综合英语IV lesson 8

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综合英语IV  lesson 8 Powered By Docstoc

          Unit 13
   Dolly’s False Legacy
           Photographs of a rather ordinary
           looking lamb named Dolly made
           front pages around the world
           because of her starling pedigree:
           Dolly, unlike any other mammal
           that has ever lived, is an identical
           copy of another adult and has no
           father.She is a clone, the creation
           of a group of veterinary

A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                                 Unit 13/2
 More about Dolly:

That work, performed by Ian
Wilmut and his colleagues at the
Roslin Institute in Edinburgh,
Scotland.They accomplished their
feat by transferring the nuclei
from various types of sheep cells   complete set of genes, just as they
into unfertilized sheep eggs from   would if they had been fertilized by
                                    sperm. The eggs were then cultured
which the natural nuclei had been
                                    for a period before being implanted
removed by microsurgery. Once
                                    into sheep that carried them to term,
the transfer was complete, the      one of which culminated in a
recipient eggs contained a          successful birth.
A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                                          Unit 13/3

         Dolly’s birth thus represents an ethical and scientific
         watershed. Around the world, advisory committees and
         legislators are frantically trying to decide whether and when it
         might be ethical to duplicate the feat in humans. Traditional
         teachings that life begins at conception suddenly seem to be
         missing the point. President Bill Clinton quickly announced a ban
         on the use of federal funds for human cloning research .

A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                                         Unit 13/4
         Cows, sheep and rabbits have also been cloned from
      embryonic cells in recent years, But producing healthy
      human clones may prove to be extremely difficult.Wilmut,
      who argues for a moratorium, on such attempts, points out
      that more than half the cloned sheep pregnancies he initiated
      failed to develop to term. Some had abnormalities.
                                They would probably produce
                               many unhappy customers and some
                               dead babies before they created a
                               live one.

A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                                   Unit 13/5

         Wilmut concurs that there are no ethical grounds to justify
         duplicating existing humans. He even opposes allowing a couple
         to copy a child in order to get a source of tissue to save its life .
         Other bioethicists are more receptive to copying people. John C.
         Fletcher of the University of Virginia believes that society might
         find it acceptable for a couple to replace a dying child or for a
         couple with an infertile partner to clone a child from either partner.

A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                                               Unit 13/6

            1. What is Dolly?
            2. How is a sheep cloned?
            3. What would happen if sometime, somewhere,
                someone generated a cloned human being?
            4. What are the author’s viewpoints in the debate
                over the moral and medical implication of
            5. How does the author air his viewpoints?

A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                                 Unit 13/7

         1. overlook
          1) vt. (not in progressive aspect)
          a. not notice something, especially something important, because one
         has not taken enough care:
            I always check my work to see if there is anything I have
          They overlook theenormous risks involved.
          I’m afraid I overlooked your name; I’ll add it to the list immediately.

A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                                                  Unit 13/8
            b. forgive, pretend not to notice:
            We’ll overlook your bad behavior this time, but don’t do it
            I decided to overlook his unkindness.
           c. provide a view of, esp. from above:
            Our hotel room overlooked the harbor.
            Her bedroom has large windows overlooking a lake.
           The house is surrounded by trees, so it’s not overlooked
           at all.
           2) n.[C] viewpoint
            There are lots of scenic overlooks along the road from
           New York to Montreal.

A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                                     Unit 13/9
           1) n.[C]
             a. a plant or animal which has the same gene as the original
        from which it was produced
        • Although two clones are identical genetically, they may develop
        in different ways.
        • She’s just another blond-haired, red-lipped Marilyn Monroe
            b. a computer that operates in a very similar way to the one that
        it       was copied from
        • Apple Computer may be having its troubles, but a small group of
        Macintosh clone makers are thriving by building faster machines.

A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                                         Unit 13/10
                         2. Vt.
                         Experiments to try to clone human
                         embryos have met with hostility from
                         some sections of the public.

Derivatives: clonable adj. cloner n.
Nevertheless, restauranteurs are busy figuring out what other clonable ideas are out
there for public consumption.
           3.     render (a formal word) vt.
                1) V+ O +C(adj.): to cause sb./ sth. to become…

                It must have rendered him unconscious for a
                considerable period.
                His rudeness rendered me speechless.
                His fatness renders him unable to touch his toes.

                2) translate
                 She is rendering the book into English from French.

A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                                       Unit 13/12
                3) give (help)

               We would never have secured independence
               without the aid you rendered.

                She rendered a valuable service to me.

                Let us render thanks for what we have received.
               (=to thank sb., esp. God)

A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                                 Unit 13/13
                  4.      distinct: adj.

                       1) clearly separate and different from something
4.                      The two concepts are quite distinct from each
                        The word ‘bow’ has two distinct meanings.
                        They wanted to form a new and completely
                       distinct political party.

     A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                                    Unit 13/14
        clearly noticeable; that certainly exists:

           There was a distinct smell of burning.
          There has been a distinct change in people’s style of
           The group setting has several distinct advantages
     over the traditional one.

A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                                 Unit 13/15
               c.f. distinct; distinctive

               distinctive: clearly marking a person or thing as
               different from others (=singular)
                      Each rank in the army has a distinctive sign
               to wear.
                     She’s got a very distinctive voice.

A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                                    Unit 13/16
              Derivatives: distinction n.

                a.    [C, U] a special or particular difference:
                Can you make a distinction between these two
                There is a clear distinction between the dialects
               spoken in the two regions.
                b. [S, U] quality which is rare because it is very
                     He is a writer of distinction.
                     She has a natural distinction of manner.
                        She is a person of considerable scientific

A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                                   Unit 13/17
          c. [C] an honor in recognition of excellence

          She has the distinction of being one of the few people to
         have an honorary degree conferred on her by the university
         this year.
         These are the highest distinctions that have ever been
         given in that subject.

A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                                 Unit 13/18
             5. average

         1) adj.( no comparative degree)
            a. of the usual or ordinary kind or quality:
         There was nothing special about the meal; it was average.

            b. of a standard or normal type; neither more nor less in any way,
         better or worse, too much or too little, too good or too bad, etc.
         He is an average man; there’s nothing special about him.
         She had average success in life.
         His height is average.
         Take a sheet of paper of average thickness.

A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                                           Unit 13/19
             2) n.

           a. [C] the amount found by adding together several quantities
         and then dividing by the number of quantities
         The average of 3,8, and 10 is 7.
         In 1959, the average age of teachers was thirty-nine years.

          b. [C, (on, above, below) U] a level or standard regarded as
         usual or ordinary
         •The rain this month was below average.
         • The queen bee lives for an average of four to six years.

A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                                           Unit 13/20
            3) v. to reach, work on an average of

               Inquiries to our office average 1000 calls a month.
               Their factories average ten times the output of
               European factories.

A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                                    Unit 13/21
                Phrasal verb:

                  average out: to come to an average or ordinary level
               or standard, esp after being higher or lower

               The old things and bad things in life average out in
               the end, don’t they?
               His mail averages out at 20 letters a day.

A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                                       Unit 13/22

               on average: generally
               Babies on average have milder colds than
               older members of the family.

A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                          Unit 13/23

            6.bring back: sth. in the present makes you think about sth.
         that happened in an earlier time
         The whole scene brought back the days of my childhood.
            Other phrasal verbs with bring:
          bring about: to cause something to happen:
         Wrong ways of thinking and living bring about intolerable
         He brought about his company’s collapse by reckless

A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                                     Unit 13/24
          bring off: to succeed in doing ( sth. difficult)

           She’s managed to bring off the biggest cheque
           fraud in history.
           The Ghost is the hardest thing to bring off in
             bring on: to cause (an illness) to occur

           I’ll bring on his cough again.

A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                             Unit 13/25
              bring round: (Am. usually bring around)

                  a. to make sb. conscious after being
                I gave him a sniff of smelling salts to
               bring him round.
               Nobody was making any attempt to
               bring her around.
                b. to persuade sb. to have the same
                  She brought them around to our point
               of view.

A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                          Unit 13/26
            bring to: make sb. become conscious again after
           being unconscious
           They poured water over her to bring her to.

           bring up:
             a. to care for a child until it is an adult,
         often giving it particular beliefs:
          David was brought up to respect authority.
          They brought her up (as/ to be) a Catholic.
          They brought the children up on stories about
         the    Old West.

A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                          Unit 13/27
            b. To mention or introduce a topic:

             I didn’t want to bring up the subject to her at
          that time.
             I advised her to bring up the question for

           c. to confront with:
               The drought brought us up against serious

A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                           Unit 13/28
             7. Original

                  1)n.[C] a primary form or type from
               which varieties are derived; the first
               one made and is not a copy
               If the painting is an original, it will be
               very valuable, but I think it may be a
                Read the text in the original. (=Read
               the text in the language it was first

A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                            Unit 13/29
           2)       adj. (attributive, not gradable)

                   a. first of all
                 Her original plan was to stay for a
                month, but she had to leave after two
                The original manuscript is in Paris—this
                is just a facsimile.
                    b. creative, imaginative and clever
                 His essay was full of original ideas.
                 She is a highly original young designer.

A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                            Unit 13/30

               origin: n.[C] the beginning or cause of

                The documents were Norse in origin.
                She is of humble origin.
                It’s a book about the origin of the

A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                        Unit 13/31

               originally: adv. (not gradable) first of all
            They now live in Canada, but originally they came
           from Australia.

             originality: n. [U] inventiveness
               Its ideology is lacking in originality.
               He is a sculptor of genius and great originality.

A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                                    Unit 13/32

             originate: (a formal word) begin to happen or exist:
            The idea originated with her.
            The game is thought to have originated among the
           native peoples of Alaska.

             originator: n.[C] the person who thinks of , begins or
           causes the idea or action:
            He is best known as the originator of a long-running
           TV series.
            The young professor was the originator of the idea.

A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                                  Unit 13/33
                8. defect

                 1) n. [C] /`di:fekt / a fault, imperfection in a person or
               It’s a character defect in her that she can’t ever
               accept that she’s in the wrong.
               There was a defect in the transmission.
                 2) vi. /di:`fekt / leave a country, political party, etc, in
               order to join an opposing one:
               The British spy, Kim Philby, defected to the Soviet
               Union from Britain in 1963.
               She defected our party to theirs.

A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                                             Unit 13/34

           defection n.[U]
           The army had dwindled through defection.
           Recent changes in policy have resulted in large scale
           defection from the party.
           The leaders are becoming anxious about the growing
           number of defections from the party.

A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                                Unit 13/35

                defective adj.
            One of the engines was found to be seriously defective.
            I think that theory is defective.
            defective eyesight; defective gene…
               defector n.[C]
            Defectors from the British Labour and Conservative
           Parties formed the Social Democratic Party.

A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                                     Unit 13/36

            c.f. defect; demerit; drawback; failing; fault; shortcoming
            drawback: a difficulty or disadvantage; something that can
           cause trouble
            failing: something which makes someone or something
           else imperfect
           fault: something wrong, esp. in how something works of
           someone behaves; wrong quality
            shortcoming: (often euph.) a fault, usu. not too bad:

A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                                      Unit 13/37

               The only drawback to the plan is that it costs too
                I’m afraid one of his failings is telling lies.
                There’s a fault in this building; it isn’t safe.
                We all have our little shortcomings.

A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                                         Unit 13/38
             9.      reject

                 1) vt. to refuse to accept, use or believe sth. or sb.
               The prime minister rejected the suggestion that it was
               time for him to resign.
               The agency sent five possible candidates for the job
               and we rejected two.
               Don’t reject this idea straightaway; think about it.
               He rejected their offer of a job.
                When she was sent to boarding school, she felt as
               though her parents had rejected her.

A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                                        Unit 13/39

                2)     n [C] an object which is damaged or faulty; a
               person who has not been accepted by an organization
               or by society:
                She dismisses the idea that the university takes in a
               lot of Oxbridge rejects.(= students who have not been
               offered a place at the universities of Oxford or
                The factory sells some of its better rejects cheaply,
               but throws most of the rejects away.

A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                                       Unit 13/40

                  rejection n.[C, U]
                I’ve had so many rejections. I’ve stopped trying to
               help him.
                He was never able to ask her to marry him out of
               fear of rejection.

A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                                     Unit 13/41
                    10. disorder
          1) n. [C, U] state of the body or mind when something is not
         working properly:
          Mental disorders are common in big crowded cities.
          He’s got some sort of blood disorder—I don’t know the exact
          The doctor says it’s just a stomach disorder—nothing serious.
          There was evidence of kidney disorder.
          The family have a history of mental disorder.

A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                                      Unit 13/42

            2) n. [U] a state of untidiness and lack of organization:
          The opposition party have been in such disorder for so long
         that they pose no real threat to the present government.
          The room was in dreadful disorder.

          3) n. [U] an angry, possibly violent, expression of dissatisfaction
         by crowds of people, esp. about a political matter:
         The trial was kept secret because of the risk of public disorder.

A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                                         Unit 13/43

             disordered: adj.
             a. untidy, not neatly arranged:
           There are too many things in the small disordered room.
             b. being mentally ill:
          More training in the care of mentally disordered patients was
            disorderly: adj. unruly, uncontrolled and violent; untidy
          The police feared that the crowd were becoming disorderly
          and so they moved in with horses.
          It’s a disorderly sort of a house with books and papers lying
          around everywhere.

A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                                     Unit 13/44
          c.f. disorder, illness, disease, upset, ailment,

             illness: n [C, U] a health problem that one is suffering
           from which makes one feel ill
             disease: n[C, U] a specific illness that has a medical
             upset: n[C] an illness of a short or minor nature ailment:
           n[C, usu. pl.] an illness that is not very serious, especially
           one that is very common such as a cold
            complaint: n[C] an illness which affects a particular part of
           one’s body, specially one that is not very serious

A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                                          Unit 13/45
         The degree of       _______ of patients in hospitals is not always
         obvious to the eye.
         Doctors believe he may have contracted the
             ______ while he was in Africa.
         He is suffering from a rare tropical ________.
         Travelers to India are advised to get vaccinated against
         infectious ________such as typhoid before they go.
         The child had a tummy _______.
         Colds and other________ are common in winter.
         The most commonlyupset     reported _______among VDU (visual
         display unit) operators is eye-strain.
         The cream is normally used for treating minor
         skin___________ .

A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                                        Unit 13/46
                Exercises: Derivatives:

          1) He sold us _________(defect) machines.
                          impressed by the originality
          2) We weredefectiv                 __________(origin) of the
         children’s work. )
          3) These beliefs originated (origin) in the 18th century.
          4) He was kind to everyone, without distinction (distinct) of
         rank or wealth.
                                          ________(reject) with a heart
         5) There is always the risk of rejection

A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                                     Unit 13/47
               Exercises: Phrasal verbs

         1) Our parents brought us ___ to respect others.
         2) At first they refused but I managed to bring them _____ to my
         way of thinking.
         3) We should try to bring the seriously polluted rivers back to life.
         4) The cold weather will bring ____ his cough again.
         5) I advise him to bring the matter ____ at the next meeting. (up)

A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                                       Unit 13/48
               Exercises: Translation

           1. 在做假日安排时一定不能忽略了旅游保险。
              When planning your holiday, make sure not to overlook your
           travel insurance.
           2 这种经济有别于工业占主导地位的经济。
               It’s an economy as distinct from an industry-dominated
            3 它毫无特殊之处,只是普普通通的事。
               There was nothing special about it; it was only average.
                 The translation was faithful to the intention of the original.
            5) 我很便宜地买下了这些鞋,因为它们有小瑕疵。
               I bought these shoes cheaply because they have slight
           defects in them.
A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                                           Unit 13/49
           Mock debate

              You are invited to join in a debate concerning
           human cloning between two groups of people.
           Group A holds that human cloning will benefit
           mankind in more than one way and should be
           allowed. Group B argues that cloning humans will
           bring grave dangers and must be banned.

A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                                Unit 13/50
             Essay writing

               Drawing on your debate, write an essay
               entitled My Views on Human Cloning
               according to the following outline:

               1. In what way you think human
               cloning may be of benefit to the human
               2. In what way you think human
               cloning can be dangerous to humankind
               3. Your conclusion

A NEW ENGLISH COURSE BOOK 4                              Unit 13/51

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