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									        PiCiT
   Institute of Computing &
      Emerging Sciences


                                          Computer
         Definition:
         A computer is an electronic machine that
         1) Takes in data and instructions (Input)
         2) works with the data (Processing)
         3) puts out information (Output)

         Explanation:
         Computers are made of HARDWARE
         - input devices like the keyboard and mouse
         - the CPU and memory
         - storage devices like hard drives
         - output devices like printers and monitors

         And SOFTWARE
         - system software
         - programs (application software)

         Hardware
         Hardware comprises all of the physical part of the computer such as Monitor, CPU, and
         motherboard.




                  Input                      Processing                      Output

                                               Storage

Created By: Basharat Ali
                                                       (1)
        PiCiT
   Institute of Computing &
      Emerging Sciences

         Input
         An input device is any device that provides input to a computer.

         Output
         Output devices are things we use to get information OUT of a computer.
                         Input                                      Output
                          Keyboard                                   Monitor
                          Mouse                                      Printer
                          Scanner                                    Speaker
                          Joystick                                   Plotter
                          Touchpad                                   Headphone
                          Light Pen
         Mother/main devices
                Mother Board
                Processer
                RAM                                          (Random Access Memory)
                Hard Disk
                                                                 Temporary Storage Device
                Power Supply

         Other Devices                                           Permanent Storage Device
                CD/DVD Rom
                CR Writer
                Floppy Disk
                Zip Drive

         Interfacing Cards
                VGA Card
                Sound Card
                Lan Card
                Modems




Created By: Basharat Ali
                                                        (2)
        PiCiT
   Institute of Computing &
      Emerging Sciences

         Software
         Software is the computer programs, routines, and symbolic languages that control the function of
         the hardware, such as Windows, Word, Excel, etc.

         System software
         Software used to control the computer and develop and run applications.
                                                            (Operating system, drivers, bios, etc)

         Application software
         Application software is computer software designed to help the user perform a particular task.
                                                            (Ms Word, Ms Excel, Coral Draw, etc)

         Memory
         Memory is the internal storage areas in the computer. The term identifies data storage that comes
         in the form of chips, and the word storage is used for the memory that exists on tapes or disks.
         Moreover, the term memory is usually used as shorthand for physical memory, which refers to
         the actual chips capable of holding data. Therefore, memory is both hardware and software.

         Read-Only Memory (ROM)
         ROM is computer memory on which data has been prerecorded. Once data has been written on a
         ROM chip, it cannot be removed and can only be read. ROM retains its contents even when the
         computer is turned off. ROM is referred to as being nonvolatile. Most personal computers
         contain a small amount of ROM that stores critical programs such as the program that boots the
         computer. In addition, ROM is used extensively in calculators and peripheral devices such as
         laser printers, whose fonts are often stored in ROM.

         Random-Access Memory (RAM)
         RAM is a type of memory that can be accessed randomly and is the most common type of
         memory found in computers and other devices, such as printers. Also called the main memory.
                           What is The Memory Unit of a Computer?
           The basic unit used in computer data storage is called a bit (binary digit).
           4bit                               1Nibble

           8bits                               1Byte

           1024bytes                           1KB (Kilobyte)

           1024KB                              1MB (Megabyte)

           1024MB                              1GB (Gigabyte)

           1024 GB                             1TB (Terabyte)


Created By: Basharat Ali
                                                          (3)
        PiCiT
   Institute of Computing &
      Emerging Sciences

         Speed of Computer System
           The basic unit used in computer speed is called a Hertz
           The speed of CPU is measured in Hz, i.e., number of operations can be done per second.

           1000Hertz                         1 KHz (Kilohertz)

           1000 KHz                          1 MHz (Megahertz)

           1000MHz                           1GHz (Gigahertz)


         History of Intel Processor
         Models                Produced                      Max.CPU Clock
         Intel 4004            1971 to 1981                  740 kHz
         Intel 4040            1974 to 1981                  500 kHz to 740 kHz
         Intel 8008            1972 to 1983                  0.5 MHz to 0.8 MHz
         Intel 8080            mid 1974                      2 MHz
         Intel 8085            1977 to 1990s                 3,5 and 6 MHz
         Intel 8086            1978 to 1990s                 5 MHz to 10 MHz
         Intel 8088            1979 to 1990s                 5 MHz to 10 MHz
         Intel 80186           1982 to 2007                  6 MHz to 25 MHz
         Intel 80188           1980 to 1982                  8 MHz to 10 MHz
         Intel 80286           1982 to early 1990s           6 MHz (4 MHz for a short time) to 25 MHz
         Intel 80386           1985 to September 2007        12 MHz to 40 MHz
         Intel 80486           1989 to 2007                  16 MHz to 100 MHz
         Pentium               1993 to 1999                  60 MHz to 300 MHz
         Pentium Pro           November 1, 1995              150 MHz to 200 MHz
         Pentium II            1997 to early 1999            233 MHz to 450 MHz
         Celeron               April 1998 to present         266 MHz to 3.6 GHz
         Xeon                  1998 to present               400 MHz to 3.8 GHz
         Pentium III           1999 to 2003                  450 MHz to 1.4 GHz
         Pentium 4             2000 to 2008                  1.3 GHz to 3.8 GHz
         Itanium               2001 to present               733 MHz to 1.66 GHz
         Pentium M             2003 to 2008                  900 MHz to 2.26 GHz
         Intel Core            2006 to 2008                  1.06 GHz to 2.33 GHz
         Pentium Dual-Core     2006 to 2009                  1.3 GHz to 2.93 GHz
         Core 2                2006 to present               1.06 GHz to 3.33 GHz
         Intel Core i7         From 2008                     1.6 GHz to 3.47 GHz
         Intel Atom            2008–present                  800 MHz to 2 GHz
         Intel Core i5         From 2009                     2.66 GHz




Created By: Basharat Ali
                                                       (4)
        PiCiT
   Institute of Computing &
      Emerging Sciences

         Operating System
         An operating system is the program (software) on top of which all programs run. It controls or
         operates the system and the relationships of the hardware and software. Windows is an example
         of an operating system.


         Microsoft Windows History
           Year   Event

                  See our codename definition for a listing of Microsoft codenames.

           1983   Microsoft Windows was announced November 10, 1983 and sells for $100.00.

           1985   Microsoft Windows 1.0 is introduced in November, 1985 and is initially sold for $100.00.

           1987   Microsoft Windows 2.0 was released December 9, 1987 and is initially sold for $100.00.

                  Microsoft Windows/386 or Windows 386 is introduced December 9, 1987 and is initially sold
           1987
                  for $100.00.

                  Microsoft Windows/286 or Windows 286 is introduced June, 1988 and is initially sold for
           1988
                  $100.00.

                  Microsoft Windows 3.0 was released May, 22 1990. Microsoft Windows 3.0 full version was
           1990
                  priced at $149.95 and the upgrade version was priced at $79.95.

                  Following its decision not to develop operating systems cooperatively with IBM, Microsoft
           1991
                  changes the name of OS/2 to Windows NT.

           1991   Microsoft Windows 3.0 or Windows 3.0a with multimedia was released October, 1991.

                  Microsoft Windows 3.1 was released April, 1992 and sells more than 1 Million copies within
           1992
                  the first two months of its release.

           1992   Microsoft Windows for Workgroups 3.1 was released October, 1992.

           1993   Microsoft Windows NT 3.1 was released July 27, 1993.

           1993   The number of licensed users of Microsoft Windows now totals more than 25 Million.

           1994   Microsoft Windows for Workgroups 3.11 was released February, 1994.

           1994   Microsoft Windows NT 3.5 was released September 21, 1994.

           1995   Microsoft Windows NT 3.51 was released May 30, 1995.

                  Microsoft Windows 95 was released August 24, 1995 and sells more than 1 Million copies
           1995
                  within 4 days.



Created By: Basharat Ali
                                                           (5)
        PiCiT
   Institute of Computing &
      Emerging Sciences
           1996   Microsoft Windows NT 4.0 was released July 29, 1996.

           1996   Microsoft Windows CE 1.0 was released November, 1996.

           1997   Microsoft Windows CE 2.0 was released November, 1997.

           1998   Microsoft Windows 98 was released June, 1998.

           1998   Microsoft Windows CE 2.1 was released July, 1998.

                  In October of 1998 Microsoft announced that future releases of Windows NT would no longer
           1998
                  have the initials of NT and that the next edition would be Windows 2000.

           1999   Microsoft Windows 98 SE (Second Edition) was released May 5, 1999.

           1999   Microsoft Windows CE 3.0 was released 1999.

                  On January 4th at CES Bill Gates announces the new version of Windows CE will be called
           2000
                  Pocket PC.

           2000   Microsoft Windows 2000 was released February 17, 2000.

           2000   Microsoft Windows ME (Millennium) released June 19, 2000.

           2001   Microsoft Windows XP is released October 25, 2001.

                  Microsoft Windows XP 64-Bit Edition (Version 2002) for Itanium systems is released March
           2001
                  28, 2003.

           2003   Microsoft Windows Server 2003 is released March 28, 2003.

                  Microsoft Windows XP 64-Bit Edition (Version 2003) for Itanium 2 systems is released on
           2003
                  March 28, 2003.

           2003   Microsoft Windows XP Media Center Edition 2003 is released on December 18, 2003.

           2004   Microsoft Windows XP Media Center Edition 2005 is released on October 12, 2004.

           2005   Microsoft Windows XP Professional x64 Edition is released on April 24, 2005.

                  Microsoft announces it's next operating system, codenamed "Longhorn" will be named
           2005
                  Windows Vista on July 23, 2005.

           2006   Microsoft releases Microsoft Windows Vista to corporations on November 30, 2006.

                  Microsoft releases Microsoft Windows Vista and Office 2007 to the general public January 30,
           2007
                  2007.

           2009   Microsoft releases Windows 7 October 22, 2009.




Created By: Basharat Ali
                                                          (6)
        PiCiT
   Institute of Computing &
      Emerging Sciences

         Disk Formatting
         Any drive or device convert in file system call the formatting.

         File system
         File system is a method for storing and organizing computer files.
         Types of file system
             1) FAT file system
             2) NTFS file system
         FAT                           (File Allocation Table)
         The File Allocation Table (FAT) was designed in Feb., 1976/1977 by Bill Gates & Marc
         McDonald.
         VERSIONS                                  YEAR                          O/S
         FAT                                       (1976/77)                     DOS
         FAT16                                     (1981)                        Windows
         FAT32                                     (1996)                        Windows 95
         NTFS                          (New Technology File System)
         This File system was developed by Microsoft to meet requirements of business applications and
         introduced in July 1993 with Windows NT 3.1.
         VERSIONS                                  YEAR                          O/S
         V 1.0                                     (1993)                        Windows NT 3.1
         V 1.1                                     (1994)                        Windows NT 3.5
         V 1.2                                     (1996)                        Windows NT 4.0
         V 3.0                                     (2000)                        Windows 2000
         V 5.1                                     (2003)                        Windows Server 2003
         V 5.2                                     (2005)                        Windows Vista
         V 6.0                                     (2008)                        Windows 7


         Features of NTFS
             1)   Security
             2)   Shadow Copy
             3)   Quota
             4)   Encryption
             5)   Compression




Created By: Basharat Ali
                                                         (7)
        PiCiT
   Institute of Computing &
      Emerging Sciences
         Microsoft Windows Shortcut Keys
          Shortcut Keys       Description

          Alt + Tab           Switch between open applications.

          Alt + Shift + Tab Switch backwards between open applications.

          Alt + double-       Display the properties of the object you double-click on. For example,
          click               doing this on a file would display its properties.

          Ctrl + Tab          Switches between program groups or document windows in applications
                              that support this feature.

          Ctrl + Shift +      Same as above but backwards.
          Tab

          Alt + Print         Create a screen shot only for the program you are currently in.
          Screen

          Ctrl + Print        Creates a screen shot of the entire screen
          Screen

          Ctrl + Alt + Del    Reboot the computer and/or bring up the Windows task manager.

          Ctrl + Esc          Bring up the Windows Start menu. In Windows 3.x this would bring up the
                              Task Manager.

          Alt + Esc           Switch Between open applications on taskbar.

          F1                  Activates help for current open application.

          F2                  Renames selected Icon.

          F3                  Starts find from desktop.




Created By: Basharat Ali
                                                          (8)
        PiCiT
   Institute of Computing &
      Emerging Sciences
          F5                  Refresh Contents to where you were on the page.

          F10                 Activates menu bar.

          Shift + F10         Simulates right-click on selected item.

          F4                  Select a different location to browse in the Windows Explorer toolbar.

          Alt + F4            Closes Current open program.

          Ctrl + F4           Closes Window in Program.

          F6                  Move cursor to different Windows Explorer pane.

          Alt + Space bar     Drops down the window control menu.

          Ctrl + (the '+' key Automatically adjust the widths of all the columns in Windows explorer
          on the keypad)

          Alt + Enter         Opens properties window of selected icon or program.

          Alt + Space bar     Open the control menu for the current window open.

          Shift + Del         Delete programs/files without throwing them into the recycle bin.

          Holding Shift       Boot Safe Mode or by pass system files as the computer is booting.

          Holding Shift       When putting in an audio CD, will prevent CD Player from playing.

          Enter               Activates the highlighted program.

          Alt + Down          Display all available options on drop down menu.
          arrow




Created By: Basharat Ali
                                                         (9)
        PiCiT
   Institute of Computing &
      Emerging Sciences
         Windows key keyboard shortcuts
          Shortcut Keys       Description

          WINKEY              Pressing the Windows key alone will open Start.

          WINKEY + F1         Opens the Microsoft Windows help and support center.

          WINKEY + F3         Opens the Advanced find window in Microsoft Outlook.

          WINKEY + D          Brings the desktop to the top of all other windows.

          WINKEY + M          Minimizes all windows.

          WINKEY + SHIFT
                              Undo the minimize done by WINKEY + M and WINKEY + D.
          +M

          WINKEY + E          Open Microsoft Explorer.

          WINKEY + Tab        Cycle through open programs through the taskbar.

          WINKEY + F          Display the Windows Search / Find feature.

          WINKEY + CTRL +
                          Display the search for computers window.
          F

          WINKEY + F1         Display the Microsoft Windows help.

          WINKEY + R          Open the run window.

          WINKEY + Pause /
                              Open the system properties window.
          Break key

          WINKEY + U          Open Utility Manager.

          WINKEY + L          Lock the computer (Windows XP and above only).




Created By: Basharat Ali
                                                      (10)
        PiCiT
   Institute of Computing &
      Emerging Sciences
          WINKEY + P          Quickly change between monitor display types. (Windows 7 only)

          WINKEY + LEFT       Shrinks the window to 1/2 screen on the left side for side by side viewing.
          ARROW               (Windows 7 only)

          WINKEY + RIGHT      Shrinks the window to 1/2 screen on the right side for side by side viewing.
          ARROW               (Windows 7 only)

          WINKEY + UP         When in the side by side viewing mode, this shortcut takes the screen back to
          ARROW               full size. (Windows 7 only)


          WINKEY + DOWN       Minimizes the screen. Also, when in the side by side viewing mode, this
          ARROW               shortcut takes the screen back to a minimized size. (Windows 7 only)


         Microsoft Word shortcut keys
          Shortcut keys       Description
          Ctrl + A            Select all contents of the page.
          Ctrl + B            Bold highlighted selection.
          Ctrl + C            Copy selected text.
          Ctrl + E            Aligns the line or selected text to the center of the screen.
          Ctrl + F            Open find box.
          Ctrl + I            Italic highlighted selection.
          Ctrl + J            Aligns the selected text or line to justify the screen.
          Ctrl + K            Insert link.
          Ctrl + L            Aligns the line or selected text to the left of the screen.
          Ctrl + M            Indent the paragraph.
          Ctrl + P            Open the print window.
          Ctrl + R            Aligns the line or selected text to the right of the screen.
          Ctrl + T            Create a hanging indent.
          Ctrl + U            Underline highlighted selection.
          Ctrl + V            Paste.
          Ctrl + X            Cut selected text.


Created By: Basharat Ali
                                                       (11)
        PiCiT
   Institute of Computing &
      Emerging Sciences
          Ctrl + Y               Redo the last action performed.
          Ctrl + Z               Undo last action.
          Ctrl + Shift + F       Change the font.
          Ctrl + Shift + >       Increase selected font +1pts up to 12pt and then increases font +2pts.
          Ctrl + ]               Increase selected font +1pts.
                                 Decrease selected font -1pts if 12pt or lower, if above 12 decreases font
          Ctrl + Shift + <
                                 by +2pt.
          Ctrl + [               Decrease selected font -1pts.
          Ctrl + Shift + *       View or hide non printing characters.
          Ctrl + <left arrow>    Moves one word to the left.
          Ctrl + <right arrow>   Moves one word to the right.
          Ctrl + <up arrow>      Moves to the beginning of the line or paragraph.
          Ctrl + <down arrow> Moves to the end of the paragraph.
          Ctrl + Del             Deletes word to right of cursor.
          Ctrl + Backspace       Deletes word to left of cursor.
          Ctrl + End             Moves the cursor to the end of the document.
          Ctrl + Home            Moves the cursor to the beginning of the document.
          Ctrl + Spacebar        Reset highlighted text to the default font.
          Ctrl + 1               Single-space lines.
          Ctrl + 2               Double-space lines.
          Ctrl + 5               1.5-line spacing.
          Ctrl + Alt + 1         Changes text to heading 1.
          Ctrl + Alt + 2         Changes text to heading 2.
          Ctrl + Alt + 3         Changes text to heading 3.
          Ctrl + F1              Open the Task Pane.
          F1                     Open Help.
          Alt + Ctrl + F2        Open new document.
          Ctrl + F2              Display the print preview.
          Shift + F3             Change the text in Microsoft Word from Deferent case.


Created By: Basharat Ali
                                                        (12)
        PiCiT
   Institute of Computing &
      Emerging Sciences
          Shift + Insert           Paste.
          F4                       Repeat the last action performed (Word 2000+)
          F5                       Open the find, replace, and go to window in Microsoft Word.
          Ctrl + Shift + F6        Opens to another open Microsoft Word document.
          F7                       Spell and grammar check selected text and/or document.
          Shift + F7               Runs a Thesaurus check on the word highlighted.
          F12                      Save as.
          Shift + F12              Save.
          Ctrl + Shift + F12       Prints the document.
          Alt + Shift + D          Insert the current date.
          Alt + Shift + T          Insert the current time.
          Mouse shortcuts          Description
                                   Selects text from where you click and hold to the point you drag and let
          Click, hold, and drag
                                   go.
          Double-click             If double-click a word, selects the complete word.
                                   Double-clicking on the left, center, or right of a blank line will make
          Double-click
                                   the alignment of the text left, center, or right aligned.
          Double-click             Double-clicking anywhere after text on a line will set a tab stop.
          Triple-click             Selects the line or paragraph of the text the mouse triple-clicked.
          Ctrl + Mouse wheel       Zooms in and out of document.

         Microsoft Excel shortcut keys
          Shortcut Keys           Description
          F2                      Edit the selected cell.
          F5                      Go to a specific cell. For example, C6.
          F7                      Spell check selected text and/or document.
          F11                     Create chart.
          Ctrl + Shift + ;        Enter the current time.
          Ctrl + ;                Enter the current date.
          Alt + Shift + F1        Insert New Worksheet.


Created By: Basharat Ali
                                                              (13)
        PiCiT
   Institute of Computing &
      Emerging Sciences
          Shift + F3          Open the Excel formula window.
          Shift + F5          Bring up search box.
          Ctrl + A            Select all contents of the worksheet.
          Ctrl + B            Bold highlighted selection.
          Ctrl + I            Italic highlighted selection.
          Ctrl + K            Insert link.
          Ctrl + U            Underline highlighted selection.
          Ctrl + 5            Strikethrough highlighted selection.
          Ctrl + P            Bring up the print dialog box to begin printing.
          Ctrl + Z            Undo last action.
          Ctrl + F9           Minimize current window.
          Ctrl + F10          Maximize currently selected window.
          Ctrl + F6           Switch between open workbooks / windows.
          Ctrl + Page up      Move between Excel work sheets in the same Excel document.
          Ctrl + Page down    Move between Excel work sheets in the same Excel document.
          Ctrl + Tab          Move between Two or more open Excel files.
          Alt + =             Create a formula to sum all of the above cells
          Ctrl + '            Insert the value of the above cell into cell currently selected.

          Ctrl + Shift +!     Format number in comma format.

          Ctrl + Shift + $    Format number in currency format.
          Ctrl + Shift + #    Format number in date format.
          Ctrl + Shift + %    Format number in percentage format.
          Ctrl + Shift + ^    Format number in scientific format.
          Ctrl + Shift + @    Format number in time format.
          Ctrl + Arrow key    Move to next section of text.
          Ctrl + Space        Select entire column.
          Shift + Space       Select entire row.




Created By: Basharat Ali
                                                       (14)

								
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