French Revolution 1789-1815

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French Revolution 1789-1815 Powered By Docstoc
					     French Revolution
        1789-1815
               Chapter 7
Standard 10.2.1 Compare the major ideas
of philosophers and their effects on the
democratic revolutions.
Standard 10.2.2 List the principles of the
French Declaration of the Rights of Man
and the Citizen
Standard 10.2.4 Explain how the ideology
of the French Revolution led France to
develop from constitutional monarchy to
democratic despotism to the Napoleonic
empire.
    What is an unjust government?


•
    What would lead you to take
    part in a violent revolution?
•
Why study the French
   Revolution?
          • Enlightenment
            ideals of
            “Liberty,
            Equality,
            Fraternity”
Why study the French
   Revolution?
          • Declaration of
            Rights of Man
            and of the
            Citizen
Why study the French
   Revolution?
          • The Reign of
            Terror is a
            warning of
            democratic
            despotism!
Why study the French
   Revolution?
          • The storming of
            the Bastille is a
            symbol of the
            power of popular
            resistance
Why study the French
   Revolution?
          • Spread the ideas
            of Democracy
            and Nationalism
Why study the French
   Revolution?
          • The Spanish
            used guerrilla
            warfare against
            the French
Why study the French
   Revolution?
          • The Napoleonic
            Code influenced
            the legal systems
            of Europe and
            South America
     Section 1

The French Revolution
       Begins
Causes of French Revolution
       Terms and Names
• Old Regime      • National
• Estate            Assembly
• Louis XVI       • Tennis Court
• Marie             Oath
  Antoinette      • Great Fear
• Estates-General
The Old Order
       • Under the Old
         Regime, France
         was divided into
         3 estates
The Privileged Estates
           • 1st Estate- Roman
             Catholic Church

           • 2nd Estate- Nobles

           • They don’t have to
             pay taxes
           • They get the best
             jobs!
       3 rd   Estate (97% of the
               population)
• Bourgeoisie- middle class Bankers,
  merchants, skilled artisans. They are
  wealthy and educated yet, still had to pay
  taxes!
• City Workers- laborers, servants
• Peasants- poor farmers. They pay taxes to
  the nobles, king and the Church.
Forces of Change
I. Enlightenment Ideas
II. Economic Troubles
  III. A Weak Leader
      I. Enlightenment Ideas
• Success of American Revolution
• Ideas of Rousseau, Voltaire
• Equality, Liberty, Democracy

• (Which Estate do you think would
  embrace these ideas?)
        II. Economic Troubles
• Taxes, taxes,
  taxes……
• Shortage of grain, the
  price of bread
  doubles!
• Government spends
  too much
• Government
  borrowed money to
  help the American
  Revolution.
        III. A Weak Leader
• Louis XVI and
• Marie Antoinette
• They spent too much money and made
  poor government decisions
• His solution was to
• Tax the Nobility !
           Estates-General
• An assembly of representatives of all three
  estates.
• Each estate gets one vote. (Do you see a
  problem with this?)
• They met on May 5, 1789 for the first time
  in 175 years.
     Meeting of Estates-General




What was the purpose of this 1st meeting?
Dawn of the Revolution




  I. The National Assembly
   II. Storming the Bastille
I. National Assembly
          • The 3rd estate wanted
            all representatives to
            each have one vote
          • King says “NO”
          • Speech by
            Emmanuel-Joseph
            Sieyes
          • June 17, 1789 they
            rename themselves
            the National
            Assembly
National Assembly, cont.
            • They agree to pass
              laws and reforms for
              France
            • The king locks them
              out of their meeting
              room. This leads to
              the Tennis Court
              Oath- promise to
              create a constitution
Bastille Day July 14, 1789
             July-August 1789
Great Fear   Peasants attack homes of nobles
 October 1789 women riot over the
price of bread and demand that Louis
     and Marie return to Paris!!!
    Sec. I Review [DO NOW]
1. List the 3 estates
2. Why did the King call a meeting of the
   3 estates?
3. What was unfair about the voting
   process?
4. What was the Tennis Court Oath?
5. What happened on Bastille Day?
6. Why did the women riot?
          Section 2
Revolution Brings Reform and Terror
        Terms and Names
• Legislative    • Guillotine
  Assembly       • Robespierre
• Émigré         • Reign of Terror
• Sans-culotte
• Jacobin
      The Assembly
      Reforms France

 I.   Rights of Man
II.  State Controlled
          Church
 III. Louis Tries to
          Escape
       I. The Rights of Man
• August 4, 1789 – nobles join the National
  Assembly and make the common people of
  France equal to the 1st and 2nd estate.
• What made the 1st and 2nd estate change
  their minds?
• This joining of forces leads to the
• Declaration of Rights of Man
  and of the Citizen.
Declaration of Rights of Man
    Declaration of the Rights of Man
           and of the Citizen
• “Men are born and remain free and equal”
• “liberty, property, security, and
  resistance to oppression”
• Freedom of speech and religion
• Slogan of the French Revolution is
•       Liberty, Equality, Fraternity
Does the Declaration apply to
          Women?
               • Olympe de
                 Gouges- publishes a
                 declaration of the
                 rights of women
               • Her ideas are rejected
               • Executed in 1793
 II. State-
              • Assembly takes over
Controlled      Church property
  Church      • Priests were to be
                elected and paid by
                the state
              • Church land sold to
                pay off debt
              • These actions towards
                the Roman Catholic
                Church offends many
                of the peasants and
                they refuse to join the
                Revolution
     III. Louis
      Tries to
      Escape
• June 1791- Louis and
  his family tried to
  escape to the Austrian
  Netherlands.
• However, he is caught
  and this further
  enrages the
  revolutionaries
Divisions Develop

I.    A Limited Monarchy
II.   Factions Split France
       I.     Limited Monarchy

• September 1791- new Constitution is
  written.
• France is now a constitutional monarchy!
• Legislative Assembly is created which
  has the power to pass laws and declare
  war.
• The king’s job is to enforce the laws
II. Factions Split France
             • Radicals (sit on the left)-
               oppose monarchy
             • Moderates (sit in center)-
               desire some changes
             • Conservatives (sit on the
               right)- desire very few
               changes
             • The terms we use today to
               describe where people
               stand politically comes
               from the French
               Legislative Assembly
II. Factions, continued
            • Émigrés- nobles who
              fled France and hope
              to restore the
              monarchy
            • Sans-culottes are
              workers from Paris
              who wanted extreme
              change
Liberty, Equality, Fraternity


   War and Execution

        I. France at War
   II. Jacobins Take Control
       III. War Continues
             I. France at War
• France declares war on Austria and Prussia
• A mob kills guards and imprisons the royal
  family
• September Massacres- radicals kill priests,
  nobles and anyone against revolution
• National Convention- abolishes the
  monarchy, declares France a republic, and all
  adult males can vote. Sorry, ladies are still left
  out.
Map of Europe
September
Massacres
II. Jacobins Take Control
               • Jean Paul
   •             Marat




George
Danton
Louis XVI found guilty of treason
 and sentenced to the guillotine
         July 21, 1793
Louis XVI Executed !
III. War Continues

    • Great French victory
      at Battle of Valmy
    • Britain, Holland, and
      Spain join the war
      against France
    • France needs soldiers
      and institutes a
      military draft of all
      men between 18 and
      40
The Terror Grips France

   I. Robespierre Assumes
           Control
I. Robespierre
                 • Committee of
                   Public Safety- to
                     protect the Revolution
                     from enemies
                 • Reign of Terror
                   (1793-1794)
                 • 40,000 people
                   executed
                 • 85% were low or
                   middle class
Liberty, Equality, Fraternity
          End of the Terror
• July 28, 1794 Robespierre
  sent to the guillotine
• Another new government
  is formed ….
• Directory- led by
 moderate upper middle
 class. 2 house legislature
              Sec. 2 review
1. What is the slogan of the Revolution?
2. Name the 3 factions of the Legislative
   Assembly.
3. The name of the citizens of Paris who wanted
   extreme change.
4. Who was the leader of the Committee Public
   Safety? And what was the goal of the
   committee?
5. The name of the political organization that
   abolished the monarchy.
Section 3


Napoleon
Forges an
 Empire
Famous Napoleons
        Terms and Names
• Napoleon      • Concordat
  Bonaparte     • Napoleonic
• Coup d’etat     Code
• Plebiscite    • Battle of
• lycee           Trafalgar
Napoleon Seizes Power

   I.      Hero of the Hour
        II. Coup d’etat
I. Hero of the Hour
          • October 1795
            Napoleon defends
            National Convention
            against royalist rebels
          • 1796- led army
            against Austria and
            Sardinia
           II. Coup d’etat
• November 1799 Napoleon returns from
  Egypt
• Another new government called the
• Consulate
• Named “1st Consul”
• (Can you name all the governments of the
  French Revolution so far?)
 Napoleon
Rules France

 I.    Restoring
       Order at
        Home
 II.   Napoleon
       Crowned
       Emperor
   I. Restoring Order at Home
• 1800 a plebiscite was held and a new
  constitution was created
• Centralization
• New tax laws, national banks, fired corrupt
  officials and started lycees
• Agreement with Catholic Church -
  concordat
     I. Restoring Order, cont.

• Napoleonic Code
• Uniform set of laws
• Limited liberty and promoted order and
  authority over individual rights
• Freedom of speech and press restricted
       II. Crowned as Emperor
• December 2, 1804 Napoleon takes the crown from the
  Pope and places it on his own head! What is the
  significance of this act?
Napoleon Creates an Empire




  I.     Loss of American Territories
       II. Conquering Europe
        III. Battle of Trafalgar
          IV. French Empire
Napoleonic wars
      I. Loss of
      American
      Territories
• Toussaint
  L’Ouverture
  leads slave revolt
  in Haiti
• Napoleon sends
  forces to retake
  the island
  however French
  are defeated.
 I. Loss of American Territories,
              cont.
• Sold Louisiana Territory to the United
  States for $15 million.
II. Conquering Europe

                 • Britain,
                   Russia,
                   Austria,
                   Sweden join
                   forces (map
                   p.232)
                 • Battle of
                   Austerlitz
                   (Austria)
                   1805
                 • Only Britain
                   is left!
III. Battle of Trafalgar
            • 1805 naval battle off
              the coast of Spain
              (p.232)
            • Napoleon loses and is
              forced to give up his
              plans to invade
              Britain. He must find
              another way to defeat
              Britain!
            • (Horatio Nelson)
          The French Empire
• Free of French    • Under French Control
  Control             or Allied
1. Britain          1. Spain
2. Portugal         2. Warsaw (Poland)
3. Sweden           3. Germany
4. Ottoman Empire   4. Russia
                    5. Prussia
                    6. Austria
              Sec. 3 Review
• Define coup d’etat, plebiscite, concordat, and
  lycees
• How was the Napoleonic Code an example of
  Enlightenment ideas?
• What freedoms were restricted under Napoleon.
• Who lead the slave revolt in Haiti?
• Why did Napoleon sell Louisiana to the United
  States?
• Where did Napoleon suffer his first major
  military defeat?
Napoleon’s Empire Collapses

         Ch. 7 Sec. 4
   Napoleon’s Costly Mistakes
• The Continental System – blockade
• The Peninsular War- guerrillas
• Invasion of Russia- scorched-earth policy
                       Napoleon’s
                        Downfall
I.      Napoleon Suffers defeat
     II. The Hundred Days
I. Napoleon Suffers Defeat
                 • October 1813
                   Battle at Leipzig
                   (Germany)
                 • Allied Army
                   consists of
                   Britain, Russia,
                   Prussia, Sweden
                 • French are
                   defeated
        I. Defeat, continued
• Frederick William of Prussia and Czar
  Alexander I of Russia enter Paris
I. Defeat, continued
      • April 1814 the French
        surrender and Napoleon is
        banished to Elba
          II. Hundred Days
• Can you seriously believe that the
  French brought back a king after
  all these years of Revolution!
                 Louis XVIII
II. Hundred Days
   • Napoleon escapes
     Elba and on March 1,
     1815 arrives in
     France.
   • The British and
     Prussian armies meet
     Napoleon near
     Waterloo (Belgium)
     under the guidance of
     Duke of Wellington
          II. Hundred Days
• The British send
  Napoleon to the
  island of St. Helena
  in the middle of the
  Atlantic Ocean
• He dies in 1821
            Sec. 4 review
1. What was the Continental System?
2. What is guerrilla warfare? Who used it
   against Napoleon?
3. How did the Russians defeat Napoleon?
4. What does the “Hundred Days” refer to?
5. Where was Napoleon’s final battle?
Section 5 Congress of Vienna
  I. Metternich’s Plan for
              Europe
    II. Political Changes
I. Metternich’s
     Plan
• Congress of Vienna
  (1814-1815)
• Led by 5 great powers
• Russia, Prussia, Britain,
  France, Austria
• Klemens von
  Metternich
        I. Metternich’s Plan
• 3 Goals at the Congress of Vienna
• Prevent future French aggression by
  surrounding France with strong nations-
  containment
• Restore a balance of power
• Restore Europe’s royal families to the
  thrones they held before Napoleon’s
  conquests – legitimacy
        Comparing Peace Plans
• Congress of Vienna       • Paris Peace
• 1814-1815                  Conference
• After Napoleonic         • 1919
  Wars                     • After WWI
• To bring stability and   • To punish Germany
  a balance of power
  back to Europe
                           WWII – 20 years later
   Peace for 40 years
Political Changes Beyond
          Vienna

    I. Conservative Europe
II. Revolution in Latin America
     III. Long-Term Legacy
           I. Conservative Europe
• Holy Alliance- Russia, Austria, Prussia join
  together to prevent future revolutions
• Concert of Europe- alliances and future
  meetings in order to ensure stability
Legacy of the French Revolution
• Even though conservatives controlled the
  government of most European nations,
  they could not stop the ideas that emerged
  during the Fr. Rev.
• There were many democratic revolutions
  in 1830 and 1848 (we will study this in the
  next unit)
II. Revolution in Latin America
• Mexico, Brazil,
  and other Latin
  American
  countries
  declare their
  independence
  from Spain and
  Brazil (this will
  be our next
  unit)
         III. Long-Term Legacy
• Power of Britain, Prussia
  increases
• Nationalism
• Latin America declares
  independence
• The French Revolution gave
  Europe its first experiment with
  Democracy. Although it appeared
  to fail in France, it led to future
  democratic revolutions around the
  world.
             Sec. 5 review
1. What were the 3 goals at the Congress of
   Vienna?
2. Which countries were at the meeting?
   Who was the leader?
3. How did the Congress make sure that
   there would continue to be stability in
   Europe?
4. What was the legacy of the French
   Revolution?
                           Ch. 7 sec. 1
1.    Why was there “great unrest” in France?
2.    Define Old Regime
3.    Define estates
4.    Who belonged to the First Estate?
5.    Who belonged to the Second Estate?
6.    Did the First and Second Estate agree or disagree with Enlightenment ideas. Explain your
      decision.
7.    Which 3 groups made up the Third Estate?
8.    What effect did the American Revolution have on the French Revolution?
9.    Why was France’s government in debt?
10.   Give specific examples of how King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette provided weak
      leadership.
11.   What is the Estates General?
12.   What was the purpose of the first meeting of the Estates General in 175 years?
13.   Why was the voting system of the Estates General unfair?
14.   What was the purpose of the National Assembly?                  Copy questions, answer in complete
                                                                      sentences, use pen
15.   What happened on June 17, 1789?
16.   What was the Tennis Court Oath?
17.   What happened on July 14, 1789?
18.   What was the Great Fear?
19.   In October of 1789, why did the women of Paris march to the king’s palace at Versailles?
20.   What did the women demand from the king?
                            Ch. 7 sec. 2
1. Describe what happened on August 4, 1789.
2. List the rights and freedoms guaranteed by the Declaration of the Rights of
    Man and of the Citizen.
3. What was the slogan of the French Revolution?
4. Who is Olympe de Gouges and why was she executed?
5. How did the reforms of the National Assembly affect the Catholic Church?
6. Why did the National Assembly lose the support of many of the peasants?
7. Why did King Louis XVI attempt to escape from France? Was he
    successful?
8. In September of 1791, the National Assembly wrote a new constitution.
    Which type of government did this constitution create?
9. What caused the Legislative Assembly to split into 3 groups?
10. Name and describe the 3 groups in the Legislative Assembly.
11. Who were the emigres?                 Copy questions, answer in
                                          Complete sentences, use pen
12. Who were the sans-culottes?
13. Why were the countries of Austria and Prussia fearful of the French
    Revolution?
14. What was the September Massacres? What caused the massacres?
15. How did the National Convention change the French political system?
                    Ch. 7 sec. 2 continued
16.   Who were the Jacobins?
17.   According to the National Convention, what crime did Louis
      XVI commit? What was his punishment?
18.   What is a guillotine?
19.   By early 1793, which European countries were at war with
      France?
20.   Inside of France, which groups opposed the Jacobins?
21.   What was the Committee of Public Safety and who was its’
      leader?
22.   What was the Reign of Terror?
23.   How, when, and why did the Reign of Terror end?
24.   Describe the Directory.
25.   “The king must die so that the country can live.” Explain the
      meaning of this quote by Robespierre.
                              Ch. 7 sec. 3
1. When and where was Napoleon Bonaparte born?
2. Why was Napoleon seen as “the savior of the French republic?”
3. What happened in November of 1799?
                                                 Copy questions, answer in
4. Define coup d’etat                            Complete sentences, use pen
5. What was Napoleon’s first title?
6. Define plebiscite
7. What actions did Napoleon take to improve France’s economy?
8. How did Napoleon end the corruption in government?
9. What are lycees?
10. How did Napoleon establish a new relationship with the Catholic Church?
11. What was the Napoleonic Code?
12. Which freedoms were limited under the Code?
13. Why did Napoleon take the crown from the Pope and place it on his own
    head?



                        California State Standards 10.2.4, 10.2.5
                                  Ch. 7 sec. 3
14.   How did the French Revolution affect the slaves of Saint Domingue?
15.   How did the sale of Louisiana to the United States benefit France?
16.   Which countries united with Britain to stop France from conquering Europe?
17.   What were the 2 results of France losing the Battle of Trafalgar?
18.   Which areas of Europe were not controlled by Napoleon?
19.   Overall, did Napoleon strengthen or weaken the French government? Be specific
20.   Which of Napoleon’s actions had the most significant impact on France? Explain
                               Ch. 7 sec. 4
1.    What is a blockade?
2.    What was the Continental System? What was the purpose of the Continental System?
3.    Why was the Continental System a failure?
4.    Why did the United States declare war on Britain in 1812?
5.    Why did Napoleon choose to attack Portugal?
6.    Why did the Spanish rebel against Napoleon?
7.    Who were the Spanish guerillas?
8.    Why did the French lose the Peninsular War?
9.    What is nationalism?
10.   Give two reasons why Napoleon chose to attack Russia.       Copy questions, answer in
                                                                  Complete sentences, use pen
11.   Define scorched earth policy
12.   What did Napoleon’s Grand Army find when they arrived in Moscow?
13.   Why was it a mistake for Napoleon’s troops to stay in Moscow until October?
14.   After Napoleon’s defeat in Russia, which countries joined forces to attack France?
15.   Where and why did the French suffer defeat in October of 1813?
16.   What happened in April of 1814?


                                 California State Standard 10.2.4
                               Ch. 7 sec. 4
17. Who came to the throne after Napoleon?
18. Why do you think the citizens of France welcomed Napoleon’s return on March 1,
    1815?
19. How did Europe respond to the return of Napoleon?
20. Where did Napoleon suffer his final military defeat?
21. What happened to Napoleon after his Hundred Days rule?

Answer the following questions in a paragraph. Please have an introductory sentence,
   at least 3 body sentences, and a conclusion.
A. What caused the French Revolution? Explain at least 3 causes.
B. How was the Reign or Terror an example of democratic despotism?
C. Was Napoleon’s rule a success or failure? Explain your decision.
                               Ch. 7 sec. 5
1.  What was the Congress of Vienna?
2.  Who were the 5 great powers?
3.  Who was the most influential of the representatives?
4.  What were Metternich’s 3 goals?
5.   How did the Congress of Vienna make the weak countries around France
    stronger?
6. How come the Congress of Vienna did not want to completely weaken
    France?                                             Copy questions, answer in complete
7. What is the principle of legitimacy?                 sentences, use pen

8. Give examples of how the Congress of Vienna was more successful than
    other peace meetings in history.
9. After the Congress of Vienna, which countries were constitutional
    monarchies? Which countries were absolute monarchies?
10. What was the Holy Alliance?
11. What was the Concert of Europe?
12. In the long term, was the French revolution a success or a failure? Explain.
13. How did the French Revolution affect Latin America?
14. What was the long term legacy of the French Revolution? Give 2 examples.
15. This section ends with the sentence “a new era had begun.” Explain what this
    means.

				
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