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					     Introduction to:


Graphic design
 Materials, techniques and
        processes
                          Pencils
  There is a variety of pencils such as HB, 2H and
  2B that you may have heard of. Try as many as
  you can to see what the differences are.
Use softer pencils for sketching (they rub out easily and blend well).
Mechanical pencils are ideal for technical drawing as they are always
sharp.
Make sure that you sharpen your pencils – and never throw them because
if the lead breaks then you may as well throw it away!
                    Pencils - task
Use pairs of pencils to create a range of colours. (e.g. use red and yellow to
create a range of reds, oranges and yellows)
Try to blend as seamlessly as possible.
                              Marker pens
These are harder to use well than you may
think. Task - Try to colour a square
approx 10cm² without making any one
part darker than the rest and without
going over the edges.
Use felt pens sparingly – they should be used
as a presentation medium, not for sketching
or writing in.
Charcoals and Pastels
     These are great for sketching, blending
     and creating presentation drawings.
     However, they can make a mess. Make
     sure that you use a fixative on the
     finished drawings and wash your hands
     frequently.
            Printing Processes
• Offset                In school you may have
  lithography           some of these processes
                        available to you, where as
• Gravure               others are used mainly in
• Letterpress           industry.

• Photocopiers
• Plotters
• Laser printers
• Inkjet Printers

Colour printing                                      Cyan
                                                     Magenta
What four colours
are used in printing?                                Yellow
                                                     Black
                         Modelling
• Presentation models are used to show what finished
  products will look like.
• Sketch models are quick models roughly showing what
  something will be like (think Blue Peter)
• Demonstration models show how something works (e.g.
  use Lego Technic®)
• Virtual Prototyping is using 3D drawing programs on a
  computer to show a high quality representation of a
  potential product.
• Rapid prototyping uses computer generated 3d images
  and uses computer controlled lasers to create solid
  models from materials such as foam.
• Computer simulation is used for products to test
  products in certain situations (e.g. how much weight can
  be put on a chair before it collapses)

                                                         Pictures from www.turbocad.co.uk
                          Paper, Cards and Boards
                         Paper comes in a variety of standard sizes as well as off the roll.




A1 – 594mm x 841mm

A2 – 420mm x 594mm

A3 – 297mm x 420mm     (coursework pages)

A4 – 210mm x 297mm     (standard school printer size)

A5 – 148mm x 210mm

A6 – 105mm x 148mm


A8 – (business card)
   Paper, Cards and Boards - task
Research a range of papers, boards and cards.
Try to find out what each is used for, its weight and cost.
                                gsm = grams per square metre
                                Standard writing paper = 80gsm

                                             e.g.
                                             Tracing paper
                                             Corrugated card
                                             Whiteboard
                                             Cartridge paper
                                             Sugar paper
                                             Cardboard
                                             Foamboard

				
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