French Revolution 1789-1815 Chapter 7 Standard 10.2.1 Compare the major ideas of philosophers and their effects on the democratic revolutions. Standard 10.2.2 List the principles of the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen Standard 10.2.4 Explain how the ideology of the French Revolution led France to develop from constitutional monarchy to democratic despotism to the Napoleonic empire. What is an unjust government? • What would lead you to take part in a violent revolution? • Why study the French Revolution? • Enlightenment ideals of “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity” Why study the French Revolution? • Declaration of Rights of Man and of the Citizen Why study the French Revolution? • The Reign of Terror is a warning of democratic despotism! Why study the French Revolution? • The storming of the Bastille is a symbol of the power of popular resistance Why study the French Revolution? • Spread the ideas of Democracy and Nationalism Why study the French Revolution? • The Spanish used guerrilla warfare against the French Why study the French Revolution? • The Napoleonic Code influenced the legal systems of Europe and South America Section 1 The French Revolution Begins Causes of French Revolution Terms and Names • Old Regime • National • Estate Assembly • Louis XVI • Tennis Court • Marie Oath Antoinette • Great Fear • Estates-General The Old Order • Under the Old Regime, France was divided into 3 estates The Privileged Estates • 1st Estate- Roman Catholic Church • 2nd Estate- Nobles • They don’t have to pay taxes • They get the best jobs! 3 rd Estate (97% of the population) • Bourgeoisie- middle class Bankers, merchants, skilled artisans. They are wealthy and educated yet, still had to pay taxes! • City Workers- laborers, servants • Peasants- poor farmers. They pay taxes to the nobles, king and the Church. Forces of Change I. Enlightenment Ideas II. Economic Troubles III. A Weak Leader I. Enlightenment Ideas • Success of American Revolution • Ideas of Rousseau, Voltaire • Equality, Liberty, Democracy • (Which Estate do you think would embrace these ideas?) II. Economic Troubles • Taxes, taxes, taxes…… • Shortage of grain, the price of bread doubles! • Government spends too much • Government borrowed money to help the American Revolution. III. A Weak Leader • Louis XVI and • Marie Antoinette • They spent too much money and made poor government decisions • His solution was to • Tax the Nobility ! Estates-General • An assembly of representatives of all three estates. • Each estate gets one vote. (Do you see a problem with this?) • They met on May 5, 1789 for the first time in 175 years. Meeting of Estates-General What was the purpose of this 1st meeting? Dawn of the Revolution I. The National Assembly II. Storming the Bastille I. National Assembly • The 3rd estate wanted all representatives to each have one vote • King says “NO” • Speech by Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyes • June 17, 1789 they rename themselves the National Assembly National Assembly, cont. • They agree to pass laws and reforms for France • The king locks them out of their meeting room. This leads to the Tennis Court Oath- promise to create a constitution Bastille Day July 14, 1789 July-August 1789 Great Fear Peasants attack homes of nobles October 1789 women riot over the price of bread and demand that Louis and Marie return to Paris!!! Sec. I Review [DO NOW] 1. List the 3 estates 2. Why did the King call a meeting of the 3 estates? 3. What was unfair about the voting process? 4. What was the Tennis Court Oath? 5. What happened on Bastille Day? 6. Why did the women riot? Section 2 Revolution Brings Reform and Terror Terms and Names • Legislative • Guillotine Assembly • Robespierre • Émigré • Reign of Terror • Sans-culotte • Jacobin The Assembly Reforms France I. Rights of Man II. State Controlled Church III. Louis Tries to Escape I. The Rights of Man • August 4, 1789 – nobles join the National Assembly and make the common people of France equal to the 1st and 2nd estate. • What made the 1st and 2nd estate change their minds? • This joining of forces leads to the • Declaration of Rights of Man and of the Citizen. Declaration of Rights of Man Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen • “Men are born and remain free and equal” • “liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression” • Freedom of speech and religion • Slogan of the French Revolution is • Liberty, Equality, Fraternity Does the Declaration apply to Women? • Olympe de Gouges- publishes a declaration of the rights of women • Her ideas are rejected • Executed in 1793 II. State- • Assembly takes over Controlled Church property Church • Priests were to be elected and paid by the state • Church land sold to pay off debt • These actions towards the Roman Catholic Church offends many of the peasants and they refuse to join the Revolution III. Louis Tries to Escape • June 1791- Louis and his family tried to escape to the Austrian Netherlands. • However, he is caught and this further enrages the revolutionaries Divisions Develop I. A Limited Monarchy II. Factions Split France I. Limited Monarchy • September 1791- new Constitution is written. • France is now a constitutional monarchy! • Legislative Assembly is created which has the power to pass laws and declare war. • The king’s job is to enforce the laws II. Factions Split France • Radicals (sit on the left)- oppose monarchy • Moderates (sit in center)- desire some changes • Conservatives (sit on the right)- desire very few changes • The terms we use today to describe where people stand politically comes from the French Legislative Assembly II. Factions, continued • Émigrés- nobles who fled France and hope to restore the monarchy • Sans-culottes are workers from Paris who wanted extreme change Liberty, Equality, Fraternity War and Execution I. France at War II. Jacobins Take Control III. War Continues I. France at War • France declares war on Austria and Prussia • A mob kills guards and imprisons the royal family • September Massacres- radicals kill priests, nobles and anyone against revolution • National Convention- abolishes the monarchy, declares France a republic, and all adult males can vote. Sorry, ladies are still left out. Map of Europe September Massacres II. Jacobins Take Control • Jean Paul • Marat George Danton Louis XVI found guilty of treason and sentenced to the guillotine July 21, 1793 Louis XVI Executed ! III. War Continues • Great French victory at Battle of Valmy • Britain, Holland, and Spain join the war against France • France needs soldiers and institutes a military draft of all men between 18 and 40 The Terror Grips France I. Robespierre Assumes Control I. Robespierre • Committee of Public Safety- to protect the Revolution from enemies • Reign of Terror (1793-1794) • 40,000 people executed • 85% were low or middle class Liberty, Equality, Fraternity End of the Terror • July 28, 1794 Robespierre sent to the guillotine • Another new government is formed …. • Directory- led by moderate upper middle class. 2 house legislature Sec. 2 review 1. What is the slogan of the Revolution? 2. Name the 3 factions of the Legislative Assembly. 3. The name of the citizens of Paris who wanted extreme change. 4. Who was the leader of the Committee Public Safety? And what was the goal of the committee? 5. The name of the political organization that abolished the monarchy. Section 3 Napoleon Forges an Empire Famous Napoleons Terms and Names • Napoleon • Concordat Bonaparte • Napoleonic • Coup d’etat Code • Plebiscite • Battle of • lycee Trafalgar Napoleon Seizes Power I. Hero of the Hour II. Coup d’etat I. Hero of the Hour • October 1795 Napoleon defends National Convention against royalist rebels • 1796- led army against Austria and Sardinia II. Coup d’etat • November 1799 Napoleon returns from Egypt • Another new government called the • Consulate • Named “1st Consul” • (Can you name all the governments of the French Revolution so far?) Napoleon Rules France I. Restoring Order at Home II. Napoleon Crowned Emperor I. Restoring Order at Home • 1800 a plebiscite was held and a new constitution was created • Centralization • New tax laws, national banks, fired corrupt officials and started lycees • Agreement with Catholic Church - concordat I. Restoring Order, cont. • Napoleonic Code • Uniform set of laws • Limited liberty and promoted order and authority over individual rights • Freedom of speech and press restricted II. Crowned as Emperor • December 2, 1804 Napoleon takes the crown from the Pope and places it on his own head! What is the significance of this act? Napoleon Creates an Empire I. Loss of American Territories II. Conquering Europe III. Battle of Trafalgar IV. French Empire Napoleonic wars I. Loss of American Territories • Toussaint L’Ouverture leads slave revolt in Haiti • Napoleon sends forces to retake the island however French are defeated. I. Loss of American Territories, cont. • Sold Louisiana Territory to the United States for $15 million. II. Conquering Europe • Britain, Russia, Austria, Sweden join forces (map p.232) • Battle of Austerlitz (Austria) 1805 • Only Britain is left! III. Battle of Trafalgar • 1805 naval battle off the coast of Spain (p.232) • Napoleon loses and is forced to give up his plans to invade Britain. He must find another way to defeat Britain! • (Horatio Nelson) The French Empire • Free of French • Under French Control Control or Allied 1. Britain 1. Spain 2. Portugal 2. Warsaw (Poland) 3. Sweden 3. Germany 4. Ottoman Empire 4. Russia 5. Prussia 6. Austria Sec. 3 Review • Define coup d’etat, plebiscite, concordat, and lycees • How was the Napoleonic Code an example of Enlightenment ideas? • What freedoms were restricted under Napoleon. • Who lead the slave revolt in Haiti? • Why did Napoleon sell Louisiana to the United States? • Where did Napoleon suffer his first major military defeat? Napoleon’s Empire Collapses Ch. 7 Sec. 4 Napoleon’s Costly Mistakes • The Continental System – blockade • The Peninsular War- guerrillas • Invasion of Russia- scorched-earth policy Napoleon’s Downfall I. Napoleon Suffers defeat II. The Hundred Days I. Napoleon Suffers Defeat • October 1813 Battle at Leipzig (Germany) • Allied Army consists of Britain, Russia, Prussia, Sweden • French are defeated I. Defeat, continued • Frederick William of Prussia and Czar Alexander I of Russia enter Paris I. Defeat, continued • April 1814 the French surrender and Napoleon is banished to Elba II. Hundred Days • Can you seriously believe that the French brought back a king after all these years of Revolution! Louis XVIII II. Hundred Days • Napoleon escapes Elba and on March 1, 1815 arrives in France. • The British and Prussian armies meet Napoleon near Waterloo (Belgium) under the guidance of Duke of Wellington II. Hundred Days • The British send Napoleon to the island of St. Helena in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean • He dies in 1821 Sec. 4 review 1. What was the Continental System? 2. What is guerrilla warfare? Who used it against Napoleon? 3. How did the Russians defeat Napoleon? 4. What does the “Hundred Days” refer to? 5. Where was Napoleon’s final battle? Section 5 Congress of Vienna I. Metternich’s Plan for Europe II. Political Changes I. Metternich’s Plan • Congress of Vienna (1814-1815) • Led by 5 great powers • Russia, Prussia, Britain, France, Austria • Klemens von Metternich I. Metternich’s Plan • 3 Goals at the Congress of Vienna • Prevent future French aggression by surrounding France with strong nations- containment • Restore a balance of power • Restore Europe’s royal families to the thrones they held before Napoleon’s conquests – legitimacy Comparing Peace Plans • Congress of Vienna • Paris Peace • 1814-1815 Conference • After Napoleonic • 1919 Wars • After WWI • To bring stability and • To punish Germany a balance of power back to Europe WWII – 20 years later Peace for 40 years Political Changes Beyond Vienna I. Conservative Europe II. Revolution in Latin America III. Long-Term Legacy I. Conservative Europe • Holy Alliance- Russia, Austria, Prussia join together to prevent future revolutions • Concert of Europe- alliances and future meetings in order to ensure stability Legacy of the French Revolution • Even though conservatives controlled the government of most European nations, they could not stop the ideas that emerged during the Fr. Rev. • There were many democratic revolutions in 1830 and 1848 (we will study this in the next unit) II. Revolution in Latin America • Mexico, Brazil, and other Latin American countries declare their independence from Spain and Brazil (this will be our next unit) III. Long-Term Legacy • Power of Britain, Prussia increases • Nationalism • Latin America declares independence • The French Revolution gave Europe its first experiment with Democracy. Although it appeared to fail in France, it led to future democratic revolutions around the world. Sec. 5 review 1. What were the 3 goals at the Congress of Vienna? 2. Which countries were at the meeting? Who was the leader? 3. How did the Congress make sure that there would continue to be stability in Europe? 4. What was the legacy of the French Revolution? Ch. 7 sec. 1 1. Why was there “great unrest” in France? 2. Define Old Regime 3. Define estates 4. Who belonged to the First Estate? 5. Who belonged to the Second Estate? 6. Did the First and Second Estate agree or disagree with Enlightenment ideas. Explain your decision. 7. Which 3 groups made up the Third Estate? 8. What effect did the American Revolution have on the French Revolution? 9. Why was France’s government in debt? 10. Give specific examples of how King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette provided weak leadership. 11. What is the Estates General? 12. What was the purpose of the first meeting of the Estates General in 175 years? 13. Why was the voting system of the Estates General unfair? 14. What was the purpose of the National Assembly? Copy questions, answer in complete sentences, use pen 15. What happened on June 17, 1789? 16. What was the Tennis Court Oath? 17. What happened on July 14, 1789? 18. What was the Great Fear? 19. In October of 1789, why did the women of Paris march to the king’s palace at Versailles? 20. What did the women demand from the king? Ch. 7 sec. 2 1. Describe what happened on August 4, 1789. 2. List the rights and freedoms guaranteed by the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. 3. What was the slogan of the French Revolution? 4. Who is Olympe de Gouges and why was she executed? 5. How did the reforms of the National Assembly affect the Catholic Church? 6. Why did the National Assembly lose the support of many of the peasants? 7. Why did King Louis XVI attempt to escape from France? Was he successful? 8. In September of 1791, the National Assembly wrote a new constitution. Which type of government did this constitution create? 9. What caused the Legislative Assembly to split into 3 groups? 10. Name and describe the 3 groups in the Legislative Assembly. 11. Who were the emigres? Copy questions, answer in Complete sentences, use pen 12. Who were the sans-culottes? 13. Why were the countries of Austria and Prussia fearful of the French Revolution? 14. What was the September Massacres? What caused the massacres? 15. How did the National Convention change the French political system? Ch. 7 sec. 2 continued 16. Who were the Jacobins? 17. According to the National Convention, what crime did Louis XVI commit? What was his punishment? 18. What is a guillotine? 19. By early 1793, which European countries were at war with France? 20. Inside of France, which groups opposed the Jacobins? 21. What was the Committee of Public Safety and who was its’ leader? 22. What was the Reign of Terror? 23. How, when, and why did the Reign of Terror end? 24. Describe the Directory. 25. “The king must die so that the country can live.” Explain the meaning of this quote by Robespierre. Ch. 7 sec. 3 1. When and where was Napoleon Bonaparte born? 2. Why was Napoleon seen as “the savior of the French republic?” 3. What happened in November of 1799? Copy questions, answer in 4. Define coup d’etat Complete sentences, use pen 5. What was Napoleon’s first title? 6. Define plebiscite 7. What actions did Napoleon take to improve France’s economy? 8. How did Napoleon end the corruption in government? 9. What are lycees? 10. How did Napoleon establish a new relationship with the Catholic Church? 11. What was the Napoleonic Code? 12. Which freedoms were limited under the Code? 13. Why did Napoleon take the crown from the Pope and place it on his own head? California State Standards 10.2.4, 10.2.5 Ch. 7 sec. 3 14. How did the French Revolution affect the slaves of Saint Domingue? 15. How did the sale of Louisiana to the United States benefit France? 16. Which countries united with Britain to stop France from conquering Europe? 17. What were the 2 results of France losing the Battle of Trafalgar? 18. Which areas of Europe were not controlled by Napoleon? 19. Overall, did Napoleon strengthen or weaken the French government? Be specific 20. Which of Napoleon’s actions had the most significant impact on France? Explain Ch. 7 sec. 4 1. What is a blockade? 2. What was the Continental System? What was the purpose of the Continental System? 3. Why was the Continental System a failure? 4. Why did the United States declare war on Britain in 1812? 5. Why did Napoleon choose to attack Portugal? 6. Why did the Spanish rebel against Napoleon? 7. Who were the Spanish guerillas? 8. Why did the French lose the Peninsular War? 9. What is nationalism? 10. Give two reasons why Napoleon chose to attack Russia. Copy questions, answer in Complete sentences, use pen 11. Define scorched earth policy 12. What did Napoleon’s Grand Army find when they arrived in Moscow? 13. Why was it a mistake for Napoleon’s troops to stay in Moscow until October? 14. After Napoleon’s defeat in Russia, which countries joined forces to attack France? 15. Where and why did the French suffer defeat in October of 1813? 16. What happened in April of 1814? California State Standard 10.2.4 Ch. 7 sec. 4 17. Who came to the throne after Napoleon? 18. Why do you think the citizens of France welcomed Napoleon’s return on March 1, 1815? 19. How did Europe respond to the return of Napoleon? 20. Where did Napoleon suffer his final military defeat? 21. What happened to Napoleon after his Hundred Days rule? Answer the following questions in a paragraph. Please have an introductory sentence, at least 3 body sentences, and a conclusion. A. What caused the French Revolution? Explain at least 3 causes. B. How was the Reign or Terror an example of democratic despotism? C. Was Napoleon’s rule a success or failure? Explain your decision. Ch. 7 sec. 5 1. What was the Congress of Vienna? 2. Who were the 5 great powers? 3. Who was the most influential of the representatives? 4. What were Metternich’s 3 goals? 5. How did the Congress of Vienna make the weak countries around France stronger? 6. How come the Congress of Vienna did not want to completely weaken France? Copy questions, answer in complete 7. What is the principle of legitimacy? sentences, use pen 8. Give examples of how the Congress of Vienna was more successful than other peace meetings in history. 9. After the Congress of Vienna, which countries were constitutional monarchies? Which countries were absolute monarchies? 10. What was the Holy Alliance? 11. What was the Concert of Europe? 12. In the long term, was the French revolution a success or a failure? Explain. 13. How did the French Revolution affect Latin America? 14. What was the long term legacy of the French Revolution? Give 2 examples. 15. This section ends with the sentence “a new era had begun.” Explain what this means.
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