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HF frequency allocations allotments and assignments (PowerPoint) by yurtgc548

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									ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook
    DOC 9718 – Fifth edition




                                Presented by:
                                Loftur Jónasson
                                ICAO
                ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook

Organization of the Handbook

Nine Chapters:
   1 – Introduction
   2 – Objectives and purpose of the Handbook
   3 – The International Telecommunication Union
   4 – The ITU Regulatory Framework
   5 – ICAO involvement in Frequency and Spectrum
   6 – Overview of the Spectrum Management Process
   7 – Statement of Frequency Allocations and ICAO
   Policy
   8 – Future Spectrum Requirement
   9 – Interference protection considerations
                    ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook
8 Attachments
A – Definition and Terms
       Summary of definitions of terms in the Radio Regulations
B – Acronyms and abbreviations
C – Regulation of Radio in aircraft
       is addressed under Chapter 4
D – Review and update (of the Handbook)
       provides a schedule for updating the Handbook to reflect decisions
       of WRC’s and develop positions for future WRC’s
E – Strategy for establishing and promoting the ICAO position for
ITU World Radiocommunication Conferences
F – ICAO position for WRC-2012 – addressed in separate presentation
G – Technical Information and Frequency Sharing Criteria
H – ITU Resolutions and Recommendations – as contained in the RR
                  ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook

Chapter 1 - Introduction
Introduces the Handbook and highlights:
RF spectrum is a scarce natural resource and must be
available to the States and radio services

Competition between users for spectrum

RF spectrum allocations managed by the ITU

Aeronautical spectrum is for safety and efficiency

RF congestion in spectrum utilization

International competition for spectrum allocations

Various processes on spectrum allocations
                 ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook
Chapter 2 – Objectives and purposes
•   ITU is the specialized agency of the United Nations on all
    telecommunication matters
•   ICAO is the specialized agency of the United Nations on
    aeronautical matters
•   ICAO presents the internationally agreed aeronautical
    requirements (ICAO position) for spectrum to ITU -WRC’s
•   ICAO position to be used by aeronautical authorities on a
    national level
•   ICAO position is developed by the Air Navigation
    Commission
•   ICAO position and policy statements are approved by
    Council
                 ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook
Chapter 3
the International Telecommunication Union
 •   The ITU is the specialized agency of the United
     Nations on all Telecommunication matters.

 •   Other Organizations such as ICAO are not barred from
     any kind of work on (aeronautical)
     telecommunications, including Standardization

 •   ITU develops the Radio Regulations at World
     Radiocommunication Conferences.

 •   Radio Regulations are treaty document and can only
     be modified at WRC’s
                     ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook
    Chapter 3
    the International Telecommunication Union

•     National Radio Regulatory authorities control the mechanism
      for developing national proposals to ITU Conferences
•     Such proposals take into account the interests of all users of
      spectrum, including aeronautical interests
•     The Radio Regulations also include a number of
      administrative provisions (e.g. on licensing)
•     Technical work in ITU takes place in the
      Radiocommunication Study Groups
•     Regional positions for WRC’s are developed by the Regional
      Telecommunication organizations.
                                                     ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook
Chapter 3
the International Telecommunication Union




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                            160º   140º   120º    100º     80º     60º     40º     20º        0º    20º     40º       60º       80º   100º   120º   140º   160º   180º

                        C                                                                 B                       A
            75º                                                                                                                                                                 75º




                                   CITEL
     60º                                                                                                   REGION 1                                                             60º


                                   REGION 2
                                                                                         CEPT RCC
    40º                                                                                                                                                                         40º

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          20º
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            20º
                                                     CITEL                                                                                                                      20º
            30º                                                                                                                                                                 30º

            40º                                                                                                                                                                 40º

                             REGION 3                                                                                                    REGION 3
                                                 C                                       B                                  A
            60º                                                                                                                                                                 60º




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                            160º   140º   120º    100º     80º     60º     40º     20º        0º    20º     40º       60º       80º   100º   120º   140º   160º   180º


                                      Coverage of regions by regional telecommunication organizations approximately
                  ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook
Chapter 4
the ITU Regulatory Framework for aeronautical radio
services

ITU Radio Regulations:
•Spectrum allocations
•Registration of frequency assignments
•Special (administrative) provisions
•Frequencies for aviation are for safety
•-Spectrum allocations to Services and to each of the
three ITU Regions
•National or sub-Regional allocations are made through
footnotes [to the table of allocations]
•Use of HF spectrum is regulated in Appendix 27 to the
Radio Regulations
                                                   Radio Regulations
                                             Table of Frequency Allocations


                                             Radiocommunications services


Overview     Standard        Radio         Meteorological                                Space           Earth
                                                                     Amateur

of          frequency      astronomy           aids                                     research       exploration

                                                                                                                     Specialized
              SF               RA               MA                   Amateur              SR              EE          services
services    satellite        satellite        satellite              satellite          satellite       satellite



to which                      Fixed                                                    Broadcast

                                                                                                                     Fixed and
spectrum      Space           Fixed-          Inter-                                   Broadcast
                                                                                                                     broadcast
                                                                                                                      services
            operations       satellite       satellite                                  satellite
has been                                                                                                               Mobile
                                                                                                                      services
allocated                                                   Mobile



                                Maritime                        Land                   Aeronautical



                                Port            Ship                          Aero(R)             Aero(OR)
              GMDSS          operations       movement


                                                         Mobile-satellite


                                MM sat               LM sat                  AeM sat

                                                                   Aero M               Aero M
                                                                   (R) sat             (OR) sat



                                                     Radiodetermination


                                                                                                               Radiodetermination
                        Radiolocation       Radiodetermination-                    Radionavigation                  services
                                                 satellite


                                            RL sat             RN sat          Maritime RN          Aero RN


                                                         Aero RN     Mari RN
                                                           sat         sat
                  ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook
Chapter 4
the ITU Regulatory Framework for aeronautical radio services

Aeronautical Communications

   -Allocations to the Aeronautical Mobile (R) Service:
   -2.8 – 30 MHz (HF bands; regulated under Appendix 27)
   -117.975 – 137 MHz
   -112 – 117.975 MHz, 960 – 1164 MHz
   (shared with the Aeronautical Radionavigation Service)
   -5091 – 5150 MHz (shared with ARNS , AMS and AMT)
-Appendix 27 to the Radio Regulations contains detailed
provisions on the use and coordination of HF frequencies
                  ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook
Chapter 4
the ITU Regulatory Framework for aeronautical radio services

Allocations for use by radionavigation have been made to the
   -Radionavigation Service
   -Radionavigation-satellite Service
   -Aeronautical Radionavigation Service
Special provisions require States to remove interference from
radionavigation services
Provisions for the identification of radio navigation systems
(e.g. The Morse code on ILS) are contained in the Radio
Regulations
                  ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook
Chapter 4
the ITU Regulatory Framework for aeronautical radio services

Relation of ITU provisions with ICAO SARPs

   •   The ITU Radio Regulations contain the
       internationally agreed policies on the use of RF
       spectrum by ALL radio services
   •   ICAO SARPs that affect the use of RF spectrum
       must comply with these policies
   •   Radio Regulations and SARPs form a
       complimentary set of provisions on the use of RF
       spectrum by aviation
                 ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook

Chapter 4
the ITU Regulatory Framework for aeronautical radio services
Frequency coordination and registration
•In principle, coordination of frequency assignments
between States to be performed by ITU
•In practice, the coordination of frequency assignments for
aviation is performed by ICAO (Regional Offices) for:
       NDB
       ILS, VOR, DME, GBAS
       VHF COM
   •


•ICAO can assist in pre-coordination of HF frequency
assignments
                 ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook

Chapter 4
the ITU Regulatory Framework for aeronautical radio services
ITU Standards and ITU Recommendations

•ITU does not develop standards for aeronautical
radio systems
•ITU develops ITU-R Recommendations which
may affect the use of aeronautical systems
•In most cases, ITU-R Recommendations address
aspects on sharing of frequency spectrum
•(co-frequency and adjacent frequency)
                   ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook
Chapter 4
the ITU Regulatory Framework for aeronautical radio services
 Radio equipment in aircraft (Attachment C to the Handbook)
 needs to comply with:

 •Telecommunication regulations:
        Operate in properly allocated aeronautical frequency bands
        Comply with technical provisions on spurious emission
        Comply with relevant ITU-R Recommendations
        Operate in accordance with a radio station license


 •Aeronautical regulations
        Operators and station license recognized by States
        Equipment covered by airworthiness certification
        Comply with provisions of Annex 10
                   ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook
Chapter 4
the ITU Regulatory Framework for aeronautical radio services

National regulations
   • National authorities issue radio station licence
          License is for the installation and use of radio equipment
          and is recognized by all ICAO contracting States
   •   Airworthiness approval required

Airworthiness approval
   • To secure compatibility with other radio equipment
       and electronic systems on board an aircraft
   • Technical Standing Order
   • Minimum Performance Specifications
                 ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook
Chapter 5
ICAO involvement in frequency planning
ICAO develops Standards for communication and navigation
systems (Article 37 of the ICAO Convention)
•Equipment needs to be globally interoperable and requires
globally available spectrum allocations
ICAO coordinates aeronautical input on spectrum issues to ITU
conferences
•Input from ICAO addresses issues such as:
      Protection of ICAO Standards and Recommended Practices
      (SARPs)
      Interference levels
      Resolution of interference
      Frequency planning criteria for aviation
                  ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook
Chapter 5
ICAO involvement in frequency planning

ICAO activities on spectrum planning are at:

   •   Global level (ACP WG F):
          Develops ICAO policy statements; these are to be used in
          all discussions affecting aeronautical spectrum
          ICAO position for ITU on specific aeronautical requirements
          to be discussed at WRC’s
   •   Regional level:
          Coordination of ICAO frequency assignment plans

Support from individual ICAO contracting States is essential
                  ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook
Chapter 6
Overview of the spectrum management process

Regulatory domain
  • ITU Radio Regulations
Technical domain:
   • ITU-R Recommendations
Licensing domain:
   • Radio station licence (issued by States)
Registration domain:
  • ITU international Frequency list
  • ICAO frequency lists
                 ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook

Chapter 6
Overview of the spectrum management process
Elements of the technical domain:
Allocation planning
    • World wide or Regional allocations
    • Primary or secondary allocations
    • Footnote allocations
    • Service sharing
    • ITU-R Recommendations
    • Frequency planning
         ITU frequency assignment plans
         ICAO frequency assignment plans
                 ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook

Chapter 6
Overview of the spectrum management process

State of the art and spectrum management:

•Recent advances through increased use of computer
technology in frequency assignment planning

•New technology introduces system improvements
resulting in more efficient use of spectrum (e.g. 8.33 kHz
channel spacing)
                  ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook
Chapter 6
Overview of the spectrum management process
Spectrum management in the future:

•Greater demand for spectrum expected from all radio
services
•Spectrum planning focuses on increased sharing of spectrum
between services
•Spectrum planning focuses on releasing spectrum not used
or not efficiently used
•In some countries spectrum pricing is being proposed
•Progressive introduction of more spectrum efficient systems
                  ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook


Chapter 7 - Statement of frequency allocation,
               technical details and ICAO policy


 Section 7-I   List of frequency bands for aviation

 Section 7-II Civil aviation frequency allocations

 Section 7-III Other provisions in the Radio Regulations

 Section 7-IV ITU Resolutions and Recommendations
                    ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook

Chapter 7 - Statement of frequency allocation,
               technical details and ICAO policy

     Section 7-I:                                                                        Section
                                                                                           7-II
                                Band             Service           Aviation use         page no.

                            *90–110 kHz           RNS              LORAN-C               7-15
     List of frequency     *130–535 kHz          ARNS             NDB/locator            7-19
     bands in use for     2 850–22 000 kHz      AM(R)S      Air-ground communications    7-31
     civil aviation                                             (HF voice and data)


                         3 023 and 5 680 kHz    AM(R)S          Search and rescue        7-41


                           74.8–75.2 MHz         ARNS            Marker beacon           7-43


                         *108–117.975 MHz        ARNS          VOR/ILS localizer/        7-47
                                                AM(R)S         GBAS/VDL Mode 4


                         *117.975–137 MHz       AM(R)S        Air-ground and air-air     7-59
                                                                communications
                                                              (VHF voice and data)



                          121.5, 123.1 and     AM(R)S/MSS     Emergency frequencies      7-67
                             243 MHz


                          328.6–335.4 MHz        ARNS             ILS glide path         7-69
                    ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook
Chapter 7 - Statement of frequency allocation,
                 technical details and ICAO policy




7 detailed graphical presentations of the aeronautical frequency bands
                  ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook

Chapter 7 - Statement of frequency allocation,
              technical details and ICAO policy

 Section 7-II Civil aviation frequency allocations:

 Primary allocation
       Has priority over a secondary allocation

 Secondary allocation
      Shall not cause harmful interference to
      a primary allocation and must accept
      interference from a primary allocation
      – at any time
                      ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook
Chapter 7 - Statement of frequency allocation,
                  technical details and ICAO policy
      Frequency
                        French          English         Spanish
    distribution to
                       Attribution      Allocation      Atribucion
       Services
                       (attribuer)     (to allocate)     (atribuir)
                      Allotissement     Allotment      Adjudicación
         Areas
                          (allotir)     (to allot)      (adjudicar)
                       Assignation     Assignment      Assignations
       Stations
                        (assigner)     (to assign)      (asignar)


 Frequencies are:
   Allocated to Services (Radio Regulations)
   Allotted to areas (Radio Regulations; allotment plans)
   Assigned to [radio] stations –
      (by States, after international coordination is completed)
                   ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook
Chapter 7 - Statement of frequency allocation,
                technical details and ICAO policy (6)
Section 7-II Civil aviation frequency allocations, continued
•Layout in Handbook for details on frequency allocations
       ITU provisions relevant to the allocation
       ITU provisions relevant to the allocation
       ICAO policy statements (established by Council)
       Description of aeronautical use
       Commentary (background information)

   Note that in Revision 5 of the Handbook, the below has been
      moved to Appendix G:
   • Reference material -
       (ICAO, ITU, Industry Standards (RTCA, EUROCAE)
   •   Interference from non-aeronautical sources (if available)
                ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook
Chapter 7 - Statement of frequency allocation,
             technical details and ICAO policy
                                                                       MHz
                                                                    108–117.975


 Example:                                                      Allocation to Services

                                   Region 1                           Region 2                           Region 3
 Frequency allocation   108–117.975                        AERONAUTICAL RADIONAVIGATION


 for the band                                              5.197 5.197A



 108 -117.975 MHz       Footnotes:
                        5.197    Additional allocation: in Pakistan and the Syrian Arab Republic, the band 108–111.975
                        MHz is also allocated to the mobile service on a secondary basis, subject to agreement obtained
 as per ITU Radio       under No. 9.21. In order to ensure that harmful interference is not caused to stations of the
                        aeronautical radionavigation service, stations of the mobile service shall not be introduced in the
                        band until it is no longer required for the aeronautical radionavigation service by any administration
 Regulations            which may be identified in the application of the procedures invoked under No. 9.21.




                        5.197A Additional allocation: the band 108-117.975 MHz is also allocated on a primary basis to
                        the aeronautical mobile (R) service, limited to systems operating in accordance with recognized
                        international aeronautical standards. Such use shall be in accordance with Resolution 413 (Rev.
                        WRC-07). The use of the band 108-112 MHz by the aeronautical mobile (R) service shall be
                        limited to systems composed of ground-based transmitters and associated receivers that provide
                        navigational information in support of air navigation functions in accordance with recognized
                        international aeronautical standards. (WRC-07)
                ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook


Chapter 7 - Statement of frequency allocation,
             technical details and ICAO policy


   ICAO policy statement                        ICAO POLICY
   as approved by Council   •No change to the current allocation to the aeronautical
                            radionavigation service and the aeronautical mobile (route)
   for the band:            service (AM(R)S).
                            •Deletion of Footnote 5.197.
   108 – 117.975 MHz        •Ensure conformity with ITU-R Recommendation SM.1009
                            regarding compatibility with FM broadcast services in the band
                            87.5–108 MHz and ILS/VOR and with ITU-R
                            Recommendation M.1841 for GBAS.
                            •Support studies associated with ITU-R Resolution 413 in order
                            to facilitate the use of the frequency band by AM(R)S systems
                            that operate in accordance with international standards.
                  ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook


Chapter 7 - Statement of frequency allocation,
                technical details and ICAO policy

Aviation use:
      Description of the systems (ILS, VOR, GBAS and VDL Mode
      4) using the band 108 – 117.975 MHz

Commentary:
      Background information on the use of the band 108 – 117.975
      MHz by aviation.
         328.6

108.00
108.10   329.15
108.15
         329.30
108.30   329.45
108.35
         329.60
108.50   329.75
108.55
         329.90
108.70   330.05
108.75
         330.20
108.90   330.35
108.95
         330.50
109.10   330.65
109.15
         330.80
109.30   330.95
109.35
            .
         331.10
109.50   331.25
109.55
         331.40
109.70   331.55
109.75
         331.70
109.90   331.85
109.95
         332.00
110.10   332.15
110.15
         332.30
110.30   332.45
110.35
         332.60
110.50   332.75
110.55
         332.90
110.70   333.05
110.75
         333.20
110.90   333.35
110.95
         333.50
111.10   333.65
111.15
         333.80
111.30   333.95
111.35
         334.10
111.50   334.25
111.55
         334.40
111.70   334.55
111.75
         334.70
                  technical details and ICAO policy




111.90   334.85
111.95
                                                      Chapter 7 - Statement of frequency allocation,
                                                                                                       ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook




120.00   335.00



         335.4
          MHz
                 ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook

Chapter 7 - Statement of frequency allocation,
              technical details and ICAO policy
Additional Technical References in Attachment G:

   References to relevant material in:
         ICAO Annex 10 -
         (specifications for ILS, VOR, GBAS and VDL Mode 4)
         RTCA and EUROCAE standards for airborne equipment
         ARINC Characteristics
         ITU-R Recommendations

   References to information specific to interference from FM
   broadcasting stations
                      ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook
 Chapter 7 - Statement of frequency allocation,
                 technical details and ICAO policy
Section 7-III; Radio Regulations and other material:
•ITU Constitution and Convention
       ICAO participates as an observer in an advisory capacity

•Radio Regulations Administrative provisions
      No. 3.3 – incorporate technical means to reduce interference
      No. 4.4 – States can use frequencies in a manner that does not comply
                with the Radio Regulations – However, such use must protect
                stations which operate in compliance with the Radio Regulations
      No. 4.10 – States recognize the safety aspects of radionavigation
      No. 15.8 – Special consideration to be given to avoid interference on distress
                 and safety services
      Chapter V Section III – Formation of call signs
      No. 44.1 – Order of priority of communications
                 ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook
Chapter 8
Future Spectrum Requirements

The Handbook identifies future spectrum requirements for:
      •   GNSS augmentation
             GBAS
             SBAS
             LAAS/WAAS
      •   Synthetic vision
      •   HF data link
      •   VDL Mode 4
      •   ADS-B
      •   Future Communication Systems
                  ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook

Chapter 9
Interference protection considerations

Interference issues:
   •   Regulatory aspects
   •   Management and control of interference
   •   Assessment of protection of aeronautical services
   •   Some special cases
   •   General protection limits for aeronautical services
                    ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook
Chapter 9
Interference protection considerations
Regulatory aspects:
Harmful interference (RR1.169)
       Interference which endangers the functioning of a radionavigation
       service or of other safety services or seriously degrades, obstructs,
       or repeatedly interrupts a radiocommunication service operating in
       accordance with Radio Regulations (CS).
Safety Service (RR 1.59)
       Any radiocommunication service used permanently or temporarily for
       the safeguarding of human life and property.
Aviation safety factor
       6dB, to be added to the minimum protection level
Registration of frequencies
       Registration provides administrative protection from harmful
       interference
                   ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook
Chapter 9
Interference protection considerations
Management and control of interference:
International agreement on a regulatory basis
      ITU Radio Regulations Board
System and equipment standards
      ICAO SARPs
      RTCA and EUROCAE specifications
      ITU-R Recommendations
Licensing of radio services
      Licensing conditions can assist in prevention and removal of
      interference
Control and clearance of interference
      Telecommunication authority within a State
      ICAO (Regional Office)
      ITU (Radiocommunication Bureau)
                     ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook
Chapter 9
Interference protection considerations
Assessment of protection of aeronautical services:

•Subject to analysis (e.g. in case of allocation sharing)
       Based on interference threshold, established by aviation
       Aviation safety factor (6 dB)

•Variables to be considered in assessment / analysis
       Source of interference
       Frequency separation
       Distance separation
       Receiver susceptibility to interference
       RF propagation
                   ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook
Chapter 9
Interference protection considerations
Some special cases:
•ISM




       Harmonic relation between ISM frequencies and aeronautical
       VHF bands
•VSAT /SNG
       These systems use small satellite antennas and can be located
       anywhere; can cause interference in the near vicinity of aircraft
       (e.g. if used at airports)
                              ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook
Chapter 9
Interference protection considerations
General protection limits for aeronautical services
                                                                                     Suggested
                                                                                    Maximum
                                                                                      Level of
                                                    Minimum       System Planning   Interfering
                                                      Signal         Protection     Signal DB
                       Use        Frequency Band    dB (uV/m)        Ratio DB         (uV/m)
          1   Omega                10–14 KHz
          2   NDB                 190–850 KHz         37 (1)            15              16
          3   HF Comms             2.8–22 MHz                           15
          4   ILS Mkr Beacon      74.8–75.2 MHz       46 (1)            20              20
          5   ILS Localizer       108–112 MHz         40 (1)            20              14
          6   VOR                 108–118 MHz         39 (1)            20              13
          7   VHF Comms           118–137 MHz         37 (1)            14              17
          8   ILS Glide Path     328.6–335.4 MHz      52 (1)            20              26
          9   ELT                   406 MHz
         10   DME                 960–1 215 MHz       71 (1)            8               57
         11   SSR                1 030–1 090 MHz
         12   Primary Radar      1 215–1 350 MHz
              (23 cm)
         13   Satcom (S to E)    1 545–1 555 MHz
         14   GPS                1 559–1 610 MHz   –160 dBW (3)                     –137 (2)
         15   GLONASS            1 559–1 610 MHz   –160 dBW (3)                     –137 (2)


•Limits apply only to intra-system interference;                                                  can
not be used for assessing interference with other systems

								
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