A Survey on Building Intrusion Detection System Using Data Mining Framework

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					                                                          (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                          Vol. 10, No. 3, March 2012




     A Survey on Building Intrusion Detection System
             Using Data Mining Framework
V. Jaiganesh, Assistant Professor              M. Thenmozhi Assistant Professor                 Dr. P. Sumathi, Assistant Professor
  Department of Computer Science                    Department of Information                    Department of Computer Science,
 Dr.N.G.P. Arts and Science College                         Technology                          Chikkanna Government Arts College,
             Coimbatore                           Avinashilingam University for                              Tirupur
  e-mail: jaiganeshree@gmail.com                      Women, Coimbatore                           e-mail: sumi_rajes@yahoo.com
                                                   e-mail: thenujai@gmail.com


Abstract— Recently, network attacks have increased to a greater            has become the major concern of the computer society to detect
extent. Hackers and intruders can produce several successful               and to prevent intrusions efficiently.
efforts to cause the crash of the networks and web services by
illegal intrusion. New threats and interrelated solutions to avoid             An intrusion is a violation of the security policy of the
these threats are budding jointly with the secured system                  system, and thus, intrusion detection mainly refers to the
evolution. So, Intrusion Detection System (IDS) has become an              methods that detect violations of system security policy. Since
active area of research in the field of network security. The              the cruelty of attacks in the network has increased radically,
optimization of IDS becomes an attractive domain due to the                Intrusion detection system has become an essential factor to the
security audit data as well as complex and active properties of            security infrastructure of several companies. Intrusion detection
intrusion behaviors. The main purpose of IDS is to protect the             facilitates companies to defend their systems from various
resources from threats. Intrusion Detection System examines and            attacks that come with rising network connectivity and
calculates the user behavior, and then these behaviors will be             dependence on information systems [3].
considered an attack or a normal behavior. Intrusion detection
systems have been integrated with data mining approaches to                    Recently, intrusion detection techniques through data
identify intrusions. There are various data mining approaches              mining approaches have attracted several researchers. As an
such as classification tree, Support Vector Machines, etc., used           essential application area of data mining, intrusion detection
for intrusion detection. In this paper, thorough investigations            focus to lessen the burden of examining vast volumes of audit
have been done on the existing data mining approaches to detect            data and recognizing the performance optimization of detection
intrusions.. (Abstract)                                                    rules. Several researchers have suggested numerous techniques
                                                                           in various groups, from Bayesian techniques [4] to decision
  Keywords- Intrusion Detection System (IDS), intruders,                   trees [5, 6], from rule based models [7] to functions studying
Machine Learning techniques, Data mining                                   [8]. These techniques have improved the efficiency of the
                                                                           detection to a certain extent.
                       I.    INTRODUCTION
                                                                               It is observed from the existing techniques that, most
    Computer networks and their related applications have                  researchers utilized a single algorithm to detect multiple attack
become an attractive source in the era of information society              classes with miserable performance in certain scenarios. But,
[1]. Similarly, in recent years, the potential thread to the global        detection performance can be greatly improved through
information infrastructure has also increased greatly. In order            complicated technique.
to guard against several cyber attacks and computer viruses,
numerous computer security approaches have been extensively                    In the present scenario, data mining approaches have taken
researched in the recent years. The major security techniques              valuable steps towards solution of several issues in different
proposed are cryptography, firewalls, anomaly, intrusion                   intrusion detection issues. There are various benefits in
detection, etc. Among the available existing techniques,                   utilizing the data mining approaches for solving the problem of
intrusion detection techniques have been considered to be one              network intrusion [9]. Some of the benefits are listed below:
of the most significant and competent techniques for protecting                   • It can process huge amount of data.
complex and dynamic intrusion attacks.
                                                                                  • User’s subjective evaluation is not needed, and it is
    Network intrusion and information safety issues are mainly                        more appropriate to detect the unobserved and
due to the consequences of extensive internet usage. For                              hidden information.
example, on February 7th, 2000 the first Denial of Service
(DoS) attacks of huge volume were established, aiming the                     Moreover, data mining systems easily performs data
computer systems of huge corporates like Yahoo!, eBay,                     summarization and visualization that facilitate the security
Amazon, CNN, ZDnet and Dadet [2]. Alternatively, network                   analysis in various research areas [10].
intrusion is regarded as a new weapon of world war. Thus, it
                                                                              This paper thoroughly investigates the existing data mining
                                                                           approaches which help in preventing intrusion attacks. The



                                                                      32                              http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
                                                                                                      ISSN 1947-5500
                                                         (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                         Vol. 10, No. 3, March 2012


characteristic features of the intrusion detection techniques are        accuracy and detection rate.
presented in this paper which would facilitate further research             Data mining approaches have achieved considerable
in the field of network security.                                        importance in presenting the helpful information and thereby
                                                                         can assist in improving the decision on recognizing the
                   II.   LITERATURE SURVEY                               intrusions (attacks). Panda and Patra [18] evaluated the
   The idea of intrusion detection system was proposed by                performance of several rule based classifiers, for instance,
Anderson in 1980 [11]. Anderson employed statistic technique             JRip, RIDOR, NNge and decision table by using ensemble
to examine the behavior of user and to detect those attackers            approach with the intention of constructing an efficient
who accesses the system in an unauthorized way. Denning                  network intrusion detection system. The author exploited
[12] presented a prototype of IDES (Intrusion Detection                  KDDCup'99, intrusion detection benchmark dataset (which is
Expert System) in 1987, then, the concept of intrusion                   a fraction of DARPA evaluation program) for this
detection system was known progressively, and Denning’s                  experimentation. It can be revealed from the outcome that the
approach was considered as a considerable landmark in the                this scheme is perfect in identifying network intrusions,
area of intrusion detection.                                             provides low false positive rate, uncomplicated, consistent and
   Zenghui and Yingxu [13] proposed a data mining                        faster in constructing an efficient network intrusion system.
framework for generating intrusion detection models. The man                Due to the increase in the number of computer networks at
goal is to employ data mining techniques namely,                         the present scenario, ensuring security in a network against
classification, meta-learning, association rules, and frequent           various attacks is essential. Intrusion detection system is one
episodes to review data for computing misuse and abnormality             of the popular tools to provide security against the intruders in
detection models that correctly capture the actual behavior              a network. Exploiting data mining approaches has increased
(i.e., patterns) of intrusions and normal behaviors. Even                the quality of intrusion detection neither as anomaly detection
though, this detection model can significantly detect a                  or misrepresented detection from large scale network traffic
considerable percentage of old and new PROBING and U2R                   operation. Association rule is a popular method to construct
attacks, it missed a vast number of new DOS and R2L attacks.             quality misused detection. On the other hand, the limitation of
Theodoros Lappas and Konstantinos Pelechrinis [14] mostly                association rule is the fact that it often produced with
concentrated on data mining approaches that are being used               thousands rules which diminishes the performance of IDS.
for dealing with DOS and R2L attacks, and then proposed a                Namik and Othman [19] concentrated on applying post-
new idea on how data mining can help IDSs by utilizing                   mining to decrease the number of rules and remaining the
biclustering as a tool to analyze network traffic and improve            most quality rules to generate quality signature. Each partition
IDSs.                                                                    is mined using Apriori Algorithm, which later carries out post-
   Sun and Wang [15] presented a new weighted support                    mining using Chi-Squared ( ) computation approaches. The
vector clustering algorithm and utilized it to deal with the             excellence of rules is measured depending on Chi-Square
problem of anomaly detection. Experimental results reveal the            value, which is computed based on the support, confidence
fact that this method obtains high detection rate with low false         and lift of every association rule.
alarm rate. Su-Yun Wu and Ester Yen [16] compared the                       Emerging technologies have metamorphosed the
performance efficiency of machine learning techniques such               characteristics of surveillance and monitoring application,
as classification tree and support vector machines in intrusion          however the sensory data obtained using different gadgets still
detection system. It is observed from the results that the               remain unreliable and inadequately synchronized. State
algorithm of C4.5 for classification tree and SVM are similar            transition analysis is turning out to be significant components
to certain level for R2l attack in terms of accuracy, but the            in recognizing intrusions. Ganesh et al., [20] developed a
accuracy of C4.5 is higher than SVM for other types of attack.           semantic based intrusion detection system in which state
   Intruder is one of the most common threats to security. At            transition analysis, pattern matching and data mining
present, intrusion detection has come out as a significant               techniques are incorporated to enhance the intrusion detection
practice for providing network security. In recent times, data           accuracy. Patterns and rules are generated depending on the
mining approaches have been exploited for the purpose of                 events identified by WSN. The sink obtains information
intrusion detection. The effectiveness of the feature selection          regarding the numerous actions taking place in the coverage
techniques is one of the fundamental parameter that has an               area and correlates the streaming data in spatial domain and
effect on the success of Intrusion Detection System (IDS).               time domain. The semantic rules are generated using ANTLR
Amudha and Abdul Rauf [17] evaluated the performance of                  tool.
data mining classification approaches specifically, J48, Naive              Networks are safeguarded by means of exploiting several
Bayes, NBTree and Random Forest with the use of KDD                      firewalls and encryption software's. However most of these
CUP'99 dataset and mainly concentrated on Correlation                    available methods are not adequate and efficient. Majority of
Feature Selection (CFS) measure. The results of this                     the current intrusion detection systems for mobile ad-hoc
evaluation revealed that NBTree and Random Forest performs               networks are mostly concentrating on either routing protocols
better than other two approaches based on the predictive



                                                                    33                              http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
                                                                                                    ISSN 1947-5500
                                                         (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                         Vol. 10, No. 3, March 2012


or only on its effectiveness, but it is unsuccessful to address          classes. This technique has exposed that by oversampling the
the security related issues. Some of the nodes which take part           instances of the anomaly and moreover this technique assists
in the communication may be selfish, for instance, certain               the Support Vector Machine algorithm to overcome the soft
nodes may not forward the packets to the target and by this              margin. Consequently, it classifies better future instances of
means it reduces the battery power utilization. In some other            this class of interest.
cases, certain nodes may act as malicious by initiating security            Some heterogeneous security equipments for instance,
attacks like Denial-of-Service or hack the information. The              firewalls, intrusion detection systems and anti-virus gateways,
vital objective of the security solutions for wireless networks          can generate considerable security events which are
is to offer security services, for instance, authentication,             complicated to manage effectively. As a result a log-based
confidentiality, integrity, anonymity and availability to mobile         mining, distributed and multi-protocol supported framework
users. Esfandi [21] integrates agents and data mining                    of security monitoring system is developed by Lv Guangjuan
approaches to avoid anomaly intrusion in mobile ad-hoc                   et al., [25] and described the structural design of the
networks. Home agents present in each system obtain the data             information security monitoring system. The major
from its individual system and by means of data mining                   concentration is on the correlation analysis engine which
approaches the local anomalies are observed. The Mobile                  illustrates the process that the detection model is constructed
agents observe the neighboring nodes and obtain the                      using data mining approaches. Security event correlation
information from adjacent home agents to find out the                    depending on data mining analysis can automatically obtain
correlation between the observed anomalous patterns before it            association rules, investigate alarming and found new invasion
sends the data. This scheme was capable of preventing all the            model, and hence it is extremely intelligent technique.
security attacks in an ad-hoc network and reduces the false                 Xin Xu et al., [26] proposed a outline for adaptive intrusion
alarm positive.                                                          detection with the help of machine learning approaches. Multi-
   Te-Shun Chou and Tsung-Nan Chou [22] proposed a hybrid                class Support Vector Machines (SVMs) is employed to
design for intrusion detection that integrates anomaly                   classifier construction in IDSs and the performance of SVMs
detection with misuse detection. This technique also includes            is assessed on the KDD99 dataset. Significant results were
an ensemble feature selecting classifier and a data mining               obtained in the experimental evaluation. For instance,
classifier. The former includes four classifiers using dissimilar        detection rates of 76.7%, 81.2%, 21.4% and 11.2% were
sets of features and each of them utilizes a machine learning            obtained for DoS, Probe, U2R, and R2L attacks respectively
algorithm called fuzzy belief k-NN classification algorithm.             while False Positive is maintained at the fairly low level of
The latter exploits data mining approaches to automatically              average 0.6% for the four groups. But, this approach can be
obtain computer users' normal behavior from training network             only employed to a very small set of data (10,000 randomly
traffic data. The outcome of ensemble feature selecting                  sampled records) comparing to the huge original dataset (5
classifier and data mining classifier are then combined                  million audit records). So, this method is not suitable for all
together to obtain the final decision.                                   the circumstances and is not regarded as one of the best
   Several techniques have been developed for intrusion                  approach.
detection using data mining approaches but from the                          Yang Li and Li Guo [27] have already recognized the
beginning it is uncertain that which data mining approach is             insufficiency of KDD dataset. However, a supervised network
most efficient. Zhenwei Yu and Tsai [23] developed a Multi-              intrusion detection technique depending on Transductive
Class SLIPPER (MC-SLIPPER) scheme for intrusion                          Confidence Machines for K-Nearest Neighbors (TCM-KNN)
detection to discover whether there is any significant                   machine learning algorithm and active learning based training
                                                                         data selection method had been proposed by Yang Li and Li
advantage from boosting dependent learning approach. The                 Guo. This new approach was evaluated on a subset of KDD
fundamental idea is to employ the available binary SLIPPER               dataset by random sampling 49,402 audit records for the
as a central module, which is a rule learner depending on                training phase and 12,350 records for the testing phase. An
confidence-rated boosting. Numerous arbitral strategies                  average TP of 99.6% and FP of 0.1% was reported but no
depending on prediction confidence are developed to judge                additional information about the exact detection rate of each
results from all binary SLIPPER modules.                                 attack categories was presented by the authors..
   Security of computers and the networks that connect them is
progressively turning out to be much essential. On the other                           III.   PROBLEMS AND DIRECTIONS
hand, constructing effective intrusion detection techniques                 There are various problems and issues present in the
with better accuracy and real-time implementation are                    existing intrusion detection techniques which are analyzed in
indispensable. Muntean et al., [24] developed a novel data               this section. This section also provides certain possible
mining dependent method for intrusion detection by utilizing             solutions to the problems in the existing techniques.
Cost-sensitive classification together with Support Vector                  Majority of the intrusion detection techniques available in
Machines. The author introduced an algorithm that enhances               the literature employed a single algorithm to detect multiple
the classification for Support Vector Machines, by multiplying           attack categories with miserable performance in most of the
in the training phase the instances of the underrepresented



                                                                    34                              http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
                                                                                                    ISSN 1947-5500
                                                                  (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                  Vol. 10, No. 3, March 2012


scenarios.                                                                         [4]    G.H. John and P. Langley, “Estimating Continuous Distributions in
                                                                                          Bayesian Classifiers”, Proceedings of the 11th Conference on
   Existing intrusion detection systems are highly dependant                              Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence, Pp. 338-345, 1995.
on human analysts to distinguish intrusive from non-intrusive                      [5]    J. Ross Quinlan, “C4.5: Programs for Machine Learning”, Morgan
network traffic.                                                                          Kaufmann, Publishers Inc. San Francisco, CA, USA, 1993.
   Moreover, existing IDSs are developed to detect only                            [6]    Ron Kohavi, “Scaling up the accuracy of Naïve-Bayes classifier: A
particular known service level network attacks. Many attempts                             decision-tree hybrid”, Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference
                                                                                          on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, Pp. 202-207, 1996.
have been made to deal with this problem, but resulted in an
                                                                                   [7]    Ian H. Witten, Eibe Frank and Mark A. Hall, “Data Mining: Practical
unacceptable level of false positives. Simultaneously, adequate                           Machine Learning Tools and Techniques”, 2nd Edition, Morgan
data exist or could be collected to facilitate network                                    Kaufmann, San Francisco, 2005.
administrators to discover these policy violations. But, the data                  [8]    P. Werbos, “Beyond Regression: New Tools for Prediction and Analysis
                                                                                          in the Behavioral Sciences”, PhD Thesis, Harvard University, 1974.
are so vast and thus, the analysis process takes very long time
                                                                                   [9]    Ming Xue and Changjun Zhu, “Applied Research on Data Mining
and the administrators don’t have the resources to go through                             Algorithm in Network Intrusion Detection”, International Joint
it all and detect the relevant knowledge. Thus, the network                               Conference on Artificial Intelligence (JCAI), Pp. 275-277, 2009.
administrators don’t have the resources to proactively                             [10]   Eric Bloedorn, Alan D. Christiansen, William Hill, Clement Skorupka,
investigate the data for policy violations, particularly in the                           Lisa M. Talbot, Jonathan Tivel, “Data Mining for Network Intrusion
                                                                                          Detection: How to Get Started”, Technical Paper, 2001.
existence of a high number of false positives that cause them
                                                                                   [11]   J.P. Anderson, “Computer security threat monitoring and surveillance”,
to waste their inadequate resources.                                                      Technical Report, James P. Anderson Co., Fort Washington,
   Thus, the most important problem with the existing IDSs                                Pennsylvania, 1980.
approaches is that, the existing IDSs do not provide significant                   [12]   D.E. Denning, “An intrusion detection model”, IEEE Transaction on
                                                                                          Software Engineering, Pp. 222–232, 1987.
result for all types of attacks.
                                                                                   [13]   Zenghui Liu and Yingxu Lai, “A Data Mining Framework for Building
   It is to be understood that, there is considerable variation                           Intrusion Detection Models Based on IPv6”, Proceedings of the 3rd
from one attack category to another and thus, identifying                                 International Conference and Workshops on Advances in Information
attack category specific algorithm offers a promising research                            Security and Assurance, Seoul, Korea, Springer- Verlag, Volume 5576,
                                                                                          Pp. 608-618, 2009.
direction for improving intrusion detection performance.
                                                                                   [14]   Theodoros Lappas and Konstantinos Pelechrinis, “Data Mining
    In order to handle the above mentioned problems, an                                   Techniques for (Network) Intrusion Detection System”, 2007.
effective and novel research in the areas of data mining and                       [15]   Sheng Sun and YuanZhen Wang, “A Weighted Support Vector
intrusion detection has to be carried out. Efficient machine                              Clustering Algorithm and its Application in Network Intrusion
learning techniques can be used which provide decision aids                               Detection”, First International Workshop on Education Technology and
for the analysts and which automatically generate rules to be                             Computer Science (ETCS), Vol. 1, Pp. 352-355, 2009.
used for computer network intrusion detection. Moreover,                           [16]   Su-Yun Wu and Ester Yen, “Data mining-based intrusion detectors”,
Neuro-fuzzy techniques can be utilized with better learning                               Expert Systems with Applications, Vol. 36, No. 3, Pp. 5605-5612, 2009.
techniques to provide precise results in IDS.                                      [17]   P. Amudha and H. Abdul Rauf, “Performance Analysis of Data Mining
                                                                                          Approaches in Intrusion Detection”, International Conference on Process
                                                                                          Automation, Control and Computing (PACC), Pp. 1–6, 2011.
                       IV. CONCLUSION                                              [18]   M. Panda and M.R. Patra, “Ensembling Rule Based Classifiers for
                                                                                          Detecting Network Intrusions”, International Conference on Advances in
    Intrusion Detection Systems provide the fundamental                                   Recent Technologies in Communication and Computing (ARTCom), Pp.
detection techniques to secure the systems present in the                                 19-22, 2009.
networks that are directly or indirectly connected to the                          [19]   A.F. Namik and Z.A. Othman, “Reducing network intrusion detection
Internet. This paper provides a thorough investigation on the                             association rules using Chi-Squared pruning technique”, 3rd Conference
existing intrusion detection techniques through data mining                               on Data Mining and Optimization (DMO), Pp. 122-127, 2011.
approaches. This paper effectively analysis the problems                           [20]   K.S. Ganesh, M.R. Sekar and V. Vaidehi, “Semantic Intrusion Detection
available in the existing intrusion detection techniques. This                            System using pattern matching and state transition analysis”,
paper also suggests certain solutions to the problems available                           International Conference on Recent Trends in Information Technology
                                                                                          (ICRTIT), Pp. 607-612, 2011.
in the existing IDSs. This paper would a suitable platform for
                                                                                   [21]   A. Esfandi, “Efficient anomaly intrusion detection system in adhoc
the novel researches in the field of network security.                                    networks by mobile agents”, 3rd IEEE International Conference on
                                                                                          Computer Science and Information Technology (ICCSIT), Vol. 7, Pp.
                              REFERENCES                                                  73-77, 2010.
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[1]   Huy Nguyen and Deokjai Choi, “Application of Data Mining to                         Intrusion Detection”, Seventh Annual Communication Networks and
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      Management (APNOMS), Challenges for Next Generation Network                  [23]   Zhenwei Yu and J.J.P. Tsai, “A multi-class SLIPPER system for
      Operations and Service Management, Pp. 399–408, 2008.                               intrusion detection”, Proceedings of the 28th Annual International
                                                                                          Computer Software and Applications Conference (COMPSAC), Vol. 1,
[2]   Brian Krebs, “A Short History of Computer Viruses and Attacks”,                     Pp. 212-217, 2004.
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                                                                              35                                     http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
                                                                                                                     ISSN 1947-5500
                                                                    (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                    Vol. 10, No. 3, March 2012


[24] M. Muntean, H. Valean, L. Miclea and A. Incze, “A novel intrusion                               M. Thenmozhi is working as an Assistant
     detection method based on support vector machines”, 11th International                          Professor in the Department of
     Symposium on Computational Intelligence and Informatics (CINTI), Pp.                            Information Technology, Faculty of
     47-52, 2010.                                                                                    Engineering, Avinashilingam University
[25] Lv Guangjuan, Xu Ruzhi, Zu Xiangrong and Deng Liwu, “Information                                for Women, Coimbatore, and doing M.E.,
     Security Monitoring System Based on Data Mining”, Fifth International                           Network Engineering in Anna University
     Conference on Information Assurance and Security, Pp. 472-475, 2009.                            of Technology, Coimbatore. She received
                                                                                                     her B.E., at Avinashilingam University for
[26] Xin Xu, “Adaptive Intrusion Detection Based on Machine Learning:                                Women, Coimbatore. She has attended
     Feature Extraction, Classifier Construction and Sequential Pattern               various seminars and conferences. She has six years of
     Prediction”, International Journal of Web Services Practices, Vol. 2, No.        teaching experience and her interests include Data Mining
     1-2, Pp. 49-58, 2006.                                                            and Networking.
[27] Yang Li and Li Guo, “An Active Learning Based TCM-KNN Algorithm
     for Supervised Network Intrusion Detection”, 26th Computers &
     Security, Pp. 459-467, 2007.                                                                      Dr. P. Sumathi is working as an
                                                                                                       Assistant Professor in the Department
                                                                                                       of Computer Science, Chikkanna
                                       AUTHORS PROFILE                                                 Government Arts College, Tirupur. She
                   V. Jaiganesh is working as an Assistant                                             received her Ph.D., in the area of Grid
                   Professor in the Department of Computer                                             Computing in Bharathiar University.
                   Science, Dr. N.G.P. Arts and Science                                                She has done her M.Phil in the area of
                   College, Coimbatore and doing Ph.D., in                                             Software Engineering in Mother Teresa
                   Manonmaniam Sundaranar University,                                 Women’s University and received MCA degree at Kongu
                   Thirunelveli. He has done his M.Phil., in the                      Engineering College, Perundurai. She has published a
                   area of Data Mining in Periyar University.                         number of papers in reputed journals and conferences.
                   He has done his post graduate degrees MCA                          She has about fifteen years of teaching and research
     and MBA in Periyar University, Salem. He has presented                           experience. Her research interests include Data Mining,
     and published a number of papers in reputed conferences                          Grid Computing and Software Engineering.
     and journals. He has one decade of teaching and research
     experience and his research interests include Data Mining
     and Networking.




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