A NEW ENGLISH
COURSE BOOK 4
Dolly’s False Legacy
Photographs of a rather ordinary
looking lamb named Dolly made
front pages around the world
because of her starling pedigree:
Dolly, unlike any other mammal
that has ever lived, is an identical
copy of another adult and has no
father.She is a clone, the creation
of a group of veterinary
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More about Dolly:
That work, performed by Ian
Wilmut and his colleagues at the
Roslin Institute in Edinburgh,
Scotland.They accomplished their
feat by transferring the nuclei
from various types of sheep cells complete set of genes, just as they
into unfertilized sheep eggs from would if they had been fertilized by
sperm. The eggs were then cultured
which the natural nuclei had been
for a period before being implanted
removed by microsurgery. Once
into sheep that carried them to term,
the transfer was complete, the one of which culminated in a
recipient eggs contained a successful birth.
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Dolly’s birth thus represents an ethical and scientific
watershed. Around the world, advisory committees and
legislators are frantically trying to decide whether and when it
might be ethical to duplicate the feat in humans. Traditional
teachings that life begins at conception suddenly seem to be
missing the point. President Bill Clinton quickly announced a ban
on the use of federal funds for human cloning research .
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Cows, sheep and rabbits have also been cloned from
embryonic cells in recent years, But producing healthy
human clones may prove to be extremely difficult.Wilmut,
who argues for a moratorium, on such attempts, points out
that more than half the cloned sheep pregnancies he initiated
failed to develop to term. Some had abnormalities.
They would probably produce
many unhappy customers and some
dead babies before they created a
A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4 Unit 13/5
Wilmut concurs that there are no ethical grounds to justify
duplicating existing humans. He even opposes allowing a couple
to copy a child in order to get a source of tissue to save its life .
Other bioethicists are more receptive to copying people. John C.
Fletcher of the University of Virginia believes that society might
find it acceptable for a couple to replace a dying child or for a
couple with an infertile partner to clone a child from either partner.
A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4 Unit 13/6
1. What is Dolly?
2. How is a sheep cloned?
3. What would happen if sometime, somewhere,
someone generated a cloned human being?
4. What are the author’s viewpoints in the debate
over the moral and medical implication of
5. How does the author air his viewpoints?
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1) vt. (not in progressive aspect)
a. not notice something, especially something important, because one
has not taken enough care:
I always check my work to see if there is anything I have
They overlook theenormous risks involved.
I’m afraid I overlooked your name; I’ll add it to the list immediately.
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b. forgive, pretend not to notice:
We’ll overlook your bad behavior this time, but don’t do it
I decided to overlook his unkindness.
c. provide a view of, esp. from above:
Our hotel room overlooked the harbor.
Her bedroom has large windows overlooking a lake.
The house is surrounded by trees, so it’s not overlooked
2) n.[C] viewpoint
There are lots of scenic overlooks along the road from
New York to Montreal.
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a. a plant or animal which has the same gene as the original
from which it was produced
• Although two clones are identical genetically, they may develop
in different ways.
• She’s just another blond-haired, red-lipped Marilyn Monroe
b. a computer that operates in a very similar way to the one that
it was copied from
• Apple Computer may be having its troubles, but a small group of
Macintosh clone makers are thriving by building faster machines.
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Experiments to try to clone human
embryos have met with hostility from
some sections of the public.
Derivatives: clonable adj. cloner n.
Nevertheless, restauranteurs are busy figuring out what other clonable ideas are out
there for public consumption.
3. render (a formal word) vt.
1) V+ O +C(adj.): to cause sb./ sth. to become…
It must have rendered him unconscious for a
His rudeness rendered me speechless.
His fatness renders him unable to touch his toes.
She is rendering the book into English from French.
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3) give (help)
We would never have secured independence
without the aid you rendered.
She rendered a valuable service to me.
Let us render thanks for what we have received.
(=to thank sb., esp. God)
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4. distinct: adj.
1) clearly separate and different from something
4. The two concepts are quite distinct from each
The word ‘bow’ has two distinct meanings.
They wanted to form a new and completely
distinct political party.
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clearly noticeable; that certainly exists:
There was a distinct smell of burning.
There has been a distinct change in people’s style of
The group setting has several distinct advantages
over the traditional one.
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c.f. distinct; distinctive
distinctive: clearly marking a person or thing as
different from others (=singular)
Each rank in the army has a distinctive sign
She’s got a very distinctive voice.
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Derivatives: distinction n.
a. [C, U] a special or particular difference:
Can you make a distinction between these two
There is a clear distinction between the dialects
spoken in the two regions.
b. [S, U] quality which is rare because it is very
He is a writer of distinction.
She has a natural distinction of manner.
She is a person of considerable scientific
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c. [C] an honor in recognition of excellence
She has the distinction of being one of the few people to
have an honorary degree conferred on her by the university
These are the highest distinctions that have ever been
given in that subject.
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1) adj.( no comparative degree)
a. of the usual or ordinary kind or quality:
There was nothing special about the meal; it was average.
b. of a standard or normal type; neither more nor less in any way,
better or worse, too much or too little, too good or too bad, etc.
He is an average man; there’s nothing special about him.
She had average success in life.
His height is average.
Take a sheet of paper of average thickness.
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a. [C] the amount found by adding together several quantities
and then dividing by the number of quantities
The average of 3,8, and 10 is 7.
In 1959, the average age of teachers was thirty-nine years.
b. [C, (on, above, below) U] a level or standard regarded as
usual or ordinary
•The rain this month was below average.
• The queen bee lives for an average of four to six years.
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3) v. to reach, work on an average of
Inquiries to our office average 1000 calls a month.
Their factories average ten times the output of
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average out: to come to an average or ordinary level
or standard, esp after being higher or lower
The old things and bad things in life average out in
the end, don’t they?
His mail averages out at 20 letters a day.
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on average: generally
Babies on average have milder colds than
older members of the family.
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6.bring back: sth. in the present makes you think about sth.
that happened in an earlier time
The whole scene brought back the days of my childhood.
Other phrasal verbs with bring:
bring about: to cause something to happen:
Wrong ways of thinking and living bring about intolerable
He brought about his company’s collapse by reckless
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bring off: to succeed in doing ( sth. difficult)
She’s managed to bring off the biggest cheque
fraud in history.
The Ghost is the hardest thing to bring off in
bring on: to cause (an illness) to occur
I’ll bring on his cough again.
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bring round: (Am. usually bring around)
a. to make sb. conscious after being
I gave him a sniff of smelling salts to
bring him round.
Nobody was making any attempt to
bring her around.
b. to persuade sb. to have the same
She brought them around to our point
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bring to: make sb. become conscious again after
They poured water over her to bring her to.
a. to care for a child until it is an adult,
often giving it particular beliefs:
David was brought up to respect authority.
They brought her up (as/ to be) a Catholic.
They brought the children up on stories about
the Old West.
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b. To mention or introduce a topic:
I didn’t want to bring up the subject to her at
I advised her to bring up the question for
c. to confront with:
The drought brought us up against serious
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1)n.[C] a primary form or type from
which varieties are derived; the first
one made and is not a copy
If the painting is an original, it will be
very valuable, but I think it may be a
Read the text in the original. (=Read
the text in the language it was first
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2) adj. (attributive, not gradable)
a. first of all
Her original plan was to stay for a
month, but she had to leave after two
The original manuscript is in Paris—this
is just a facsimile.
b. creative, imaginative and clever
His essay was full of original ideas.
She is a highly original young designer.
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origin: n.[C] the beginning or cause of
The documents were Norse in origin.
She is of humble origin.
It’s a book about the origin of the
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originally: adv. (not gradable) first of all
They now live in Canada, but originally they came
originality: n. [U] inventiveness
Its ideology is lacking in originality.
He is a sculptor of genius and great originality.
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originate: (a formal word) begin to happen or exist:
The idea originated with her.
The game is thought to have originated among the
native peoples of Alaska.
originator: n.[C] the person who thinks of , begins or
causes the idea or action:
He is best known as the originator of a long-running
The young professor was the originator of the idea.
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1) n. [C] /`di:fekt / a fault, imperfection in a person or
It’s a character defect in her that she can’t ever
accept that she’s in the wrong.
There was a defect in the transmission.
2) vi. /di:`fekt / leave a country, political party, etc, in
order to join an opposing one:
The British spy, Kim Philby, defected to the Soviet
Union from Britain in 1963.
She defected our party to theirs.
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The army had dwindled through defection.
Recent changes in policy have resulted in large scale
defection from the party.
The leaders are becoming anxious about the growing
number of defections from the party.
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One of the engines was found to be seriously defective.
I think that theory is defective.
defective eyesight; defective gene…
Defectors from the British Labour and Conservative
Parties formed the Social Democratic Party.
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c.f. defect; demerit; drawback; failing; fault; shortcoming
drawback: a difficulty or disadvantage; something that can
failing: something which makes someone or something
fault: something wrong, esp. in how something works of
someone behaves; wrong quality
shortcoming: (often euph.) a fault, usu. not too bad:
A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4 Unit 13/37
The only drawback to the plan is that it costs too
I’m afraid one of his failings is telling lies.
There’s a fault in this building; it isn’t safe.
We all have our little shortcomings.
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1) vt. to refuse to accept, use or believe sth. or sb.
The prime minister rejected the suggestion that it was
time for him to resign.
The agency sent five possible candidates for the job
and we rejected two.
Don’t reject this idea straightaway; think about it.
He rejected their offer of a job.
When she was sent to boarding school, she felt as
though her parents had rejected her.
A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4 Unit 13/39
2) n [C] an object which is damaged or faulty; a
person who has not been accepted by an organization
or by society:
She dismisses the idea that the university takes in a
lot of Oxbridge rejects.(= students who have not been
offered a place at the universities of Oxford or
The factory sells some of its better rejects cheaply,
but throws most of the rejects away.
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rejection n.[C, U]
I’ve had so many rejections. I’ve stopped trying to
He was never able to ask her to marry him out of
fear of rejection.
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1) n. [C, U] state of the body or mind when something is not
Mental disorders are common in big crowded cities.
He’s got some sort of blood disorder—I don’t know the exact
The doctor says it’s just a stomach disorder—nothing serious.
There was evidence of kidney disorder.
The family have a history of mental disorder.
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2) n. [U] a state of untidiness and lack of organization:
The opposition party have been in such disorder for so long
that they pose no real threat to the present government.
The room was in dreadful disorder.
3) n. [U] an angry, possibly violent, expression of dissatisfaction
by crowds of people, esp. about a political matter:
The trial was kept secret because of the risk of public disorder.
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a. untidy, not neatly arranged:
There are too many things in the small disordered room.
b. being mentally ill:
More training in the care of mentally disordered patients was
disorderly: adj. unruly, uncontrolled and violent; untidy
The police feared that the crowd were becoming disorderly
and so they moved in with horses.
It’s a disorderly sort of a house with books and papers lying
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c.f. disorder, illness, disease, upset, ailment,
illness: n [C, U] a health problem that one is suffering
from which makes one feel ill
disease: n[C, U] a specific illness that has a medical
upset: n[C] an illness of a short or minor nature ailment:
n[C, usu. pl.] an illness that is not very serious, especially
one that is very common such as a cold
complaint: n[C] an illness which affects a particular part of
one’s body, specially one that is not very serious
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The degree of _______ of patients in hospitals is not always
obvious to the eye.
Doctors believe he may have contracted the
______ while he was in Africa.
He is suffering from a rare tropical ________.
Travelers to India are advised to get vaccinated against
infectious ________such as typhoid before they go.
The child had a tummy _______.
Colds and other________ are common in winter.
The most commonlyupset reported _______among VDU (visual
display unit) operators is eye-strain.
The cream is normally used for treating minor
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1) He sold us _________(defect) machines.
impressed by the originality
2) We weredefectiv __________(origin) of the
children’s work. )
3) These beliefs originated (origin) in the 18th century.
4) He was kind to everyone, without distinction (distinct) of
rank or wealth.
________(reject) with a heart
5) There is always the risk of rejection
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Exercises: Phrasal verbs
1) Our parents brought us ___ to respect others.
2) At first they refused but I managed to bring them _____ to my
way of thinking.
3) We should try to bring the seriously polluted rivers back to life.
4) The cold weather will bring ____ his cough again.
5) I advise him to bring the matter ____ at the next meeting. (up)
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When planning your holiday, make sure not to overlook your
It’s an economy as distinct from an industry-dominated
There was nothing special about it; it was only average.
The translation was faithful to the intention of the original.
I bought these shoes cheaply because they have slight
defects in them.
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You are invited to join in a debate concerning
human cloning between two groups of people.
Group A holds that human cloning will benefit
mankind in more than one way and should be
allowed. Group B argues that cloning humans will
bring grave dangers and must be banned.
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Drawing on your debate, write an essay
entitled My Views on Human Cloning
according to the following outline:
1. In what way you think human
cloning may be of benefit to the human
2. In what way you think human
cloning can be dangerous to humankind
3. Your conclusion
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