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Using Technology to Enhance Teaching _ Learning


									CEIT 225 Instructional Design
   Assoc. Prof. Dr. Kürşat Çağıltay

Tel: 2103683
 Engin Kurşun
 Nuri Kara
Course Readings and e-List
Goals of the course
 Underlining the processes for designing
  effective and efficient instruction.
 Developing knowledge and skills for
  instructional analysis, design, development,
  implementation and evaluation phases of
  instructional design.
 Creating an instructional module
Cell phones and being late
 Please turn-off your cell-phones before
  coming to the classroom (if you have an
  emergency, let me know in advance).
 You will loose 1% of your total grade for
  each phone ring. If this does not work,

 Class starts at 11:40, do not be late,
Bonus – Community work
 If you work voluntarily for the community
  (e.g. Ilkyar, TEGV) you will earn 3% bonus
1- What is your department’s name? Write:
  – In English
  – In Turkish
2- What does a CEIT graduate do?
  – Write down in one paragraph
  – You have 5 minutes
  – In English
Answer for the Question
 Your Department’s name is “Computer
  Education and Instructional Technology -
 Bilgisayar ve Öğretim Teknolojileri Eğitimi
  - BÖTE
Discussion Question
 What does a civil engineer do?
 What does a mechanical engineer do?
They Create

Better Living Environments
Instructional Technologists Create

Better Learning Environments
by Instructional Design
Next Questions
 What is instruction ? An example?
 What is analysis? An example?
 What is design ? An example?
 What is technology ? An example?

 Write down!
What is Technology?
                Greek: “Technos” or
                A Device or a Method
                Electronic or
What is Instructional Technology?

 Any idea?
What is Instructional/Educational
 "Instructional Technology is the theory and
  practice of design, development, utilization,
  management and evaluation of processes
  and resources for learning.” (Seels & Ritchey, 1994)
  – Theory and practice
  – Design, development, utilization, management
    and evaluation
  – Processes and resources
  – Learning
What is Instructional
 IT concerns itself with these three
  – How do people learn?
  – How can learning be helped?
  – How can technology play a role in learning?

  (Noah, ITFORUM 1998)
What is Instructional
 A field concerned with the development and
 use of instructional techniques having the
 purpose of promoting effective human
  – Uses technology (media) to communicate the
    instruction to the learners
Relationship among learners, teacher, instruction
          and instructional technology



      Teachers                     Instruction
Knowledge Sources
 Research/developments in technology (computer
 research in human learning (education,
 development of new instructional procedures
 communication theory
 human/computer interaction (psychology)
 information design (information sciences)
 visual and audio design (art, music)
Instructional Media
 From Latin that means
 Any channel that
  carries the information
  between source and
 Most of the time
  media are tangible

             Blackboard
             Overhead Projector
             TV
             Computer
             Internet
Why Instructional Technology?
 Enhancement of Learning via Instructional
Instructional Uses of Computers
 Drill & Practice    Integrated Learning
 Games                Systems
 Tutorials           Computer Managed
 Simulations
 Problem-Solving
 Hypermedia
 Tool Software
Some Terms
 Computer Assisted Instruction
 Computer Based Learning
 Computer Based Instruction
 Computer Managed Instruction
 Web Based Learning
 Distance Learning
Where can you work as an
Instructional Designer?
 Banks
 Large companies
 Telecommunications companies
 Military
 Educational software development companies
 Universities
 Schools
 And many other places ......
Instructional Design (ID)
 The systematic process of translating
  principles of learning and instruction into
  plans for instructional materials and
 Instructional Designer & Engineer
   – Both plan work based upon successful
   – Both design things that are functional,
     attractive, & appealing to user.
   – Both have established problem solving
     procedures to guide them.
   – Both write specifications or plans.
Purpose of ID—Education
 All those experiences in which people learn.
 Many experiences are unplanned, incidental, and
 Terms used interchangeably in ID with education
   – Instruction
   – Training
   – Teaching
 What is Instruction?
 Delivery of information & activities that
  facilitate learners’ attainment of intended,
  specific learning goals.
 Activities focused on learners learning
  specific things.
 What is Teaching?
 Learning experiences in which the
  instructional message is delivered by a
  human being-not a videotape, textbook, or
  computer program—but a live teacher.
 All learning experiences in which the
  instructional message is conveyed by other
  forms of media is instruction.
What is Design?
 Implies a “systematic” planning process
  prior to the development of something.
 Distinguished from other planning by
  – Level of precision
  – Care
  – Expertise employed
The ID Process
 Another way of defining ID is to describe
  the process involved in the systematic
  planning of instruction.
 At basic level, instructional designer’s job is
  to answer three major questions.
Three Major Questions
 Where are we going?
 How will we get there?
 How will we know when we have arrived?
General ID Steps
 Different models exist for different
  instructional purposes; however, the process
  is summarized in five phases.
   Known as ADDIE

Implementation    Evaluation   Design






A = Analysis
 In analysis stage of ID process, want to find
  – Who are the learners or audience
        • Audience analysis
  – What is the goal or intended outcome
        • Goal analysis
D = Design
 Content of the course
  – Subject matter analysis
 Steps of instruction
   – Lesson planning-writing objectives
 Type of media or presentation mode
  – Media selection
D = Development
 Development of instruction
  – Generate lesson plans (different from lesson
    planning) and lesson materials.
  – Complete all media & materials for instruction,
    and supporting documents.
  – End result is a course or workshop ready for
I = Implementation
 The delivery of the instruction.
  – Purpose is effective & efficient delivery of
  – Promote students’ understanding of material &
    objectives, and ensure transfer of knowledge.
E = Evaluation
 Two related evaluations going on
  simultaneously in most ID situations.
  – Formative Evaluation
  – Summative Evaluation
Formative Evaluation
 – Going on during & between ID steps.
 – Purpose is to improve instruction before
   completed instruction is delivered.
Summative Evaluation
 – Usually occurs after instruction completed &
 – How much & how well did students learn?
 – How well did course or workshop work?
    • Does it need modification before being presented
    • What needs changing? Content? Instruction?
Your Task in this Course
 Designing an Instruction for a company
 An instructional module to teach Internet
  – A text material – about 4 pages, color print
  – A video – 3-5 minutes, stopmotion
  – All of them will be presented on
Questions & Comments

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