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					A+ Guide to Managing
and Maintaining Your PC
Fifth Edition



Chapter 2
How Hardware and Software
Work Together
You Will Learn…
   About operating systems, what they are, and
    what they do

   How an OS interfaces with users, applications,
    and hardware

   How system resources help hardware and
    software communicate


A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   2
Introducing Operating Systems
   Software that controls a computer

   Acts as a middleman between applications and
    hardware

   Two main internal components
        Shell

        Kernel

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   3
OS as a Middleman




A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   4
The Shell and the Kernel




A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   5
Common Operating Systems
   DOS
   Windows 9x
   Windows NT, Windows 2000, and
   Windows XP and Vista… now W7
   Unix
   Linux
   OS/2
   Mac OS
A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   6
What an Operating System
Does
   Provides user interface

   Stores, retrieves, and manipulates files and
    folders

   Manages applications

   Manages hardware

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   7
How an OS Provides a User
Interface
   Command-driven interfaces

   Menu-driven interfaces

   Icon-driven interfaces




A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   8
A Menu-Driven Interface




A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   9
How an OS Manages Files and
Folders
   Uses file system (FAT or NTFS) to track how
    clusters are used for each stored file

   Uses directories, subdirectories, and files

   Uses partitions and logical drives on hard drive



A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   10
Tracks, Sectors, and Clusters




A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   11
Files and Directories




A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   12
Partitions and Logical Drives




A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   13
How an OS Manages
Applications
   Provides access to hardware resources

   Manages data in memory and in secondary
    storage

   Performs other background tasks



A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   14
Loading Application Software
Using the Windows Desktop
   Shortcut icon

   Start menu

   Run command

   Windows Explorer or My Computer


A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   15
Using a Shortcut Icon to Load
Software




A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   16
Real and Protected Operating
Modes
   Real (16-bit) operating mode
        CPU processes 16 bits of data at one time
        Software has “real” access to hardware
   Protected (32-bit) operating mode
        CPU processes 32 bits of data at one time
        More than one program can be running, each one
         “protected” from others
        Uses preemptive multitasking
A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   17
16-Bit and 32-Bit Software
   16-bit software
        Written for Windows 3.x
        Accesses data 16 bits at a time
        Programs should not infringe on resources of other
         programs that are running

   32-bit software
        Written for Windows 95 and later Windows OSs
A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   18
How an OS Manages Hardware

   Uses device drivers or the BIOS (system
    BIOS, startup BIOS, or CMOS setup) to
    interface with hardware

   Trend is to manage devices with device drivers
    rather than BIOS



A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   19
How an OS Manages Hardware
(continued)




A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   20
How an OS Uses Device
Drivers to Manage Hardware
   Device drivers provide OS with software
    necessary to control devices
   16-bit read-mode drivers
        Supported by Windows 95/98

   32-bit protected-mode drivers
        Supported by Windows 95/98, Windows Me, and
         Windows NT/2000/XP
A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   21
How an OS Uses System BIOS
to Manage Devices
   To communicate with simple devices (eg,
    floppy drives or keyboards)

   To access the hard drive




A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   22
Using System BIOS




A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   23
Using System BIOS (continued)




A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   24
System Resources




A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   25
System Resources (continued)
   Depend on certain lines on a bus on
    motherboard
   System bus components
        Data bus carries data
        Address bus communicates addresses (memory
         addresses and I/O addresses)
        Control bus controls communication (IRQs and
         DMA channels)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   26
System Bus Components




A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   27
Interrupt Request Number (IRQ)
   Line on a bus that device needing service uses
    to alert the CPU
   Managed by interrupt controller on
    motherboard
        Early motherboards: eight IRQs
        Second group of IRQs and second interrupt
         controller have been added to accommodate need
         for more devices

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   28
Common Assignments for First
Eight IRQs




A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   29
Second IRQ Controller




A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   30
Viewing IRQ Assignments

   Microsoft Diagnostic Utility (MSD) for DOS

   Device Manager for Windows 2000/XP and
    Windows 9x




A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   31
Viewing IRQ Assignments
(continued)




A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   32
Viewing IRQ Assignments
(continued)




A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   33
Memory Addresses
   Hexadecimal numbers assigned to RAM and
    ROM so the CPU can access both

   Used to access physical memory

   Often written in segment:offset form
    (eg, C800:5)



A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   34
Memory Addresses (continued)




A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   35
I/O Addresses
   Numbers CPU can use to access hardware
    devices




A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   36
I/O Addresses (continued)




A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   37
Common Assignments for I/O
Addresses




A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   38
Direct Memory Access (DMA)
Channels
   Shortcut method that lets an I/O device send
    data directly to memory, bypassing the CPU




A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   39
DMA Channels




A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   40
OS Tools to Examine a System
   Device Manager

   System Information utility

   Microsoft Diagnostic Utility (MSD)




A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   41
Device Manager
   Primary tool used to manage hardware devices
    under Windows 2000/XP and Windows 9x




A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   42
Device Manager ( continued)




A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   43
System Information Utility
   Gives similar, but more, information than
    Device Manager
        BIOS version in use
        Directory where OS is installed
        How system resources are used
        Information about drivers and their status
        Additional information about software

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   44
Using Windows System
Information




A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   45
Microsoft Diagnostic Utility
(MSD)
   Useful for viewing information about the
    system, including:
        Memory
        Video
        Ports
        Device drivers
        System resources

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   46
Using MSD




A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   47
Summary
   How hardware and software work together
   Different operating systems
        What they do
        How they work to control hardware devices

   How an OS provides the interface that users
    and applications need to command and use
    hardware devices

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   48
End of Chapter Activities – 8/23-
27/10
        Ch 02 – How hardware and software work
         together. Operating Systems Ch 2.ppt


        Read Ch2 & PowerPoint then answer
         questions – p71, 1-25. place in your folder


        Complete LJ Technical – A+ Certification
              Module 2120 – Operating Systems
              Module 2165 – Hardware Settings
        Textbook -Complete the following
         Hands-on activities
           •       Pg. 73 project 2-1, 2-4 & 2-5
           •       Pg. 73 project 2-2 (on a PC
                   from the network room, non-ibm)


        Lab Manual 2.1 Examine system resources
         with device manager p.26 – 28


A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition   49

				
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