objectives in Information Technology are:

Assessment Objective                Weighting
A. Practical Skills                 60%
B.       Knowledge              and 40%
Understanding

A description of each assessment objective follows:

A. PRACTICAL SKILLS
Students should be able to:
    1. use e-mail and the Internet to gather and communicate information;
    2. use word processing facilities to prepare documents;
    3. use database facilities to manipulate data to solve problems and represent data graphically;
    4. integrate data from different sources into a single document or report;
    5. produce output in a specified format;
    6. use a spreadsheet to create and test a data model, extracting and summarising data;
    7. create a structured website with style sheets, tables and hyperlinks;
    8. create and control an interactive presentation.

B. KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING
Students should be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding in relation to:
    1. the functions of the main hardware and software components of computer systems;
    2. the networking of information-processing systems;
    3. the ways in which information technology is used and the effects of its use;
    4. the stages and methods of system analysis and design;
    5. computing terminology.

Assessment
Paper 1 (2 hours)
A written paper of 120 marks assessing the skills in Assessment Objective B. The paper will contain
mainly questions requiring a short response, a word, a phrase or one or two sentences, although there
will be some questions requiring a more extended response. There will be no choice of questions. The
questions will test sections 1 - 8 of the curriculum content.
Paper 2 (2 hours 30 minutes)
         A practical test assessing skills in Assessment Objective A1 to A8.
Paper 3 (2 hours 30 minutes)
         A practical test assessing skills in Assessment Objective A1 to A8.

Practical Tests
The practical tests focus on the student's ability to carry out practical tasks rather than to explain the
theory of how the tasks are completed. Students are assessed on their ability to complete these tasks.


Weighting of Papers


          Paper     Weighting
          1         40%
          2         30%
          3         30%


                                                                                                       28
Resources:
Stewart Computer studies and Information Technology: IGCSE and O Level. Cambridge University
Press. 2004
20 Windows XP Machines
Internet and Intranet access
Microsoft Office applications



Elective D
IGCSE Art and Design 0400
Aims
The aims are to stimulate, encourage and develop:

    1.   confidence, enthusiasm and a sense of achievement in the practice of Art and Design;
    2.   an ability to identify and solve problems in visual and tactile form;
    3.   an ability to record from direct observation and personal experience;
    4.   the technical competence and manipulative skills necessary to form, compose and
         communicate in two and three dimensions;
    5.   knowledge of a working vocabulary relevant to the subject;
    6.   the ability to organize and relate abstract ideas to practical outcomes;
    7.   experimentation and innovation through the inventive use of materials and techniques;
    8.   intuitive and imaginative responses showing critical and analytical faculties;
    9.   an interest in, and a critical awareness of, environments and cultures.

Curriculum Content
Art and Design encompasses a broad range of related activities, areas and approaches to study.

These provide a broad framework of art and design practice, and indicate an approach which
encourages exploration, within either traditional or contemporary art forms, and candidates are
encouraged to produce a variety of creative responses through a wide range of materials, processes
and techniques.

Candidates are NOT expected to produce work from all of the specialist areas within each group. The
one main piece of finished work should be one item from any one of the groups listed below.
They are, however, expected to:
     Identify and research a particular aspect of art & design
     Carry out relevant exploration of materials, media and appropriate processes
     Document and evaluate ideas and concepts against aims and objectives as the work proceeds
     Develop these into a cohesive outcome.

Painting and Related Media
Studies under this heading may be representational or descriptive, or they may be more imaginative
and interpretative. In either case, they will evolve through investigation and development. They may
be based upon a directly observed starting point or subject, or they may be a personal response to a
theme.

Subjects may include landscapes, figure studies, portraits, the natural or man-made environment,
artefacts, abstract notions or feelings, personal experiences, or visual ideas inspired by literary
sources, etc.

Methods employed include drawing of all kinds, all graphic media, and painting and related media;

                                                                                                 29
including pastels, oils, acrylics and watercolours. Candidates may combine these media or use them
in conjunction with other materials e.g. collage, sculpture.

Candidates will learn to use a sketchbook to make visual researches and develop their ideas.

They will also show knowledge of Art and Design from other cultures or history and relate it to their
own studies.


Three-dimensional Studies
This area of study includes:
    sculpture
    ceramics
    theatre design
    stained glass/mosaic
    environmental/architectural models/design
    product design
    jewellery
    puppetry


Photography
Candidates will have knowledge of black and white photography, including developing and
processing prints. Candidates will be encouraged to work with silver-based and/or digital
photographic technologies. They will be familiar with basic photographic equipment such as cameras,
enlargers, lenses, filters, lighting and flash and several types of film. They will be able to produce
contact prints and enlargements.
Aesthetic considerations, observation and imagination are also required.
Within this area, candidates may also produce time-based work in film, video or multi-media. All
work must be accompanied by story-boards which provide clear documentation of the candidate’s
work through planning and development at all stages of scripting, production and editing.

Graphics
In this area of study, candidates may produce work in any of the following:
      design
      illustration
      printmaking

They will be able to identify problems and opportunities, as well as working towards appropriate
solutions. They will analyze design briefs and tackle practical design tasks. They will study other
examples of design, or the work of designers relative to their chosen field, preferably including some
at first hand, and relate this experience to their own endeavours.

Candidates will learn to use appropriate methods, materials and techniques as well as presentational
skills.


Textiles
Within this area, candidates may produce work in any of the following specialisms:
    printed or dyed, including batik
    constructed, including knitting, weaving, spinning, stitch & embroidery
    fashion – design, illustration, garment construction or accessories

                                                                                                   30
Candidates will develop their own designs and realize their finished work to a high standard. They
may produce work in one area but should show knowledge of other areas. They need not produce
garments, but function and suitability of design will be considered.

There will be an awareness of culture and historical factors appropriate to their chosen area.

Knowledge Understanding and Skills
Although specific knowledge and skills are demonstrated in each specialism, a generic set of skills are
required across all areas of study.

Candidates are expected to develop the following skills:
       Record experiences and observation mainly in visual form; undertake research and gather,
        select and organize visual and other appropriate information
       Explore relevant resources; analyze and discuss images, objects and artefacts; make and
        record judgements;
       Use knowledge and understanding of the work of others to develop and extend thinking and
        inform own work
       Apply knowledge and understanding in the making of images and artefacts; review and
        modify work and plan and develop ideas in the light of own and others evaluation
       Organize, select and communicate ideas, solutions and responses, present these in a range of
        visual forms

Assessment
Papers 2 and 3

Paper 2: Interpretative Study
Questions will be set to test the candidate's ability to organize a pictorial composition.
In preparing for this paper, candidates should be able to:
     communicate ideas and feelings inspired by the chosen theme in a personal way
     create a visually stimulating composition
     use basic visual elements such as line, tone and colour and texture to create an expressive
        image
     create volume, depth and space within the composition, if required
     use appropriate media with confidence and skill, allowing for an individual response
Paper 3: Design Study
Questions will be set to test the candidate's ability to analyze a design brief, and to arrive at an
appropriate solution by producing a design on paper.

The question paper will cover the following areas :
    Graphic design including typography, illustration and calligraphy
    Textile design including print, dye and fashion design
    Photography, including black and white and colour
    Printmaking, including packaging, greetings cards and wrapping paper

Candidates should be aware of the design constraints that can apply within the commercial application
of design. They must show that alternative solutions to the initial brief have been considered, this
should be shown in their supporting studies.
The examination piece may be in any appropriate media. Candidates are advised that the exploration
of different media is acceptable and integration of contrasting media is also encouraged.
Candidates should demonstrate their understanding through juxtaposition of image and text, cropping
images, selective enlargement and the use of natural or artificial lighting.
All imagery must be the candidates’ original work.

                                                                                                    31
Assessment Objectives
The assessment objectives in Art and Design are grouped under the following headings:

A KNOWLEDGE WITH UNDERSTANDING
Candidates should be able to:
   1. recognize and render form and structure;
   2. appreciate space and spatial relationships in two and three dimensions and understand space
       in terms of pictorial organization;
   3. use chosen media competently, showing clarity of intention and be able to explore surface
       qualities;
   4. handle tone and/or colour in a controlled and intentioned manner.

B INTERPRETATIVE AND CREATIVE RESPONSE
Candidates should be able to:
   5. express ideas visually;
   6. respond in an individual and personal way;
   7. demonstrate quality of idea as seen by interpretation rather than literal description of a theme;
   8. make informed aesthetic judgments.

C PERSONAL INVESTIGATION AND DEVELOPMENT
Candidates should be able to:
   9. show personal vision and commitment, through a mature and committed response;
   10. research appropriate resources;
   11. assess a design problem and arrive at an appropriate solution;
   12. show development of ideas through appropriate processes, worksheets, etc. before arriving at
       a final solution.

Percentage breakdown:

Paper 2:           50%
Paper 3:           50%
               -----------
                   100%
RESOURCES:
Cutting Edge Design Series
Movements in Art Series
The Art Book
20th Century Art Book
The Story of Art


IGCSE Geography
1: Aims
The syllabus aims are to encourage candidates to develop:
•       a sense of place and an understanding of relative location on a local, regional and global scale;
•       an awareness of the characteristics and distribution of a selection of contrasting physical and human environments;
•       an understanding of some of the processes affecting the development of such environments;
•       an understanding of the spatial effects of the ways in which people interact with each other and with their
        environments;
•       an understanding of different communities and cultures throughout the world and an awareness of the contrasting
        opportunities and constraints presented by different environments.


                                                                                                                       32
2: Assessment objectives
The Assessment objectives (AOs) in Geography are:
AO1 Knowledge with understanding
AO2 Skills and analysis
AO3 Judgement and decision making



AO1 Knowledge with understanding
Candidates should be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of:
1.    the wide range of processes, including human actions, contributing to the development of:
      (a)     physical, economic, social, political and cultural environments and their associated effects on the landscape;
      (b)     spatial patterns and interactions which are important within these environments;

2.      the inter-relationships between people’’s activities and the total environment and an ability to seek explanations for
        them;
3.      the importance of scale (whether local, regional or global) and the time at which spatial distributions and the working
        of systems are considered;
4.         the changes which occur through time in places, landscapes and spatial distribution.


AO2 Skills and analysis
Candidates should be able to:

5.      analyse and interpret geographical data;
6.      use and apply geographical knowledge and understanding to maps and in verbal, numerical, diagrammatic, pictorial,
        photographic and graphical form;
7.      use geographical data to recognise patterns in such data and to deduce relationships; 8.select and show
        understanding of techniques for observing and collecting data; 9. select and use techniques for organising and
        presenting data.

AO3 Judgement and decision making
Through their geographical training candidates should be able to:

10.     reason, make judgements (including evaluation and conclusions) which demonstrate, where appropriate:
(a)     a sensitivity to, and a concern for, landscape, the environment and the need for sustainable development;
(b)     an aesthetic appreciation of the earth including its people, places, landscapes, natural processes and phenomena;
(c)     an appreciation of the attitudes, values and beliefs of others in cultural, economic, environmental, political and social
        issues which have a geographical dimension;
(d)     an awareness of the contrasting opportunities and constraints of people living in different places and under different
        physical and human conditions;
(e)     a willingness to review their own attitudes in the light of new knowledge and experiences;

11.     recognise the role of decision making within a geographical context as affected by:

(a)     the physical and human contexts in which decisions are made;
(b)     the values and perceptions of groups or individuals;
(c)     the choices available to decision makers and the influences and constraints within which they operate;
(d)       the increasing level of global interdependence.


3: Assessment objectives and their weighting in the components
The table indicates how the percentage marks for the whole assessment are planned to be allocated.


      Paper                                                  Assessment Objectives


                                                                                                                             33
                          AO1                           AO2                        AO3                       Totals
                      Knowledge with            Skills and analysis          Judgement and
                      understanding                                          decision making


      1                     21.5%                      13.5%                       10%                         45%
      2                       3%                        22%                        2.5%                       27.5%
    3 or 4                   5.5%                      16.5%                       5.5%                       27.5%


    Totals                   30%                        52%                         18%                       100%


4: Curriculum themes
The curriculum is divided into three themes which have been designed to develop an understanding of both the natural and
the human environment:

1      Population and settlement
2      The natural environment
3      Economic development and the use of resources

4.1: Resources
Questions in all written papers are resource based. The resources may be photographic, map extracts, drawings, diagrams,
graphs, text extracts, statistics and tables of data.

Resource materials come from various world areas in order to match the aims of an international syllabus and examination.
Candidates may be dealing with world areas with which they are not familiar. The resources used in questions do not require
specific regional knowledge and are designed to prompt candidates to use general principles they have studied.

4.2 Case studies
The curriculum gives teachers the opportunity to select case studies to illustrate the themes. Specific case studies have not
been included in the syllabus. Teachers should select appropriate specific examples to illustrate the content of the three
themes.




                                                                                                                         34
Sporting
IGCSE Physical Education 0413

Introduction
The syllabus provides candidates with an opportunity to study both the practical and theoretical
aspects of Physical Education. It is also designed to foster enjoyment in physical activity. The
knowledge gained should enable candidates to develop an understanding of effective and safe
physical performance.
All candidates take:


Com
Component 1                                       Component 2
Paper 1 1 hour 45 min                             Coursework Centre-based assessment

Section A:                                        Candidates choose to undertake four practical
Candidates answer short answer questions          activities from at least two of the seven
on the three units they have studied: Factors     categories listed (50% of total marks).
affecting performance, Health, safety and         Candidates must show the ability to analyse and
training, Reasons and opportunities for           improve practical performance in one of their
participation in physical activity.               four chosen practical activities (10% of marks).
Section B:
Candidates answer three structured questions,
one from each of the three units they have
studied.

40% of total marks                                60% of total marks


The grades available are A*–G. All components are available in the June and November sessions.
Coursework for the June session should be submitted by 30 April. Coursework for the November
session should be submitted by 30 October.
3. Aims and assessment objectives
Aims
Candidates should, through the knowledge they gain, develop an understanding of effective and safe
physical performance.
Candidates should be encouraged to improve:
        • their ability to plan, perform, analyse and improve, and evaluate physical activities;
        • their knowledge, skills and understanding of a range of relevant physical activities.

Assessment objectives and their weightings
To pass Cambridge IGCSE Physical Education, candidates are assessed under the following
objectives:
AO1: physical performance including an ability to inter-relate planning, performing and evaluating
whilst undertaking activity.
AO2: an ability to analyse and improve their own and others’ performance.
AO3: knowledge and understanding of:
        • the factors affecting performance;
        • the health and safety aspects of physical activity, including the advantages and risks
        associated with a range of training strategies and techniques;


                                                                                               35
        • the reasons for participating in physical activity.

The following grid shows the weighting of the assessment objectives in the two components of the
scheme of assessment:
 1 Coursework
Assessment Objectives           Components
                                Paper 1                           Coursework
AO1                             –                                 50%

AO2                                 –                               10%

AO3                                 40%                             –

Total                               40%                             60%

Component 1: Paper 1
1 hour 45 minutes
The examination assesses candidate’s knowledge and understanding in relation to the syllabus
content. Candidates are required to demonstrate skills of description, interpretation and evaluation.
The question paper has a weighting of 40% of the total marks and is divided into two sections.
Section A: Short answer questions on:
        • Unit 1: Factors affecting performance
        • Unit 2: Health, safety and training
        • Unit 3: Reasons and opportunities for participation in physical activity
Section B: Three structured questions and differentiated questions, one on each unit:
        • Unit 1: Factors affecting performance
        • Unit 2: Health, safety and training
        • Unit 3: Reasons and opportunities for participation in physical activity

Component 2: Coursework
The Coursework component requires candidates to offer a minimum of four practical activities from
two of the seven categories. The practical activities are:

Categories                          Practical activities
Games                               • Association Football          • Netball
                                    • Badminton                     • Rounders
                                    • Basketball                    • Rugby Union
                                    • Cricket                       • Softball
                                    • Goalball                      • Squash
                                    • Golf                          • Table Tennis
                                    • Hockey                        • Tennis
                                                                    • Volleyball

Gymnastic Activities                • Artistic Gymnastics (floor and • Rhythmic Gymnastics
                                    vaulting)                        • Trampolining
                                    • Figure Skating (Individual)

Dance                               • Educational Dance             • Social Dance
(max 2 dance styles)                • Folk Dance                    • Theatrical Dance
                                    • Historical Dance

Athletic Activities                 • Cross Country Running         • Track and Field Athletics
                                    • Cycling                       • Weight Training for fitness
Outdoor and                         • Canoeing                      • Rowing

                                                                                                    36
Adventurous Activities             • Hill Walking and Campcraft • Sailing
                                   or Hostelling                • Skiing
                                   • Horse Riding               • Snowboarding
                                   • Orienteering               • Wind Surfing
                                   • Rock Climbing

Swimming                           •Competitive Swimming               • Personal Survival
                                   • Life Saving

Combat Activities                  • Judo                              • Karate


Coursework assesses candidates’ physical performance, including an ability to interrelate planning,
performing and evaluating whilst undertaking activity in four practical activities worth 50% of the
syllabus total.
In addition candidates are assessed on their ability to analyse and improve their own or another’s
performance in one of their chosen practical activities, worth 10% or the syllabus total.
Therefore, in assessing practical activities, the following assessment objectives must be met (60%
total weighting):
        • Planning, Performing and Evaluating to account for 50%;
        • Analysing and Improving to account for 10%.
Assessment will be conducted by the Centre and internally standardised by the Centre with
moderation of video evidence by a CIE appointed Moderator.
Centres should consult the IGCSE Physical Education Coursework Guidance Booklet (2nd edition),
available from CIE Publications.

NOTE
Candidates are placed in physically demanding situations when taking part in practical
activities. The Head of Physical Education or equivalent should ensure that the health and
safety of candidates is maintained when candidates are engaged in practical activities as part of
this course.

The following areas of study are designed to contribute to the development of understanding and
knowledge of the principles involved in safe, health-related exercise. All these sections are inter-
related.

Factors affecting performance
Candidates should develop knowledge and understanding of:
1 Skill
• Definition of skill
• Types of skill: basic and complex, fine and gross motor skills, open and closed continuum.
• Factors affecting variations in skill level: age and maturity, motivation, anxiety, arousal conditions,
facilities, environment, teaching and coaching.
• Learning skills.
• Simple information processing model: what is meant by the terms input, decision making, output,
feedback.
• Types of feedback: intrinsic, extrinsic, knowledge of performance, knowledge of results.
• The importance of feedback.
• How you learn a new skill; considerations – limited channel capacity, overload, only do a little,
instructions should be simple, demonstration should be simple. When you first do movement it goes
into short term memory. Practice – movement goes into long term memory.

2 Motivation and mental preparation
• Meaning of motivation


                                                                                                      37
• Types of motivation:
         ° Intrinsic and extrinsic;
         ° Rewards and incentives.
• Arousal and performance; how one is affected by the other.
• Physiological responses of the body to arousal:
         ° production of adrenaline,
         ° increased heart rate,
         ° increased respiration;
         ° muscles tense in readiness for action.
• Inverted U Theory (Yerkes-Dodson Theory)
• Causes of over-arousal.
• Causes of decline in performance; anxiety.
• Need for relaxation and visualisation.
• Goal setting – SMARTER (specific, measurable, agreed, realistic, time-phased, exciting, recorded).
As a means of controlling anxiety.
• Mental rehearsal.

3 Skeleton and joints
• The four major functions of the skeleton:
        ° shape and support
        ° movement
        ° protection
        ° blood production.
• Examples of major bones of the body to highlight these functions.
• Relevance to performance and participation in physical activity.
• Examples of different types of joints:
        ° fixed or immovable joints/fibrous joints
        ° slightly movable joints/cartilaginous joints
        ° freely movable joints/synovial joints.
        • Be able to describe the components of each type of joint.
        • Describe the range of movements which includes:
        ° flexion, extension, rotation, abduction and adduction
• Ligament, cartilage and synovial fluid problems.

4 Muscles and tendons
• How muscles and their composition, function and action, affect movement and performance: fast
twitch for power and strength activities, slow twitch for endurance activities.
• How activities and exercise affect the composition and efficiency of muscles, focusing on:
        ° deltoid
        ° trapezius
        ° pectorals
        ° biceps
        ° triceps
        ° latissimus dorsi
        ° abdominals
        ° gluteals
        ° quadriceps
        ° hamstrings
        ° gastrocnemius.
• How improved muscle functioning can improve performance and participation in physical activities.
• The role of antagonistic pairs, prime movers and synergists during a range of physical activities,
using examples from the muscles listed above.
• The role and function of tendons during movement.

5 Circulatory and respiratory systems

                                                                                                 38
• Components of blood and the functions of plasma, red cells, white cells, platelets.
• The effect of haemoglobin in red blood cells.
• How red blood cells are affected when people live at altitude.
• Illness/conditions that result from an imbalance in blood cells e.g. haemophilia, anaemia, and the
effect this could have on a person’s ability to participate in sports.
• How the circulatory and respiratory systems affect performance and participation levels:
         ° lactic acid and oxygen debt tolerance
         ° duration of activity
         ° recovery rate.
• How activity and exercise develop and affect the efficiency of the circulatory and respiratory
systems:
         ° stronger heart muscle
         ° increased stroke volume and cardiac output
         ° lower resting heart rate
         ° more efficient gaseous exchange
         ° increased vital capacity
         ° tidal volume
         ° oxygen debt tolerance.
• The difference between aerobic and anaerobic work and the effect of lactic acid production on
performance, with examples from specific physical activities.

6 Fitness
• Simple definition of fitness.
• Components of fitness; measurement and explanation, with example, of each of the following.
         ° Health related fitness:
                  • cardio-vascular endurance (aerobic fitness).
                  • body composition,
                  • flexibility,
                  • muscular endurance,
                  • speed,
                  • stamina,
                  • strength.
         ° Skill related fitness:
                  • agility,
                  • balance,
                  • co-ordination,
                  • speed of reaction, timing.
• Health related exercise programme.
• Tests of cardio-vascular fitness;
         ° 12 minute run (Cooper Test),
         ° Multi Stage Fitness Test.
• Factors which affect fitness.
• Fitness, graphs/charts/data; understanding, dissemination of information.
• Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max.) as a measurement of cardio-vascular fitness.
• Plan a health-promoting exercise programme; considerations, involve FITT (frequency, intensity,
time, training activity).

7 Physique
• Understand the term physique.
• Three extreme body types;
        ° Endomorph – fat – degree of fatness,
        ° Mesomorph – muscular – degree of muscularity,
        ° Ectomorph – thin – degree of linearity.
• Examples of each body type, from different sports.
• Advantages of certain body types for certain sports e.g.;

                                                                                                 39
        ° gymnast,
        ° high jumper,
        ° rugby prop forward

8 Drugs
• Definition – any chemical introduced to the body which affects how the body works.
        ° Doping; term used to improve performance by taking drugs.
        ° Reasons why sports persons take drugs.
• Types of drugs identified as performance enhancing and banned by the International Olympic
Committee;
        ° Stimulants,
        ° Narcotic-analgesics,
        ° Anabolic agents,
        ° Diuretics,
        ° Anxiety reducing drugs,
        ° Peptide hormones and analogues,
        ° Drugs subject to certain restrictions; alcohol, marijuana, beta blockers.
• Types of drugs and their reactions on the body.
• Blood doping.
• Other drugs, which may be socially accepted;
        ° Smoking; dangers and the long term effects.
        ° Alcohol; dangers and the long term effects.

Health, safety and training
Candidates should develop knowledge and understanding of the principles of:
1 Health
• Simple definition of health.
• World Health Organisation (WHO) definition – a state of complete physical, mental and social well-
being.
• Physical well-being;
         ° all body systems work well,
         ° free from injuries and illnesses,
         ° able to carry out everyday physical tasks.
• Mental well-being;
         ° able to cope with stress,
         ° can control emotions,
         ° feel good about yourself.
• Social well-being;
         ° have essential human needs, food, clothing and shelter,
         ° have friendship and support,
         ° have some value in society,
         ° able to mix with others.
• Health and fitness;
         ° need for a healthy lifestyle,
         ° need to eat a balanced diet,
         ° need to take regular exercise,
         ° need to avoid drugs and pollution.

2 Diet
• The body needs nutrients for energy, growth and repair of cells. These nutrients are proteins,
carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and minerals. Also water and fibre.
• Consider proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, water and fibre; why they are important
in the diet, examples of sources in food, if and why they are useful sources of energy.
         ° Different energy requirements;
                 • Teenagers need more energy than young children.

                                                                                                  40
               • Males tend to need more energy than females.
               • Athletes need more energy than non-athletes.
               • People with active lifestyles need more energy than people with non-active
               lifestyles.
• Energy balance; daily energy food intake needs to balance daily energy need.
• Unused energy is stored as fat. Person risks becoming obese.

3 Games: Safe practice
• Schoolteachers have a responsibility to ensure that Physical Education activities are undertaken in a
safe and secure environment.
• Some activities are exciting because they are challenging and there is an element of risk.
• Participants need to be aware of
         ° the correct clothing and safety equipment to be used,
         ° how to check and handle equipment,
         ° know safety arrangements,
         ° know how to assist and support other pupils,
         ° adhere to a code of behaviour,
         ° recognise the need to warm up and cool down after exercise,
         ° be able to give examples of the above in a practical situation.
• Safety rules and regulations. These will differ from activity to activity.
• Participants should be able to outline the safety arrangements, potential dangers, rules and regulation
in one activity/game from each of the seven categories of activities.

4 Injuries
• Minor injuries are an acceptable part of playing sport. More serious injuries are less acceptable and
may be avoided.
• Prevention of some injuries may be possible if the participant
        ° warms up and cools down correctly,
        ° uses the correct equipment,
        ° knows the rules and regulations,
        ° checks if the surface and facilities are safe to use,
        ° does not participate when tired,
        ° ensures that a teacher is always present.
• Types of injuries. Can vary from simple to very severe.
• Simple treatment for the following;
        ° winding,
        ° simple cut or graze,
        ° blisters,
        ° bruises,
        ° muscle, tendon and ligament injuries,
• RICE (Rest + Ice + Compression + Elevation)
• Causes of injuries;
        ° many and varied but mainly;
                 • impacting with ground or hard surface;
                 • impacting with another person,
                 • sudden or twisting movement,
                 • environment (hot or cold, wet or dry),
                 • lack of preparation; warm up, cool down,
                 • inadequate clothing/body protection,
                 • not following instructions.

5 Exercise and training
• Exercise is an important component of a healthy lifestyle.
• Exercise has physical, mental and social benefits.
• Exercise works on all the body systems.

                                                                                                      41
         ° Movement occurs when muscles contract.
         ° Muscles obtain energy from food. Some glucose is stored in the muscles and liver as
         glycogen.
• Cells get energy from glucose in the process called respiration.
• Aerobic respiration uses oxygen to produce energy:
         ° Glucose + Oxygen → Energy + Carbon Dioxide + Water
• When aerobic exercise occurs;
         ° muscles contract and some energy is used,
         ° muscle contractions produce heat – warm up,
         ° carbon dioxide is excreted by the lungs.
• Need aerobic exercise when one exercises over a lengthy period of time. Examples of type of
exercise.
• Anaerobic respiration occurs without oxygen:
         ° Glucose → Energy + Lactic Acid
• When anaerobic exercise occurs;
         ° less energy is produced than aerobic respiration,
         ° lactic acid produced causes pain and fatigue. Muscles are less efficient and eventually stop
         working;
         ° lactic acid is removed by breathing in more oxygen. This extra oxygen at the end of
         anaerobic exercise is called oxygen debt.
• Anaerobic respiration is used for short periods of intense exercise.
• Examples of aerobic and anaerobic exercises.
• Training is a programme and a procedure used to improve performance.
         ° Training principles are;
                  • Specificity
                  • Overload
                  • Progression
                  • Reversibility
° The effects of too much exercise through over-training.
° Training methods; explanation of different types and their benefits;
° Circuit training – explanation of different types and exercises.
° Weight training (strength training) – a method of training using weights. Training can be;
         • Isotonic (Dynamic) – involves muscle shortening. Examples, advantages and disadvantages.
         • Isometric (Static) – muscles contract but stay the same length. Examples, advantages and
         disadvantages.
° Plyometrics – alternative method of power training.
° Fartlek training – method of training which improves aerobic and anaerobic energy systems.
° Example of this type of Fartlek training.
° Used in a variety of sports e.g. cycling and skiing.
         • Advantages and disadvantages.
° Continuous training – a method of training which requires participants to run, swim, cycle for set
periods of time
         • Advantages and disadvantages.
° Resistance training – a method of training which requires athletes to work against a load
(resistance).
         • Advantages and disadvantages.
° Interval training – a method of training which involves periods of fast work and periods of recovery
(slow work or rest). The recovery period enables the lactic acid in muscles to be removed.
• Advantages.
° Effect of exercise on the heart, circulatory and respiratory systems. Response of the heart;
measurement of heart rate per minute;
         • stroke volume and cardiac output.
         • (Cardiac Output = Stroke Volume x Heart Rate).
                  ° Responses of the circulatory system.
                  ° Responses of the respiratory system;

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       • (Minute Volume = Tidal Volume x Respiratory Rate)
       • Examples of breathing changes with exercise.
               ° How the body controls body temperature.
               ° Training effects of exercise on the following major organ and systems of the body,
               especially the heart; the circulatory system, the respiratory system and the skeletal
               muscles.

Reasons and opportunities for participation in physical activity
Candidates should develop knowledge and understanding of the principles of:

1 Leisure and recreation
• Leisure time – the free time a person has when not working or sleeping.
• Factors which determine what people do during leisure time;
        ° their age,
        ° interests,
        ° social circumstances,
        ° facilities available,
        ° where people live.
• Determinants of the growth in leisure activities;
        ° advances in technology (in the work place) resulting in
• people working shorter days,
• having longer holidays,
• more unemployed
        ° improvements in health care, people live longer,
        ° growth in leisure time activities,
        ° growth in facilities
• Recreation is any voluntary activity a person might do during leisure time.
• Physical recreation is any physical activity a person may choose to do during leisure time.
Reasonswhy people choose recreational activities.
• Role and aims of local sports clubs.
• Why clubs find the role of the volunteer essential.
• Roles within a club may be Secretary, Treasurer, Chairperson, Fixtures/Membership Secretary, and
Coach.
• How schools can support participation at all levels.
• Role that schools play through lessons, examinations and extracurricular activities to promote
participation.

2 Facilities, participation, excellence
• Facilities for physical activities vary depending on where people live.
         ° Urban areas may have leisure centres, sports stadiums, specialist sports clubs.
         ° Rural areas and remote areas are unlikely to have purpose built sports facilities but may
         have natural facilities for such activities as sailing, hill walking, rock climbing, etc.
• Sport and recreation facilities may be controlled and run by;
         ° local authorities
         ° private companies,
         ° voluntary organisations.
• Local authority facilities normally own sports facilities but do not always run them.
         ° Companies compete for chances to run the facilities.
         ° Dual use facilities are often school sports facilities which are also used by the local
         community.
• Private companies run sports facilities as a business in order to make a profit.
• These might be golf clubs, theme parks or holiday activity centres.
• Voluntary organisations tend to cater for a local need. For example,
         ° local scout and youth groups,
         ° churches,

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         ° large national charities; e.g. the Youth Hostels Association.
• The location of sports facilities; main considerations.
• Facilities catering for different groups; identify the groups.
• Types of sports centres; range of activities and people they cater for.
• Factors which encourage people to take part in physical activities.
• Factors which determine excellence in sport.
• Sponsorship – business provides financial support for an athlete, team or event/competition.
• Advantages and disadvantages to a sponsor.
• Advantages and disadvantages of sponsorship to the sport.

3 Global events
• The impact of global events on participation e.g. Olympic Games, Football World Cup. Advantages
and disadvantages of being the host nation.
         ° The development of facilities
         ° The development of training facilities
         ° How coaching systems are developed to ensure a high level of success, particularly for the
         host nation
• Social impacts of global events on a host nation.
• Why both professionals and amateurs compete in the Olympic Games.
• How education supports participation at the highest level through scholarships, sports colleges, trust
funds.
• The reasons why certain countries develop excellence in specific sports. Reasons should include:
geographical, climatic, financial, traditional and cultural.
• Identify certain countries and the sports they excel in.
• Examples could include:
         ° Kenya/Ethiopia – middle/long distance running
         ° Brazil – football
         ° Nordic/alpine countries – skiing
         ° Fiji – Rugby sevens
         ° New Zealand – rugby
         ° Japan – Sumo wrestling
         ° Cuba – boxing

4 Media
• Types of media – television, radio, books, newspapers, magazines.
• Positive influence of the media coverage;
         ° promotes sport,
         ° more people can see, hear, and read about sport,
         ° creates ‘sports stars’ which can have positive and negative effects on youngsters,
         ° can inform and entertain,
         ° if seen on television, sports can attract sponsorship, improving facilities, training and
         equipment.
• Drawbacks of media coverage;
         ° more pressure on managers and teams to do well,
         ° players adopt a win at all cost attitude rather than playing for enjoyment,
         ° some may resort to cheating or the use of drugs,
         ° sports stars have less privacy due to media attention,
         ° the media may demand changes in the law/rules of some sports, media may become very
         critical of referees’/officials’ decisions.
• Impact of television on sport;
         ° Sport occupies a large percentage of viewing time,
         ° Television allows viewers to see the biggest competitions in the world.
         ° Event/match analysis allows the viewer to see the events in great detail e.g. slow motion
         replays.
         ° TV companies contribute to event prize money,

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        ° Colour TV allows some sports to be seen which were not possible with black and white TV
        e.g. Snooker, bowls.
        ° TV companies often decide, due to their financial support, which sports will be shown.
        ° Minority sports; positive and negative effects.

5 Access to sport
• General availability of sport to all: some elements are common to all three headings below (e.g.
women-only swimming sessions both develop sporting/recreational opportunities for women, and
may also provide the only access to sport for women in some communities because of religious
beliefs).
• Campaigns and legislation to create equal opportunity:
          ° Athletes with disability
• rapid expansion in participation in disability sport, wider variety of activities available in schools
and greater willingness to adapt sports to meet people’s needs;
• improvement in facilities, both for those taking part and spectators;
• increase in number of coaches available, and in the number of coaches specialising in working with
athletes with disability;
• open competitions, e.g. shooting, archery, creation of competitions where able-bodied athletes and
athletes with disability may enter as a pair, e.g. European Dance Championships;
• Disability Games alongside able-bodied;
• greater social acceptability of people with disabilities;
• increase in number of role models who are also developing media roles in presenting their
sport.
          ° Gender
• women encouraged to take part in sport;
• money for facilities, growth in popularity of certain activities targeted at women, e.g. step aerobics,
swing into shape, emergence of role models;
• recognition that women can compete in events which, in the past, were considered too strenuous for
women, e.g. marathon, triple jump, pole vault;
• men and women competing on equal terms, e.g. equestrian sport.
          ° Social equality
• the role of local community groups in developing traditional sports and activities for ethnic minority
groups;
• the role of local groups in developing a sense of social inclusion through sporting activity
programmes (N.B. may also apply in the case of athletes with disability);
• cultural attitudes, the relaxation of certain conditions to allow participation for certain cultures;
• affordable sports.




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