50 LASER INNOVATIONS.final by fanzhongqing


									                                         50 IMPORTANT LASER INNOVATIONS
1. Fiber Optic Communications           Used by cable TV companies, AT&T and Verizon (FiOS), digital data transmission
2. Laser Photolithography               Used to make ultrahigh density computer chips, nanotechnology
3. Laser Material processing &
    Fabrication                         Metal cutting, laser welding, heat treatment, brazing, engraving, cleaning, drilling
4. Laser Spectroscopy                   Spectroscopies (e.g. Raman, LIF, LIBS, etc.) to identify chemical species ( pollution detection, hazmat detection )
5. Data storage and retrieval in
    optical disks                       CDs, DVDs
6. Eye and refractive surgery           LASIK, LASEK, PKR, retinal repair, treatment of hemorrhaging, glaucoma correction
7. Medical Imaging                      Optical coherence tomography, Near-IR imaging, confocal laser scanning microscopy, other laser microscopies
8. Barcode readers/scanners             Supermarket checkout, product inventory tracking
9. laser interferometry                 Precision meas. of distances, wavelengths and other parameters, e.g. LIGO (LIGO)
10. Photonics                           Using photons and photon circuitry to substitute for and supplement electrons in ultrafast electronics
11. Laser medical sensors               Laser sensors to measure blood pH, PT-INR, oxygen, sugar, etc.
12. Laser printers                      Computer printers, also in manufacturing high resolution printing plates
13. Holography                          3-D photography, information storage & readout, aberration compensation, etc.
14. Laser displays/light shows          Entertainment, displays (TV, phone)
15. Laser Scalpel                       General surgery, gynecological, urology, laparoscopic
16. Laser Dentistry                     Carries removal, teeth whitening, oral surgery
17. LIDAR (Light Detection And
    Ranging)                            Distance estimation, 3-D topography, laser tracking
18. Laser Gyroscope                     Precision guidance
19. Cosmetic surgery                    Tattoo removal, hair removal, birthmarks etc.
20. Fiber-optic sensors                 Pressure, temperature, strain, magnetic fields
21. Defense Countermeasures             Laser systems to blind sensor based weapons like heat seeking missiles
22. Laser Pump-Probe Diagnostics        Used extensively in physics and chemistry research
23. Free space optical communications   Line-of-sight long distance communications
24. Cell Sorting                        Separate complex cell mixtures into fractions
25. Pulsed Laser Deposition             Laser assisted film growth used in semiconductor industry
26. Laser Guide Stars/Adaptive Optics   Used as a reference to enable telescope adaptive optics to correct for atmospheric distortion
27.   Laser designation               e.g., Laser-guided bombs, laser targeting, laser gun sight, laser pointer for presentations
28.   Laser based chemistry           Photochemistry, photocatalysis – photon initiated/moderated chemistry
29.   Directed energy weapons         Akin to a ray gun; e.g. Boeing's Airborne laser on 747
30.   THz Laser Inspection            X-ray like capability; allows inspection of contents of boxes, search for weapons beneath clothing.
31.   Laser Frequency Comb            Metrology, precision time keeping, precise GPS technology
32.   laser isotope separation        Used to enrich uranium for nuclear plants
33.   Smart Materials                 Composites for bridge & other structures w/embedded laser fiber-optic strain gauges
34.   The Maser                       Microwave 'laser' showed that background microwave background noise in universe is remnant of big bang.
35.   Ultrafast photography           Ultrafast laser pulse illumination
36.   Laser therapy                   Laser irradiation to stimulate healing
37.   Photoacoustic Detection         To study concentrations of gases at the part per billion or even part per trillion levels
38.   laser cooling                   Create new states of matter - Bose-Einstein Condensate
39.   laser propulsion/acceleration   Laser particle accelerations (e.g., electrons), spacecraft propulsion, space elevator, laser photophoresis
40.   Energy consumption monitoring   Temperature measurement, detecting heat loss for efficient energy utilization
41.   Intruder detection              Via beam interruption
42.   Condition based monitoring      Smart sensors to detect onset of machinery failures
43.   Laser guidance                  Missile beam rider
44.   Laser fusion                    Recreates conditions in the sun to generate a clean source of nuclear energy
45.   Optical Tweezers                Allows easy manipulation and handling of cells and nano-objects to be placed within cells
46.   Optically steered RADAR         Optical true time delay for rapidly pointed phased array RADAR/RF antennas
47.   Strong field laser physics      Laser intensities so large that laser-matter interactions dominated by relativistic electrons
48.   Quantum Information             Uses quantum mechanics and lasers to guarantee secure communication (encryption), quantum computers
49.   Slow light                      Reduced power req. of opt. switches for communications and computers, compact Hi-resolution spectrometers
50.   Spatial Soliton Optical logic   Uses spatial solitonic interactions as basis of an all optical computer

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