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					   Space and Place after the
Privatization of Urban Housing:
reflections on the contributions of
             段义孚

         Deborah Davis
         Yale University
       December 15, 2007
             Who is 段义孚 ?
•   1930 born in 天津
•   1940 南开小学 in 重庆
•   1951 BA Oxford
•   1955 MA Oxford
•   1957 Phd.University of California Berkeley
•   1966-68 University of Toronto
•   1968-82 University of Minnesota
•   1982-98 University of Wisconsin-Madison
                Partial bibliography
•   Topophilia (1974)
•   Space and Place (1977)
•   Landscapes of Fear (1979)
•   Segmented Worlds and Self (1982)
•   Dominance and Affection (1984)
•   Morality and Imagination (1989)
•   Passing Strange and Wonderful (1993)
•   Cosmos and Hearth (1996)
•   Escapism (1998)
•   Place, Art, and Self (2004)
•   Coming Home to China ( 2007)
• Place is (a ) pause between spaces.

• Place is security, space is freedom: we are
  attached to one and long for the other. There is
  no place like home

• Space is experienced directly as having room in
  which to move. Moreover, by shifting from one
  place to another, a person acquires a sense of
  direction.
           Tuan’s 段’s challenge
• “a geographer speaks as though his knowledge
  of space and place were derived exclusively
  from books, maps, aerial photographs, and
  structured field surveys…A large body of
  experiential data is consigned to oblivion
  because we cannot fit the date to concepts that
  are taken over uncritically from the physical
  sciences…We rarely attend to what we know.
  We attend to what we know about; we are aware
  of a certain kind of reality because it is the kind
  that we can easily show and tell.”
• (Space and Place :200-201)
  My several partial responses
• Open-ended Conversations about Housing
  Histories
• Sequenced Focus Groups
• Housing blogs
• Re-analysis of housing satisfaction survey
           零点宜居指数研究
• April 2006
• N= 2,553 in 20 cities
• Age 18-60 years
General Satisfaction with Living Situation
        Gender and ownership
• Deborah Davis and Chan Kinman(2003)
  "The Consequences of Home Ownership
  in Post-Handover Hong Kong," Indicators
  of Social Development: Hong Kong 2001
 (Chinese University of Hong Kong Press):233-248.
• We found a significant gender difference in the impact of
  ownership on a respondent’s class-identity. Specifically
  for blue-collar men, but not women, home ownership
  significantly reduced the likelihood that the respondent
  saw themselves as lower class. In short property status
  trumped economic class for men but not for women. In
  the reanalysis of the零点 data, we therefore explicitly
  tested to see how interacting maleness and ownership
  would affect the level of satisfaction with one’s home.
零点宜居指数研究
            Satisfaction with one’s home

• Overall (and not surprisingly) owners and wealthier
  respondents living in larger homes were more satisfied.
  Younger respondents more satisfied than older.
• But also as hypothesized when we interact gender and
  ownership as, we find that men and women differ.
• Controlling for all else, men who rent are 15% less
  satisfied than females who rent and ownership increased
  satisfaction of males by 31% while only increased
  satisfaction among females by 16%. The positive impact
  of income, space, and youth remain
                                   Satisfaction with home

• Linear regression                                             Number of obs = 2228
•                                                               F( 10, 19) = 29.91
•                                                               Prob > F         = 0.0000
•                                                               R-squared = 0.1162
• Number of clusters (city) = 20                              Root MSE           = .92837
• ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
•            |            Robust
•      sat_house |       Coef. Std. Err.           t P>|t| [95% Conf. Interval]
• -------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
•       owner | .1593839 .0867133 1.84 0.082 -.0221091 .3408768
•          age | -.0046642 .0019668 -2.37 0.028 -.0087809 -.0005476
•        male | -.1527451 .0727898 -2.10 0.049 -.3050959 -.0003944
 owner_male | .1579402 .1067197 1.48 0.155 -.0654267 .3813071
•        educ | -.0233491 .0290482 -0.80 0.431 -.0841478 .0374495
  local_hukou | -.0559016 .0931308 -0.60 0.555 -.2508265 .1390233
 month_fam $| .0603636 .0230957 2.61 0.017 .0120236 .1087035
 high-med occ| .0254312 .0854265 0.30 0.769 -.1533685 .204231
• space_pc | .0138956 .0026753 5.19 0.000 .0082961 .0194951
•       BJ_SH | -.4126287 .061099 -6.75 0.000 -.5405104 -.2847471
•        _cons | 2.850606 .1623831 17.55 0.000 2.510734 3.190477
      Beijing –Shanghai effect
• Controlling for ownership and all else, residents
  in these two cities were 41% less satisfied with
  their homes.
• Given the numbers of cases and the need to
  cluster analysis by city we could not add
  additional city level variables to the model,
  however, the large, significant effect on reported
  satisfaction, underlines how essential it is that
  scholarship on urban China always explore and
  test for regional variation. and avoid generalizing
  to urban China as a whole.
                                                                                     Space per capita and Satisfaction

                                5




                                4
                                                                                                                                               male;owner;local hukou;high
Satisfaction Level with House




                                                                                                                                               income and occup.status;not in
                                                                                                                                               BJSH
                                                                                                                                               male;not owner;local hukou;high
                                3
                                                                                                                                               income and occup.status;not in
                                                                                                                                               BJSH"
                                                                                                                                               male;owner;local hukou;high
                                                                                                                                               income and occup.status; in BJSH
                                2

                                                                                                                                               male; not owner;local hukou;low
                                                                                                                                               income and occup.status; in
                                                                                                                                               BJSH"
                                1
                                                                                                                                               female;not owner;local
                                                                                                                                               hukou;high income and
                                                                                                                                               occup.status;not in BJSH


                                0
                                    1
                                        7
                                            13
                                                 19
                                                      25
                                                           31
                                                                37
                                                                     43
                                                                          49
                                                                               55
                                                                                    61
                                                                                         67
                                                                                              73
                                                                                                   79
                                                                                                        85
                                                                                                             91
                                                                                                                  97
                                                                                                                       103
                                                                                                                             109
                                                                                                                                   115
                                                                                                                                         121



                                                                          Space per capita
    Satisfaction with one’s neighborhood

• As with satisfaction with ones home, men are
  more dissatisfied than women with their
  neighborhoods ( 21% of men and 17.6% of
  women were dissatisfied ),
• However this gender distinction did not persist in
  a multi-variate analysis. Nor did the positive
  impact of youth.
• Instead the three key factors explaining
  satisfaction with the neighborhood were
  ownership, income, and space. Moreover this
  pattern held across all cities, with no difference
  with those living in Beijing or Shanghai.
                     Satisfaction with neighborhood
• Linear regression                                      Number of obs = 2237
•                                               F( 10, 19) = 7.80
•                                               Prob > F         = 0.0001
•                                               R-squared = 0.0360
• Number of clusters (city) = 20                              Root MSE           = .85584
• ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
•            |            Robust
• sat_commun~y |             Coef. Std. Err.           t P>|t| [95% Conf. Interval]
• -------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
•       owner | .1400822 .0551598 2.54 0.020 .0246315 .2555329
•         age | -.0023935 .0019464 -1.23 0.234 -.0064674 .0016804
•        male | -.0396761 .064472 -0.62 0.546 -.1746174 .0952653
 owner_male | -.0004865 .0831612 -0.01 0.995 -.1745449 .1735719
•        educ | -.0360187 .0252851 -1.42 0.171 -.0889409 .0169035
  local_hukou | -.0066176 .0782543 -0.08 0.933 -.1704057 .1571706
 month_fam$ | .0654599 .0228701 2.86 0.010 .0175923 .1133275
   hi_med occ | -.0501032 .0818973 -0.61 0.548 -.2215162 .1213097
• space_pc | .0055668 .001754 3.17 0.005 .0018956 .009238
•      BJ_SH | -.0918458 .0860826 -1.07 0.299 -.2720188 .0883272
        _cons | 3.056768 .1542647 19.82 0.000 2.733889 3.37964
               Satisfaction with one’s City:
• In terms of general satisfaction with the city in which they currently
  lived, men were slightly less satisfied than women ( 8% of men and
  6.4% of women dissatisfied) but overall respondents held relatively
  positive attitudes toward the city where they currently were living. In
  the multi-variate analysis, gender had no impact. Rather ownership,
  wealth, and space that increased satisfaction.

• And as in the reports on neighborhood satisfaction, there were no
  differences among men and women by ownership status nor with
  respondents from BJ or Shanghai.

• However in contrast to the earlier questions about satisfaction with
  the home and immediate neighborhood, here for the first time hukou
  status becomes significant. In fact, it the single most important
  variable. In fact, it the single most important variable.

• Also of note, it is locals not migrants who are significantly less
  satisfied

• Even when they were owners and had spacious homes, locals were
  16% less satisfied with the city than immigrants
             Satisfaction with one’s city of residence
•   Linear regression                                      Number of obs = 2231
•                                                                 F( 10, 19) = 24.33
•                                                                 Prob > F         = 0.0000
•                                                                 R-squared = 0.0507
•   Number of clusters (city) = 20                              Root MSE           = .73157
•   ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
•              |            Robust
•      sat_city |       Coef. Std. Err.           t P>|t| [95% Conf. Interval]
•   -------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
•         owner | .0815817 .043731 1.87 0.078 -.0099482 .1731117
•            age | -.0024719 .0016981 -1.46 0.162 -.0060261 .0010823
•           male | .0419455 .0456384 0.92 0.370 -.0535768 .1374679
  owner_male | -.0140224 .0641411 -0.22 0.829 -.1482713 .1202265
•          educ | -.0203643 .0241249 -0.84 0.409 -.0708583 .0301297
  local_hukou | -.1615971 .0596409 -2.71 0.014 -.286427 -.0367672
  month_fam$ | .0582717 .0169047 3.45 0.003 .0228898 .0936537
   hi_med occ | -.0614868 .0630191 -0.98 0.341 -.1933873 .0704136
•    space_pc | .0035144 .0009895 3.55 0.002 .0014434 .0055855
•       BJ_SH | -.2772381 .2327327 -1.19 0.248 -.7643533 .2098771
•          cons | 3.52101 .116578 30.20 0.000 3.277009 3.7650
Openness to outsiders
Openness scores for those with local hukou
         (4-20 possible range)

                          Mean_Openness
16

15

14

13

12

11

10

 9

 8
     北京 上海 广州 大连 杭州 西安 昆明 天津 苏州 桂林 青岛 宁波 武汉 深圳 南京 重庆 珠海 厦门 成都 三亚

                                City
                    Openness to outsiders
• In multi-variate analysis gender continued to be significant, with men
  averaging 37% higher scores (more openness) than women.

• However ownership by itself was not significant and there was no
  significant interaction with ownership and maleness as we found
  when we looked at satisfaction with one’s own home.

• Instead the key element was youth and an individual’s sense of
  security in terms of adequacy of social welfare provisions from one’s
  employer or the government.

• There also was a massive intra-city difference, that was unaffected
  by the percentage of immigrants in the population.

• Specifically we find that after controlling for all else, residents of
  Beijing and Shanghai are 370% less likely to be open to new arrivals
  and that the percentage of migrants have absolutely no effect.
                            Openness to外地人
•   Linear regression                                     Number of obs = 1594
•                                                    F( 8, 19) = 42.35
•                                                    Prob > F         = 0.0000
•                                                    R-squared = 0.1453
•  Number of clusters (city) = 20                              Root MSE           = 3.571
•  ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
•             |            Robust
•  openness_t~i |           Coef. Std. Err.          t P>|t| [95% Conf. Interval]
•  -------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
•         age | -.0219927 .008915 -2.47 0.023 -.040652 -.0033334
•         male | .3730808 .1399643 2.67 0.015 .0801322 .6660295
•       owner | .0842236 .3707166 0.23 0.823 -.6916951 .8601423
•         educ | .1050886 .1024124 1.03 0.318 -.1092631 .3194403
  month_fam$| -.0233144 .0904119 -0.26 0.799 -.2125487 .1659199
  sense_safe| .6609245 .2405938 2.75 0.013 .1573559 1.164493
  migr_perct | .0000128 .0208701 0.00 1.000 -.0436688 .0436945
•     BJ_SH | -3.706234 .4145399 -8.94 0.000 -4.573876 -2.838592
•        cons | 12.16123 .8960926 13.57 0.000 10.28568 14.03677
                                   Owners with local hukou
                                                  Openness to Waidi People

16


15                                                                                   male; high sense of safety; not
                                                                                     in BJ or SH
                                                                                     male; low sense of safety; not
14
                                                                                     in BJ or SH
                                                                                     male; high sense of safety; in
13                                                                                   BJ or SH
                                                                                     male; low sense of safety; in
                                                                                     BJ or SH
12
                                                                                     female; high sense of safety;
                                                                                     not in BJ or SH
11                                                                                   female; low sense of safety;
                                                                                     not in BJ or SH
                                                                                     female; high sense of safety;
10
                                                                                     in BJ or SH
                                                                                     female; low sense of safety; in
9                                                                                    BJ or SH


8
17

     20
          23
               26

                    29
                         32
                              35

                                   38
                                        41
                                             44

                                                  47
                                                       50
                                                            53

                                                                 56
                                                                      59
                                                                           62

                                                                                65


                                         Age
 Focus group probes to identify possible gender
    specific attachments to home ownership


• 2004     "Talking about Property in the New
  Chinese Domestic Property Regime," in The
  New Economic Sociology edited by Frank
  Dobbin (Russell Sage Foundation):288-307.

• 2003      (with 卢汉龙) “ Property in Transition:
  Conflicts over Ownership in Post Socialist
  Shanghai” Arch.europ.sociol.XLIV /European
  Journal of Sociology (April): 77-99.
    2000 original probe
• “我与母亲现在住的房子原来是我父亲单位
  的公房,是由我父亲承租的。实行房改政
  策后,我出资购买了这套房子;1996年10
  月,我父亲去世,我兄长不仅不安慰我母
  亲,还扬言他有权继承这套房子,并准备
  到法院去起诉我。请问:我父亲生前承租
  的公房由我出资购买以后,我兄长有没有
  权利继承?”
     2002 altered probes
• 编辑 同 志 : 我 和 母 亲 现 在 住 的 房 子
  原来是我父亲的私房。我父亲去
  世,
• 我 兄    长 不仅 不 安 慰 我 母 亲 ,
  还扬言他有权继承这套房子,并准
  备到法院去起诉我。请问:我兄长
  还有没有继承权?”
Experience of Physical Space,
   Social Place, and Time

				
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