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Integrating LBS, GIS and SMS Technologies for the Effective Monitoring of Road Network

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					                                                          (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                          Vol. 10, No. 3, March 2012




   Integrating LBS, GIS and SMS Technologies for the
          Effective Monitoring of Road Network
                                                Souad El houssaini*, Abdelmajid Badri
                      Laboratoire d'Electronique, Electrotechnique, Automatique & Traitement de l’Information
            Faculté des Sciences et Techniques de Mohammedia, Université Hassan II Mohammedia-Casablanca, B.P.146
                                                       Mohammedia, Morocco
                                     souad_elhoussaini@yahoo.fr ; abdelmajid_badri@yahoo.fr


Abstract—This paper presents an integrated framework of                     GPS may not be suitable for location of the requesting
Geographic Information System (GIS), Android Platform and a                 emergency. In order to solve this problem, Cell Identifier
Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) equipped                      which indicates mobile device position by using station base
with interactive communication capabilities. The model                      information is introduced in this research. With the facilities
integrates the design of the database and the management of
                                                                            of Android that provides LBS components for retrieving
implementation of the monitoring system which includes the
operations of query and analysis using the web and desktop                  information about where a mobile device is located [1], a
applications. This study aims to apply techniques of analysis of            system that retrieves the location of the mobile was
the road network in a GIS to collect geographic data on the                 developed. The results from this process are composed of
monitoring station and the roads. The information on road                   mobile’s particulars information: MCC (Mobile Country
infrastructure is not only useful for locating monitoring stations,         Code), MNC (Mobile Network Code), Cell ID (Cell
but it is also important to guide a station to follow the shortest          Identifier) and LAC (Location Area Code), this information is
path to achieve the objectives of management and routing.                   sent by SMS from the mobile of requesting emergency to the
Optimal routes based on the minimum cost are identified using               monitoring system. Teleoperator can use these clues to locate
Dijkstra’s algorithm. This paper also presents a software
                                                                            the phone and inform the monitoring stations in order to save
development on Android Platform which applies Cell Identifier
method for improving the accuracy of location, it is not                    property and people.
necessary to have an Internet connection as the requesting                      This study aims also to implement and evaluate a
emergency can use a Short Message Service (SMS) to request an               methodology based on GIS (Geographic Information System)
urgent service. The proposed system should be an effective and
intelligent tool for a rapid intervention and to improve the
                                                                            to determine optimal routes of the road network using key
monitoring of the road network which can eventually be                      information items based on cost of distance. With this paper
extended to a national infrastructure of GIS. Simulated test                we will try to help and fill that gap, presenting a decision tool
cases have been carried out for network of Mohammedia City in               for monitoring stations for location and routing. This
Morocco.                                                                    approach saves time. This article is comprised of the
                                                                            following parts: Part 2, which introduces available tools; Part
Keywords: GIS; Location; Routing; SMS; Android; Cell Identifier.
                                                                            3, which describes the structure of the proposed system; Part
                                                                            4 which examines the implementation; Part 5, which
                   I.      INTRODUCTION                                     discusses the experiment result; and finally Part 6, the
                                                                            conclusion.
    Road safety has long been a major concern in the road
sector. Road accidents can cause serious injury or death;                                       II.    AVAILABLE TOOLS
these effects can also lead to significant economic losses for
the payee. The accelerated rapid development of wireless                         A. Global Positioning System (GPS): Outdoor
network and mobile computing technologies has increased                               Localization System
the convenience of mobile information services for to solving                   GPS is a system used for determining the position of
real-life problems, such as monitoring of road accidents. In                interesting objects such as person, pets or vehicles. This
general, the Location-Based Service (LBS), a software                       system receives satellite signals and calculates the position of
application which retrieves information about where a mobile                mobile device of which a SIM card is installed for sending
device is located, uses GPS (Global Positioning System) to                  the co-ordinate (latitude and longitude) of its position to the
indicate the geographical position of the mobile device. Since              recipient [1].
all mobile devices cannot be equipped with GPS receiver, the




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                                                                                                      ISSN 1947-5500
                                                      (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                      Vol. 10, No. 3, March 2012




While GPS is widely used in outdoor localization, it does not                  D. Geographic Information System (GIS)
perform effectively in indoor localization. This is because it                Geography information systems have been improving
lacks the ability to pierce through building wall and requires            since 1970s. GIS is an essential tool for location mapping,
custom infrastructures for every area in which localization is            dynamic condition visualization, and decision making [5–7].
to be performed [2, 3].                                                   Geospatial data are useful in monitoring response to
                                                                          accidents. The analysis of real-time data could be achieved
     B. Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM):
                                                                          through GIS during the response phase to support
          Indoor Localization System
                                                                          visualization and automation for efficient decision making.
    GSM is a digital mobile telephony system which is wildly
                                                                          Research has been conducted in GIS that focused on areas
used in most part of the world. GSM identifies mobile device
                                                                          such as shortest path analysis [8, 9]. This shows the great
position by using Cell Identifier method which retrieves
                                                                          potential of GIS applications to facilitate the possibility of
information from cell tower. The Cell Identifier method
                                                                          having a response time shorter if the geospatial information is
provides many benefits for localization, utilizing the widely
                                                                          implemented in the initial phase of response to accidents.
and most accessible network infrastructure in most parts of
the world [3]. Therefore this method is applied in our system
for finding the position of requesting emergency.                              III.       STRUCTURE OF THE PROPOSED SYSTEM

     C. Android Platform                                                      A. Requirements
    Android is a platform for mobile device developed by                      Figure 1 depicts a use case and the use case diagram for
Google. It provides a complete set of software development:               the Management System for Road Safety (MSRS). Use cases
operating system, tools and APIs necessary to begin                       are used for documentation of functional requirements and
developing applications [4]. The java-based programming                   for communication between stakeholders and developers.
makes Android widely used in developing mobile application                This is a common practice in software engineering that
[1]. In this research, Android Cell ID API was applied to                 ensures the software developers understand the requirements.
obtain the Cell ID of an Android mobile.                                  Thus, the developed system is expected to address the
                                                                          requirements set by the stakeholders.




                                                Figure 1: Use case diagram and use case for MSRS.




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                                                                                                    ISSN 1947-5500
                                                        (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                        Vol. 10, No. 3, March 2012




        B. System design                                                     several web service in the world of free Web Mapping. It fits
     The web framework based on a three-tier architecture                    easily with Apache and php5. Web-based GIS users can use a
consisting of the client layer, middleware layer and the layer               Web browser to navigate maps and to complete basic spatial
of the database (Figure 2). These components together                        analysis. The requests from the user are sent to clients by way
provide a unified interface for consultation data, request and               of HTML forms. The form is passed to the Web server
decision making for users, the database is accessed through                  Apache and a gateway at the Web server passes the request to
the Internet, in such a way that the user does not need to be                GIS server Cartoweb, then Cartoweb queries the database.
aware of the location of the database, it is sufficient that the
user is able to consult, add and modify the data as needed.




                                                  Figure 2: The structure of the proposed system.


     First of all, after installing our program in Android                                          IV.      IMPLEMENTATION
mobile, the requesting emergency clicks the button "send
sms". Moreover, the position of the mobile will be sent in
real-time to monitoring system by retrieving mobile                                 A. Implementation of Dijkstra’s Algorithm
information from the closest cell site consisting of MNC,                        Dijkstra's algorithm calculates the least accumulated cost
MCC, Cell ID and LAC, which will be further used for                         between the destination node and every other node, and then
retrieving latitude and longitude of the mobile. GSM modem                   finds the least-cost path from any origin nodes to the
receives this SMS, the monitoring system saves in the                        destination node.
database the data contained in this SMS. A GSM modem can                     The Dijkstra’s algorithm is very similar to the A* algorithm.
be an external modem device, a PC card installed in a                        The cost function (c) used to evaluate shortest paths in the
notebook computer, or a standard GSM mobile phone, in our                    Dijkstra algorithm is augmented by an estimator function that
case we used GSM mobile phone to test our application. The                   is used to estimate the shortest path between two given graph
Android service is applied to send all of information to                     nodes [i.e., c(s, d) = g(s, v) + h(v, d), where g(s, v) is the cost
monitoring system. The advantage of this system is to                        from source s to v and h(v, d) is the heuristic estimated cost
provide clues of location for teleoperator to notify the                     from v to the destination d]. The estimator function is a
monitoring station to serve the requesting emergency.                        heuristic function that can be chosen arbitrarily. If the
                                                                             estimator function is 0, A* turns into Dijkstra’s algorithm
      Application uses PostgreSQL as the database                            [10].
management system with the geospatial extension PostGIS.
Additional to relational queries, PostGIS provides spatial                       In our system, the routing service has been implemented
queries to the users. The GIS products used are Mapserver                    using the Dijkstra's algorithm in the road network of the city
and Cartoweb, Mapserver is used here just as library                         of Mohammedia. The algorithm was implemented with PHP5
PhpMapScript, Cartoweb is a solution designed for the web,                   in Cartoweb environment. The version of Cartoweb used is
it allows its architecture CartoClient / CartoServer to answer               3.5.0 and runs with Windows XP operating system. Cartoweb




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                                                                                                          ISSN 1947-5500
                                                                (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                Vol. 10, No. 3, March 2012




not only allows the handling of road maps online using user-
friendly interfaces, but it also allows to implement the routing
plugin nome "pgrouting", it runs client side and server side.
The user can define the points of beginning and end of the
shortest path by selecting their names (names of streets).
Whenever a routing operation is performed, their names are
passed as parameters from the client interface to the server.
The server connects to the database, it prepares the request, it
computes the shortest path connecting the given points, draw
it on the map with a different color. Figure 3 depicts the
shortest path between Boulevard "11 Janvier" and Boulevard
"Sebta" in the road network in Mohammedia.




                                                                                       Figure 4: Receiving a short message through a computer using AT
                                                                                                                   Command.

                                                                                         C. Other Implementations of Decision Model
                                                                                         The choice was preferentially oriented means "Open-
                                                                                  source" such as Mapserver, Cartoweb, PostgreSQL and
                                                                                  Android. To implement the application, we used an Object-
                                                                                  Oriented (OO) methodology (Unified Modeling Language—
                                                                                  UML). The developed web application is organized around a
                                                                                  main window, with all the functionalities accessible in this
                                                                                  window, through the toolbar, or the menu in a way easily
                Figure 3: Visualization of the shortest path.                     understandable by users.
                                                                                  The tool developed is composed of a set of Graphical User
       B. Receiving SMS Through a Computer                                        Interfaces (GUI). It was implemented for Windows platforms
       To send and receive SMS, a GSM modem [11] of high                          and has an open architecture which allows an easy integration
band rate will be needed so that a large number of messages                       of new functionality. The teleoperator uses GUI to make the
could be receive at high speed at every moment. In order to                       interpretation of information easier (Figure 5).
get connected to the GSM modem through a computer, the
standardized AT commands must be used. The set of
commands used for controlling modems is called AT
command. Every AT command includes a result code which
specifies the status of the command and a reply containing
the data returned by the modem. AT commands usually begin
with the prefix ‘‘AT” [12].
Figure 4 shows how a short message is received via our
application developed in VB6 and saved in the database.
The application to receive SMS and to save it in the database
was developed by two different methods: one using AT
commands and the other with the android platform if the
GSM modem does not support AT commands.




                                                                                              Figure 5: The GUI of different visualizations tabs.




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                                                                                                             ISSN 1947-5500
                                                                 (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                 Vol. 10, No. 3, March 2012




         The move towards Android technology is rapidly                                                V. EXPERIMENT RESULT
approaching. With the facilities of Android that provides LBS                             Observing the results given in table 1 shown that after
components for retrieving information about where a mobile                            testing the mobile location system in several different places
device is located, a system that retrieves the location of                            around Mohammedia (Figure 7) by comparing our
mobile was developed. In order to locate mobile device, Cell                          measurements obtained from a mobile equipped with our
Identifier of GSM network is applied. This step was                                   application and those of GPS, the comparison shows that the
developed by applying Android Cell ID API which can obtain                            system can retrieve the requesting emergency mobile
the Cell ID of an Android device. The result of our system                            information and sent it to the monitoring system at 99.9%
consists of mobile’s identification information: MNC, MCC,                            accuracy, one can conclude that the proposed system can be
Cell ID and LAC (Figure 6).                                                           successfully applied in real application for monitoring system
                                                                                      of road accidents.

                                                                                                           VI.    CONCLUSION
                                                                                          In this paper, we described an intelligent system offering a
                                                                                      solution to the treatment of emergency accidents in the city of
                                                                                      Mohammedia in Morocco for automatic monitoring. An
                                                                                      operation of great significance for this treatment is the
                                                                                      delivery the monitoring station to the sites asking for help to
                                                                                      save property and people. The system has been tested in a
       Localisation GSM
       Service de Localisation de GSM !
                                                                                      real case study, its architecture involves an integrated
       [67,52193]                                                                     framework of Geographic Information System (GIS),
       mcc : 604                                                                      Android Platform and a Relational Database Management
       mnc : 01
       gsm cel id : 52193                                                             System (RDBMS) equipped with interactive communication.
       gsm area code: 67                                                              The objective of this research is to provide a system for
                Send message
                                                                                      location and routing. The improved efficiency by GIS reduces
                                                                                      the task of maintaining paper maps. The Web-based GIS
                                                                                      framework facilitates the orientation of the monitoring station
 Figure 6: Information retrieved from the mobile of requesting emergency.             to the location of the accident. The Android platform applies




                                                 Figure 7: Geographic location of supposed sites of road accidents.




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                                                                                                                      ISSN 1947-5500
                                                                  (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                  Vol. 10, No. 3, March 2012




                                                              TABLE 1: System Testing Result

                              Supposed sites          Latitude           Longitude       Latitude GPS          Longitude
                             of road accident        Application         Application                             GPS
                            S1                      33°42’35’’N         007°21’19’’O     33°42’40’’N         007°21’19’’O
                            S2                      33°42’30’’N         007°24’02’’O     33°42’36’’N         007°24’03’’O
                            S3                      33°42’20’’N         007°23’24’’O     33°42’24’’N         007°23’25’’O
                            S4                      33°41’45’’N         007°22’41’’O     33°41’38’’N         007°22’42’’O
                            S5                      33°41’33’’N         007°23’32’’O     33°41’30’’N         007°23’27’’O
                            S6                      33°41’54’’N         007°22’18’’O     33°41’58’’N         007°22’20’’O
                            S7                      33°42’53’’N         007°21’09’’O     33°42’56’’N         007°20’56’’O

the Cell Identifier to improve the efficiency of localization.                      [4] S. Sukaphat. “Creating of Mobile Search System for Traffic Inquiry”, in
There are several advantages of the developed system. First,                        Proc. 10th ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering,
                                                                                    Artificial Intelligence, Networking, and Parallel/Distributed Computing
time saving and flexibility are important merits of the system.                     (SNPD 2009), 2009, pp. 417 - 420.
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has potential to be integrated with the other roads networks                        2007.
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                   ACKNOWLEDGMENTS                                                  93–113, 2005.
                                                                                    [9] J. Han, Z. Yong and K.W. Dai. “The approach for shortest paths in fire
   This work falls within the scope of telecommunication                            succor based on component GIS technology”, SPIE: The International
projects. We would like to thank the Department of                                  Society for Optical Engineering, Geoinformatics 2007, Geospatial
technology of the MESFCRST for financing our projects.                              Information Technology and Applications, vol. 6754, 2007.
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