04_working_with_ict by fanzhongqing

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									                Telecommuting
                 (Teleworking)
‘Working from home using computer networks’.
Use and associated hardware.
Conditions needed for teleworking to take place.
The type of work must be conducive e.g. computer
programming, data entry, design work, clerical support
The company must be able to monitor the work output of the
employee
Appropriate hardware and software must be provided .e in
addition to the PC a means of accessing a network such as a
modem or broadband router. Email and file transfer facilities.
This could be through the Internet or through a company’s
extranet link to its own Intranet.
A work space environment in the home.
Advantages to employees


 Savings in journey to work time and travel
 cost
 More flexible working hours especially for
 worker with young children
 Working in a known environment. Some
 people feel quieter, safer, more creative
 Advantages for the Employer
Improved retention of employees - for example, teleworking
can help retain working parents with childcare
responsibilities a wider pool of applicants from which to
recruit - for example, disabled people who may prefer to
work from home
possible productivity gains through staff having fewer
interruptions and less commuting time
increased staff motivation with reduced stress and sickness
levels Cut down on absences due to babysitting problems
savings on office space and other facilities
possible location of sales staff near clients rather than being
based in your premises
Hiring on short term basis of productivity or hire only when
needed e.g. processing orders in a batch processing system
Disadvantages of teleworking for the employee
  Social isolation - loss of personal contact with colleagues
  Never get to ‘leave the working environment’

Disadvantages for the employer
  Difficulties in monitoring productivity and managing homeworkers
  and monitoring performance
  initial costs of training and providing suitable equipment, including
  adaptations to meet health and safety standards and the needs of
  disabled employees
  More difficulty of maintaining staff development and upgrading
  skills and therefore a possible deterioration in employees' skills
  and work quality
  Security issues in transferring data electronically across the
  Internet/extranet
  increased telecommunications costs
  risk of communication problems
  can be harder to maintain team spirit
  working from home is unsuitable for certain types of job
A shift towards homeworking doesn't mean
employees have to work only at home. Often
splitting time between home and the
workplace is the most productive solution and
you may want the homeworker to attend
meetings to keep them fully involved and
informed.
         Video Conferencing
         (Tele-conferencing).
With a small video camera fixed to your
microcomputer, your image can be sent down the
network to another user (and vice versa). Digital
cameras send digital images and Audio signals are
picked up by a microphone and are also sent. This
means you can see and talk to another user.
Companies can set up meetings with face to face
communication between people who are not in the
same room, building or even country!
               Advantages

Video conferencing allows regular meeting to take
place between employees or companies located in
different places.
Employees especially those abroad can get together
for regular meetings without wasting time and money
travelling
In conjunction with the Internet it can facilitate
presentations. e.g. An employee can create a
presentation which is viewed by others in other
locations perhaps using the companies website
              Disadvantages

Cost of setting up a videoconferencing room and
purchase and maintenance of hardware
Subtle communications between people e.g. face
and body language can be lost because not picked
up by cameras and microphones or lost on the
compression of data when being sent.
Technical, compression and signal problems can
occur. Pictures are a bit 'jittery' at the moment but
advancing technology such as fast broadband
connection will improve quality of pictures
             Codes of Conduct
What is a Code of Conduct?
It is an undertaking by an employee to follow the
rules of the company and work within the specific
guidelines set out.
The code of conduct will set out what is expected
of an employee and set out the disciplinary policy
o=if those rules are broken. Employees are
normally expected to sign the code of conduct as
part of their employment contract.
Why do we need a Code of Conduct?
 Problems that could arise.

   Introduction of viruses e.g. by downloading illicit software or
   careless opening of emails
   Abusive emails to colleagues
   Distribution of material of a sexually or racially offensive
   nature.
   Use of company data for illicit purposes e.g. Blackmail,
   computer fraud or selling to other organisations.
   Violating terms of copyright or software agreements by
   copying software
   Misuse of company equipment e.g. using company time for
   personal email; using company printers for personal work;
   using the Internet and running up telephone bills for own
   purposes; inappropriate use of mobiles phones – in
   restaurants, schools, public transport
  How to prevent these problems
  Problem                  Prevention
Viruses     Ban use of outside discs and
            automatically scan all emails or
            downloaded files. Instruct staff not to
            open unsolicited emails
Abusive     Respecting rights of others
email       Penalties for misuse include;
            informal warnings
            written warnings
            dismissal
            prosecution
Violating terms of   Abiding by current legislation
copyright or softwareabide by any relevant legislation e.g.
agreements by        Data Protection Act, Equal
copying software     Opportunities Act, Computer Misuse
                     Act, Copyright Act etc
                     Complying with licensing
                     agreements
Use of company data Authorisation and permissions on
for illicit purposes data access: what the employee
e.g. Blackmail,      can and can’t do to data
computer fraud or    Security: don’t disclose passwords,
selling to other     personal use of email logging on and
organisations.       off procedures, encryption of
                     transferred data etc.
Misuse of company           Protecting hardware and
equipment e.g. using        software from malicious
company time for personal damage
email; using company
printers for personal work;
using the Internet and
running up telephone bills
for own purposes;
inappropriate use of
mobiles phones – in
restaurants, schools,
public transport
The code of conduct will set out
what is expected of an employee
and set out the disciplinary policy
if those rules are broken.
Employees are normally expected
to sign the code of conduct as
part of their employment contract.
                   It will set out;
Responsibilities ( abide by company rules )
Respecting rights of others
Abiding by current legislation
Authorisation and permissions on data access:
Security:
Protecting hardware and software from malicious
damage
Complying with licensing agreements
Penalties
–   Penalties for misuse include;
–   informal warnings
–   written warnings
–   dismissal
–   prosecution
Codes of Conduct in the Workplace
    Moral, Social and Ethics
         NOT on THE INTERNET

1. Disinformation

Not fully informing potential customers or
clients of all available facts concerning
products or services e.g. imminent introduction
of new models.
Disinformation Examples


Estate Agent
Legal requirements        = Properties Act
Moral example             = A property developer not telling his client the property
                             has subsidence problems or a violent history.
For a hospital treating a patient;
Legal requirements        = Data Protection Act
Moral example             = Response times might be part of the code of practise

Hardware & software sales ;
Legal requirements        = Trades Descriptions Act
Moral example             = prohibit salespersons from selling hardware and
                             software soon to become obsolete

                          = ensure salesmen do not pressurise unwilling
                            customers to accept e.g. loyalty cards , in store
                            credit accounts or particular brands.
2. Privacy
Informing data subjects of their legal rights and
processes for complying with those rights.
ICT systems have enabled many organisations to
hold data on the public. People are not always aware
of their rights under data protection legislation and
not all organisations are ethical in their use of this
data.
Legal requirements = Data Protection Act
Ethics            = An employee using company data
to create mailing lists for his own private home
business
Monitoring company emails. Electronic monitoring
systems can be used to track emails. A systems
technician might open other people’s emails to
detect misuse or simple to be nosey
3. Employment patterns
Effects upon the workforce.
Some people have been de-skilled by the arrival of ICT and
their skills are no longer required and they loose their jobs
Call centres have caused many people to lose jobs as they
have been moved abroad where labour is cheaper leading to
ICT ‘sweat shops’.
Others have gained and have the required skills e.g.
computer programmers.
Personal empowerment.
There have been changes in working patterns e.g.
teleworking
Businesses are able to reach a wider market via the Internet
Individuals can sell goods on Ebay
Health and Safety at Work Act governs working
conditions using computer systems – do companies
provide these for teleworkers

Disability Rights Act deals with the rights of disabled
people and their access to work – do companies
have stairs or other facilities which restrict disabled
people in wheelchairs from getting jobs in the
company?

Minimum Wage Contracts – illegal immigrants
working below the minimum wage

Ethics : not complying with these and many other
employment laws to provide unsafe or poor access
to computer systems
             Hazard              Prevention
RSI repetitive strain injury     Ergonomic keyboards ; wrist
caused by prolonged working at   and foot supports: correct chair
computers or computer games      positioning

Eye Strain and epileptic fits    Non flickering screens; Screen
                                 filters t remove glare; correct
                                 lighting in the room
Back problems                    Adjustable chairs; foot
                                 supports:; tilting screens
Ozone irritation from laser      Locate personal laser printer 1
printers                         metre away from user
Radiation affects embryos        No real evidence for this
leading to miscarriages
4. Equity
 Legal requirement         Patent laws / Data
                           Protection Act
 Moral Example
 Ownership and access to information can often
 determine which organisations will be successful and
 which will fail. As these technologies have to be paid
 for the richer organisations can afford the technology
 whilst poorer organisation cannot. Consequentially,
 the rich organisations get richer and the poorer ones
 get relatively poorer and the gap between them gets
 greater.
5. Intellectual property rights- Ownership
rights to data.
If you put a joke on the Internet do you own it?
If you see a joke on the Internet can you sell that joke to a
professional comedian?
If you scan in the text of the book ‘The Da Vinci Code’ and put
it on the Internet for all to be freely read; are you breaking the
law?
Can you sue someone who sells you an essay which is full of
factual errors?
The growth and exchange of ideas on the Internet has led to
many legal disputes and lack of legal clarity as to ones
intellectual property rights.
Do the Copyright Laws of one country apply to another
country?
   Intellectual property rights

Legal Requirements Copyright Laws / Patent laws
Moral examples
If you put a idea on the Internet do you own it?
If you see a design on the Internet can you sell that
design to a company?
If you scan in the text of the book and put it on the
Internet for all to be freely read; are you breaking the
law?
Can you sue someone in another continent who sells
you a report on you which is full of factual errors?

								
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