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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 10, No. 3, March 2012 Integrating LBS, GIS and SMS Technologies for the Effective Monitoring of Road Network Souad El houssaini*, Abdelmajid Badri Laboratoire d'Electronique, Electrotechnique, Automatique & Traitement de l’Information Faculté des Sciences et Techniques de Mohammedia, Université Hassan II Mohammedia-Casablanca, B.P.146 Mohammedia, Morocco firstname.lastname@example.org ; email@example.com Abstract—This paper presents an integrated framework of GPS may not be suitable for location of the requesting Geographic Information System (GIS), Android Platform and a emergency. In order to solve this problem, Cell Identifier Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) equipped which indicates mobile device position by using station base with interactive communication capabilities. The model information is introduced in this research. With the facilities integrates the design of the database and the management of of Android that provides LBS components for retrieving implementation of the monitoring system which includes the operations of query and analysis using the web and desktop information about where a mobile device is located , a applications. This study aims to apply techniques of analysis of system that retrieves the location of the mobile was the road network in a GIS to collect geographic data on the developed. The results from this process are composed of monitoring station and the roads. The information on road mobile’s particulars information: MCC (Mobile Country infrastructure is not only useful for locating monitoring stations, Code), MNC (Mobile Network Code), Cell ID (Cell but it is also important to guide a station to follow the shortest Identifier) and LAC (Location Area Code), this information is path to achieve the objectives of management and routing. sent by SMS from the mobile of requesting emergency to the Optimal routes based on the minimum cost are identified using monitoring system. Teleoperator can use these clues to locate Dijkstra’s algorithm. This paper also presents a software the phone and inform the monitoring stations in order to save development on Android Platform which applies Cell Identifier method for improving the accuracy of location, it is not property and people. necessary to have an Internet connection as the requesting This study aims also to implement and evaluate a emergency can use a Short Message Service (SMS) to request an methodology based on GIS (Geographic Information System) urgent service. The proposed system should be an effective and intelligent tool for a rapid intervention and to improve the to determine optimal routes of the road network using key monitoring of the road network which can eventually be information items based on cost of distance. With this paper extended to a national infrastructure of GIS. Simulated test we will try to help and fill that gap, presenting a decision tool cases have been carried out for network of Mohammedia City in for monitoring stations for location and routing. This Morocco. approach saves time. This article is comprised of the following parts: Part 2, which introduces available tools; Part Keywords: GIS; Location; Routing; SMS; Android; Cell Identifier. 3, which describes the structure of the proposed system; Part 4 which examines the implementation; Part 5, which I. INTRODUCTION discusses the experiment result; and finally Part 6, the conclusion. Road safety has long been a major concern in the road sector. Road accidents can cause serious injury or death; II. AVAILABLE TOOLS these effects can also lead to significant economic losses for the payee. The accelerated rapid development of wireless A. Global Positioning System (GPS): Outdoor network and mobile computing technologies has increased Localization System the convenience of mobile information services for to solving GPS is a system used for determining the position of real-life problems, such as monitoring of road accidents. In interesting objects such as person, pets or vehicles. This general, the Location-Based Service (LBS), a software system receives satellite signals and calculates the position of application which retrieves information about where a mobile mobile device of which a SIM card is installed for sending device is located, uses GPS (Global Positioning System) to the co-ordinate (latitude and longitude) of its position to the indicate the geographical position of the mobile device. Since recipient . all mobile devices cannot be equipped with GPS receiver, the 1 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500 (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 10, No. 3, March 2012 While GPS is widely used in outdoor localization, it does not D. Geographic Information System (GIS) perform effectively in indoor localization. This is because it Geography information systems have been improving lacks the ability to pierce through building wall and requires since 1970s. GIS is an essential tool for location mapping, custom infrastructures for every area in which localization is dynamic condition visualization, and decision making [5–7]. to be performed [2, 3]. Geospatial data are useful in monitoring response to accidents. The analysis of real-time data could be achieved B. Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM): through GIS during the response phase to support Indoor Localization System visualization and automation for efficient decision making. GSM is a digital mobile telephony system which is wildly Research has been conducted in GIS that focused on areas used in most part of the world. GSM identifies mobile device such as shortest path analysis [8, 9]. This shows the great position by using Cell Identifier method which retrieves potential of GIS applications to facilitate the possibility of information from cell tower. The Cell Identifier method having a response time shorter if the geospatial information is provides many benefits for localization, utilizing the widely implemented in the initial phase of response to accidents. and most accessible network infrastructure in most parts of the world . Therefore this method is applied in our system for finding the position of requesting emergency. III. STRUCTURE OF THE PROPOSED SYSTEM C. Android Platform A. Requirements Android is a platform for mobile device developed by Figure 1 depicts a use case and the use case diagram for Google. It provides a complete set of software development: the Management System for Road Safety (MSRS). Use cases operating system, tools and APIs necessary to begin are used for documentation of functional requirements and developing applications . The java-based programming for communication between stakeholders and developers. makes Android widely used in developing mobile application This is a common practice in software engineering that . In this research, Android Cell ID API was applied to ensures the software developers understand the requirements. obtain the Cell ID of an Android mobile. Thus, the developed system is expected to address the requirements set by the stakeholders. Figure 1: Use case diagram and use case for MSRS. 2 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500 (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 10, No. 3, March 2012 B. System design several web service in the world of free Web Mapping. It fits The web framework based on a three-tier architecture easily with Apache and php5. Web-based GIS users can use a consisting of the client layer, middleware layer and the layer Web browser to navigate maps and to complete basic spatial of the database (Figure 2). These components together analysis. The requests from the user are sent to clients by way provide a unified interface for consultation data, request and of HTML forms. The form is passed to the Web server decision making for users, the database is accessed through Apache and a gateway at the Web server passes the request to the Internet, in such a way that the user does not need to be GIS server Cartoweb, then Cartoweb queries the database. aware of the location of the database, it is sufficient that the user is able to consult, add and modify the data as needed. Figure 2: The structure of the proposed system. First of all, after installing our program in Android IV. IMPLEMENTATION mobile, the requesting emergency clicks the button "send sms". Moreover, the position of the mobile will be sent in real-time to monitoring system by retrieving mobile A. Implementation of Dijkstra’s Algorithm information from the closest cell site consisting of MNC, Dijkstra's algorithm calculates the least accumulated cost MCC, Cell ID and LAC, which will be further used for between the destination node and every other node, and then retrieving latitude and longitude of the mobile. GSM modem finds the least-cost path from any origin nodes to the receives this SMS, the monitoring system saves in the destination node. database the data contained in this SMS. A GSM modem can The Dijkstra’s algorithm is very similar to the A* algorithm. be an external modem device, a PC card installed in a The cost function (c) used to evaluate shortest paths in the notebook computer, or a standard GSM mobile phone, in our Dijkstra algorithm is augmented by an estimator function that case we used GSM mobile phone to test our application. The is used to estimate the shortest path between two given graph Android service is applied to send all of information to nodes [i.e., c(s, d) = g(s, v) + h(v, d), where g(s, v) is the cost monitoring system. The advantage of this system is to from source s to v and h(v, d) is the heuristic estimated cost provide clues of location for teleoperator to notify the from v to the destination d]. The estimator function is a monitoring station to serve the requesting emergency. heuristic function that can be chosen arbitrarily. If the estimator function is 0, A* turns into Dijkstra’s algorithm Application uses PostgreSQL as the database . management system with the geospatial extension PostGIS. Additional to relational queries, PostGIS provides spatial In our system, the routing service has been implemented queries to the users. The GIS products used are Mapserver using the Dijkstra's algorithm in the road network of the city and Cartoweb, Mapserver is used here just as library of Mohammedia. The algorithm was implemented with PHP5 PhpMapScript, Cartoweb is a solution designed for the web, in Cartoweb environment. The version of Cartoweb used is it allows its architecture CartoClient / CartoServer to answer 3.5.0 and runs with Windows XP operating system. Cartoweb 3 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500 (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 10, No. 3, March 2012 not only allows the handling of road maps online using user- friendly interfaces, but it also allows to implement the routing plugin nome "pgrouting", it runs client side and server side. The user can define the points of beginning and end of the shortest path by selecting their names (names of streets). Whenever a routing operation is performed, their names are passed as parameters from the client interface to the server. The server connects to the database, it prepares the request, it computes the shortest path connecting the given points, draw it on the map with a different color. Figure 3 depicts the shortest path between Boulevard "11 Janvier" and Boulevard "Sebta" in the road network in Mohammedia. Figure 4: Receiving a short message through a computer using AT Command. C. Other Implementations of Decision Model The choice was preferentially oriented means "Open- source" such as Mapserver, Cartoweb, PostgreSQL and Android. To implement the application, we used an Object- Oriented (OO) methodology (Unified Modeling Language— UML). The developed web application is organized around a main window, with all the functionalities accessible in this window, through the toolbar, or the menu in a way easily Figure 3: Visualization of the shortest path. understandable by users. The tool developed is composed of a set of Graphical User B. Receiving SMS Through a Computer Interfaces (GUI). It was implemented for Windows platforms To send and receive SMS, a GSM modem  of high and has an open architecture which allows an easy integration band rate will be needed so that a large number of messages of new functionality. The teleoperator uses GUI to make the could be receive at high speed at every moment. In order to interpretation of information easier (Figure 5). get connected to the GSM modem through a computer, the standardized AT commands must be used. The set of commands used for controlling modems is called AT command. Every AT command includes a result code which specifies the status of the command and a reply containing the data returned by the modem. AT commands usually begin with the prefix ‘‘AT” . Figure 4 shows how a short message is received via our application developed in VB6 and saved in the database. The application to receive SMS and to save it in the database was developed by two different methods: one using AT commands and the other with the android platform if the GSM modem does not support AT commands. Figure 5: The GUI of different visualizations tabs. 4 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500 (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 10, No. 3, March 2012 The move towards Android technology is rapidly V. EXPERIMENT RESULT approaching. With the facilities of Android that provides LBS Observing the results given in table 1 shown that after components for retrieving information about where a mobile testing the mobile location system in several different places device is located, a system that retrieves the location of around Mohammedia (Figure 7) by comparing our mobile was developed. In order to locate mobile device, Cell measurements obtained from a mobile equipped with our Identifier of GSM network is applied. This step was application and those of GPS, the comparison shows that the developed by applying Android Cell ID API which can obtain system can retrieve the requesting emergency mobile the Cell ID of an Android device. The result of our system information and sent it to the monitoring system at 99.9% consists of mobile’s identification information: MNC, MCC, accuracy, one can conclude that the proposed system can be Cell ID and LAC (Figure 6). successfully applied in real application for monitoring system of road accidents. VI. CONCLUSION In this paper, we described an intelligent system offering a solution to the treatment of emergency accidents in the city of Mohammedia in Morocco for automatic monitoring. An operation of great significance for this treatment is the delivery the monitoring station to the sites asking for help to save property and people. The system has been tested in a Localisation GSM Service de Localisation de GSM ! real case study, its architecture involves an integrated [67,52193] framework of Geographic Information System (GIS), mcc : 604 Android Platform and a Relational Database Management mnc : 01 gsm cel id : 52193 System (RDBMS) equipped with interactive communication. gsm area code: 67 The objective of this research is to provide a system for Send message location and routing. The improved efficiency by GIS reduces the task of maintaining paper maps. The Web-based GIS framework facilitates the orientation of the monitoring station Figure 6: Information retrieved from the mobile of requesting emergency. to the location of the accident. The Android platform applies Figure 7: Geographic location of supposed sites of road accidents. 5 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500 (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 10, No. 3, March 2012 TABLE 1: System Testing Result Supposed sites Latitude Longitude Latitude GPS Longitude of road accident Application Application GPS S1 33°42’35’’N 007°21’19’’O 33°42’40’’N 007°21’19’’O S2 33°42’30’’N 007°24’02’’O 33°42’36’’N 007°24’03’’O S3 33°42’20’’N 007°23’24’’O 33°42’24’’N 007°23’25’’O S4 33°41’45’’N 007°22’41’’O 33°41’38’’N 007°22’42’’O S5 33°41’33’’N 007°23’32’’O 33°41’30’’N 007°23’27’’O S6 33°41’54’’N 007°22’18’’O 33°41’58’’N 007°22’20’’O S7 33°42’53’’N 007°21’09’’O 33°42’56’’N 007°20’56’’O the Cell Identifier to improve the efficiency of localization.  S. Sukaphat. “Creating of Mobile Search System for Traffic Inquiry”, in There are several advantages of the developed system. First, Proc. 10th ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking, and Parallel/Distributed Computing time saving and flexibility are important merits of the system. (SNPD 2009), 2009, pp. 417 - 420. The system is Object-Oriented (OO) and understandable, it  M. Kataoka. “GIS for Homeland Security”, ESRI Press, Redlands, CA, has potential to be integrated with the other roads networks 2007. and to be expanded to a national base, so the model can be  A.R. Pradhan, D.F. Laefer and W.J. Rasdorf. “Infrastructure management information system framework requirements for disasters, ASCE”, Journal of extended to all cities of Morocco using the technologies: GIS, Computing in Civil Engineering, vol. 21, pp. 90–101, 2007. Android and RDBMSs. As for future work, an algorithm can  M.K. Lindell, and C.S. Prater. “A hurricane evacuation management be developed to calculate the minimum distance between the decision support system (EMDSS)”, Natural Hazards, vol. 40, pp. 627–634, location of the road accident and monitoring stations 2007.  M.P. Kwan, and J. Lee. “Emergency response after 9/11: the potential of neighbors to determine the monitoring station nearest. real-time 3d GIS for quick emergency response in micro-spatial environments”, Computing Environment and Urban Systems, vol. 29, pp. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 93–113, 2005.  J. Han, Z. Yong and K.W. Dai. “The approach for shortest paths in fire This work falls within the scope of telecommunication succor based on component GIS technology”, SPIE: The International projects. We would like to thank the Department of Society for Optical Engineering, Geoinformatics 2007, Geospatial technology of the MESFCRST for financing our projects. Information Technology and Applications, vol. 6754, 2007.  I. Maglogiannisa and S. 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