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History of the Field Artillery

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					History of the Field
Artillery
TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE
   Action: Develop a basic knowledge of the
    history of the Field Artillery

   Conditions: Given a visual presentation class on
    Field Artillery history.

   Standard: Developed a basic knowledge of the
    history of the field artillery.
SAFETY REQUIREMENTS




   NONE
RISK ASSESSMENT




   LOW
ENVIRONMENTAL
CONSIDERATIONS




   NONE
INSTRUCTIONAL LEAD-IN
ENABLING LEARNING
OBJECTIVE 1
Action: Name key events through the
  history of Field Artillery.

Conditions: Given a visual presentation on
 key events through artillery’s history.

Standard: Name key events through the
  history of Field Artillery.
       ORIGINS OF ARTILLERY
The First appearance of
  artillery came in ancient
  Greece with crude
  ballistics that projected
  Bolts, and Stones.

Trebuchet’s, Catapult's, and
  Ballista’s were the first
  forms of artillery.
FROM BOLTS TO
GUNPOWDER
   It wasn’t until January 28, 1132 that the
    first gunpowder artillery was used.

   First developed by the Chinese, the
    gunpowder artillery found its way to
    Europe in the mid 13th century.
BARELY A GUN
In the early stages of invention gunpowder
   artillery was weak and very ineffective
   towards Trebuchet’s which had long
   distance.

By the end of the 14th Century gunpowder
  artillery was only powerful enough to
  knock in roofs.

In 1420 the English elongated their guns,
   giving them more range and power.
      A NEW TYPE OF GUN
The 16th Century introduced the
  first “Cannon” by placing it on a
  buggy.

The combining of shot and powder
  into a single unit, a cartridge,
  occurred in the 1620’s.

By the end of the 17th Century the
  calibers of artillery used were
  restricted to 33, 24, 16, 12, 8, and
  4-pdrs
UNIFORMITY AND
REPAIRABILITY
The first massed produced cannon was
  engineered by Frenchman Jean-Baptiste de
  Gribeauval.

In 1789 Napoleon, himself a former artillery
   officer, perfected the tactic of massed
   artillery batteries, it wasn’t until this era that
   artillery became widely used.

The first effective breech-loader was
  developed in 1855 by Sir William Armstrong
  for the British military.
DEVELOPING A PLAN
After the War of 1870 the Germans became
  strong advocates of indirect fire.

Just before the turn of the century, the
   Germans developed the first howitzer that
   could be accurately aimed.

Indirect fire was the defining characteristic of
  20th Century artillery and led to undreamt
  of changes in the amount of artillery used in
  WWI.
PRECISION IS KEY
During WWI the American Army developed
 the first version of Fire Direction Control
 and began calculating trajectory for
 indirect fire.

Using muzzle velocity, temperature, wind,
  and air density, the FDC became even
  more accurate.
     DOMINATING THE
     BATTLEFIELD
In WWI known as “The war
   to end all wars” the Field
   Artillery emerged as the
   greatest killer.

The “Big Guns“ were
  responsible for 75% of all
  casualties in the trench
  warfare of France.
ARTILLERY, A VAGUE WORD
WWII ended the days of horse drawn artillery
 carriages by the Army using motor operated
 vehicles to move their “big gun’s”.

In the years following WWII artillery grew
   even more by including Air Defense Artillery,
   Mortars, Rocket Artillery.

On 20 June 1968 the Air Defense Artillery
 separated from the Field Artillery and was
 designated as a basic branch of the Army.
      TODAYS FIELD ARTILLERY
The introduction of self-propelled
  artillery created an even
  greater advantage by making
  artillery fast moving and fast
  shooting.

After years of using many different
  calibers of projectiles the US
  Army has settled on two,
  105mm semi fixed cartridge,
  and 155mm separate loading.
       CHECK ON LEARNING
   Q: What year was gunpowder first used
    in artillery.
A: 1132

Q: What are some of the calibers artillery
used at the end of the 17th century.

A: 33, 24, 16, 12, 8, and 4 pounders.
ENABLING LEARNING
OBJECTIVE 2
Action: Identify key role players throughout
  the history of American Field Artillery.

Conditions: Given a visual presentation on
 key individuals throughout Field Artillery’s
 History.

Standard: Identified at least three individuals
  that impacted the history of American
  Field Artillery.
        FROM CALVARY TO
        CANNONS
The U.S. Field Artillery was first
  founded by Henry Knox in
  December 1775.

MG Phillip H. Sheridan first staked
 out Fort Sill on 8 Jan 1869.

MG Sheridan’s winter campaign
 involved 6 Cav. Regiments, and
 many of the famous Frontier
 Scouts.
       THE LADY REDLEG
Due to her running to the gun line
  with pitchers of water she gained
  the nickname Molly Pitcher.

After watching her husband fall
   from heat stroke she took
   charge of a retreating cannon
   and kept the gun firing, she was a
   gunner.
FIELD ARTILLERY SCHOOL
   The original home of the Field Artillery
    was at Fort Monroe,VA until it’s
    relocation to Fort Sill, OK.

   The first Field Artillery school was
    organized in 1911 by Captain Dan T.
    Moore.
         THE PATRON SAINT
St. Barbara was the daughter of a rich
    pagan father, Dioscorus who guarded
    her by locking her in a tower.

After her father was killed by lightning
   she became the patron saint of
   explosions.

Due to her relation to explosions she
  became the patron saint of Field
  Artillery, St. Barbara’s Day is 4 DEC
  every year.
       THE FA MUSEUM
   CPT Harry C. Larter established the Field
    Artillery museum on 10 DEC 1934.

   Of the 46 buildings included with the Fort
    Sill national historic landmark the museum
    occupies 26 structures.
     15 KILOTON CANNON
Robert Schwartz gained
  approval from the Pentagon
  to build the first Nuclear
  Artillery Piece.

“Atomic Annie” fired only one
  round, it successfully
  detonated around 0830 hrs
  on 25 MAY 1953.
     CHECK ON LEARNING
Q: What did Molly Pitcher accomplish
  making her famous across the Artillery?
A: As the wife of a soldier she took charge
of a cannon against the orders of an
officer that was sending it to the rear and
continued to return fire.
      CHECK ON LEARNING (cont.)
Q: Why was it that Atomic Annie fired the
  first and last atomic artillery projectile?
A: After firing the round and assessing the
damage it was found that the gun had
cracked its cannon tube from the pressure
of the projectile.
SUMMARY
Artillery is ever changing as is the technology
  incorporated.

Artillery is the second oldest branch of the
  Army and has played a vital role in every
  American war.

The establishment of Ft. Sill not only expanded
  the Army but also gave room for its
  technology to be put to test.
       REVIEW
Action: Develop a basic knowledge of the history
  of the Field Artillery

Conditions: Given a visual presentation class on
 Field Artillery history.

Standard: Developed a basic knowledge of the
  history of the field artillery.
   Are there any questions?

				
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